Science.gov

Sample records for ain shams university

  1. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level.

  2. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level. PMID:25643516

  3. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk factors in health-care workers at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, O; Munier, A; Delarocque-Astagneau, E; El Houssinie, M; Rafik, M; Bassim, H; Hamid, M Abdel; Mohamed, M K; Fontanet, A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the background prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among HCWs in Ain Shams University Hospitals in Cairo and analyse the risk factors for HCV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2008 among 1770 HCWs. Anti-HCV prevalence was age-standardized using the Cairo population. A prospective cohort was followed for a period of 18 months to estimate HCV incidence. The crude anti-HCV prevalence was 8.0% and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 8.1%. Risk factors independently associated with HCV seropositivity were: age, manual worker, history of blood transfusions and history of parenteral anti-schistosomiasis treatment. The estimated incidence of HCV infection was 7.3 per 1000 person-years. HCWs in this setting had a similar high HCV seroprevalence as the general population of greater Cairo.

  5. Impact of life style on the nutritional status of medical students at Ain Shams University.

    PubMed

    Bakr, E M; Ismail, N A; Mahaba, H M

    2002-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of medical students and to determine its relation to their life style. The study involved 317 students at, Am Shams University. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, mid-arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness and body mass index were measured. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire including data about some life style factors and food-frequency consumption. The study revealed that 41.3% of the students were of normal weight while 9.5% of the sample were underweight, 36.9% were overweight and 12.5% were obese. The mean mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) of males was significant higher than that of females, while the mean triceps skin fold (TSF) of females was significant higher than that of males. The food frequency questionnaire analysis showed that most of students consume all food groups items faire. There was no statistical significant difference between the body mass index (BMI) of students and different types of food consumption. About two thirds of the students used to practice exercise, 26.9% of the students practiced exercise for less than 2 hours per week, while 33.9% of them for more than 2 hours. There was no statistical significant difference between the BMI of students and different types of exercise. However, there was significant higher percentage of males play sports and practice running (44.7% and 19.4% respectively) compared to (11.7% and 8.1%) of females. Sixty four percent of the students usually have regular meals. About 87.2% of obese compared to 64.9% of normal weight students eat snacks between meals, the difference was statistically significant. Obese individuals eat more during watching television and during feeling of stress compared to non-obese and the difference was statistically significant. The duration of practicing exercise, sports and playing computer was significantly higher

  6. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756

  7. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  8. Microbial Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Infants and Children Admitted to the Pediatric Hospital, Ain Shams University

    PubMed Central

    El Seify, Magda Yehia; Fouda, Eman Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Hanan Mohamed; Fathy, Maha Muhammad; Husseiny Ahmed, Asmaa Al; Khater, Walaa Shawky; El Deen, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah; Abouzeid, Heba Galal Mohamed; Hegazy, Nancy Riyad Ahmed; Elbanna, Heba Salah Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Background While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. Objectives To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. Methods Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study. Etiological agents were identified using conventional bacteriological identification methods and IgM antibodies detection against common atypical respiratory bacteria and viruses. Results An etiology was identified in 59 patients (65.5%). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 43 (47.8%) of the cases while viral pathogens were detected in 23 (25.5%). Coinfection with more than one etiologic agent was evident in seven patients (7.8%). The most common typical bacterial cause of pneumonia was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12, 13.3%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7, 7.8%, each). The commonest atypical bacterium was Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 10, 11.1%), whereas the commonest viral etiology was influenza viruses (n = 11, 12.2%). Conclusion Although we could not determine the causative agent in some studied cases, this study provides preliminary data regarding the spectrum and frequency of microorganisms causing CAP in Egyptian infants and preschool children. PMID:27766169

  9. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  10. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  11. AinS and a new family of autoinducer synthesis proteins.

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Kuo, A; Dunlap, P V

    1995-12-01

    In Vibrio fischeri, the autoinducer N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AI-1) governs the cell density-dependent induction of the luminescence operon via the LuxR transcriptional activator. The synthesis of AI-1 from bacterial metabolic intermediates is dependent on luxI. Recently, we found a second V. fischeri autoinducer molecule, N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AI-2), that in E. coli also activates the luminescence operon via LuxR. A locus independent of luxI was identified as being required for AI-2 synthesis. This 2.7-kb ain (autoinducer) locus was characterized by transposon insertion mutagenesis, deletion and complementation analysis, and DNA sequencing. A single 1,185-bp gene, ainS, was found to be the sole exogenous gene necessary for the synthesis of AI-2 in Escherichia coli. In addition, a V. fischeri ainS mutant produced AI-1 but not AI-2, confirming that in its native species ainS is specific for the synthesis of AI-2. ainS is predicted to encode a 45,580-Da protein which exhibits no similarity to LuxI or to any of the LuxI homologs responsible for the synthesis of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones in a variety of other bacteria. The existence of two different and unrelated autoinducer synthesis genes suggests the occurrence of convergent evolution in the synthesis of homoserine lactone signaling molecules. The C-terminal half of AinS shows homology to a putative protein in Vibrio harveyi, LuxM, which is required for the synthesis of a V. harveyi bioluminescence autoinducer. Together, AinS and LuxM define a new family of autoinducer synthesis proteins. Furthermore, the predicted product of another gene, ainR, encoded immediately downstream of ainS, shows homology to LuxN, which is similarly encoded downstream of luxM in V. harveyi and proposed to have sensor/regulator functions in the bioluminescence response to the V. harveyi auto inducer. This similarity presents the possibility that AI-2, besides interacting with LuxR, also interacts with AinR under

  12. Rethinking the role of sham TMS.

    PubMed

    Duecker, Felix; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approaches are widely used in basic and clinical research to ensure that observed effects are due to the intended neural manipulation instead of being caused by various possible side effects. We here critically discuss several methodological aspects of sham TMS. Importantly, we propose to carefully distinguish between the placebo versus sensory side effects of TMS. In line with this conceptual distinction, we describe current limitations of sham TMS approaches in the context of placebo effects and blinding success, followed by a short review of our own work demonstrating that the sensory side effects of sham TMS are not unspecific as often falsely assumed. Lastly, we argue that sham TMS approaches are inherently insufficient as full-fledged control conditions as they fail to demonstrate the specificity of TMS effects to a particular brain area or time point of stimulation. Sham TMS should therefore only complement alternative control strategies in TMS research.

  13. Sham surgery controls are mitigated trolleys.

    PubMed

    Albin, R L

    2005-03-01

    Debate continues about the ethics of sham surgery controls. The most powerful argument for sham surgery controls is that rigorous experiments are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Without such experiments, there is danger of adopting worthless procedures in clinical practice. Opponents of sham surgery controls argue that sham surgery constitutes unacceptable violation of the rights of research subjects. Recent philosophical discussion has used two thought experiments-the transplant case and the trolley problem-to explore the circumstances under which individuals may be harmed to benefit a larger group. The transplant case is felt to exemplify circumstances that forbid harming some to benefit a larger group while the trolley problem exemplifies circumstances that permit harming some to benefit others. I argue that sham surgery controls satisfy criteria derived from the trolley problem and are morally permissible.

  14. Sham intake of ethanol in "P" rats.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N E; Morian, K R

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were surgically fitted with gastric fistulas, and intakes of 10% ethanol solution were measured in 1-h sessions either with the fistula closed (normal drinking) or open (sham drinking). In water-replete P rats in which ethanol access was limited to 1 h/day, no increase in intake was noted in the sham compared with normal drinking tests in the day. A small increase was seen when the sham drinking test was conducted at night. In water-deprived P rats, sham intake of ethanol was elevated over intakes in closed fistula trials. However, in comparison with water intake on separate test days, sham intake of ethanol by P rats was lower and satiated after 15-30 min. The absence of robust sham alcohol drinking in P rats is similar to what we have previously reported in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, suggesting that preabsorptive factors alone do not account for the strain differences in ethanol preference.

  15. Exact Kohn-Sham potential of strongly correlated finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Rubio, A.

    2009-12-14

    The dissociation of molecules, even the most simple hydrogen molecule, cannot be described accurately within density functional theory because none of the currently available functionals accounts for strong on-site correlation. This problem led to a discussion of properties that the local Kohn-Sham potential has to satisfy in order to correctly describe strongly correlated systems. We derive an analytic expression for the nontrivial form of the Kohn-Sham potential in between the two fragments for the dissociation of a single bond. We show that the numerical calculations for a one-dimensional two-electron model system indeed approach and reach this limit. It is shown that the functional form of the potential is universal, i.e., independent of the details of the two fragments.

  16. Substrate specificity and function of the pheromone receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

    2013-11-01

    Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ΔainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ΔainR mutant.

  17. Substrate Specificity and Function of the Pheromone Receptor AinR in Vibrio fischeri ES114

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct but interrelated pheromone-signaling systems, LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR, positively control bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri. Although each system generates an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, the protein sequences of LuxI/LuxR and AinS/AinR are unrelated. AinS and LuxI generate the pheromones N-octanoyl-AHL (C8-AHL) and N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-AHL (3OC6-AHL), respectively. LuxR is a transcriptional activator that responds to 3OC6-AHL, and to a lesser extent to C8-AHL. AinR is hypothesized to respond to C8-AHL and, based on homology to Vibrio harveyi LuxN, to mediate the repression of a Qrr regulatory RNA. However, a ΔainR mutation decreased luminescence, which was not predicted based on V. harveyi LuxN, raising the possibility of a distinct regulatory mechanism for AinR. Here we show that ainR can complement a luxN mutant, suggesting functional similarity. Moreover, in V. fischeri, we observed ainR-dependent repression of a Pqrr-lacZ transcriptional reporter in the presence of C8-AHL, consistent with its hypothesized regulatory role. The system appears quite sensitive, with a half-maximal effect on a Pqrr reporter at 140 pM C8-AHL. Several other AHLs with substituted and unsubstituted acyl chains between 6 and 10 carbons also displayed an AinR-dependent effect on Pqrr-lacZ; however, AHLs with acyl chains of four carbons or 12 or more carbons lacked activity. Interestingly, 3OC6-AHL also affected expression from the qrr promoter, but this effect was largely luxR dependent, indicating a previously unknown connection between these systems. Finally, we propose a preliminary explanation for the unexpected luminescence phenotype of the ΔainR mutant. PMID:24056099

  18. Defects in AIN/GaN Superlattice: First Principle Calculations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xue; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Cao, Juexian; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the atomic configurations, electronic structure and formation energies of native point defects, (such as vacancies and self-interstitials), in an AIN/GaN superlattice (SL) constructed on a wurtzite structure along a [0001] growth direction. Comprehensive first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used. Cation and anion vacancies in the neutral charge state are calculated. For the native defects, the results showed that the most favorable configurations are the cation vacancies at the interface of the SL, or the anion vacancies in the GaN wells. Considering the formation energies of different vacancies, the results show that the nitrogen vacancy has the lowest formation energy, indicating that they are significantly the most stable configuration, and thus should be expected to be the major defect in a AIN/GaN superlattice. PMID:27398499

  19. Sham-feeding response of rats to Polycose and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1987-01-01

    Adult female rats were fitted with gastric fistulas and maintained at 85% of their ad lib body weight. Their real-feeding (fistula closed) and sham-feeding (fistula open) responses to polysaccharide (Polycose) and sucrose solutions were measured during 30 min/day one-bottle tests. The rats consumed similar amounts of a 1% Polycose solution during real- and sham-feeding tests, but their sham-intakes of 4%, 16% and 32% Polycose solutions greatly exceeded their real-intakes of these solutions. Similar results were obtained with sucrose solutions. The rats sham-fed more Polycose than sucrose at the 1% and 4% concentrations, while their sham-intakes of the 16% and 32% Polycose and sucrose solutions were comparable. In subsequent two-solution sham-feeding tests, the rats preferred 1% Polycose to 1% sucrose, but preferred sucrose to Polycose at 4%, 16% and 32% concentrations. These preference results indicate that rats find Polycose more palatable than sucrose at low concentrations, but sucrose more palatable at high concentrations. In addition, the findings that the rats preferred 4% sucrose to 4% Polycose in the two-bottle test, but sham-fed more 4% Polycose than 4% sucrose in the one-bottle tests, suggest that sucrose is more "orally-satiating" than is Polycose. These results provide further evidence for qualitative differences in the tastes of sucrose and polysaccharide. They also indicate that the amount of solution sham-fed does not necessarily reflect the palatability of the solution.

  20. Gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.; Rock, E.; Malmud, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Cholescintigraphy, using 99mTc-HIDA, was employed to determine the gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding of a steak and potato meal, and to compare it with the emptying responses to direct cholinergic stimulation by bethanechol and to ingestion of the test meal. The maximal cumulative gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding was 44.1% + 10.1%, which was not significantly different from the response to bethanechol. Cholinergic blockade with atropine eliminated the emptying response to sham feeding. Also, sham feeding did not stimulate gallbladder emptying in patients with vagotomy. This study suggests that intact vagus nerves and cholinergic pathways are required in order for the gallbladder to respond to sham feeding. The precise mechanism for this effect has not been elucidated.

  1. Microstructure and resistivity of machinable AIN/h-BN ceramic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haiyun; Huang, Yinmao; Gao, Naikui; Peng, Zongren; Li, Shengtao; He, Bo

    2011-12-01

    The microstructure and resistivity of AIN/BN ceramic nano-composites and micro-composites were investigated. The results showed that because the nano-BN crystals were homogeneously dispersed around the AIN grains of the matrix, the conductive glass phase surround AIN grains were separated, and it was difficult to form the electric conductible consecutive passageway (than micro composites), the leakage conductance of nano-composites was far lower than micro-composites.

  2. Perspective: Kohn-Sham density functional theory descending a staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoyu S.; Li, Shaohong L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a perspective on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) for electronic structure calculations in chemical physics. This theory is in widespread use for applications to both molecules and solids. We pay special attention to several aspects where there are both concerns and progress toward solutions. These include: 1. The treatment of open-shell and inherently multiconfigurational systems (the latter are often called multireference systems and are variously classified as having strong correlation, near-degeneracy correlation, or high static correlation; KS-DFT must treat these systems with broken-symmetry determinants). 2. The treatment of noncovalent interactions. 3. The choice between developing new functionals by parametrization, by theoretical constraints, or by a combination. 4. The ingredients of the exchange-correlation functionals used by KS-DFT, including spin densities, the magnitudes of their gradients, spin-specific kinetic energy densities, nonlocal exchange (Hartree-Fock exchange), nonlocal correlation, and subshell-dependent corrections (DFT+U). 5. The quest for a universal functional, where we summarize some of the success of the latest Minnesota functionals, namely MN15-L and MN15, which were obtained by optimization against diverse databases. 6. Time-dependent density functional theory, which is an extension of DFT to treat time-dependent problems and excited states. The review is a snapshot of a rapidly moving field, and—like Marcel Duchamp—we hope to convey progress in a stimulating way.

  3. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-15

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  4. Secukinumab (AIN-457) for the treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, Tarannum; Elmets, Craig; Weinkle, Allison; Kassira, Sama; Elewski, Boni

    2016-01-01

    Secukinumab (also known as AIN-457) is a human monoclonal antibody targeting IL-17A, which has been recently FDA-approved for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with coexistent moderate to severe plaque psoriasis based on clinical trials demonstrating excellent efficacy. This review will address the rationale for targeting the IL-23/Th17/IL-17 axis, the role of IL-17 and Th17 cells in psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory diseases, and will examine pre-clinical studies, pharmacologic properties, clinical efficacy, and the safety profile of secukinumab.

  5. Further research at the Oldowan site of Ain Hanech, North-eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Hadjouis, Djillali; van der Made, Jan; Derradji, Abd El-Kader; Canals, Antoni; Medig, Mohamed; Belahrech, Hocine; Harichane, Zoheir; Rabhi, Merouane

    2002-12-01

    Further investigations were carried out at Ain Hanech, Algeria in 1998 and 1999 to explore its potential for investigating early hominid behavioral patterns and adaptation. Research concentrated on the stratigraphy and dating, identifying new archaeological deposits, and excavating the Ain Hanech and El-Kherba localities. To enhance the chronological control within a biostratigraphic framework, the Ain Boucherit fossil-bearing stratum, yielding a Plio-Pleistocene fauna, is correlated with the regional stratigraphy. In the stratigraphic sequence, the Ain Boucherit stratum, located 13m below the Ain Hanech Oldowan occurrences, is found in Unit Q of the Ain Hanech Formation. Unit Q shows a paleomagnetically reversed polarity, which may be correlated with an age earlier than the Olduvai normal subchron (1.95-1.77Ma). Based on test trenches and stratigraphic analyses, additional Oldowan deposits A, B, and C are identified at Ain Hanech. All three deposits and the El-Kherba site contain Mode I technology artefacts associated with an Early Pleistocene fauna. El-Kherba is stratigraphically equivalent to Ain Hanech. These two archaeological sites are estimated to be dated to about 1.8Ma. PMID:12473489

  6. Electronically Switchable Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Wu, Daw-An; Hernandez, Arvel; Glover, Gary H.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse) without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications. PMID:18398456

  7. The sham ECT literature: implications for consent to ECT.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2006-01-01

    The author reviewed the placebo-controlled literature on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. No study demonstrated a significant difference between real and placebo (sham) ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Many studies failed to find a difference between real and sham ECT even during the period of treatment. Claims in textbooks and review articles that ECT is effective are not consistent with the published data. A large, properly designed study of real versus sham ECT should be undertaken. In the absence of such a study, consent forms for ECT should include statements that there is no controlled evidence demonstrating any benefit from ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Consent forms should also state that real ECT is only marginally more effective than placebo. PMID:16856307

  8. Channel metamorphosis, floodplain disturbance, and vegetation development: Ain River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Girel, Jacky; Pautou, Guy; Piegay, Herve; Bravard, Jean-Paul; Arneson, Chris

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain channel metamorphosis of the Ain River in east-central France and the effects of this metamorphosis on floodplain disturbance and vegetation development. The Ain River is a 195 km long stream originating in the Jura Mountains which flows into the Rhône River between Lyon, France, and Geneva, Switzerland. The lower 40 km of the Ain River, beyond the mountain front, are situated in a valley of outwash deposits where the floodplain is 0.2 to 1.2 km wide. A complex mosaic of floodplain landscape units has developed. Maps dating back to 1766 and six sets of aerial photographs dated between 1945 and 1991 were used to document changes in channel pattern. Aerial photos and field surveys were used to compile maps of landscape units based on dominant vegetation life-forms, species, and substrate. Six maps dated between 1945 and 1991 were digitized in ARC/INFO and an overlay was generated to determine the changes in landscape units as related to channel disturbance. Change from a braided to a single-thread meandering channel probably took place in the period 1930-1950. The process of river entrenchment has occurred throughout the Holocene but has accelerated in the present century due to shortening of the river course, construction of lateral embankments, and vegetation encroachment following reservoir construction and cessation of wood-cutting and grazing. The increase in horizontal channel stability coupled with channel entrenchment have decreased floodplain disturbance and lowered the water table by approximately one meter. Pioneer and disturbance-dependent landscape units have experienced a more terrestrial-like succession to an alluvial forest. Abandoned channels have also been replaced by alluvial forests. On poorly drained soils, shrub-swamp communities of willow and hydrophytic herbaceous plants have been replaced by mixed forests of ash, alder, black poplar, and oak. On well drained alluvial soils, ash and oak

  9. Second-order kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we introduce a semi-implicit second-order correction scheme to the kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model. This approach is validated by performing realistic exchange-correlation energy calculations of atoms and dimers of the first two rows of the Periodic Table, finding good agreement with the expected values. Additionally, we simulate the ethane molecule, where we recover the bond lengths and compare the results with standard methods. Finally, we discuss the current applicability of pseudopotentials within the lattice kinetic Kohn-Sham approach.

  10. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  11. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  12. The paradox of sham therapy and placebo effect in osteopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cerritelli, Francesco; Verzella, Marco; Cicchitti, Luca; D’Alessandro, Giandomenico; Vanacore, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placebo, defined as “false treatment,” is a common gold-standard method to assess the validity of a therapy both in pharmacological trials and manual medicine research where placebo is also referred to as “sham therapy.” In the medical literature, guidelines have been proposed on how to conduct robust placebo-controlled trials, but mainly in a drug-based scenario. In contrast, there are not precise guidelines on how to conduct a placebo-controlled in manual medicine trials (particularly osteopathy). The aim of the present systematic review was to report how and what type of sham methods, dosage, operator characteristics, and patient types were used in osteopathic clinical trials and, eventually, assess sham clinical effectiveness. Methods: A systematic Cochrane-based review was conducted by analyzing the osteopathic trials that used both manual and nonmanual placebo control. Searches were conducted on 8 databases from journal inception to December 2015 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent reviewers conducted the study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Results: A total of 64 studies were eligible for analysis collecting a total of 5024 participants. More than half (43 studies) used a manual placebo; 9 studies used a nonmanual placebo; and 12 studies used both manual and nonmanual placebo. Data showed lack of reporting sham therapy information across studies. Risk of bias analysis demonstrated a high risk of bias for allocation, blinding of personnel and participants, selective, and other bias. To explore the clinical effects of sham therapies used, a quantitative analysis was planned. However, due to the high heterogeneity of sham approaches used no further analyses were performed. Conclusion: High heterogeneity regarding placebo used between studies, lack of reporting information on placebo methods and within-study variability between

  13. A hydrologic and archeologic study of climate change in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Yasin al-Tikiriti, Walid

    2003-01-01

    Aridity trends established for Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, for the past 4500 years correlate with the trends of increased well depths and declining groundwater levels. Depth of wells found at archeologic sites at Hili near Al Ain were correlated to groundwater levels. Trends of declining groundwater levels were related to trends of increasing aridity (climate change). The increasing aridity had a pronounced affect on man's development in Al Ain area as well. For example, nonirrigation farming could not be successfully sustained at the end of the Bronze Age. This thwarted the economic development until the falaj (a water conveyance structure) was introduced in the Iron Age. The aridity trends in Al Ain correspond to contemporaneous aridity trends noted in Mesopotamia and the Dead Sea area, as well as the Middle East, Mediterranean, and northern Africa, in general. Other global climatic changes that are contemporaneous with climate change at Al Ain have been noted. The increased aridity (desertification) trends at Al Ain are contemporaneous with increased atmospheric CO 2 trends as reported by Indermuhle et al. [Nature (398) 121].

  14. Kohn-Sham potentials for fullerenes and spherical molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlyukh, Y.; Berakdar, J.

    2010-04-15

    We present a procedure for the construction of accurate Kohn-Sham potentials of quasispherical molecules starting from the first-principles valence densities. The method is demonstrated for the case of icosahedral C{sub 20}{sup 2+} and C{sub 60} molecules. Provided the density is N representable the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem guarantees the uniqueness of the obtained potentials. The potential is iteratively built following the suggestion of R. van Leeuwen and E. J. Baerends [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994)]. The high symmetry of the molecules allows a parametrization of the angular dependence of the densities and the potentials using a small number of symmetry-adapted spherical harmonics. The radial behavior of these quantities is represented on a grid and the density is reconstructed from the approximate potential by numerically solving the coupled-channel Kohn-Sham equations. Subsequently, the potential is updated and the procedure is continued until convergence is achieved.

  15. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-15

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  16. Element orbitals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Ying, Lexing

    2012-05-08

    We present a method to discretize the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix in the pseudopotential framework by a small set of basis functions automatically contracted from a uniform basis set such as planewaves. Each basis function is localized around an element, which is a small part of the global domain containing multiple atoms. We demonstrate that the resulting basis set achieves meV accuracy for 3D densely packed systems with a small number of basis functions per atom. The procedure is applicable to insulating and metallic systems.

  17. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  18. Validation of a novel sham cervical manipulation procedure

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Howard; Triano, John J.; Ross, Kim; Tran, Steven; Soave, David; Dinulos, Maricelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Context No clinical trial of spinal manipulation for chronic neck pain, either for single or multiple intervention session(s), has employed an effective sham-manipulation control group. Purpose Validate a practical sham cervical high velocity, low amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation. Study design/Setting Randomized, experimental validation study in an institutional clinical research laboratory Patient Sample Eligible subjects were males and females, 18–60 years of age with mechanical neck pain (as defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain Classification) of at least 3 months duration. Subjects with arm pain, any pathologic cause of neck pain or any contra-indication to spinal manipulation were excluded. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the patient’s self-report or “registration” of group allocation following treatment. Secondary outcomes were NRS-101 for neck pain, range of motion (by goniometer), tenderness (by pressure algometry). Methods Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: “real” or sham cervical manipulation (RM or SM). All subjects were given two procedures in sequence, either RM+SM or SM+SM. Immediately following the two procedures, subjects were asked to register any pain experienced during the procedures and to identify their treatment group allocation. Force-time profiles were recorded during all procedures. Secondary clinical outcome measures were obtained at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after the intervention including range of motion, self-report of pain and local spinous process tenderness. Data for each variable were summarized and tested for normality in distribution. Summary statistics were obtained for each variable and statistically tested. Funding for this study was obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NCCAM: R21 AT004396-01A1) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (BMT91926). No conflicts of interest exist in this study. Results Sixty

  19. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  20. CrAIN film deposited by magnetron sputtering for the inkjet printer head.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seon-Cheol; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    CrAIN film has advantages of stability and multifunctionality over the commercial TaN0.8. This study investigated the characteristics of CrAIN film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering as a function of Al content after deposition heat treatment. With a 600 degrees C heat treatment and 20% Al content, the low temperature coefficient of resistance (-2670.6 ppm/k), high oxidation resistance, and thermal conductivity were acquired. This was found due to the high-density columnar NaCI structure with 20% Al and the recrystallization utilized by heat treatment.

  1. [Analysis on Current State of Acupuncture Clinical Trials with Sham Acupuncture Design in Western Countries].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-yuan; Zhao, Ying-kai; Li, Yan-wen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2015-10-01

    The design of "sham acupuncture" is necessary in clinical trials of acupuncture for confirming its effectiveness in the treatment of different disorders. The authors of the present paper made a comprehensive analysis on "sham acupuncture"or "placebo acupuncture" in clinical trials of acupuncture therapy in western countries from 1) the definition and background of sham acupuncture, 2) current state of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design in different countries, 3) current situations of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design in Germany, and 4) current state of large sample, randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture therapy with sham acupuncture design in other western countries. The authors of the present paper also make an analysis on the developing trends of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design and put forward some problems existing in current acupuncture researches. PMID:26669203

  2. Targeted versus Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening in a Single Egyptian Center

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Safaa S.; El-Farrash, Rania A.; Taha, Hesham M.; Bishoy, Helbees E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To compare targeted neonatal hearing screening (TNHS) and universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) since many developing countries, including Egypt, implement selective screening for high-risk neonates. Methods. 150 neonates were assessed; 50 full terms consecutively admitted to the well-baby nursery and 100 neonates consecutively admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Ain Shams University. Patients were further subdivided into high-risk group which included 50 neonates with multiple risk factors for hearing loss and low risk group which included 50 neonates with only one risk factor. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were used for hearing screening. Auditory brain response (ABR) was performed 3 months later for failed TEOAEs. Results. The most frequent risk factor was consanguinity (46%). In the well-baby population, 16% failed TEOAEs. In the NICU, 30% of the low risk and 38% of the high risk groups failed TEOAEs. Regarding ABR, failed results were 12%, 10%, and 8% in the high-risk, low-risk, and healthy groups, respectively. Conclusion. The use of TNHS would have missed 8% of neonates from the well-baby group who actually had PCHL (permanent congenital hearing loss). The use of UNHS would identify all cases with PCHL, allowing for early intervention and follow-up. PMID:24167734

  3. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  4. Fabrication and performance of AIN insulator coatings for application in fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1995-09-01

    The liquid-metal blanket concept for fusion reactors requires an coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions betwen the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, an AIN coating was selected as a candidate. Detailed investigations were conducted on the fabrication, metallurgical microstructure, compatibility in liquid Li, and electrical characteristics of AIN material obtained from several sources. Lithium compatibility was studied in static systems by exposing AIN-coated specimens to liquid Li for several time periods. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature on the specimens before and after exposure to liquid Li. The results obtained in this study indicate that AIN is a viable coating from the standpoint of chemical compatibility in Li, electrical insulation, and ease of fabrication; for these reasons, the coating should be examined further for fusion reactor applications.

  5. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  6. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia), when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer. PMID:22958276

  7. Space science education for postgraduate students in Minoufiyia University, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    In 1986 the author with his colleagues in the Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiyia University, Minoufiyia, Egypt created a new branch in the physics department, to award the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree in Atmospheric physics. Courses in solar, solar-terrestrial, and atmospheric physics were necessary for M.Sc. and Ph.D. students, because they not studded it before in the undergraduate level. Till now, seven students obtained on M.Sc. degree, and two students obtained on Ph.D. from the Physics Department of Minoufiya University in Solar, Solar-Terrestrial, and Space Physics, and there are one Ph.D and two M.Sc. under the awarding. This current extend to other six Egyptian Universities (Cairo, Ain Shams, Helwan, Alexandria, Mansoura, and Minua), where five students obtained on Ph.D degree, and thirteen students obtained on M.Sc. in Solar, Solar-terrestrial, and Space Physics from the six universities under the supervision of the author. In April 2002 the author succeeded to obtain on the agreement of the Minoufiyia University Council by construction Space Research Center, as a first center for space research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. Beside the research work in space science and technology, the center have the validity to award Diploma, M.Sc and Ph.D. in space science for postgraduate students. There are different courses in space science and technology for each level of the three degrees. According to the program of the European Mediterranean Countries (TEMPS III) for developing the higher education level, the center constructed a project for developing space science and technology education in the center in collaboration with European Universities and Space Research Centers. This paper explain in detail the experience in Space Science Education in Minoufiya University, and how expand it to the other

  8. Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice*

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh; Khatami, Leila; Taiarani, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated. Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its

  9. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  10. The effect of customised and sham foot orthoses on plantar pressures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of foot orthoses has been evaluated in many clinical trials with sham foot orthoses used as the control intervention in at least 10 clinical trials. However, the mechanical effects and credibility of sham orthoses has been rarely quantified. This study aimed to: (i) compare the effects on plantar pressures of three sham foot orthoses to a customised foot orthosis, and (ii) establish the perceived credibility and the expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Methods Thirty adults aged between 18 and 51 participated in this study. At 0 and 4 weeks, plantar pressure data were collected for the heel, midfoot and forefoot using the pedar®-X in-shoe system for the following five randomly assigned conditions: (i) shoe alone, (ii) customised foot orthosis, (iii) contoured polyethylene sham foot orthosis, (iv) contoured EVA sham foot orthosis, and (v) flat EVA sham foot orthosis. At the initial data collection session, each participant completed a Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) to determine the credibility and expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Results Compared to the shoe alone at week 0, the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis was the only condition to not significantly effect peak pressure at any region of the foot. In contrast, the contoured EVA sham orthosis, the flat EVA sham orthosis and the customised orthosis significantly reduced peak pressure at the heel. At the medial midfoot, all sham orthoses provided the same effect as the shoe alone, which corresponded to effects that were significantly different to the customised orthosis. There were no differences in peak pressure between conditions at the other mask regions, the lateral midfoot and forefoot. When the conditions were compared at week 4, the differences between the conditions were generally similar to the findings observed at week 0. With respect to credibility and expected benefit, all orthotic conditions were considered the same with the exception

  11. Sham Acupressure Controls Used in Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Critique

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K. P.; Wang, Tao; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the commonly utilized sham acupressure procedures in existing acupressure trials, and to assess whether different types of sham interventions yield different therapeutic outcomes, and, as far as possible, to identify directions for the future development of an adequate sham acupressure method. Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing true acupressure with sham interventions were included. Thirteen electronic databases were adopted to locate relevant studies from inception to July 3, 2014. Meanwhile, eight Chinese journals on complementary and alternative medicine were manually searched to locate eligible articles. In addition, eligible studies listed in the reference lists of the included papers and other related systematic reviews on acupressure were also screened to further search any potentially eligible trials. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the risk of bias assessment tool developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Descriptive analysis was adopted to summarize the therapeutic outcomes. Results Sixty-six studies with 7265 participants were included. Methodological quality of the included trials was generally satisfactory. Six types of sham acupressure approaches were identified and “non-acupoint” stimulation was the most frequently utilized sham point while an acupressure device was the most commonly used approach for administering sham treatments. Acupressure therapy was a beneficial approach in managing a variety of health problems and the therapeutic effect was found to be more effective in the true acupressure groups than that in the sham comparative groups. No clear association could be identified between different sham acupressure modalities and the reported treatment outcomes. Conclusions A great diversity of sham acupressure controls have been used in clinical practice and research. A solid conclusion whether different sham alternatives are related to different treatment outcomes

  12. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the DIC-pump in unicellular algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1989-04-01

    SHAM at 1 or 2 mM inhibits dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrating mechanisms in unicellular green algae as measured by photosynthetic oxygen evolution or by {sup 14}C-inorganic carbon uptake (using silicone oil centrifugation techniques). This inhibition was reversed by high levels of DIC whereby the cells do not require the concentrating mechanism. SHAM inhibited the DIC-pump, which uses external CO{sub 2}, in three species of algae, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Scenedesmus obliquus when adapted to low CO{sub 2} and assayed around neutral pH. Scenedesmus adapted to air at pH 9.0 to use external HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were not affected by SHAM. It is important to establish low optimum concentrations of SHAM, which varied with the algal species. The mechanism of SHAM inhibition of the CO{sub 2} concentrating process is unknown. SHAM inhibits alternative respiration in these algae, but SHAM may also inhibit other reactions involving H{sup +} gradients or transporters associated with the DIC-pump.

  13. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  14. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Luís; da Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; de Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. PMID:27533271

  15. Accurate time propagation method for the coupled Maxwell and Kohn-Sham equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-08-01

    An accurate method for time propagation of the coupled Maxwell and time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation is presented. The new approach uses a simultaneous fourth-order Runge-Kutta-based propagation of the vector potential and the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The approach is compared to the conventional fourth-order Taylor propagation and predictor-corrector methods. The calculations show several computational and numerical advantages, including higher computational performance, greater stability, better accuracy, and faster convergence.

  16. Accurate time propagation method for the coupled Maxwell and Kohn-Sham equations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-08-01

    An accurate method for time propagation of the coupled Maxwell and time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation is presented. The new approach uses a simultaneous fourth-order Runge-Kutta-based propagation of the vector potential and the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The approach is compared to the conventional fourth-order Taylor propagation and predictor-corrector methods. The calculations show several computational and numerical advantages, including higher computational performance, greater stability, better accuracy, and faster convergence. PMID:27627419

  17. Defining the sham environment for post-myocardial infarction studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E; Cannon, Presley L; Ma, Yonggang; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y; Jung, Mira; Flynn, Elizabeth R; Henry, Jeffrey B; Bratton, Dustin R; White, Jared A; Fulton, Linda K; Grady, Andrew W; Lindsey, Merry L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sham surgery in a minimally invasive surgical model of permanent coronary artery occlusion used to generate myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (3-6 mo old) were divided into five groups: day (D) 0 (no surgical operation), D1 Sham, D1 MI, D7 Sham, and D7 MI. A refined MI surgery technique was used to approach the coronary artery without the ribs being cut. Both sham and MI mice had the left ventricle (LV) exposed through a small incision. To test the effects of surgery alone, the suture was passed around the coronary artery but not ligated. The MI mice were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation. The mice were killed at D1 or D7 postsurgical procedure. Compared with D0 no surgery controls, the D1 and D7 sham groups exhibited no surgical mortality and similar necropsy and echocardiographic variables. Surgery alone did not induce an inflammatory cell response, as evidenced by the lack of leukocyte infiltration in the sham groups. Analysis of 165 inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix factors in sham revealed that a minor gene response was initiated but not translated to protein levels. Collagen deposition did not occur in the absence of MI. In contrast, the D1 and D7 MI groups showed the expected robust inflammatory and scar formation responses. When a minimally invasive procedure to generate MI in mice was used, the D0 (no surgical operation) control was an adequate replacement for the use of sham surgery groups. PMID:27521418

  18. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R.; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hocky, Glen M.; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A.; Voth, Gregory A.; Kovar, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  19. Tucker-tensor algorithm for large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, Phani; Gavini, Vikram; Blesgen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we propose a systematic way of computing a low-rank globally adapted localized Tucker-tensor basis for solving the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) problem. In every iteration of the self-consistent field procedure of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem, we construct an additive separable approximation of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The Tucker-tensor basis is chosen such as to span the tensor product of the one-dimensional eigenspaces corresponding to each of the spatially separable Hamiltonians, and the localized Tucker-tensor basis is constructed from localized representations of these one-dimensional eigenspaces. This Tucker-tensor basis forms a complete basis, and is naturally adapted to the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. Further, the locality of this basis in real-space allows us to exploit reduced-order scaling algorithms for the solution of the discrete Kohn-Sham eigenvalue problem. In particular, we use Chebyshev filtering to compute the eigenspace of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, and evaluate nonorthogonal localized wave functions spanning the Chebyshev filtered space, all represented in the Tucker-tensor basis. We thereby compute the electron-density and other quantities of interest, using a Fermi-operator expansion of the Hamiltonian projected onto the subspace spanned by the nonorthogonal localized wave functions. Numerical results on benchmark examples involving pseudopotential calculations suggest an exponential convergence of the ground-state energy with the Tucker rank. Interestingly, the rank of the Tucker-tensor basis required to obtain chemical accuracy is found to be only weakly dependent on the system size, which results in close to linear-scaling complexity for Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for both insulating and metallic systems. A comparative study has revealed significant computational efficiencies afforded by the proposed Tucker-tensor approach in comparison to a plane-wave basis.

  20. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  1. Monitoring Water Resources from Space in an Arid Watershed of Al Ain City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebreyesus, Dawit; Temimi, Marouane; Fares, Ali; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-04-01

    Closing water balance is very crucial on laying effective Water Resources Management strategies. The goal of this study is to assess the potential of satellite imagery to close the water budget over the region of Al Ain city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in the UAE. Water storage variation over the study area was determined from 2005 to 2014 by calculating the difference between inflows and outflows of the system. The outflow included evapotranspiration and discharged wastewater after treatment. The study area comprises Zakher Lake where the treated wastewater is discharged. A series of Landsat images were used to monitor the changes in the lake extent and infer total water volume using a high resolution (15m) digital elevation model. Evapotranspiration was estimated from NCEP reanalysis data over agriculture and green areas in the watershed delineated using Landsat images. The inflow included precipitation, desalinated water supply, and water reuse. Precipitation was obtained from Al Ain airport observations. Water supply from desalination plants and water reuse reported by local authorities were also used. Time series of GRACE observation over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation. The inferred water storage and GRACE anomalies were in agreement as the obtained correlation coefficient was 0.53. Both time series showed a significant decreasing trend suggesting that water storage in the study area is being depleted.

  2. THE ETHICS OF SHAM SURGERY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: BACK TO THE FUTURE?

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Teresa; Huxtable, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Despite intense academic debate in the recent past over the use of ‘sham surgery’ control groups in research, there has been a recent resurgence in their use in the field of neurodegenerative disease. Yet the primacy of ethical arguments in favour of sham surgery controls is not yet established. Preliminary empirical research shows an asymmetry between the views of neurosurgical researchers and patients on the subject, while different ethical guidelines and regulations support conflicting interpretations. Research ethics committees faced with a proposal involving sham surgery should be aware of its ethical complexities. An overview of recent and current placebo-controlled surgical trials in the field of Parkinson's Disease is provided here, followed by an analysis of the key ethical issues which such trials raise. PMID:22150772

  3. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, DaDi; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Chen; Yang, Weitao

    2015-04-21

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn–Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree–Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  4. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn-Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, DaDi; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Chen; Yang, Weitao

    2015-04-01

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn-Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn-Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn-Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree-Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  5. Is sham acupuncture as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture? It's too early to say.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Chu, Qin; Wang, Shu; Lai, Hilary; Xie, Bing-Bing

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical trials and experimental studies claim that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. However, these studies have no standard sham acupuncture control and many other factors can affect the clinical effect. These factors include needle retention time, treatment frequency, and the total number of treatments needed for satisfactory results, and all can change the clinical effect. The majority of existing acupuncture treatment studies do not consider these factors and lack standard dosage criteria. Therefore, it is still too early to conclude that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. This article investigates the factors that influence the curative effect of acupuncture as to help set a standard for acupuncture studies in the future. PMID:27081001

  6. Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potentials from second-order reduced density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas-Saavedra, Rogelio; Staroverov, Viktor N.; Ayers, Paul W.

    2015-12-28

    We describe a practical algorithm for constructing the Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potential corresponding to a given second-order reduced density matrix. Unlike conventional Kohn–Sham inversion methods in which such potentials are extracted from ground-state electron densities, the proposed technique delivers unambiguous results in finite basis sets. The approach can also be used to separate approximately the exchange and correlation potentials for a many-electron system for which the reduced density matrix is known. The algorithm is implemented for configuration-interaction wave functions and its performance is illustrated with numerical examples.

  7. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  8. The AIN-76A defined rodent diet accelerates the development of heart failure in SHHF rats: a cautionary note on its use in cardiac studies.

    PubMed

    Rees, M L; Gioscia-Ryan, R A; McCune, S A; Browder, J C; Zachman, D K; Chicco, A J; Johnson, C A; Murphy, R C; Moore, R L; Sparagna, G C

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown positive benefits of linoleic acid (LA) feeding for attenuation of rat heart failure (HF). However, another research group concluded LA feeding was detrimental to cardiac function, using the American Institute of Nutrition 76A (AIN) diet as a background diet for the experimental animals only. To reconcile these conflicting results and determine whether (i) AIN has effects on cardiovascular function, and (ii) AIN reverses the positive effects of LA feeding, studies were performed using spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats in both a survival study with lifetime feeding of AIN (control: Purina 5001) and a 2 × 2 factorial design for 6 weeks in young male SHHF rats with background diet and LA as variables. During a lifetime of AIN feeding, mortality from heart failure is significantly accelerated, cardiolipin altered and triglycerides increased. In young rats, 6 weeks on the AIN diet promoted increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased fed and fasting blood glucose, increased serum inflammatory eicosanoids, decreased docosahexanoic acid, increased posterior wall thickness in diastole and an altered cardiolipin subspecies profile. The addition of LA to the AIN diet was able to rescue blood pressure. However, the combination increased retroperitoneal fat mass, body weight and fed blood glucose beyond the levels with the AIN diet alone. Because the AIN diet has wide ranging effects on cardiovascular parameters, our results suggest that it should not be used in animal studies involving the cardiovascular system unless induction of cardiac dysfunction is the desired outcome. PMID:23298172

  9. The prevalence of group A streptococcal throat carriage in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dawson, K P; Ameen, A S; Nsanze, H; Bin-Othman, S; Mustafa, N

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the carrier rate of group A beta haemolytic streptococci in school children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. One thousand and two randomly selected school children aged 5-7 years had their throats swabbed twice for both culture and direct antigen detection of group A streptococci. One hundred and fourteen children (11.3%) had both a positive antigen and culture test, while 216 (21.6%) had antigen-positive tests only and 16 (1.5%) had a positive culture only. Thus, the combination of culture and antigen detection revealed a carrier rate of 35.4% in the children examined. We conclude that in an affluent but isolated desert area on the Tropic of Cancer, group A streptococcal carriage rate is high. Antigen detection is superior to culture techniques in asymptomatic carrier studies.

  10. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. Methods and analysis In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. PMID:26739742

  11. A New Transient Sham TENS Device Allows for Investigator Blinding While Delivering a True Placebo Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakel, Barbara; Cooper, Nicholas; Adams, Heather J.; Messer, Bryan R.; Frey Law, Laura A.; Dannen, Douglas R.; Miller, Carrie A.; Polehna, Anya. C.; Ruggle, Rachelle C.; Vance, Carol G.T.; Walsh, Deirdre M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared a new transient sham TENS that delivers current for 45 seconds to an inactive sham and active TENS to determine the degree of blinding and influence on pain reduction. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT), heat pain thresholds (HPT), and pain intensities to tonic heat and pressure were measured in 69 healthy adults before and after randomization. Allocation investigators and subjects were asked to identify the treatment administered. The transient sham blinded investigators 100% of the time and 40% of subjects compared to the inactive sham that blinded investigators 0% of the time and 21% of subjects. Investigators and subjects were only blinded 7% and 13% of the time, respectively, with active TENS. Neither placebo treatment resulted in significant changes in PPT, HPT, or pain intensities. Subjects using higher active TENS amplitudes (≥17mAs) had significantly higher PPTs and lower pain intensities to tonic pressure than subjects using lower amplitudes (<17mAs). HPTs and pain intensities to tonic heat were not significantly changed. The transient TENS completely blinds investigators to treatment and does not reduce pain, thereby providing a true placebo treatment. PMID:19945354

  12. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  13. Light-Emitting Diode Versus Sham in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Paul E.; Hews, Katherine; Windon, Lowell; Chasse, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the application of the light emitting diode (LED) to sham LED in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods Eighteen subjects met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into 2 groups: light emitting diode or sham LED. The subjects received either the LED at 12 J/cm2 or sham LED along 2 points of the plantar fascia. Subjects in both groups received a 10 minute transverse friction massage and participated in 4 plantar fascia stretching exercises. All subjects received a total of 6 treatments over 3 weeks. Progress was assessed using the lower extremity functional and analog pain scale. Results No significant difference was found between treatment groups (P = .845). There was a significant difference in pain and outcome scores over time within both groups (P < .35). Conclusion Among patients with plantar fasciitis, the use of LED did not result in greater improvement in function or pain compared with sham treatment. The findings suggest that manual intervention and passive stretching activities may have provided significant pain relief and improvement in functional outcome scores. PMID:26644784

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory beyond Kohn–Sham Slater determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Johanna I.; Nielsen, Søren E. B.; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Maitra, Neepa T.

    When running time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations for real-time simulations of non-equilibrium dynamics, the user has a choice of initial Kohn-Sham state, and typically a Slater determinant is used. We explore the impact of this choice on the exchange-correlation potential when the physical system begins in a 50:50 superposition of the ground and first-excited state of the system. We investigate the possibility of judiciously choosing a Kohn-Sham initial state that minimizes errors when adiabatic functionals are used. We find that if the Kohn-Sham state is chosen to have a configuration matching the one that dominates the interacting state, this can be achieved for a finite time duration for some but not all such choices. When the Kohn-Sham system does not begin in a Slater determinant, we further argue that the conventional splitting of the exchange-correlation potential into exchange and correlation parts has limited value, and instead propose a decomposition into a "single-particle" contribution that we denote $v_{xc}^s$, and a remainder. The single-particle contribution can be readily computed as an explicit orbital-functional, reduces to exchange in the Slater determinant case, and offers an alternative to the adiabatic approximation as a starting point for TDDFT approximations.

  15. High pressure sintering of non-oxide materials. [hot pressing AIN, TiC, and alpha-Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimado, M.; Ogawa, N.; Koizumi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pure materials of AIN, alpha-Si3N4 and TiC, without additives were sintered at 800 C to 1400 C under the pressures of 30 kbar and 50 kbar for 0.5 hours. The maximum density of sintered bodies for the cited materials was nearly 100% for AIN, 98% for TiC and 96% for alpha-Si3N4.

  16. Determination of Kohn-Sham effective potentials from electron densities using the differential virial theorem.

    PubMed

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Staroverov, Viktor N

    2012-10-28

    We present an accurate method for constructing the Kohn-Sham effective potential corresponding to a given electron density in one-dimensional and spherically symmetric systems. The method is based on the differential virial theorem--an exact relation between the effective potential, the electron density, and the kinetic energy density. A distinctive feature of the proposed technique is that it employs a size-consistent bosonic reference potential to ensure the correct asymptotic behavior of the resulting Kohn-Sham potential. We describe a practical implementation of our method and use it to obtain high-quality exchange-correlation and correlation potentials of the neon and argon atoms from ab initio densities generated in large Slater- and Gaussian-type basis sets.

  17. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  18. Determination of Kohn-Sham effective potentials from electron densities using the differential virial theorem.

    PubMed

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Staroverov, Viktor N

    2012-10-28

    We present an accurate method for constructing the Kohn-Sham effective potential corresponding to a given electron density in one-dimensional and spherically symmetric systems. The method is based on the differential virial theorem--an exact relation between the effective potential, the electron density, and the kinetic energy density. A distinctive feature of the proposed technique is that it employs a size-consistent bosonic reference potential to ensure the correct asymptotic behavior of the resulting Kohn-Sham potential. We describe a practical implementation of our method and use it to obtain high-quality exchange-correlation and correlation potentials of the neon and argon atoms from ab initio densities generated in large Slater- and Gaussian-type basis sets. PMID:23126701

  19. Effects of AIN457, a fully human antibody to interleukin-17A, on psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hueber, Wolfgang; Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Dryja, Thaddeus; Wright, Andrew M; Koroleva, Irina; Bruin, Gerard; Antoni, Christian; Draelos, Zoe; Gold, Michael H; Durez, Patrick; Tak, Paul P; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Foster, C Stephen; Kim, Rosa Y; Samson, C Michael; Falk, Naomi S; Chu, David S; Callanan, David; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Rose, Kristine; Haider, Asifa; Di Padova, Franco

    2010-10-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is elaborated by the T helper 17 (T(H)17) subset of T(H) cells and exhibits potent proinflammatory properties in animal models of autoimmunity, including collagen-induced arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and experimental autoimmune uveitis. To determine whether IL-17A mediates human inflammatory diseases, we investigated the efficacy and safety of AIN457, a human antibody to IL-17A, in patients with psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic noninfectious uveitis. Patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis (n = 36), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 52), or chronic noninfectious uveitis (n = 16) were enrolled in clinical trials to evaluate the effects of neutralizing IL-17A by AIN457 at doses of 3 to 10 mg/kg, given intravenously. We evaluated efficacy by measuring the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), the American College of Rheumatology 20% response (ACR20) for rheumatoid arthritis, or the number of responders for uveitis, as defined by either vision improvement or reduction in ocular inflammation or corticosteroid dose. AIN457 treatment induced clinically relevant responses of variable magnitude in patients suffering from each of these diverse immune-mediated diseases. Variable response rates may be due to heterogeneity in small patient populations, differential pathogenic roles of IL-17A in these diseases, and the different involvement or activation of IL-17A-producing cells. The rates of adverse events, including infections, were similar in the AIN457 and placebo groups. These results support a role for IL-17A in the pathophysiology of diverse inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and noninfectious uveitis.

  20. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S; Lundy, Robert F; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-09-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H(2)O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  1. Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Cook, Amanda; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L; Smoller, Jordan W; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2013-01-01

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for "placebo responders." However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of acupuncture

  2. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  3. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-08-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion.

  4. ACKS2: Atom-condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraelen, T.; Ayers, P. W.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.

    2013-02-01

    A new polarizable force field (PFF), namely atom-condensed Kohn-Sham density functional theory approximated to second order (ACKS2), is proposed for the efficient computation of atomic charges and linear response properties of extended molecular systems. It is derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), making use of two novel ingredients in the context of PFFs: (i) constrained atomic populations and (ii) the Legendre transform of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy. ACKS2 is essentially an extension of the Electronegativity Equalization Method (EEM) [W. J. Mortier, S. K. Ghosh, and S. Shankar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 4315 (1986)], 10.1021/ja00275a013 in which two major EEM shortcomings are fixed: ACKS2 predicts a linear size-dependence of the dipole polarizability in the macroscopic limit and correctly describes the charge distribution when a molecule dissociates. All ACKS2 parameters are defined as atoms-in-molecules expectation values. The implementation of ACKS2 is very similar to that of EEM, with only a small increase in computational cost.

  5. A spectral scheme for Kohn-Sham density functional theory of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Elliott, Ryan S.; James, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn-Sham equations for periodic systems - the plane-wave method - is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn-Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  6. A spectral scheme for Kohn–Sham density functional theory of clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amartya S. Elliott, Ryan S. James, Richard D.

    2015-04-15

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn–Sham equations for periodic systems – the plane-wave method – is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn–Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  7. Water-rock interaction and geochemistry of groundwater from the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi; Tiri, Ammar

    2012-02-01

    Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, and inverse geochemical modeling techniques were used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution within the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria. Cluster analysis based on major ion contents defined 3 main chemical water types, reflecting different hydrochemical processes. The first group water, group 1, has low salinity (mean EC = 735 μS/cm). The second group waters are classified as Cl-HCO(3)-alkaline earth type. The third group is made up of water samples, the cation composition of which is dominated by Ca and Mg with anion composition varying from dominantly Cl to dominantly HCO(3) plus SO(4). The varifactors obtained from R-mode FA indicate that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to the presence and dissolution of some carbonate, silicate, and evaporite minerals in the aquifer. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flow paths indicates the dominant processes are the consumption of CO(2), the dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and halite, along with the precipitation of calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, and quartz.

  8. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. Methods All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. Results 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Conclusions Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed. PMID:23861931

  9. High-altitude headache: the effects of real vs sham oxygen administration.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Durando, Jennifer; Giudetti, Lucia; Pampallona, Alan; Vighetti, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude, or hypobaric hypoxia, headache has recently emerged as an interesting model to study placebo and nocebo responses, and particularly their peripheral mechanisms. In this study, we analyze the response of this type of headache to either real or sham (placebo) oxygen (O(2)) administration at an altitude of 3500 m, where blood oxygen saturation (SO(2)) drops from the normal value of about 98% to about 85%. In a trial in which a double-blind administration of either 100% O(2) or sham O(2) was administered, we tested pre- and post-exercise headache, along with fatigue, heart rate (HR) responses, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) salivary concentration. Although real O(2) breathing increased SO(2) along with a decrease in pre- and post-exercise headache, fatigue, HR, and PGE(2), placebo O(2) changed neither pre-/post-exercise headache nor SO(2)/HR/PGE(2), but it decreased fatigue. However, in another group of subjects, when sham O(2) was delivered after 2 previous exposures to O(2) (O(2) preconditioning), it decreased fatigue, post-exercise headache, HR, and PGE(2), yet without any increase in SO(2). Three main findings emerge from these data. First, placebo O(2) is effective in reducing post-exercise headache, along with HR and PGE(2) decrease, only after O(2) preconditioning. Second, pre-exercise (at rest) headache is not affected by placebo O(2), which emphasizes the limits of a placebo treatment at high altitude. Third, fatigue is affected by placebo O(2) even without prior O(2) conditioning, which suggests the higher placebo sensitivity of fatigue compared with headache pain at high altitude.

  10. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-15

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688

  11. Randomised sham-controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Pengo, Martino F; Xiao, Sichang; Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Reed, Kate; Shah, Nimish; Chen, Tao; Douiri, Abdel; Hart, Nicholas; Luo, Yuanming; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Williams, Adrian; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John; Steier, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by a loss of neuromuscular tone of the upper airway dilator muscles while asleep. This study investigated the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with OSA. Patients and methods This was a randomised, sham-controlled crossover trial using transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the upper airway dilator muscles in patients with confirmed OSA. Patients were randomly assigned to one night of sham stimulation and one night of active treatment. The primary outcome was the 4% oxygen desaturation index, responders were defined as patients with a reduction >25% in the oxygen desaturation index when compared with sham stimulation and/or with an index <5/hour in the active treatment night. Results In 36 patients (age mean 50.8 (SD 11.2) years, male/female 30/6, body mass index median 29.6 (IQR 26.9–34.9) kg/m2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.5 (4.6) points, oxygen desaturation index median 25.7 (16.0–49.1)/hour, apnoea-hypopnoea index median 28.1 (19.0–57.0)/hour) the primary outcome measure improved when comparing sham stimulation (median 26.9 (17.5–39.5)/hour) with active treatment (median 19.5 (11.6–40.0)/hour; p=0.026), a modest reduction of the mean by 4.1 (95% CI −0.6 to 8.9)/hour. Secondary outcome parameters of patients' perception indicated that stimulation was well tolerated. Responders (47.2%) were predominantly from the mild-to-moderate OSA category. In this subgroup, the oxygen desaturation index was reduced by 10.0 (95% CI 3.9 to 16.0)/hour (p<0.001) and the apnoea-hypopnoea index was reduced by 9.1 (95% CI 2.0 to 16.2)/hour (p=0.004). Conclusion Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal dilators during a single night in patients with OSA improves upper airway obstruction and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01661712. PMID:27435610

  12. Numerical Methods for a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Model Based on Optimal Transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huajie; Friesecke, Gero; Mendl, Christian B

    2014-10-14

    In this paper, we study numerical discretizations to solve density functional models in the "strictly correlated electrons" (SCE) framework. Unlike previous studies, our work is not restricted to radially symmetric densities. In the SCE framework, the exchange-correlation functional encodes the effects of the strong correlation regime by minimizing the pairwise Coulomb repulsion, resulting in an optimal transport problem. We give a mathematical derivation of the self-consistent Kohn-Sham-SCE equations, construct an efficient numerical discretization for this type of problem for N = 2 electrons, and apply it to the H2 molecule in its dissociating limit. PMID:26588133

  13. A Variational Framework for Spectral Approximations of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Cindy; Blesgen, Thomas; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We reformulate the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) as a nested variational problem in the one-particle density operator, the electrostatic potential and a field dual to the electron density. The corresponding functional is linear in the density operator and thus amenable to spectral representation. Based on this reformulation, we introduce a new approximation scheme, termed spectral binning, which does not require smoothing of the occupancy function and thus applies at arbitrarily low temperatures. We prove convergence of the approximate solutions with respect to spectral binning and with respect to an additional spatial discretization of the domain.

  14. Existence of minimizers for Kohn-Sham within the local spin density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the work by Anantharaman and Cancès (2009 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré (C) 26 2425-55) and prove the existence of minimizers for the spin-polarized Kohn-Sham model in the presence of a magnetic field within the local spin density approximation. We show that for any magnetic field that vanishes at infinity, the existence of minimizers is ensured for neutral or positively charged systems. The proof relies on classical concentration-compactness techniques.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Hubertus J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Finally, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  17. Sham versus transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, C.W.; Reddy, P.; Johnson, H.; Ramsay, J.W.; Carter, S.C. . Dept. of Urology)

    1993-01-02

    Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) is a single-session, minimally invasive outpatient treatment for patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction. The authors designed a prospective randomized trial to identify any placebo response. Patients with a Madsen symptom score over 8 for at least 6 months were eligible for study. Patients with renal dysfunction, upper urinary tract disease, co-existing bladder disease and malignant prostatic change were excluded. 43 patients were studied: 21 were randomized to receive a sham treatment and 22 to thermotherapy. The thermotherapy group showed a 70% decrease in the mean Madsen score, a 53% increase in flow-rate, and 92% decrease in residual urine volume. No Significant change was seen in these mean indices in the sham group. There was no difference in the main complication of transient hematuria between the two groups. However, there was a 22% frequency of acute retention in the TUMT group. The results show a little significant placebo component to the subjective and objective improvement that occurs in patients who have received TUMT.

  18. Blinding the blinded - assessing the effectiveness of a sham treatment in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber trial.

    PubMed

    Rainolds, Dan; Long, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for a variety of problem wounds as an adjunctive treatment. The therapeutic impact of adding HBOT to a wound-healing regimen in many cases remains unclear and an ongoing need exists for additional randomised controlled trials. Many of these clinical studies require a sham group of study participants. To date, there has not been any published research on the concealment of sham treatments in multiplace hyperbaric chambers. The aim of this pilot project was to validate the existing blinding procedures used at one hyperbaric facility. Sixty-six volunteer recreational scuba divers, who had not previously been exposed to compression in a hyperbaric chamber, were recruited through local dive shops. One group was pressurised to 203 kPa and the other was minimally pressurised to 121 kPa, the minimum pressure required to cause middle ear pressure changes. Both protocols implemented continuous, though subtle, pressure variations toward the attainment of the final target pressure. A nearly identical number of subjects in both the 203 kPa (n = 32) and 121 kPa (n = 34) groups believed they had undergone a treatment pressure to 203 kPa (72% versus 71%) indicating a similarity of perception between the two groups.

  19. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    DOE PAGES

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-05-23

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractionalmore » occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.« less

  20. Molecular Binding in Post-Kohn-Sham Orbital-Free DFT.

    PubMed

    Borgoo, Alex; Green, James A; Tozer, David J

    2014-12-01

    Molecular binding in post-Kohn-Sham orbital-free DFT is investigated, using noninteracting kinetic energy functionals that satisfy the uniform electron gas condition and which are inhomogeneous under density scaling. A parameter is introduced that quantifies binding, and a series of functionals are determined from fits to near-exact effective homogeneities and/or Kohn-Sham noninteracting kinetic energies. These are then used to investigate the relationship between binding and the accuracy of the effective homogeneity and noninteracting kinetic energy at the equilibrium geometry. For a series of 11 molecules, the binding broadly improves as the effective homogeneity improves, although the extent to which it improves is dependent on the accuracy of the noninteracting kinetic energy; optimal binding appears to require both to be accurate simultaneously. The use of a Thomas-Fermi-von Weizsäcker form, augmented with a second gradient correction, goes some way toward achieving this, exhibiting molecular binding on average. The findings are discussed in terms of the noninteracting kinetic potential and the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. The extent to which the functionals can reproduce the system-dependence of the near-exact effective homogeneity is quantified, and potential energy curves are presented for selected molecules. The study provides impetus for including density scaling homogeneity considerations in the design of noninteracting kinetic energy functionals. PMID:26583217

  1. Efficient iterative method for solving the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Shao, Sihong; E, Weinan

    2012-11-06

    We present for the first time an efficient iterative method to directly solve the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) density functional theory. Due to the existence of the negative energy continuum in the DKS operator, the existing iterative techniques for solving the Kohn-Sham systems cannot be efficiently applied to solve the DKS systems. The key component of our method is a novel filtering step (F) which acts as a preconditioner in the framework of the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. The resulting method, dubbed the LOBPCG-F method, is able to compute the desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the positive energy band without computing any state in the negative energy band. The LOBPCG-F method introduces mild extra cost compared to the standard LOBPCG method and can be easily implemented. We demonstrate our method in the pseudopotential framework with a planewave basis set which naturally satisfies the kinetic balance prescription. Numerical results for Pt$_{2}$, Au$_{2}$, TlF, and Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ indicate that the LOBPCG-F method is a robust and efficient method for investigating the relativistic effect in systems containing heavy elements.

  2. Origin of static and dynamic steps in exact Kohn-Sham potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, M. J. P.; Ramsden, J. D.; Godby, R. W.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of exact properties of the exchange-correlation (xc) functional is important for improving the approximations made within density functional theory. Features such as steps in the exact xc potential are known to be necessary for yielding accurate densities, yet little is understood regarding their shape, magnitude, and location. We use systems of a few electrons, where the exact electron density is known, to demonstrate general properties of steps. We find that steps occur at points in the electron density where there is a change in the `local effective ionization energy' of the electrons. We provide practical arguments, based on the electron density, for determining the position, shape, and height of steps for ground-state systems, and extend the concepts to time-dependent systems. These arguments are intended to inform the development of approximate functionals, such as the mixed localization potential (MLP), which already demonstrate their capability to produce steps in the Kohn-Sham potential.

  3. On the Kohn-Sham density response in a localized basis set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Dietrich; Koval, Peter

    2009-07-01

    We construct the Kohn-Sham density response function χ0 in a previously described basis of the space of orbital products. The calculational complexity of our construction is O(N2Nω) for a molecule of N atoms and in a spectroscopic window of Nω frequency points. As a first application, we use χ0 to calculate the molecular spectra from the Petersilka-Gossmann-Gross equation. With χ0 as input, we obtain the correct spectra with an extra computational effort that grows also as O(N2Nω) and, therefore, less steeply in N than the O(N3) complexity of solving Casida's equations. Our construction should be useful for the study of excitons in molecular physics and in related areas where χ0 is a crucial ingredient.

  4. Exact and approximate Kohn-Sham potentials in ensemble density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zeng-hui; Trail, John R.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron; Needs, Richard J.; Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2014-10-01

    We construct exact Kohn-Sham potentials for the ensemble density-functional theory (EDFT) from the ground and excited states of helium. The exchange-correlation (XC) potential is compared with the quasi-local-density approximation and both single-determinant and symmetry-eigenstate ghost-corrected exact exchange approximations. Symmetry-eigenstate Hartree exchange recovers distinctive features of the exact XC potential and is used to calculate the correlation potential. Unlike the exact case, excitation energies calculated from these approximations depend on ensemble weight, and it is shown that only the symmetry-eigenstate method produces an ensemble derivative discontinuity. Differences in asymptotic and near-ground-state behavior of exact and approximate XC potentials are discussed in the context of producing accurate optical gaps.

  5. Solving the self-interaction problem in Kohn-Sham density functional theory: Application to atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Däne, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2015-04-01

    In previous work, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In this paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.

  6. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.

  7. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. Wemore » present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.« less

  8. How Well Can Kohn-Sham DFT Describe the HO2 + O3 Reaction?

    PubMed

    Viegas, Luís P; Branco, Adriana; Varandas, António J C

    2010-09-14

    In a previous work (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 412) we reported an ab initio investigation of the reaction between ozone and the hydroperoxyl radical. The studies on this atmospheric reaction are here continued with an evaluation of different exchange-correlation functionals (all rungs of "Jacob's ladder" of density functional approximations are represented) in Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. We focus on the comparison between the barrier heights of the oxygen- and hydrogen-abstraction mechanisms here calculated with the ones previously obtained at the CASPT2(11,11)/AVTZ level. The comparison is also extended to the remaining stationary points. Additionally, a relation between the fraction of exact exchange of one-parameter hybrid functionals and the imaginary frequency of a saddle point is developed, originating three new functionals that are also used in the present benchmark calculations. PMID:26616077

  9. Excitation energies and Stokes shifts from a restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Tim; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Chen, Po-Ta; Top, Laken; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2013-04-01

    Restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) theory provides a powerful computational tool for calculating singlet excited state energies and dynamics. However, the possibility of multiple solutions to the ROKS equations — with the associated difficulty of automatically selecting the physically meaningful solution — limits its usefulness for intensive applications such as long-time Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. We present an implementation of ROKS for excited states which prescribes the physically correct solution from an overlap criterion and guarantees that this solution is stationary, allowing for straightforward evaluation of nuclear gradients. The method is used to benchmark ROKS for vertical excitation energies of small and large organic dyes and for the calculation of Stokes shifts. With common density functional approximations, ROKS vertical excitation energies, and Stokes shifts show similar accuracy to those from time-dependent density functional theory and Δ-self-consistent-field approaches. Advantages of the ROKS approach for excited state structure and molecular dynamics are discussed.

  10. The QTP family of consistent functionals and potentials in Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yifan; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript presents the second, consistent density functional in the QTP (Quantum Theory Project) family, that is, the CAM-QTP(01). It is a new range-separated exchange-correlation functional in which the non-local exchange contribution is 100% at large separation. It follows the same basic principles of this family that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the occupied orbitals approximately equal the vertical ionization energies, which is not fulfilled by most of the traditional density functional methods. This new CAM-QTP(01) functional significantly improves the accuracy of the vertical excitation energies especially for the Rydberg states in the test set. It also reproduces many other properties such as geometries, reaction barrier heights, and atomization energies.

  11. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-02-01

    Increased motor cortex excitability is a common finding in dystonia, and transcranial direct current stimulation can reduce motor cortex excitability. In an earlier study, we found that cathodal direct-current stimulation decreased motor overflow for some children with dystonia. To investigate this observation further, we performed a sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of 14 children with dystonia. We found a significant reduction in overflow following real stimulation, when participants performed the experimental task with the hand contralateral to the cathode. While these results suggest that cathodal stimulation may help some children to reduce involuntary overflow, the size of the effect is small. Further research will need to investigate ways to increase the magnitude of the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation. PMID:23760989

  12. Influence of bilayer period on the characteristics of nanometre-scale ZrN/TiAIN multilayers.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, A; Kiss, A; Popescu, A; Braic, M; Balaceanu, M; Braic, V; Tudor, I; Logofatu, C; Negrila, C C; Rapeanu, R

    2008-02-01

    In the last decade, considerable research effort was directed to the deposition of multilayer films with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range (superlattice coatings), in order to increase the performance of various cutting tools and machine parts. The goal of the present work was to investigate the main microstructural, mechanical and wear resistance characteristics of a superlattice coating, consisting of alternate multilayer ZrN/TiAIN films, with various bilayer periods (5 / 20 nm). The coatings were deposited by the cathodic arc method on Si, plain carbon steel and high speed steel substrates to be used as wear resistance surfaces. The multilayer structures were prepared by using shutters placed in front of each cathode (Zr and Ti+Al). The characteristics of multilayer structures (elemental and phase composition, texture, Vickers microhardness, thickness, adhesion, and wear resistance) were determined by using various techniques (AES, XPS, XRD, microhardness measurements, scratch, and tribological tests). A comparison with the properties of ZrN and TiAIN single-layer coatings was carried out. PMID:18464396

  13. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS.

    PubMed

    Duecker, Felix; de Graaf, Tom A; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided.

  14. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrating process in unicellular green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Rates of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution, for measuring K{sub 0.5}(CO{sub 2} + HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K{sub i}(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO{sub 2} uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar NaHCO{sub 3}), and the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with 100 micromolar ({sup 14}C)HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O{sub 2} evolution and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO{sub 3}. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO{sub 2} accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related.

  15. Salicylhydroxamic Acid (SHAM) Inhibition of the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentrating Process in Unicellular Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Goyal, A; Tolbert, N E

    1990-03-01

    Rates of photosynthetic O(2) evolution, for measuring K(0.5)(CO(2) + HCO(3) (-)) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO(3) (-) to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K(1)(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO(2) uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O(2) evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar Na-HCO(3)), and the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation with 100 micromolar [(14)C] HCO(3) (-). Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O(2) evolution and (14)CO(2)-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO(3). Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO(2) accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related.

  16. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, Scott A.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Anvari, Mehran; Sarwer, David B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Miller, Christopher J.; Knudson, Mark B.; Tweden, Katherine S.; Sarr, Michael G.; Billington, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. PMID:26246907

  17. The suitability of sham treatments for use as placebo controls in trials of spinal manipulative therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lougee, Hannah; Johnston, Ross G; Thomson, Oliver P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the augmented use and dependence on manual therapy (MT), there are still calls from both within and outside the MT professions to provide robust evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) induces therapeutic effects beyond placebo. To facilitate this, placebo or 'sham' treatments, the development of which is notoriously difficult, must be used in rigorously controlled trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different shams as controls in SMT trials. A repeated measures, single-blind, randomised trial was conducted on 10 asymptomatic subjects. Pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) were measured at 2 sites, local and systemic, before and after the application of either high-velocity low-amplitude thrust (HVLAT), sham functional technique (SFT), sham ultrasound (SUS) or no intervention control (NIC) to the cervico-thoracic (CT) junctional area. Treatment credibility was then assessed using a 4-point Likert Scale in response to 4 statements. Results demonstrated no significant change in PPT following any of the interventions, irrespective of site tested. The effect sizes for all interventions were considered small (d = <0.2). There were significant differences in Likert Scale responses for each statement (P < 0.001), with SUS eliciting significantly different responses as compared to SFT and NIC but not, predominantly, with HVLAT. SUS is implicated as being the most effective sham, having high fidelity to subjects' perceptions of a 'real' treatment, whilst being therapeutically inert i.e. results in no significant change in clinical status.

  18. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1988-02-01

    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  19. Are acupoints specific for diseases? A systematic review of the randomized controlled trials with sham acupuncture controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The results of many clinical trials and experimental studies regarding acupoint specificity are contradictory. This review aims to investigate whether a difference in efficacy exists between ordinary acupuncture on specific acupoints and sham acupuncture controls on non-acupoints or on irrelevant acupoints. Methods Databases including Medline, Embase, AMED and Chinese Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized controlled trials published between 1998 and 2009 that compared traditional body acupuncture on acupoints with sham acupuncture controls on irrelevant acupoints or non-acupoints with the same needling depth. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was employed to address the quality of the included trials. Results Twelve acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture controls were identified and included in the review. The conditions treated varied. Half of the included trials had positive results on the primary outcomes and demonstrated acupoint specificity. However, among those six trials (total sample size: 985) with low risk of bias, five trials (sample size: 940) showed no statistically significant difference between proper and sham acupuncture treatments. Conclusion This review did not demonstrate the existence of acupoint specificity. Further clinical trials with larger sample sizes, optimal acupuncture treatment protocols and appropriate sham acupuncture controls are required to resolve this important issue. PMID:20145733

  20. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  1. Full Parallel Implementation of an All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Storchi, Loriano

    2014-09-01

    A full distributed-memory implementation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of the program BERTHA (Belpassi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 12368-12394) is presented, where the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is replicated on all the parallel processes, each process working on subsets of the global matrices. The key feature of the implementation is an efficient procedure for switching between two matrix distribution schemes, one (integral-driven) optimal for the parallel computation of the matrix elements and another (block-cyclic) optimal for the parallel linear algebra operations. This approach, making both CPU-time and memory scalable with the number of processors used, virtually overcomes at once both time and memory barriers associated with DKS calculations. Performance, portability, and numerical stability of the code are illustrated on the basis of test calculations on three gold clusters of increasing size, an organometallic compound, and a perovskite model. The calculations are performed on a Beowulf and a BlueGene/Q system.

  2. Orbitals from local RDMFT: Are they Kohn-Sham or natural orbitals?

    SciTech Connect

    Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Rubio, Angel

    2015-08-07

    Recently, an approximate theoretical framework was introduced, called local reduced density matrix functional theory (local-RDMFT), where functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are minimized under the additional condition that the optimal orbitals satisfy a single electron Schrödinger equation with a local potential. In the present work, we focus on the character of these optimal orbitals. In particular, we compare orbitals obtained by local-RDMFT with those obtained with the full minimization (without the extra condition) by contrasting them against the exact NOs and orbitals from a density functional calculation using the local density approximation (LDA). We find that the orbitals from local-RMDFT are very close to LDA orbitals, contrary to those of the full minimization that resemble the exact NOs. Since local RDMFT preserves the good quality of the description of strong static correlation, this finding opens the way to a mixed density/density matrix scheme, where Kohn-Sham orbitals obtain fractional occupations from a minimization of the occupation numbers using 1-RDM functionals. This will allow for a description of strong correlation at a cost only minimally higher than a density functional calculation.

  3. Full Parallel Implementation of an All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Storchi, Loriano

    2014-09-01

    A full distributed-memory implementation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of the program BERTHA (Belpassi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 12368-12394) is presented, where the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is replicated on all the parallel processes, each process working on subsets of the global matrices. The key feature of the implementation is an efficient procedure for switching between two matrix distribution schemes, one (integral-driven) optimal for the parallel computation of the matrix elements and another (block-cyclic) optimal for the parallel linear algebra operations. This approach, making both CPU-time and memory scalable with the number of processors used, virtually overcomes at once both time and memory barriers associated with DKS calculations. Performance, portability, and numerical stability of the code are illustrated on the basis of test calculations on three gold clusters of increasing size, an organometallic compound, and a perovskite model. The calculations are performed on a Beowulf and a BlueGene/Q system. PMID:26588521

  4. Kohn-Sham approach to Fermi gas superfluidity: The bilayer of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    By using a well-established "ab initio" theoretical approach developed in the past to quantitatively study the superconductivity of condensed matter systems, based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory, I study the superfluid properties and the BCS-BEC crossover of two parallel bi-dimensional layers of fermionic dipolar molecules, where the pairing mechanism leading to superfluidity is provided by the interlayer coupling between dipoles. The finite temperature superfluid properties of both the homogeneous system and one where the fermions in each layer are confined by a square optical lattice are studied at half filling conditions, and for different values of the strength of the confining optical potential. The T = 0 results for the homogeneous system are found to be in excellent agreement with diffusion Monte Carlo results. The superfluid transition temperature in the BCS region is found to increase, for a given interlayer coupling, with the strength of the confining optical potential. A transition occurs at sufficiently small interlayer distances, where the fermions becomes localized within the optical lattice sites in a square geometry with an increased effective lattice constant, forming a system of localized composite bosons. This transition should be signaled by a sudden drop in the superfluid fraction of the system.

  5. Kohn-Sham density functional theory prediction of fracture in silicon carbide under mixed mode loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. W. K.; Pan, Z. L.; Warner, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    The utility of silicon carbide (SiC) for high temperature structural application has been limited by its brittleness. To improve its ductility, it is paramount to develop a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling crack propagation. In this manuscript, we present direct ab initio predictions of fracture in SiC under pure mode I and mixed mode loading, utilizing a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KSDFT) framework. Our results show that in both loading cases, cleavage occurs at a stress intensity factor (SIF) only slightly higher than the Griffith toughness, focusing on a (1 1 1) [1 \\bar{1} 0] crack in the 3C-SiC crystal structure. This lattice trapping effect is shown to decrease with mode mixity, due to the formation of a temporary surface bond that forms during decohesion under shear. Comparing the critical mode I SIF to the value obtained in experiments suggests that some plasticity may occur near a crack tip in SiC even at low temperatures. Ultimately, these findings provide a solid foundation upon which to study the influence of impurities on brittleness, and upon which to develop empirical potentials capable of realistically simulating fracture in SiC.

  6. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    SciTech Connect

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor; Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan

    2015-09-14

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory, which accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed by Kraisler and Kronik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013)]. Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned ensemble generalization systematically improves the prediction of the ionization potential, for various systems and exchange-correlation functionals, without compromising the accuracy of total energy-related properties. We specifically examine hybrid functionals. These depend on a parameter controlling the ratio of semi-local to non-local functional components. The ionization potential obtained with ensemble-generalized functionals is found to depend only weakly on the parameter value, contrary to common experience with non-generalized hybrids, thus eliminating one aspect of the so-called “parameter dilemma” of hybrid functionals.

  7. Geologic reconnaissance of the Al Qunfidhah area, Tihamat Ash Sham quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    Preliminary mineral investigations in the A1 Qunfidhah area, Tihamat Ash Sham quadrangle, indicate that four target zones merit detailed study. These are (1) the West Gossan, (2) the pyrocalstic pile 13 Kilometers of Suq A1 Khamis, (3) the Wadi Sishah copper prospect, and (4) the Wadi Yiba copper prospect. Copper sulfides and carbonates appear to be the most abundant economic minerals present, although nickel, zinc, lead, molybdenum, gold, and silver may also occur in important amounts. In addition to locating specific target zones, the results delimit particular stratigraphic horizons which should be included in future regional mineral investigations. The rocks of the area are comprised of a eugeosynclinal assemblage of Precambrian metavolcanics and metasediments which are intruded by granitic rocks of at least two ages. Rocks which predate the latest granite intrusive are regionally metamorphosed, folded, and faulted. In most cases, zones containing economic minerals occur at or near the top of a volcanic pile and in marine sedimentary, rocks above the volcanic pile. The results from preliminary studies suggest a close genetic relationship between sulfide mineralization and volcanism.

  8. Kinetic Formulation of the Kohn-Sham Equations for ab initio Electronic Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a new connection between density functional theory and kinetic theory. In particular, we show that the Kohn-Sham equations can be reformulated as a macroscopic limit of the steady-state solution of a suitable single-particle kinetic equation. We derive a Boltzmann-like equation for a gas of quasiparticles, where the potential plays the role of an external source that generates and destroys particles, so as to drive the system towards its ground state. The ions are treated as classical particles by using either the Born-Oppenheimer dynamics or by imposing concurrent evolution with the electronic orbitals. In order to provide quantitative support to our approach, we implement a discrete (lattice) kinetic model and compute the exchange and correlation energies of simple atoms and the geometrical configuration of the methane molecule. Moreover, we also compute the first vibrational mode of the hydrogen molecule, with both Born-Oppenheimer and concurrent dynamics. Excellent agreement with values in the literature is found in all cases.

  9. Kinetic formulation of the Kohn-Sham Equations for ab initio electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2014-08-29

    We introduce a new connection between density functional theory and kinetic theory. In particular, we show that the Kohn-Sham equations can be reformulated as a macroscopic limit of the steady-state solution of a suitable single-particle kinetic equation. We derive a Boltzmann-like equation for a gas of quasiparticles, where the potential plays the role of an external source that generates and destroys particles, so as to drive the system towards its ground state. The ions are treated as classical particles by using either the Born-Oppenheimer dynamics or by imposing concurrent evolution with the electronic orbitals. In order to provide quantitative support to our approach, we implement a discrete (lattice) kinetic model and compute the exchange and correlation energies of simple atoms and the geometrical configuration of the methane molecule. Moreover, we also compute the first vibrational mode of the hydrogen molecule, with both Born-Oppenheimer and concurrent dynamics. Excellent agreement with values in the literature is found in all cases.

  10. All-electron Kohn–Sham density functional theory on hierarchic finite element spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Volker; Linder, Christian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a real space formulation of the Kohn–Sham equations is developed, making use of the hierarchy of finite element spaces from different polynomial order. The focus is laid on all-electron calculations, having the highest requirement onto the basis set, which must be able to represent the orthogonal eigenfunctions as well as the electrostatic potential. A careful numerical analysis is performed, which points out the numerical intricacies originating from the singularity of the nuclei and the necessity for approximations in the numerical setting, with the ambition to enable solutions within a predefined accuracy. In this context the influence of counter-charges in the Poisson equation, the requirement of a finite domain size, numerical quadratures and the mesh refinement are examined as well as the representation of the electrostatic potential in a high order finite element space. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in computations on noble gases. In addition the finite element basis proves its flexibility in the calculation of the bond-length as well as the dipole moment of the carbon monoxide molecule.

  11. Use of beat-to-beat cardiovascular variability data to determine the validity of sham therapy as the placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Henley, Charles E; Wilson, Thad E

    2014-11-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine researchers often use sham therapy as the placebo control during clinical trials. Optimally, the sham therapy should be a hands-on procedure that is perceptually indistinguishable from osteopathic manipulative treatment, does not create an effect on its own, and is not a treatment intervention. However, the sham therapy itself may often influence the outcome. The use of cardiovascular variability (eg, beat-to-beat heart rate variability) as a surrogate for the autonomic nervous system is one objective method by which to identify such an effect. By monitoring cardiovascular variability, investigators can assess autonomic nervous system activity as a response to the sham therapy and quickly determine whether or not the selected sham therapy is a true placebo control. The authors provide evidence for assessment of beat-to-beat heart rate variability as one method for assuring objectivity of sham therapy as a placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

  12. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  13. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  14. Accelerated Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation for Suicide Risk in Therapy-Resistant Depressed Patients: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Desmyter, Stefanie; Duprat, Romain; Baeken, Chris; Van Autreve, Sara; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the effects and safety of accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) on suicide risk in a group of treatment-resistant unipolar depressed patients, using an extensive suicide assessment scale. Methods: In 50 therapy-resistant, antidepressant-free depressed patients, an intensive protocol of accelerated iTBS was applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a randomized, sham-controlled crossover design. Patients received 20 iTBS sessions over 4 days. Suicide risk was assessed using the Beck Scale of Suicide ideation (BSI). Results: The iTBS protocol was safe and well tolerated. We observed a significant decrease of the BSI score over time, unrelated to active or sham stimulation and unrelated to depression-response. No worsening of suicidal ideation was observed. The effects of accelerated iTBS on mood and depression severity are reported in Duprat et al. (2016). The decrease in suicide risk lasted up to 1 month after baseline, even in depression non-responders. Conclusions: This accelerated iTBS protocol was safe. The observed significant decrease in suicide risk was unrelated to active or sham stimulation and unrelated to depression response. Further sham-controlled research in suicidal depressed patients is necessary. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01832805). PMID:27729854

  15. Action of omeprazole (a benzimidazole derivative) on secretory responses to sham feeding and pentagastrin and upon serum gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Kweicień, N; Obtułowicz, W; Kopp, B; Oleksy, J

    1984-01-01

    The effects of omeprazole, a benzimidazole derivative, have been determined on the secretory responses to modified sham feeding and pentagastrin, and upon serum gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide concentrations in duodenal ulcer patients. Intragastric administration of omeprazole in doses of 2 and 6 mumol/kg produced, respectively, about 50% and 90% reduction in acid outputs in responses to modified sham feeding and pentagastrin without affecting serum gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide response to modified sham feeding. PMID:6418621

  16. Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with and without bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Klein, D A; Schebendach, J E; Brown, A J; Smith, G P; Walsh, B T

    2009-01-01

    Although it is possible that binge eating in humans is due to increased responsiveness of orosensory excitatory controls of eating, there is no direct evidence for this because food ingested during a test meal stimulates both orosensory excitatory and postingestive inhibitory controls. To overcome this problem, we adapted the modified sham feeding technique (MSF) to measure the orosensory excitatory control of intake of a series of sweetened solutions. Previously published data showed the feasibility of a "sip-and-spit" procedure in nine healthy control women using solutions flavored with cherry Kool Aid and sweetened with sucrose (0-20%). The current study extended this technique to measure the intake of artificially sweetened solutions in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and in women with no history of eating disorders. Ten healthy women and 11 women with BN were randomly presented with cherry Kool Aid solutions sweetened with five concentrations of aspartame (0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.28%) in a closed opaque container fitted with a straw. They were instructed to sip as much as they wanted of the solution during 1-minute trials and to spit the fluid out into another opaque container. Across all subjects, presence of sweetener increased intake (p<0.001). Women with BN sipped 40.5-53.1% more of all solutions than controls (p=0.03 for total intake across all solutions). Self-report ratings of liking, wanting and sweetness of solutions did not differ between groups. These results support the feasibility of a MSF procedure using artificially sweetened solutions, and the hypothesis that the orosensory stimulation of MSF provokes larger intake in women with BN than controls.

  17. Modified sham feeding of sweet solutions in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Klein, D A; Schebendach, J E; Gershkovich, M; Smith, G P; Walsh, B T

    2010-08-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder of self-starvation characterized by decreased meal size and food intake. While it is possible that reduced food intake in AN reflects an excess of inhibitory factors, e.g., cognitive inhibition related to fear of weight gain or abnormal postingestive negative feedback, it is also possible that decreased intake reflects diminished orosensory stimulation of food intake. This has been difficult to test directly because the amount of food ingested during a test meal by patients with AN reflects an integration of orosensory excitatory, and cognitive, learned, and postingestive inhibitory controls of eating. To begin to dissociate these controls, we adapted the modified sham feeding technique (MSF) to measure the intake of a series of sweetened solutions in the absence of postingestive stimulation. Subjects with AN (n=24) and normal controls (NC, n=10) were randomly presented with cherry Kool Aid solutions sweetened with five concentrations of aspartame (0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.28%) in a closed opaque container fitted with a straw. They were instructed to sip as much as they wanted of the solution during 15 1-minute trials and to spit the fluid out into another opaque container. Subjects with AN sipped less unsweetened solution than NC (p<0.05). Because this difference appeared to account completely for the smaller intakes of sweetened solutions by AN, responsiveness of intake to sweet taste per se was not different in AN and NC. Since MSF eliminated postingestive and presumably cognitive inhibitory controls, and the orosensory response to sweet taste was not different in AN than NC, we conclude that decreased intake by AN subjects under these conditions reflects the increased inhibition characteristic of this disorder that is presumably learned, with a possible contribution of decreased potency of orosensory stimulation by the sipped solutions.

  18. A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of a Neurodynamic Technique in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bialosky, Joel E.; Bishop, Mark D.; Price, Don D.; Robinson, Michael E.; Vincent, Kevin R.; George, Steven Z.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Randomized, controlled trial. Objectives To assess the believability of a novel sham intervention for a neurodynamic technique (NDT) in participants with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Additionally, we wished to assess a potential mechanism of NDT (hypoalgesia) and to compare outcomes related to clinical pain and upper extremity disability between NDT and a sham intervention. Background Preliminary evidence suggests that NDT is effective in the treatment of CTS. A sham-controlled study is lacking from the literature and could provide insight to the efficacy of NDT, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Methods Participants with signs and symptoms consistent with CTS provided baseline measures of expectation, clinical pain intensity, upper extremity disability, and experimental pain sensitivity. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either a NDT known to anatomically stress the median nerve or a sham technique intended to minimize stress to the median nerve. Following brief exposure to the assigned technique, expectation was reassessed to observe for group-dependent changes. Participants received the assigned intervention over 3 weeks. Additionally, all participants received a prefabricated wrist splint for their involved hands, with instructions to sleep in the splint and to wear it during painful activities when awake. Following 3 weeks of the assigned intervention and splint wear, baseline measures were reassessed and participants were asked which intervention they believed they had received. Results Forty females agreed to participate. Expectations for pain relief and perceived group assignment were similar between the groups. Within-session decreases in clinical pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity were observed independent of group assignment. Reduction of temporal summation was observed only in participants receiving NDT. Significant improvements in clinical pain intensity and upper extremity

  19. Influence of electroencephalography neurofeedback training on episodic memory: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Rogel, Ainat; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Gordon, Shirley; Meiran, Nachshon; Todder, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between memory processes and oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) are well established. Neurofeedback training (NFT) may cause participants to better regulate their brain EEG oscillations. The present study is a double-blind sham-controlled design investigating the effect of NFT on memory. NFT included up-training upper alpha (UA) band, up-training sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) band and sham protocol. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups. NFT sessions (30 min each) took place twice weekly for a total of 10 sessions while memory testing took place pre- and post-training. The results indicate dissociation between SMR and UA NFT and different memory processes. While the SMR protocol resulted in improving automatic, item-specific and familiarity-based processes in memory, the UA protocol resulted in improved strategic and controlled recollection. The implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a new liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.

  1. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a newmore » liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.« less

  2. Randomized sham controlled double-blind trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for adults with severe Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Mantovani, Antonio; Motlagh, Maria; de Alvarenga, Pedro Gomes; Katsovich, Liliya; Leckman, James F.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A small proportion of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) have a lifelong course of illness that fails to respond to conventional treatments. Open label studies have suggested that low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be effective in reducing tic severity. Objective/Hypothesis To examine the efficacy of rTMS over the SMA for TS in a randomized double-blind sham-controlled trial (RCT). Methods We conducted a two-site RCT-rTMS with 20 adults with severe TS for 3 weeks. Treatment consisted of 15 sessions (1-Hz; 30 min; 1,800 pulses per day) of active or sham rTMS at 110% of the motor threshold over the SMA. A subsequent 3 week course of active rTMS treatment was offered. Results Of the 20 patients (16 males; mean age of 33.7 ± 12.2 years), 9 received active and 11 received sham rTMS. After 3 weeks, patients receiving active rTMS showed on average a 17.3% reduction in the YGTSS total tic score compared to a 13.2% reduction in those receiving sham rTMS, resulting in no statistically significant reduction in tic severity (p=0.27). An additional 3 week open label active treatment for those patients (n = 7) initially randomized to active rTMS resulted in a significant overall 29.7% reduction in tic severity compared to baseline (p=0.04). Conclusion This RCT did not demonstrate efficacy of 3-week SMA-targeted low frequency rTMS in the treatment of severe adult TS. Further studies using longer or alternative stimulation protocols are warranted. PMID:25912296

  3. Physical Meaning of Virtual Kohn-Sham Orbitals and Orbital Energies: An Ideal Basis for the Description of Molecular Excitations.

    PubMed

    van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, several benchmark studies on the performance of large sets of functionals in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of excitation energies have been performed. The tested functionals do not approximate exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies closely. We highlight the advantages of (close to) exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies for a simple description, very often as just a single orbital-to-orbital transition, of molecular excitations. Benchmark calculations are performed for the statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP) functional for the potential [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 1344; 2001, 114, 652], which approximates the true Kohn-Sham potential much better than LDA, GGA, mGGA, and hybrid potentials do. An accurate Kohn-Sham potential does not only perform satisfactorily for calculated vertical excitation energies of both valence and Rydberg transitions but also exhibits appealing properties of the KS orbitals including occupied orbital energies close to ionization energies, virtual-occupied orbital energy gaps very close to excitation energies, realistic shapes of virtual orbitals, leading to straightforward interpretation of most excitations as single orbital transitions. We stress that such advantages are completely lost in time-dependent Hartree-Fock and partly in hybrid approaches. Many excitations and excitation energies calculated with local density, generalized gradient, and hybrid functionals are spurious. There is, with an accurate KS, or even the LDA or GGA potentials, nothing problematic about the "band gap" in molecules: the HOMO-LUMO gap is close to the first excitation energy (the optical gap).

  4. High frequency chest wall oscillation for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is used for airway mucus clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of HFCWO early in the treatment of adults hospitalized for acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Randomized, multi-center, double-masked phase II clinical trial of active or sham treatment initiated within 24 hours of hospital admission for acute asthma or COPD at four academic medical centers. Patients received active or sham treatment for 15 minutes three times a day for four treatments. Medical management was standardized across groups. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to therapy after four treatments (minutes used/60 minutes prescribed) and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included change in Borg dyspnea score (≥ 1 unit indicates a clinically significant change), spontaneously expectorated sputum volume, and forced expired volume in 1 second. Results Fifty-two participants were randomized to active (n = 25) or sham (n = 27) treatment. Patient adherence was similarly high in both groups (91% vs. 93%; p = 0.70). Patient satisfaction was also similarly high in both groups. After four treatments, a higher proportion of patients in the active treatment group had a clinically significant improvement in dyspnea (70.8% vs. 42.3%, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions HFCWO is well tolerated in adults hospitalized for acute asthma or COPD and significantly improves dyspnea. The high levels of patient satisfaction in both treatment groups justify the need for sham controls when evaluating the use of HFCWO on patient-reported outcomes. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the role of HFCWO in improving in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00181285 PMID:21906390

  5. Auricular Acupressure for Managing Postoperative Pain and Knee Motion in Patients with Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Sham Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling-hua; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Ho, Shungtai; Tsay, Shiow-luan; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a day for 3 days. A visual analog scale (VAS) and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain intensity. Pain medication consumption was recorded, and the knee motion was measured using a goniometer. Results. The patients experienced a moderately severe level of pain postoperatively (VAS 58.66 ± 20.35) while being on the routine PCA. No differences were found in pain scores between the groups at all points. However, analgesic drug usage in the acupressure group patients was significantly lower than in the sham control group (P < 0.05), controlling for BMI, age, and pain score. On the 3rd day after surgery, the passive knee motion in the acupressure group patients was significantly better than in the sham control group patients (P < 0.05), controlling for BMI. Conclusion. The application of auricular acupressure at specific therapeutic points significantly reduces the opioid analgesia requirement and improves the knee motion in patients with TKR. PMID:22844334

  6. Inhibitory theta burst stimulation of affected hemisphere in chronic stroke: a proof of principle, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John C; Talelli, Penelope; Capone, Fioravante; Ranieri, Federico; Wallace, Amanda C; Musumeci, Gabriella; Dileone, Michele

    2013-10-11

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is presently being tested as a potential therapeutic intervention for stroke rehabilitation. Following a model of competitive interactions between the hemispheres, these interventions aim to increase the plasticity of stroke hemisphere by applying either excitatory protocols to the damaged hemisphere or inhibitory protocols to the non-stroke hemisphere. Here we test the safety and feasibility of using an inhibitory protocol on the stroke hemisphere to improve the response to conventional therapy via a homeostatic increase in learning capacity. Twelve chronic stroke patients received TBS to stroke hemisphere (6 patients inhibitory TBS and 6 sham TBS) followed by physical therapy daily for 10 working days. Patients and therapists were blinded to the type of TBS. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Pegboard Test (NHPT) and Jebsen-Taylor Test (JTT) were the primary outcome measures, grip and pinch-grip dynamometry were the secondary outcome measures. All patients improved ARAT and JTT scores for up to 3 months post-treatment. ARAT scores improved significantly in both real and sham groups, but only patients receiving real TBS significantly improved on the JTT: 3 months post-treatment mean execution time was reduced compared to baseline by 141 s for real group and by 65s for the sham group. This small exploratory study suggests that ipsilesional inhibitory TBS is safe and that it has the potential to be used in a larger trial to enhance the gain from a late rehabilitation program in chronic stroke patients. PMID:23978513

  7. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p < 0.05). Mindfulness meditation reduced pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p < 0.001) ratings more than placebo analgesia. Mindfulness meditation also reduced pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple

  8. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Central) along with a hand search of selected bibliographies were searched from inception up to April 2012. Two reviewers independently selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated manipulative therapy compared to sham manipulative therapy in adults, assessed risk of bias and extracted data concerning participants, intervention, kind of sham, outcome measures, duration of follow-up, profession, data on efficacy and adverse events. Pooled (standardized) mean differences or risk differences were calculated were possible using a random effects model. The primary outcomes were pain, disability, and perceived recovery. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results In total 965 references were screened for eligibility and 19 RCTs (n = 1080) met the selection criteria. Eight studies were considered of low risk of bias. There is moderate level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD] - 0.68, 95% confidence interval (-1.06 to -0.31). There is low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief (SMD - 0.37, -0.69 to -0.04) at short- term follow-up. In patients with musculoskeletal disorders, we found moderate level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.73, -1.21 to -0.25) immediate after treatment and low level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.52, -0.87 to -0.17) at short term

  9. The role of oxbow lakes in the off-channel storage of bed material along the Ain River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieras, Pauline Lola; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, T. C.; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie

    2013-04-01

    Incidents of chute cutoff redistribute floodplain sediment into rivers, causing downstream bar growth while simultaneously creating accommodation space for the storage of sediment within the floodplain in the form of oxbow lakes. Oxbows may be able to sequester enough sediment to balance the amount produced by chute incision, but the long-term consequences of chute cutoff on reach-scale sediment budgets have so far remained unclear. This has been due to a relative paucity of field observations that quantify the exchange of coarse sediment between the channel and floodplain. Here, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to document the sediment budget of a reach of the Ain River, France, that has experienced three recent incidents of chute cutoff. Monitoring of the river prior to chute incision allowed us to precisely quantify the rates of bed-material transfer over a thirteen-year period using a combination of bathymetric surveys, LiDAR data, and aerial photographs. The abandoned channels under study sequestered between 17 and 40% of the sediment introduced to the channel, with most of the rest of the sediment being stored within the river itself. Aggradation of the abandoned channels was not evenly distributed, instead occurring by the growth of point bars and thus implying that the abandoned channel planform may be an important control on aggradation rates. Our results make clear that although oxbows may provide a significant sink for bed material, the amount of sediment sequestered within them cannot compensate for the loading caused by chute incision.

  10. Sequential extraction of Cs and Sr from Ain Oussera soils around Es-Salam research reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Abdelkader; Ararem, Abderrahmane; Imessaoudene, Djillali; Yabrir, Benalia

    2015-10-01

    Four types of undisturbed soil in Ain Oussera region around the Es-Salam reactor facility, located in the south of Algiers, Algeria, at about 200km, were artificially contaminated for one year with stable CsCl and SrCl2 in order to simulate an accidental release of these elements. This study was performed using sequential extraction procedure based on Shultz method and containing six fractions. The selectivity of the extraction protocol was confirmed by analyzing some elements (Ca, C, Fe, Mn, Si and Al) designed as indicators of the targeted phases. The obtained results showed an acceptable reproducibility, in view of the coefficients of variation that were in most cases less than 15%. The results revealed a clear proportional correlation between the extracted Cs and Sr in fractions for each soil and some of soils physicochemical properties. Organic matter appears to play an important role in the soil retention, particularly for Cs where the extracted percentage exceeds to 30% in whole soils. In contrast, strontium expresses a remarkable affinity for the fraction bound to carbonates. The obtained data also indicate that the availability of Cs in the four soils is less important compared to Sr availability. This is illustrated by the higher value of extracted Sr in the easily extractible phase, including the water-soluble and the exchangeable fraction. PMID:26456618

  11. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  12. Haemophilia A and cardiovascular morbidity in a female SHAM syndrome carrier due to skewed X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Janczar, Szymon; Kosinska, Joanna; Ploski, Rafal; Pastorczak, Agata; Wegner, Olga; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Paige, Adam J W; Borowiec, Maciej; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a severe haemophilia A and moyamoya (SHAM) syndrome caused by Xq28 deletions encompassing F8 and the BRCC3 familial moyamoya gene. The phenotype includes haemophilia A, moyamoya angiopathy, dysmorphia and hypertension. The genetic analysis of the family of our SHAM patient demonstrated carrier state in proband's mother and sister. The patient's mother is apparently well, whereas his currently 18-years-old sister presents with mild haemophilia A, coarctation of the aorta, hypertension, and ventricular arrhythmia. We performed X chromosome inactivation assay based on HpaII methylation analysis of a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) in the X linked AR (androgen receptor) gene and used quantitative real-time RT PCR to measure the expression of genes from the deleted region in proband's family members. We found an extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation pattern in the female members of the family leading to preferential inactivation of the X chromosome without Xq28 deletion in patient's sister. We demonstrated differential expression of the genes from the deleted region in four members of the family, that tightly correlates with the clinical features. In conclusion, we show that the haematologic and cardiovascular morbidity and the discrepancy between patient's sister and mother despite the same genetic lesion are due to skewed X chromosome inactivation leading to clinically relevant differential expression of SHAM syndrome genes. This report highlights the role for BRCC3 in cardiovascular physiology and disease, and demonstrates that in some complex hereditary syndromes full diagnostics may require the examination of both genetic and epigenetic events. PMID:26691666

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cosmo, Camila; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; de Araújo, Arão Nogueira; do Rosário, Raphael Silva; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Montoya, Pedro; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé

    2015-01-01

    Background Current standardized treatments for cognitive impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain limited and their efficacy restricted. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for enhancing cognitive performance in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the effects of tDCS in reducing cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not yet been investigated. Methods A parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of tDCS on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with ADHD. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group and performed a go/no-go task before and after a single session of either anodal stimulation (1 mA) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation. Results A nonparametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test revealed no significant differences between the two groups of individuals with ADHD (tDCS vs. sham) in regard to behavioral performance in the go/no go tasks. Furthermore, the effect sizes of group differences after treatment for the primary outcome measures—correct responses, impulsivity and omission errors—were small. No adverse events resulting from stimulation were reported. Conclusion According to these findings, there is no evidence in support of the use of anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an approach for improving inhibitory control in ADHD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to assess the cognitive effects of tDCS in individuals with ADHD. Further research is needed to assess the clinical efficacy of tDCS in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512 PMID:26267861

  14. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Supplementary Motor Area in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment: a Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Rachid, Fady; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; BenAdhira, Rene; Bouaziz, Noomane; Popa, Traian; Wassouf, Issa; Saba, Ghassen; Januel, Dominique; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been explored in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, but with negative or conflicting results. This randomized double-blind study was designed to assess the efficacy of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the presupplementary area. Methods: Forty medication-resistant patients were assigned to 4 weeks of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the presupplementary area with the help of a neuronavigation system. Results: According to the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, the baseline-week 4 evolution showed no significant differences between groups. Responder rates at week 4 were not different between groups (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 10.5% vs sham 20%; P=.63). Conclusion: Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the presupplementary area seems ineffective for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, at least in severe and drug-refractory cases such as those included in this study. Further research is required to determine profiles of responder patients and appropriate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters for obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:27207923

  15. Electronic structures in coupled two quantum dots by 3D-mesh Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuse, T.; Hama, T.; Kaihatsu, H.; Toyoda, N.; Takizawa, T.

    To study the electronic structures of quantum dots in the framework of self-interaction-free including three dimensional effects, we adopt the theory of nonlocal effective potential introduced by Kohn and Sham [#!ks65!#]. For utilizing the advantageous point of the real space (3D) mesh method to solve the original nonlinear and nonlocal Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham (HFKS)-equation, we introduce a linearization of the equation in the local form by introducing the local Coulomb potentials which depend on explicitly the two single particle states. In practice, for solving the local form HFKS-equation, we use the Car-Parrinello-like relaxation method and the Coulomb potentials are obtained by solving the Poisson equation under proper boundary conditions. Firstly the observed energy gap between triplet- and singlet-states of N = 4 in DBS [#!tarucha96!#] is discussed to reproduce the addition energies and chemical potentials depending the magnetic field. Next the coupling between two-quantum dots in TBS [#!aht97!#] is studied by adding the square barrier between two dots. The spin-degeneracy [#!aht97!#] measured in gate-voltage depending on magnetic field is well reproduced in the limit of small mismatch. Finally, the electronic states in the ring structure are calculated and discussed how the ring size and magnetic field affect to the structures.

  16. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Rider, P; DeVita, P

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30 Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50 Hz depressed the H-reflex ∼45%. These depressions diminished across the five inter-bout rest intervals. The depression converted to 27% and 7% facilitation over the 15-min long recovery period following real WBV at 30 and 50 Hz, respectively. The depression, measured during the inter-bout rest, correlated r = 0.48 (P = 0.007) with the subsequent facilitation, measured during the follow-up. The depression produced by sham vs real WBV was significant but less (23%), recovered faster, and the facilitation was absent in the 15-min long follow-up period. WBV produced time-varying depression followed by facilitation of the H-reflex at rest. A lack of change in volitional wave suggests that WBV did not affect the efferent neural drive. PMID:24646403

  17. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  18. Kohn–Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron–photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn–Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron–photon Kohn–Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light–matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  19. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qi-ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-song; Wu, Wen-tao; Ye, Mao-lin; Ma, Jiang-tao; Xu, Bang-bang; Zhang, Yin-gang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD −0.61, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, −0.77, −1.05 to −0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137

  20. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    PubMed

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  1. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Ilyas S.; Aleem, Idris; Evaniew, Nathan; Busse, Jason W.; Yaszemski, Michael; Agarwal, Arnav; Einhorn, Thomas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = −7.7 mm; 95% CI −13.92 to −1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = −0.88; 95% CI −6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials. PMID:27539550

  2. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Ilyas S; Aleem, Idris; Evaniew, Nathan; Busse, Jason W; Yaszemski, Michael; Agarwal, Arnav; Einhorn, Thomas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = -7.7 mm; 95% CI -13.92 to -1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = -0.88; 95% CI -6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials. PMID:27539550

  3. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    PubMed

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.

  4. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi-Ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-Song; Wu, Wen-Tao; Ye, Mao-Lin; Ma, Jiang-Tao; Xu, Bang-Bang; Zhang, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD -0.61, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, -0.77, -1.05 to -0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137

  5. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0-100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  6. A single gene, AIN, in Medicago truncatula mediates a hypersensitive response to both bluegreen aphid and pea aphid, but confers resistance only to bluegreen aphid.

    PubMed

    Klingler, John P; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Edwards, Owain R; Singh, Karam B

    2009-01-01

    Biotic stress in plants frequently induces a hypersensitive response (HR). This distinctive reaction has been studied intensively in several pathosystems and has shed light on the biology of defence signalling. Compared with microbial pathogens, relatively little is known about the role of the HR in defence against insects. Reference genotype A17 of Medicago truncatula Gaertn., a model legume, responds to aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon with necrotic lesions resembling a HR. In this study, the biochemical nature of this response, its mode of inheritance, and its relationship with defence against aphids were investigated. The necrotic lesion phenotype and resistance to the bluegreen aphid (BGA, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji) and the pea aphid (PA, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) were analysed using reference genotypes A17 and A20, their F(2) progeny and recombinant inbred lines. BGA-induced necrotic lesions co-localized with the production of H(2)O(2), consistent with an oxidative burst widely associated with hypersensitivity. This HR correlated with stronger resistance to BGA in A17 than in A20; these phenotypes cosegregated as a semi-dominant gene, AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis). In contrast to BGA, stronger resistance to PA in A17, compared with A20, did not cosegregate with a PA-induced HR. The AIN locus resides in a cluster of sequences predicted to encode the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance proteins. AIN-mediated resistance presents a novel opportunity to use a model plant and model aphid to study the role of the HR in defence responses to phloem-feeding insects. PMID:19690018

  7. Packaging Comprehension Materials: Towards Effective Language Instruction in Difficult Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Norman; Gary, Judith O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research findings from a three-year curriculum research and development project involving developing English language materials for science education students at Ains Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Materials concentrate on comprehension skills of listening and reading and are taught by a cassette tape player in conjunction with…

  8. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  9. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change −5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response—as measured by THI—with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  10. MN15-L and MN-15: New Kohn-Sham Density Functionals with Board Accuracy for Main-Group and Transition Metal Chemistry and Noncovalent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoyu; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G.; Donald G. Truhlar Team

    The accuracy of Kohn-Sham density functional theory depends on the exchange-correlation functional. Local functionals depending on only the density (ρ) , density gradient (grad), and possibly kinetic energy density (τ) have been popular because of their low cost and simplicity, but the most successful functionals for chemistry have involved nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (hybrid functionals). We have designed a new meta gradient approximation called MN15-L and a new hybrid meta gradient approximation called MN15 and tested them systematically for 17 absolute atomic energies, 51 noncovalent interaction energies, 56 data on transition metal atoms and molecules, and for 298 other atomic and molecular energetic data, including main-group and transition metal bond energies, ionization potentials, proton affinities, reaction barrier heights, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, excitation energies, and isomerization energies. When compared with 84 previous density MN15 and MN15-L give respectively the smallest and second smallest mean unsigned errors (MUEs, in kcal/mol) on all 422 data with errors for the 4 subsets above being: MN15: 6, 0.26, 4.4, 1.6; MN15-L: 7, 0.45, 4.3, 2.0. Third best: M06: 4, 0.35, 7.7, 2.2. Best previous local functional: M06-L: 7, 0.42, 6.0, 3.5. Other popular functionals: B3LYP: 18, 0.82, 8.2, 4.3; HSE06: 33, 0.58, 8.8, 3.6; TPSS: 18, 0.89, 7.25, 5.0; PBE, 47, 0.88, 9.1, 6.0. MN15-L also performs well for solid-state cohesive energies. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and inorganic catalyst design center from university of Minnesota.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback training increases specific motor imagery related cortical activation compared to sham feedback.

    PubMed

    Kober, S E; Wood, G; Kurzmann, J; Friedrich, E V C; Stangl, M; Wippel, T; Väljamäe, A; Neuper, C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we implemented a real-time feedback system based on multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Prior studies indicated that NIRS-based neurofeedback can enhance motor imagery related cortical activation. To specify these prior results and to confirm the efficacy of NIRS-based neurofeedback, we examined changes in blood oxygenation level collected in eight training sessions. One group got real feedback about their own brain activity (N=9) and one group saw a playback of another person's feedback recording (N=8). All participants performed motor imagery of a right hand movement. Real neurofeedback induced specific and focused brain activation over left motor areas. This focal brain activation became even more specific over the eight training sessions. In contrast, sham feedback led to diffuse brain activation patterns over the whole cortex. These findings can be useful when training patients with focal brain lesions to increase activity of specific brain areas for rehabilitation purpose.

  12. Accurate Kohn-Sham ionization potentials from scaled-opposite-spin second-order optimized effective potential methods.

    PubMed

    Śmiga, Szymon; Della Sala, Fabio; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Fabiano, Eduardo

    2016-08-15

    One important property of Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exact equality of the energy of the highest occupied KS orbital (HOMO) with the negative ionization potential of the system. This exact feature is out of reach for standard density-dependent semilocal functionals. Conversely, accurate results can be obtained using orbital-dependent functionals in the optimized effective potential (OEP) approach. In this article, we investigate the performance, in this context, of some advanced OEP methods, with special emphasis on the recently proposed scaled-opposite-spin OEP functional. Moreover, we analyze the impact of the so-called HOMO condition on the final quality of the HOMO energy. Results are compared to reference data obtained at the CCSD(T) level of theory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A stepwise atomic, valence-molecular, and full-molecular optimisation of the Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham energy.

    PubMed

    Jansík, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Johansson, Mikael P; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Helgaker, Trygve

    2009-07-21

    A hierarchical optimisation strategy has been introduced for minimising the Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham energy, consisting of three levels (3L): an atom-in-a-molecule optimisation, a valence-basis molecular optimisation, and a full-basis molecular optimisation. The density matrix formed at one level is used as a starting density matrix at the next level with no loss of information. To ensure a fast and reliable convergence to a minimum, the augmented Roothaan-Hall (ARH) algorithm is used in both the valence-basis and full-basis molecular optimisations. The performance of the ARH-3L method is compared with standard optimisation algorithms. Both for efficiency and reliability, we recommend to use the ARH-3L algorithm.

  14. A perturbation-method-based post-processing for the planewave discretization of Kohn-Sham models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancès, Eric; Dusson, Geneviève; Maday, Yvon; Stamm, Benjamin; Vohralík, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we propose a post-processing of the planewave solution of the Kohn-Sham LDA model with pseudopotentials. This post-processing is based upon the fact that the exact solution can be interpreted as a perturbation of the approximate solution, allowing us to compute corrections for both the eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues of the problem in order to increase the accuracy. Indeed, this post-processing only requires the computation of the residual of the solution on a finer grid so that the additional computational cost is negligible compared to the initial cost of the planewave-based method needed to compute the approximate solution. Theoretical estimates certify an increased convergence rate in the asymptotic convergence range. Numerical results confirm the low computational cost of the post-processing and show that this procedure improves the energy accuracy of the solution even in the pre-asymptotic regime which comprises the target accuracy of practitioners.

  15. Elliptic Preconditioner for Accelerating the Self-Consistent Field Iteration in Kohn--Sham Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2013-10-28

    We discuss techniques for accelerating the self consistent field (SCF) iteration for solving the Kohn-Sham equations. These techniques are all based on constructing approximations to the inverse of the Jacobian associated with a fixed point map satisfied by the total potential. They can be viewed as preconditioners for a fixed point iteration. We point out different requirements for constructing preconditioners for insulating and metallic systems respectively, and discuss how to construct preconditioners to keep the convergence rate of the fixed point iteration independent of the size of the atomistic system. We propose a new preconditioner that can treat insulating and metallic system in a unified way. The new preconditioner, which we call an elliptic preconditioner, is constructed by solving an elliptic partial differential equation. The elliptic preconditioner is shown to be more effective in accelerating the convergence of a fixed point iteration than the existing approaches for large inhomogeneous systems at low temperature.

  16. Power Series Approximation for the Correlation Kernel Leading to Kohn-Sham Methods Combining Accuracy, Computational Efficiency, and General Applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Jannis; Bleiziffer, Patrick; Görling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    A power series approximation for the correlation kernel of time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. Using this approximation in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem leads to a new family of Kohn-Sham methods. The new methods yield reaction energies and barriers of unprecedented accuracy and enable a treatment of static (strong) correlation with an accuracy of high-level multireference configuration interaction methods but are single-reference methods allowing for a black-box-like handling of static correlation. The new methods exhibit a better scaling of the computational effort with the system size than rivaling wave-function-based electronic structure methods. Moreover, the new methods do not suffer from the problem of singularities in response functions plaguing previous ACFD methods and therefore are applicable to any type of electronic system.

  17. Expectancy, self-efficacy, and placebo effect of a sham supplement for weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to one of three conditions: 1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement; 2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo; or 3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the three groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

  18. A Novel Magnetic Stimulator Increases Experimental Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers - A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; van Wijhe, Marten; Aleman, André; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘complex neural pulse’TM (CNP) is a neuromodulation protocol employing weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). A pioneering paper reported an analgesic effect in healthy humans after 30 minutes of CNP-stimulation using three nested whole head coils. We aimed to devise and validate a stimulator with a novel design entailing a multitude of small coils at known anatomical positions on a head cap, to improve applicability. The main hypothesis was that CNP delivery with this novel device would also increase heat pain thresholds. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study. Thirty minutes of PEMF (CNP) or sham was applied to the head. After one week the other treatment was given. Before and after each treatment, primary and secondary outcomes were measured. Primary outcome was heat pain threshold (HPT) measured with thermal quantitative sensory testing. Other outcomes were warmth detection threshold, and aspects of cognition, emotion and motor performance. As hypothesized heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the PEMF stimulation. All other outcomes were unaltered by the PEMF but there was a trend level reduction of cognitive performance after PEMF stimulation as measured by the digit-symbol substitution task. Results from this pilot study suggest that our device is able to stimulate the brain and to modulate its function. This is in agreement with previous studies that used similar magnetic field strengths to stimulate the brain. Specifically, pain control may be achieved with PEMF and for this analgesic effect, coil design does not appear to play a dominant role. In addition, the flexible configuration with small coils on a head cap improves clinical applicability. Trial Registration Dutch Cochrane Centre NTR1093 PMID:23620795

  19. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Jan; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; Oostendorp, Rob A; Crul, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal research TENS has been found to decrease hyperalgesia, which contradicts this assumption. The aim of this study is to use quantitative sensory testing to explore changes in pain processing during sham versus real TENS in patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain (N = 20) were randomly allocated to real TENS or sham TENS application. Electrical pain thresholds (EPTs) were determined inside and outside the segment stimulated, before and after the first 20 minutes of the intervention, and after a period of 10 days of daily real/sham TENS application. Pain relief did not differ significantly for real versus sham TENS. However, by comparing time courses of EPTs, it was found that EPT values outside the segment of stimulation increased for sham TENS, whereas for real TENS these values decreased. There were, however, no differences for EPT measurements inside the segment stimulated. These results illustrate the importance of including mechanism-reflecting parameters in addition to symptoms when conducting pain research.

  20. Ain't Misbehavin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining order in the classroom is a concern that ranks near the top of "every" teacher's list, no matter the subject taught. Successful classroom management will not only make the teaching--and learning--process easier, but it also will benefit the teacher's energy level and sanity. Recent studies suggest that controlling students' behavior…

  1. Variation-perturbation theory within a time-dependent Kohn-Sham formalism: An application to the determination of multipole polarizabilities, spectral sums, and dispersion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolotti, Libero J.

    1984-06-01

    The variation-perturbation method within time-dependent Kohn-Sham theory is used to calculate atomic multipole polarizabilities, spectra sums, and multipole-multipole two-body dispersion coefficients. The first-order corrections to Kohn-Sham amplitudes and phases were obtained from a direct variational approach and from the method of Cauchy moments. The multipole Cauchy moments were used to construct Padé approximants, which gave us upper and lower bounds to the two-body dispersion coefficients. Four approximations to the exchange-correlation energy were investigated in the present work and the gradient expansion for atoms proved to be most satisfactory.

  2. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  3. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  4. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  5. Effects of oral fat perception by modified sham feeding on energy expenditure, hormones and appetite profile in the postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Astrid J; Lejeune, Manuela P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we have shown that satiety and metabolites increased after high-fat modified sham feeding (MSF). We assessed possible metabolic effects due to oral stimulation with a high-fat sham-fed 'meal', in comparison with a high-fat fed meal and with water, in the postprandial state. Fourteen healthy women (aged 18-40 years; BMI 22.5 (SD 3) kg/m2) were fed in energy balance during 4 d with a 50 % energy as carbohydrate, 15 % energy as protein and 35 % energy as fat menu. On day 4, subjects were given one out of three test lunches, 5 h after a high-fat breakfast, in random order: a high-fat MSF lunch, water (W) or the same lunch to be eaten (E), during their 36 h stay in the respiration chamber, where substrate oxidation, 24 h energy expenditure (EE) and appetite profile were measured. Oral fat stimulation by MSF increased EE (W 6.3 (SD 0.8) v. MSF 6.9 (SD 1.0) kJ/min and E 6.8 (SD 0.7) kJ/min; P < 0.04) for 1 h, increased plasma insulin concentrations (t = 15; W 10.0 (SD 3.4) v. MSF 13.2 (SD 4.0) v. E 22.3 (SD 3.3) units/l; P < 0.0001), attenuated changes in plasma NEFA concentrations (t = 15, W 432 (SD 108) v. MSF 418 (SD 146) v. E 282 (SD 72) micromol/l; P < 0.0001), plasma TAG concentrations (t = 60; W 1092 (SD 548) v. MSF 1116 (SD 493) micromol/l and E 1350 (SD 352) micromol/l; P < 0.02) and plasma glycerol concentrations (t = 15, W 87 (SD 29) v. MSF 74 (SD 34) micromol/l and E 67 (SD 18) micromol/l; P < 0.03). Over a longer period of time, MSF had no effects on substrate oxidation, diet-induced thermogenesis or total EE. In addition to the previously observed metabolic effects of oral stimulation with fat, EE is stimulated up to 1 h after the MSF meal.

  6. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term

  7. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  8. Stimulating somatosensory psychophysics: a double-blind, sham-controlled study of the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Claire J.; Tommerdahl, Mark; McGonigle, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to produce its effects on behavior by altering cortical excitability. Although the mechanisms underlying the observed effects are thought to rely on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, the physiological principles of the technique are not completely understood. In this study, we examine the influence of tDCS on vibrotactile adaptation, using a simple amplitude discrimination paradigm that has been shown to exhibit modifications in performance due to changes in inhibitory neurotransmission. Double-blind tDCS (Anodal/Sham) of 1 mA was delivered for 600 s to electrodes positioned in a somatosensory/contralateral orbit montage. Stimulation was applied as part of a pre/post design, between blocks of the behavioral tasks. In accordance with previous work, results obtained before the application of tDCS indicated that amplitude discrimination thresholds were significantly worsened during adaptation trials, compared to those achieved at baseline. However, tDCS failed to modify amplitude discrimination performance. Using a Bayesian approach, this finding was revealed to constitute substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. The failure of DC stimulation to alter vibrotactile adaptation thresholds is discussed in the context of several factors that may have confounded the induction of changes in cortical plasticity. PMID:26500499

  9. Impact of the Kohn-Sham Delocalization Error on the 4f Shell Localization and Population in Lanthanide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Thomas J; Autschbach, Jochen

    2016-07-12

    The extent of ligand to metal donation bonding and mixing of 4f (and 5d) orbitals with ligand orbitals is studied by Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations for LaX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), GdX3, and LuX3 model complexes, CeCl6(2-), YbCp3, and selected lanthanide complexes with larger ligands. The KS delocalization error (DE) is quantified via the curvature of the energy for noninteger electron numbers. The extent of donation bonding and 4f-ligand mixing correlates well with the DE. For Lu complexes, the DE also correlates with the extent of mixing of ligand and 4f orbitals in the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). However, the localized set of MOs and population analyses indicate that the closed 4f shell is localized. Attempts to create situations where mixing of 4f and ligand orbitals occurs due to a degeneracy of fragment orbitals were unsuccessful. For La(III) and, in particular, for Ce(IV), Hartree-Fock, KS, and coupled cluster singles and doubles calculations are in agreement in that excess 4f populations arise from ligand donation, along with donation into the 5d shell. Likewise, KS calculations for all systems with incompletely filled 4f shells, even those with "optimally tuned" functionals affording a small DE, produce varying degrees of excess 4f populations which may be only partially attributed to 5d polarization.

  10. Chebyshev-filtered subspace iteration method free of sparse diagonalization for solving the Kohn–Sham equation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yunkai; Chelikowsky, James R.; Saad, Yousef

    2014-10-01

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the electronic structure problem require a solution of the Kohn–Sham equation, which requires one to solve a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. Solving the eigenvalue problem is usually the most expensive part in DFT calculations. Sparse iterative diagonalization methods that compute explicit eigenvectors can quickly become prohibitive for large scale problems. The Chebyshev-filtered subspace iteration (CheFSI) method avoids most of the explicit computation of eigenvectors and results in a significant speedup over iterative diagonalization methods for the DFT self-consistent field (SCF) calculations. However, the original formulation of the CheFSI method utilizes a sparse iterative diagonalization at the first SCF step to provide initial vectors for subspace filtering at latter SCF steps. This diagonalization is expensive for large scale problems. We develop a new initial filtering step to avoid completely this diagonalization, thus making the CheFSI method free of sparse iterative diagonalizations at all SCF steps. Our new approach saves memory usage and can be two to three times faster than the original CheFSI method.

  11. Efficient Parallel All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program Using a Distributed Matrix Approach II.

    PubMed

    Storchi, Loriano; Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Quiney, Harry M

    2013-12-10

    We propose a new complete memory-distributed algorithm, which significantly improves the parallel implementation of the all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of BERTHA (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 384). We devised an original procedure for mapping the DKS matrix between an efficient integral-driven distribution, guided by the structure of specific G-spinor basis sets and by density fitting algorithms, and the two-dimensional block-cyclic distribution scheme required by the ScaLAPACK library employed for the linear algebra operations. This implementation, because of the efficiency in the memory distribution, represents a leap forward in the applicability of the DKS procedure to arbitrarily large molecular systems and its porting on last-generation massively parallel systems. The performance of the code is illustrated by some test calculations on several gold clusters of increasing size. The DKS self-consistent procedure has been explicitly converged for two representative clusters, namely Au20 and Au34, for which the density of electronic states is reported and discussed. The largest gold cluster uses more than 39k basis functions and DKS matrices of the order of 23 GB. PMID:26592273

  12. Combining Kohn-Sham and orbital-free density-functional theory for Hugoniot calculations to extreme pressures.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Daniel; Kress, Joel D; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A; Desjarlais, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    The shock Hugoniot for lithium 6 deuteride ((6)LiD) was calculated via first principles using Kohn-Sham density-functional theory molecular dynamics (KSMD) for temperatures of 0.5-25 eV. The upper limit of 25 eV represents a practical limit where KSMD is no longer computationally feasible due to the number of electronic bands which are required to be populated. To push the Hugoniot calculations to higher temperatures we make use of orbital-free density-functional theory molecular dynamics (OFMD). Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-based OFMD gives a poor description of the electronic structure at low temperatures so the initial state is not well defined. We propose a method of bootstrapping the Hugoniot from OFMD to the Hugoniot from KSMD between 10 and 20 eV, where the two methods are in agreement. The combination of KSMD and OFMD allows construction of a first-principles Hugoniot from the initial state to 1000 eV. Theoretical shock-compression results are in good agreement with available experimental data and exhibit the appropriate high-temperature limits. We show that a unified KSMD-OFMD Hugoniot can be used to assess the quality of the existing equation-of-state (EOS) models and inform better EOS models based on justifiable physics.

  13. Dissociation of diatomic molecules and the exact-exchange Kohn-Sham potential: The case of LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Makmal, Adi; Kronik, Leeor; Kuemmel, Stephan

    2011-06-15

    We examine the role of the exact-exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham potential in curing the problem of fractional molecular dissociation. This is achieved by performing EXX calculations for the illustrative case of the LiF molecule. We show that by choosing the lowest-energy electronic configuration for each interatomic distance, a qualitatively correct binding energy curve, reflecting integer dissociation, is obtained. Surprisingly, for LiF this comes at the cost of violating the Aufbau principle, a phenomenon we discuss at length. Furthermore, we numerically confirm that in the EXX potential of the diatomic molecule, one of the atomic potentials is shifted by a constant while the other one is not, depending on where the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized. This changes the relative positions of the energies of each atom and enforces the integer configuration by preventing spurious charge transfer. The size of the constant shift becomes increasingly unstable numerically the larger the interatomic separation is, reflecting the increasing absence of coupling between the atoms.

  14. Visualization and analysis of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density and its orbital-free description in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Antonio C.; Stewart, Dane; Kuna, Aeryk

    2016-02-01

    We visualize the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density (KED) and the ingredients — the electron density, its gradient, and Laplacian — used to construct orbital-free models of it, for the AE6 test set of molecules. These are compared to related quantities used in metaGGA's, to characterize two important limits — the gradient expansion and the localized-electron limit typified by the covalent bond. We find the second-order gradient expansion of the KED to be a surprisingly successful predictor of the exact KED, particularly at low densities where this approximation fails for exchange. This contradicts the conjointness conjecture that the optimal enhancement factors for orbital-free kinetic and exchange energy functionals are closely similar in form. In addition we find significant problems with a recent metaGGA-level orbital-free KED, especially for regions of strong electron localization. We define an orbital-free description of electron localization and a revised metaGGA that improves upon atomization energies significantly.

  15. More realistic band gaps from meta-generalized gradient approximations: Only in a generalized Kohn-Sham scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zeng-hui; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Unlike the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), calculations with meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGA) are usually done according to the generalized Kohn-Sham (gKS) formalism. The exchange-correlation potential of the gKS equation is nonmultiplicative, which prevents systematic comparison of meta-GGA band structures to those of the LDA and the GGA. We implement the optimized effective potential (OEP) of the meta-GGA for periodic systems, which allows us to carry out meta-GGA calculations in the same KS manner as for the LDA and the GGA. We apply the OEP to several meta-GGAs, including the new SCAN functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.036402]. We find that the KS gaps and KS band structures of meta-GGAs are close to those of GGAs. They are smaller than the more realistic gKS gaps of meta-GGAs, but probably close to the less-realistic gaps in the band structure of the exact KS potential, as can be seen by comparing with the gaps of the EXX+RPA OEP potential. The well-known grid sensitivity of meta-GGAs is much more severe in OEP calculations.

  16. Is Skin-Touch Sham Needle Not Placebo? A Double-Blind Crossover Study on Pain Alleviation

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Ikuo; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    It remains an open question whether placebo/sham acupuncture, in which the needle tip presses the skin, can be used as a placebo device for research on pain. We compare the analgesic effect of the skin-touch placebo needle with that of the no-touch placebo needle, in which the needle tip does not touch the skin, in a double-blind crossover manner including no-treatment control in 23 healthy volunteers. The subjects received painful electrical stimulation in the forearm before and during needle retention to the LI 4 acupoint and after the removal of the needle and rated pain intensity using a visual analogue scale. We found no significant difference in analgesic effects among the skin-touch placebo needle, no-touch placebo needle, and no-treatment control at every point before, during, and after the treatments (p > 0.05). The results indicate that the skin-touch placebo needle can be used as a placebo device in clinical studies on pain. PMID:26064153

  17. Kohn-Sham Band Structure Benchmark Including Spin-Orbit Coupling for 2D and 3D Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Blum, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Accurate electronic band structures serve as a primary indicator of the suitability of a material for a given application, e.g., as electronic or catalytic materials. Computed band structures, however, are subject to a host of approximations, some of which are more obvious (e.g., the treatment of the exchange-correlation of self-energy) and others less obvious (e.g., the treatment of core, semicore, or valence electrons, handling of relativistic effects, or the accuracy of the underlying basis set used). We here provide a set of accurate Kohn-Sham band structure benchmarks, using the numeric atom-centered all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims combined with the ``traditional'' PBE functional and the hybrid HSE functional, to calculate core, valence, and low-lying conduction bands of a set of 2D and 3D materials. Benchmarks are provided with and without effects of spin-orbit coupling, using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory to predict spin-orbit splittings. This work is funded by Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  18. The effects of a single session of upper alpha neurofeedback for cognitive enhancement: a sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    The minimization of the non-specific factors of neurofeedback (NF) is an important aspect to further advance in the understanding of the effects of these types of procedures. This paper investigates the NF effects of a single session (25 min) of individual upper alpha enhancement following a sham-controlled experimental design (19 healthy participants). We measured immediate effects after the training and 1-day lasting EEG effects (eyes closed resting state and task-related activity), as well as the event-locked EEG effects during the execution of a mental rotation task. These metrics were computed in trained (upper alpha) and non-trained EEG parameters (lower alpha and lower beta). Several cognitive functions were assessed such as working memory and mental rotation abilities. The NF group showed increased upper alpha power after training in task-related activity (not significantly sustained 1 day after) and higher pre-stimulus power during the mental rotation task. Both groups improved cognitive performance, with a more prominent improvement for the NF group, however a single session seems to be insufficient to yield significant differences between groups. A higher number of training sessions seems necessary to achieve long-lasting effects on the electrophysiology and to enhance the behavioral effects.

  19. Impact of the Kohn-Sham Delocalization Error on the 4f Shell Localization and Population in Lanthanide Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Thomas J; Autschbach, Jochen

    2016-07-12

    The extent of ligand to metal donation bonding and mixing of 4f (and 5d) orbitals with ligand orbitals is studied by Kohn-Sham (KS) calculations for LaX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), GdX3, and LuX3 model complexes, CeCl6(2-), YbCp3, and selected lanthanide complexes with larger ligands. The KS delocalization error (DE) is quantified via the curvature of the energy for noninteger electron numbers. The extent of donation bonding and 4f-ligand mixing correlates well with the DE. For Lu complexes, the DE also correlates with the extent of mixing of ligand and 4f orbitals in the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs). However, the localized set of MOs and population analyses indicate that the closed 4f shell is localized. Attempts to create situations where mixing of 4f and ligand orbitals occurs due to a degeneracy of fragment orbitals were unsuccessful. For La(III) and, in particular, for Ce(IV), Hartree-Fock, KS, and coupled cluster singles and doubles calculations are in agreement in that excess 4f populations arise from ligand donation, along with donation into the 5d shell. Likewise, KS calculations for all systems with incompletely filled 4f shells, even those with "optimally tuned" functionals affording a small DE, produce varying degrees of excess 4f populations which may be only partially attributed to 5d polarization. PMID:27224494

  20. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  1. Mineralogy and fluid inclusions study of carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit, Northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, R.; Slim-Shimi, N.; Somarin, A.; Henchiri, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit is located in the flysch zone on the Eastern edge of the Triassic diapir of Jebel Hamra. It is part of the extrusive Triassic evaporate formation along the Ghardimaou-Cape Serrat faults. The ore body consists of argilic-dolomite breccias surrounded by argilo-gypsum Triassic formation, which forms the hanging wall of the deposit, and rimmed by the Paleocene marls. The ore minerals show a cap-rock type mineralization with different styles particularly impregnation in dolomite, cement of breccias, replacement ore and open space filling in the dissolution cavities and fractures. Ore minerals include sphalerite, galena, marcasite and pyrite. Principal gangue minerals are composed of barite, celestite, calcite, dolomite and quartz. The ore minerals are hosted by the Triassic carbonate rocks which show hydrothermal alteration, dissolution and brecciation. X-ray - crystallographic study of barite-celestite mineral series shows that pure barite and celestite are the abundant species, whereas strontianiferous barite (85-96.5% BaSO 4) and barian-celestite (95% SrSO 4) are minor. Primary and secondary mono-phase (liquid only) fluid inclusions are common in celestite. Microthermometric analyses in two-phases (liquid and vapour) fluid inclusions suggest that gangue and ore minerals were precipitated by a low-temperature (180 °C) saline (16.37 wt.% NaCl equivalent) solution originated possibly from a basinal brine with some input from magmatic or metamorphic fluid. Based on geology, mineralogy, texture and fluid characteristics, the Ain Allega deposit is classified as a carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type deposit.

  2. Second meal effect: modified sham feeding does not provoke the release of stored triacylglycerol from a previous high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K G; Robertson, M D; Fielding, B A; Frayn, K N; Williams, C M

    2001-02-01

    The present study was carried out to determine whether cephalic stimulation, associated with eating a meal, was sufficient stimulus to provoke the release of stored triacylglycerol (TAG) from a previous high-fat meal. Ten subjects were studied on three separate occasions. Following a 12 h overnight fast, subjects were given a standard mixed test meal which contained 56 g fat. Blood samples were taken before the meal and for 5 h after the meal when the subjects were randomly allocated to receive either water (control) or were modified sham fed a low-fat (6 g fat) or moderate-fat (38 g fat) meal. Blood samples were collected for a further 3 h. Compared with the control, modified sham feeding a low- or moderate-fat meal did not provoke an early entry of TAG, analysed in either plasma or TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction (density <1.006 kg/l). The TRL-retinyl ester data showed similar findings. A cephalic phase secretion of pancreatic polypeptide, without a significant increase in cholecystokinin levels, was observed on modified sham feeding. Although these data indicate that modified sham feeding was carried out successfully, analysis of the fat content of the expectorant showed that our subjects may have accidentally ingested a small amount of fat (0.7 g for the low-fat meal and 2.4 g for the moderate-fat meal). Nevertheless, an early TAG peak following modified sham feeding was not demonstrated in the present study, suggesting that significant ingestion of food, and not just oro-sensory stimulation, is necessary to provoke the release of any TAG stored from a previous meal.

  3. Ultrasound-guided intra-articular and rotator interval corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized study.

    PubMed

    Prestgaard, Tore; Wormgoor, Marjon E A; Haugen, Simen; Harstad, Herlof; Mowinckel, Petter; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2015-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Previous studies have reported that intra-articular corticosteroid injections are of benefit compared with placebo up to 6 weeks. It has been suggested that the structures primarily involved in adhesive capsulitis are the capsule and the rotator interval. Systematic reviews have concluded that there is limited evidence of the treatment effectiveness of intra-articular corticosteroid injections and that high-quality primary research is required. The aim of this study was to compare ultrasound-guided intra-articular corticosteroid injection and combined intra-articular and rotator interval injection in a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial. The main outcome measure was the group difference in change in shoulder pain (0-10) at 6 weeks. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomized (42 to intra-articular injection, 40 to combined intra-articular/interval injection, and 40 to sham injection). For both corticosteroid injection groups, there was a significant difference compared with sham injection at week 6. The mean group difference (adjusted for gender, age, dominant arm, and duration) in change in shoulder pain for the intra-articular vs sham injection was -1.7 (95% confidence interval, -2.7 to -0.6, P = 0.002) and -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -3.2 to -1.1, P = 0.0001) for the combined injection vs sham injection. The significant group differences were maintained at week 12 but not at week 26. Similar results were found for the secondary outcome measures (night pain, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index). Differences between the corticosteroid groups were not significant at any time.

  4. To what extent are surgery and invasive procedures effective beyond a placebo response? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised, sham controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Wayne B; Crawford, Cindy; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Moseley, Bruce; Miller, Franklin G; Kriston, Levente; Linde, Klaus; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quantity and quality of randomised, sham-controlled studies of surgery and invasive procedures and estimate the treatment-specific and non-specific effects of those procedures. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library), PILOTS, PsycInfo, DoD Biomedical Research, clinicaltrials.gov, NLM catalog and NIH Grantee Publications Database from their inception through January 2015. Study selection We included randomised controlled trials of surgery and invasive procedures that penetrated the skin or an orifice and had a parallel sham procedure for comparison. Data extraction and analysis Three authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies reporting continuous outcomes were pooled and the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs was calculated using a random effects model for difference between true and sham groups. Results 55 studies (3574 patients) were identified meeting inclusion criteria; 39 provided sufficient data for inclusion in the main analysis (2902 patients). The overall SMD of the continuous primary outcome between treatment/sham-control groups was 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.49; p<0.00001; I2=67%). The SMD for surgery versus sham surgery was non-significant for pain-related conditions (n=15, SMD=0.13, p=0.08), marginally significant for studies on weight loss (n=10, SMD=0.52, p=0.05) and significant for gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) studies (n=5, SMD=0.65, p<0.001) and for other conditions (n=8, SMD=0.44, p=0.004). Mean improvement in sham groups relative to active treatment was larger in pain-related conditions (78%) and obesity (71%) than in GERD (57%) and other conditions (57%), and was smaller in classical-surgery trials (21%) than in endoscopic trials (73%) and those using percutaneous procedures (64%). Conclusions The non-specific effects of surgery and other invasive procedures are generally large. Particularly in

  5. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shen; Wang, Hongwei; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  6. Stability conditions for exact-exchange Kohn-Sham methods and their relation to correlation energies from the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Bleiziffer, Patrick Schmidtel, Daniel; Görling, Andreas

    2014-11-28

    The occurrence of instabilities, in particular singlet-triplet and singlet-singlet instabilities, in the exact-exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham method is investigated. Hessian matrices of the EXX electronic energy with respect to the expansion coefficients of the EXX effective Kohn-Sham potential in an auxiliary basis set are derived. The eigenvalues of these Hessian matrices determine whether or not instabilities are present. Similar as in the corresponding Hartree-Fock case instabilities in the EXX method are related to symmetry breaking of the Hamiltonian operator for the EXX orbitals. In the EXX methods symmetry breaking can easily be visualized by displaying the local multiplicative exchange potential. Examples (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and the polyyne C{sub 10}H{sub 2}) for instabilities and symmetry breaking are discussed. The relation of the stability conditions for EXX methods to approaches calculating the Kohn-Sham correlation energy via the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem is discussed. The existence or nonexistence of singlet-singlet instabilities in an EXX calculation is shown to indicate whether or not the frequency-integration in the evaluation of the correlation energy is singular in the EXX-ACFD method. This method calculates the Kohn-Sham correlation energy through the ACFD theorem theorem employing besides the Coulomb kernel also the full frequency-dependent exchange kernel and yields highly accurate electronic energies. For the case of singular frequency-integrands in the EXX-ACFD method a regularization is suggested. Finally, we present examples of molecular systems for which the self-consistent field procedure of the EXX as well as the Hartree-Fock method can converge to more than one local minimum depending on the initial conditions.

  7. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  8. The efficacy of cerebellar vermal deep high frequency (theta range) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia: A randomized rater blind-sham controlled study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shobit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Mishra, Preeti; Goyal, Nishant

    2016-09-30

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising therapeutic for schizophrenia. Treatment effects of rTMS have been variable across different symptom clusters, with negative symptoms showing better response, followed by auditory hallucinations. Cerebellum, especially vermis and its abnormalities (both structural and functional) have been implicated in cognitive, affective and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. rTMS to this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder. Hypothesizing cerebellar vermal magnetic stimulation as an adjunct to treat schizophrenia psychopathology, we conducted a double blind randomized sham controlled rTMS study. In this study, forty patients were randomly allocated (using block randomization method) to active high frequency (theta patterned) rTMS (n=20) and sham (n=20) groups. They received 10 sessions over 2 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were assessed at baseline, after last session and at 4 weeks (2 weeks post-rTMS). We found a significantly greater improvement in the group receiving active rTMS sessions, compared to the sham group on negative symptoms, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that cerebellar stimulation can be used as an effective adjunct to treat negative and affective symptoms. PMID:27450744

  9. Double-blind, randomized sham controlled study of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabany, Liron; Deutsch, Lisa; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-07-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia, yet treatment for them remains inadequate. Deep-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel technology that enables non-invasive stimulation of deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary evidence suggests that deep-TMS could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The current study is the first double-blind, randomized sham-controlled study to examine the feasibility of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty daily H1 deep-TMS treatments (20Hz, 120% MT) were delivered, in a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled design (n=30). Extensive clinical and cognitive assessments were carried out throughout the study and for an additional one month follow-up period. The results indicate that at the end of the treatment period, negative symptoms (as indicated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)) significantly reduced in the TMS group (-7.7), but not in the sham group (-1.9). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

  10. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials.

  11. Neural correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest; DiFrancesco, Mark; Wu, Steve; Giovanetti, Cathy; Nash, Tiffany; Mantovani, Antonio; Ammerman, Robert; Harris, Elana

    2015-09-30

    Treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be enhanced if the physiological changes engendered by treatment were known. This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. After baseline (Time 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a provocation task, subjects received one session of either fMRI-guided sham (SG; n=8) or active (AG; n=10) 1-Hz rTMS over the rDLPFC for 30min. During rTMS, subjects were presented with personalized images that evoked OCD-related anxiety. Following stimulation, fMRI and the provocation task were repeated (Time 2). Contrary to our prediction for the provocation task, the AG was associated with no changes in BOLD response from Times 1 to 2. In contrast, the SG had a significant increase at Time 2 in BOLD response in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen, which persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and time to scanner as covariates. This study provides an initial framework for TMS interrogation of the CST circuit in pediatric OCD. PMID:26228567

  12. Neural correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest; DiFrancesco, Mark; Wu, Steve; Giovanetti, Cathy; Nash, Tiffany; Mantovani, Antonio; Ammerman, Robert; Harris, Elana

    2015-09-30

    Treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be enhanced if the physiological changes engendered by treatment were known. This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. After baseline (Time 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a provocation task, subjects received one session of either fMRI-guided sham (SG; n=8) or active (AG; n=10) 1-Hz rTMS over the rDLPFC for 30min. During rTMS, subjects were presented with personalized images that evoked OCD-related anxiety. Following stimulation, fMRI and the provocation task were repeated (Time 2). Contrary to our prediction for the provocation task, the AG was associated with no changes in BOLD response from Times 1 to 2. In contrast, the SG had a significant increase at Time 2 in BOLD response in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen, which persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and time to scanner as covariates. This study provides an initial framework for TMS interrogation of the CST circuit in pediatric OCD.

  13. Your tooth it ain't so purty but it's gen-u-ine: Cole Porter's comic song "Snagtooth Gertie".

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Cole Porter (1891-1964), an American musical icon, has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most cosmopolitan, sophisticated, elegant and influential composer-lyricists of the 20th century. Born in Indiana and raised in wealth and privilege, he attended both Yale and Harvard universities where he honed his song-writing skills. In his 800 tunes, many of which became smash hits, he blended fresh, witty, urbane and colloquial lyrics with catchy, singable melodies. He composed musical scores for both Broadway stage and Hollywood movies, but focused on the former. While Porter enjoyed penning comic songs, he rarely had them published. In 1946, Cole wrote the music and lyrics for a Broadway show entitled Around the World in Eighty Days. Deemed a failure, it closed after only 75 performances. One light-hearted ditty, "Snagtooth Gertie", which he composed for the show, was never used. The lyrics are presented for the first time in this paper.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study of static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current for active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinnichi; Mori, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kouji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Tomaru, Masakazu; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Yuji; Karita, Masakazu; Hiwatashi, Tomoaki; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current (EF-HVAC) is a traditional complementary Japanese medicine used for headache, shoulder stiffness, chronic constipation and insomnia. Open-label studies and clinical experience in Japan have suggested that this electric field therapy is safe and effective in treating chronic arthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of EF-HVAC therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in community-based general physician centers. Thirty patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA were treated with EF-HVAC therapy with the LEGACIS PLUS System (COCOROCA Corp., Tokyo, Japan) or sham therapy for 12 weeks and followed for 4 weeks without treatment. The disease activity score 28 (DAS28-CRP), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ), and inflammatory parameters were used as the outcome variable. Twenty four patients (n = 12 in each group) were analyzed by a per protocol analysis. Although a significant reduction in DAS28-CRP was observed in EF-HVAC group at 8 and 12 weeks compared to before treatment, there were no significant differences in DAS28-CRP scores during treatment between two groups. The scale of VAS was also significantly decreased by the treatment with EF-HVAC compared to before treatment, in addition, the scale of VAS in EF-HVAC group was significantly lower than sham group at 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in another parameters including MHAQ were not significant between before and after treatment, or by all comparative study between two groups. There were no adverse events related the treatment. In conclusion, the EF-HVAC therapy has a beneficial effect on the improvement to subjective pain of RA. PMID:23874073

  15. A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study of static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current for active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinnichi; Mori, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kouji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Tomaru, Masakazu; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Yuji; Karita, Masakazu; Hiwatashi, Tomoaki; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current (EF-HVAC) is a traditional complementary Japanese medicine used for headache, shoulder stiffness, chronic constipation and insomnia. Open-label studies and clinical experience in Japan have suggested that this electric field therapy is safe and effective in treating chronic arthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of EF-HVAC therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in community-based general physician centers. Thirty patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA were treated with EF-HVAC therapy with the LEGACIS PLUS System (COCOROCA Corp., Tokyo, Japan) or sham therapy for 12 weeks and followed for 4 weeks without treatment. The disease activity score 28 (DAS28-CRP), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ), and inflammatory parameters were used as the outcome variable. Twenty four patients (n = 12 in each group) were analyzed by a per protocol analysis. Although a significant reduction in DAS28-CRP was observed in EF-HVAC group at 8 and 12 weeks compared to before treatment, there were no significant differences in DAS28-CRP scores during treatment between two groups. The scale of VAS was also significantly decreased by the treatment with EF-HVAC compared to before treatment, in addition, the scale of VAS in EF-HVAC group was significantly lower than sham group at 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in another parameters including MHAQ were not significant between before and after treatment, or by all comparative study between two groups. There were no adverse events related the treatment. In conclusion, the EF-HVAC therapy has a beneficial effect on the improvement to subjective pain of RA.

  16. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials. PMID:26301875

  17. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  18. Virial theorem in the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory formalism: accurate calculation of the atomic quantum theory of atoms in molecules energies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L

    2009-07-14

    A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol.

  19. Virial theorem in the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory formalism: accurate calculation of the atomic quantum theory of atoms in molecules energies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L

    2009-07-14

    A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol. PMID:19603962

  20. Offset-corrected Δ -Kohn-Sham scheme for semiempirical prediction of absolute x-ray photoelectron energies in molecules and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael; Moseler, Michael; Pastewka, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Absolute binding energies of core electrons in molecules and bulk materials can be efficiently calculated by spin paired density-function theory employing a Δ -Kohn-Sham (Δ KS ) scheme corrected by offsets that are highly transferable. These offsets depend on core level and atomic species and can be determined by comparing Δ KS energies to experimental molecular x-ray photoelectron spectra. We demonstrate the correct prediction of absolute and relative binding energies on a wide range of molecules, metals, and insulators.

  1. Monitoring Cortical Excitability during Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children with ADHD: A Single-Blind, Sham-Controlled TMS-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Christian; Pierau, Simone S.; Freitag, Christine M.; Roeper, Jochen; Ziemann, Ulf; Bender, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) allows non-invasive stimulation of the human brain. However, no suitable marker has yet been established to monitor the immediate rTMS effects on cortical areas in children. Objective TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) could present a well-suited marker for real-time monitoring. Monitoring is particularly important in children where only few data about rTMS effects and safety are currently available. Methods In a single-blind sham-controlled study, twenty-five school-aged children with ADHD received subthreshold 1 Hz-rTMS to the primary motor cortex. The TMS-evoked N100 was measured by 64-channel-EEG pre, during and post rTMS, and compared to sham stimulation as an intraindividual control condition. Results TMS-evoked N100 amplitude decreased during 1 Hz-rTMS and, at the group level, reached a stable plateau after approximately 500 pulses. N100 amplitude to supra-threshold single pulses post rTMS confirmed the amplitude reduction in comparison to the pre-rTMS level while sham stimulation had no influence. EEG source analysis indicated that the TMS-evoked N100 change reflected rTMS effects in the stimulated motor cortex. Amplitude changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEPs (pre versus post 1 Hz-rTMS) correlated significantly, but this correlation was also found for pre versus post sham stimulation. Conclusion The TMS-evoked N100 represents a promising candidate marker to monitor rTMS effects on cortical excitability in children with ADHD. TMS-evoked N100 can be employed to monitor real-time effects of TMS for subthreshold intensities. Though TMS-evoked N100 was a more sensitive parameter for rTMS-specific changes than MEPs in our sample, further studies are necessary to demonstrate whether clinical rTMS effects can be predicted from rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 amplitude and to clarify the relationship between rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEP amplitudes. The TMS-evoked N100 amplitude

  2. Universal Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Sarah; Leventhal, Laura

    Universal usability of World Wide Web (Web) environments—that is, having 90% of households as successful users—requires universal access, usability, and universal design. Factors such as Web technology and user-centered design contribute to universal access and usability, but key to universal usability is a universal design methodology. Universal design principles for the Web follow from universal design principles for the built environment, and emphasize perceptibility, self-explanation, and tailorability for the user. Universally usable Web environments offer the benefit of expanded participation, as well as the unanticipated benefits that generally follow from innovative design initiatives. However, to achieve Web universal usability, Web designers need tools that facilitate the design of intuitive interfaces without sacrificing universal access.

  3. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  4. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  5. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France).

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  6. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: Consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  7. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Uthra; babu, S. Karthik; Kumar, K. Vijay; Suresh, B. V.; Misri, Z. K.; Chakrapani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA), Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11) and control group (N = 11). Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02). Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility. PMID:24339596

  8. [Electrophysiological and behavioral features of septal seizures in cats--experimental sham-rage seizures induced by injection of kainic acid].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, K; Tanaka, T; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-07-01

    The septal nucleus has close connections with the hippocampus and amygdala and is known to be involved in emotional behavior. We analyzed the electrophysiological and behavioral features of seizures induced by an injection of kainic acid into the lateral septal nucleus of the cat. Stereotactic surgery was performed to implant a cannula into the lateral septal nucleus to make the injection, and deep electrodes were implanted into the hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally. Seven days post operatively kainic acid, 0.5 microgram/0.5 microliter, was injected via the cannula, and three to five minutes later the cats began to exhibit head turning to the contralateral side. The seizures subsequently progressed limbic seizure status. The electroencephalogram revealed that the spike discharges started in the lateral septal nucleus, extended to the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala, then propagated to the contralateral side. Spontaneous sham-rage seizures occurred more than seven days after the injection. These seizure were characterized by sudden onset of aggressive and violent behavior which included hissing, biting and scratching. The electroencephalogram showed synchronization of rhythmic spikes in the ipsilateral septal nucleus, hippocampus and amygdala during such seizures. Further study of this model is important not only to understand the relationship between the septal nucleus and the hippocampus and amygdala but to understand the mechanism of sham-rage seizures. In addition, this model may be useful in understanding the emotional features of intractable complex partial seizures in man. PMID:7946621

  9. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  10. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 300–1000 µg/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000 μg/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference

  11. Determination of outer molecular orbitals by collisional ionization experiments and comparison with Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, and Dyson orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Horio, Takuya; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi

    2007-03-15

    Although the outer shapes of molecular orbitals (MO's) are of great importance in many phenomena, they have been difficult to be probed by experiments. Here we show that metastable helium (He{sup *}) atoms can sensitively probe the outer properties of molecules and that an electron spectroscopic technique using velocity-selected He{sup *} atoms in combination with classical trajectory simulations leads to a consistent determination of MO functions and the molecular surface. MO functions composed of linear combinations of atomic orbital functions were fitted to the observed collision energy dependences of partial ionization cross sections (CEDPICS). The obtained CEDPICS MO functions were compared with conventionally available Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, and Dyson orbitals.

  12. Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density in the nuclear and asymptotic regions: Deviations from the von Weizsäcker behavior and applications to density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Sala, Fabio; Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the Kohn-Sham positive-definite kinetic energy (KE) density significantly differs from the von Weizsäcker (VW) one at the nuclear cusp as well as in the asymptotic region. At the nuclear cusp, the VW functional is shown to be linear, and the contribution of p -type orbitals to the KE density is theoretically derived and numerically demonstrated in the limit of infinite nuclear charge as well in the semiclassical limit of neutral large atoms. In the latter case, it reaches 12% of the KE density. In the asymptotic region we find new exact constraints for meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange functionals: with an exchange enhancement factor proportional to √{α }, where α is the common meta-GGA ingredient, both the exchange energy density and the potential are proportional to the exact ones. In addition, this describes exactly the large-gradient limit of quasi-two-dimensional systems.

  13. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen for patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after pelvic radiotherapy (HOT2): a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Mark; Smerdon, Gary R; Andreyev, H Jervoise; Benton, Barbara E; Bothma, Pieter; Firth, Oliver; Gothard, Lone; Harrison, John; Ignatescu, Mihaela; Laden, Gerard; Martin, Sue; Maynard, Lauren; McCann, Des; Penny, Christine E L; Phillips, Spencer; Sharp, Grace; Yarnold, John

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a therapy for patients experiencing chronic intestinal syndromes after pelvic radiotherapy for decades, yet the evidence to support the use of this therapy is based almost exclusively on non-randomised studies. We aimed to provide conclusive results for the clinical benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Methods HOT2 was a double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 randomised study of patients (≥18 years) with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms for 12 months or more after radiotherapy and which persisted despite at least 3 months of optimal medical therapy and no evidence of cancer recurrence. Participants were stratified by participating hyperbaric centre and randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated list (block size nine or 12) to receive treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy or sham. Participants in the active treatment group breathed 100% oxygen at 2·4 atmospheres of absolute pressure (ATA) and the control group breathed 21% oxygen at 1·3 ATA; both treatment groups received 90-min air pressure exposures once daily for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks (total of 40 exposures). Staff at the participating hyperbaric medicine facilities knew the allocated treatment, but patients, clinicians, nurse practitioners, and other health-care professionals associated with patients' care were masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were changes in the bowel component of the modified Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) score and the IBDQ rectal bleeding score 12 months after start of treatment relative to baseline. The primary outcome was analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, excluding patients who did not provide IBDQ scores within a predetermined time-frame. All patients have completed 12 months of follow-up and the final analysis is complete. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry

  15. The Pharmacopsychometric Triangle to Illustrate the Effectiveness of T-PEMF Concomitant with Antidepressants in Treatment Resistant Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial Revisited with Focus on the Patient-Reported Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bech, P.; Gefke, M.; Lunde, M.; Lauritzen, L.; Martiny, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Our T-PEMF trial has been revisited with focus on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which effect size is used when comparing wanted versus unwanted clinical effects and quality of life as outcomes. In this analysis, we have especially focused on the self-reported HAM-D6. Methods. The antidepressive medication which the patients were resistant to was kept unchanged during the five weeks of active versus sham T-PEMF. Results. In total 21, patients received active T-PEMF, and 19 patients received sham T-PEMF. The effect size was 1.02 and 0.90, respectively, on HAM-D6 and HAM-D6-S. Concerning side effects, the active T-PEMF reduced the baseline score on concentration problems with an effect size of 0.44 while inducing more autonomic symptoms than sham T-PEMF with an effect size of −0.41. The advantage of active over sham T-PEMF obtained an effect size of 0.48. Conclusion. Active T-PEMF was found superior to sham T-PEMF within the pharmacopsychometric triangle with a clinically significant effect size level above 0.40. PMID:21738869

  16. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  17. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  18. Challenged Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Pricing and financial aid issues affecting research universities, particularly private universities, are examined, including underpricing of services, decentralization, and diversification of higher education in the United States. The growth of federal regulation is also considered, especially the State Postsecondary Review Entities (SPREs)…

  19. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  20. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore; "A Case Study of an Academic…

  1. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  2. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  3. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  4. Predicting the structure and vibrational frequencies of ethylene using harmonic and anharmonic approaches at the Kohn-Sham complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Aneta; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A; Żyła, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, regular convergence patterns of the structural, harmonic, and VPT2-calculated anharmonic vibrational parameters of ethylene towards the Kohn-Sham complete basis set (KS CBS) limit are demonstrated for the first time. The performance of the VPT2 scheme implemented using density functional theory (DFT-BLYP and DFT-B3LYP) in combination with two Pople basis sets (6-311++G** and 6-311++G(3df,2pd)), the polarization-consistent basis sets pc-n, aug-pc-n, and pcseg-n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), and the correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, 6) was tested.The BLYP-calculated harmonic frequencies were found to be markedly closer than the B3LYP-calculated harmonic frequencies to the experimentally derived values, while the calculated anharmonic frequencies consistently underestimated the observed wavenumbers. The different basis set families gave very similar estimated values for the CBS parameters. The anharmonic frequencies calculated with B3LYP/aug-pc-3 were consistently significantly higher than those obtained with the pc-3 basis set; applying the aug-pcseg-n basis set family alleviated this problem. Utilization of B3LYP/aug-pcseg-n basis sets instead of B3LYP/aug-cc-pVXZ, which is computationally less expensive, is suggested for medium-sized molecules. Harmonic BLYP/pc-2 calculations produced fairly accurate ethylene frequencies. Graphical Abstract In this study, the performance of the VPT2 scheme implemented using density functional theory (DFT-BLYP and DFT-B3LYP) in combination with the polarization-consistent basis sets pc-n, aug-pc-n, and pcseg-n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), and the correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, and 6) was tested. For the first time, we demonstrated regular convergence patterns of the structural, harmonic, and VPT2-calculated anharmonic vibrational parameters of ethylene towards the Kohn-Sham complete basis set (KS CBS) limit.

  5. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  6. "That Ain't Going to Get You a Professorship": Discourses of Writing and the Positioning of Academics' Work with Student Writers in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of academic literacies research has enhanced our understanding of university writing as contested, institutionally situated practice with important consequences, particularly for students as they learn to negotiate the writing demands of university study. Less empirical attention has been paid to the practices of subject academics…

  7. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  8. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  9. The Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial (BETTER): Design, Rationale, and Objectives of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial and Data from the Pilot Study Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio; Nunes, Paula; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bipolar depression (BD) is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER). Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups) in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. PMID:25878904

  10. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea treatment by continuous positive airway pressure on cardiometabolic biomarkers: a systematic review from sham CPAP randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Jullian-Desayes, Ingrid; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Tamisier, Renaud; Launois, Sandrine; Borel, Anne-Laure; Levy, Patrick; Pepin, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    Reducing cardiometabolic risk may represent an important target for effective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the first line therapy of OSA, on metabolic or inflammatory markers is still debated. A systematic literature search using several databases was performed. We provide a systematic analysis of randomized studies comparing therapeutic versus sham CPAP intervention and also include studies using a CPAP withdrawal design. We addressed the impact of CPAP on the following cardiometabolic biomarkers: 1) plasma and urine catecholamines and their metabolites that reflect sympathetic activity; 2) insulin resistance and lipid metabolism biomarkers; 3) oxidative stress, systemic and vascular inflammation biomarkers; 4) liver enzymes highlighting the association between OSA and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 5) coagulation biomarkers. The impact of CPAP on sympathetic activity is robust across studies and occurs rapidly. In contrast to sympathetic activity, the well-designed studies included in this review failed to demonstrate that CPAP alters metabolic or inflammatory markers in OSA. CPAP did not change glucose, lipids, insulin resistance levels or the ratio of patients with metabolic syndrome. In unselected OSA patients, it is not realistic to expect a clinically relevant decrease in cardiometabolic biomarkers with CPAP therapy.

  11. A simple scheme for magnetic balance in four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants in a Gaussian basis.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond; Pecul, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    We report the implementation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors within the four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham density functional theory including non-collinear spin magnetization and employing London atomic orbitals to ensure gauge origin independent results, together with a new and efficient scheme for assuring correct balance between the large and small components of a molecular four-component spinor in the presence of an external magnetic field (simple magnetic balance). To test our formalism we have carried out calculations of NMR shielding tensors for the HX series (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At), the Xe atom, and the Xe dimer. The advantage of simple magnetic balance scheme combined with the use of London atomic orbitals is the fast convergence of results (when compared with restricted kinetic balance) and elimination of linear dependencies in the basis set (when compared to unrestricted kinetic balance). The effect of including spin magnetization in the description of NMR shielding tensor has been found important for hydrogen atoms in heavy HX molecules, causing an increase of isotropic values of 10%, but negligible for heavy atoms.

  12. From correlation-consistent to polarization-consistent basis sets estimation of NMR spin spin coupling constant in the B3LYP Kohn Sham basis set limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald

    2008-08-01

    Based on B3LYP spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) of several molecules calculated with cc-pV xZ, cc-pCV xZ, cc-pCV xZ-sd and cc-pCV xZ-sd+ t basis sets, a reasonably fit, using the two-parameter formula, to the Kohn-Sham complete basis set limit (CBS) is shown. Improvement in the CBS values going from cc-pV xZ to the most elaborated cc-pCV xZ-sd+ t basis set family is observed: standard deviation for all data drops from 33.7 to 23.1, and from 6.0 to 4.8 Hz after excluding problematic 1J(F,H) and 1J(F,C). Calculation of water's 1J(OH) using B3LYP/cc-pCV xZ and B3LYP/pcJ- n significantly improved the FC term convergence.

  13. How amino and nitro substituents direct electrophilic aromatic substitution in benzene: an explanation with Kohn-Sham molecular orbital theory and Voronoi deformation density analysis.

    PubMed

    Stasyuk, O A; Szatylowicz, H; Krygowski, T M; Fonseca Guerra, C

    2016-04-28

    The substituent effect of the amino and nitro groups on the electronic system of benzene has been investigated quantum chemically using quantitative Kohn-Sham molecular orbital theory and a corresponding energy decomposition analysis (EDA). The directionality of electrophilic substitution in aniline can accurately be explained with the amount of contribution of the 2pz orbitals on the unsubstituted carbon atoms to the highest occupied π orbital. For nitrobenzene, the molecular π orbitals cannot explain the regioselectivity of electrophilic substitution as there are two almost degenerate π orbitals with nearly the same 2pz contributions on the unsubstituted carbon atoms. The Voronoi deformation density analysis has been applied to aniline and nitrobenzene to obtain an insight into the charge rearrangements due to the substituent. This analysis method identified the orbitals involved in the C-N bond formation of the π system as the cause for the π charge accumulation at the ortho and para positions in the case of the NH2 group and the largest charge depletion at these same positions for the NO2 substituent. Furthermore, we showed that it is the repulsive interaction between the πHOMO of the phenyl radical and the πHOMO of the NH2 radical that is responsible for pushing up the πHOMO of aniline and therefore activating this π orbital of the phenyl ring towards electrophilic substitution.

  14. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with Kohn-Sham orbitals using non-empirically tuned, long-range-corrected density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-28

    The performance of second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals is evaluated against benchmark results for intermolecular interactions. Unlike previous studies of this “SAPT(KS)” methodology, the present study uses non-empirically tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals for the monomers. The proper v{sub xc} (r)→0 asymptotic limit is achieved by tuning the range separation parameter in order to satisfy the condition that the highest occupied KS energy level equals minus the molecule's ionization energy, for each monomer unit. Tests for He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, and the S22 and S66 data sets reveal that this condition is important for accurate prediction of the non-dispersion components of the energy, although errors in SAPT(KS) dispersion energies remain unacceptably large. In conjunction with an empirical dispersion potential, however, the SAPT(KS) method affords good results for S22 and S66, and also accurately predicts the whole potential energy curve for the sandwich isomer of the benzene dimer. Tuned LRC functionals represent an attractive alternative to other asymptotic corrections that have been employed in density-functional-based SAPT calculations, and we recommend the use of tuned LRC functionals in both coupled-perturbed SAPT(DFT) calculations and dispersion-corrected SAPT(KS) calculations.

  15. Band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids using accurate Kohn-Sham potentials with self-interaction correction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Krieger, J.B. ); Norman, M.R. ); Iafrate, G.J. )

    1991-11-15

    The optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method and a method developed recently by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) are applied to the band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids employing the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The resulting band gaps from both calculations are found to be in fair agreement with the experimental values. The discrepancies are typically within a few percent with results that are nearly the same as those of previously published orbital-dependent multipotential SIC calculations, whereas the LSD results underestimate the band gaps by as much as 40%. As in the LSD---and it is believed to be the case even for the exact Kohn-Sham potential---both the OEP and KLI predict valence-band widths which are narrower than those of experiment. In all cases, the KLI method yields essentially the same results as the OEP.

  16. Egyptian women in physics: Progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, M.; Hosni, Hala; Mohamed, Hadeer; Gadalla, Afaf; Kahil, Heba; Hashem, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The present study shows a progressive increase in the number of female physicists as undergraduates and postgraduates in several governmental universities. For instance, in Ain Shams University, the percentage of women who selected physics as a major course of study increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 10.8% in 2013 and 15.7% in 2014. The study also provides the current gender distribution in the various positions among the teaching staff in seven governmental universities. The data supports the fact that female teaching assistants are increasing in these universities.

  17. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  18. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  19. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A universe that expands with time. Although the possibility had been raised earlier through theoretical work carried out by Willem de Sitter (1872-1934), Aleksandr Friedmann (1888-1925), and the Abbé Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), that our universe is expanding was first demonstrated observationally in 1929 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), through his measurements of the redshifts in the spectra of ...

  20. Undulant Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  1. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  2. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  3. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis. PMID:26178105

  4. Gold–superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Rampino, Sergio Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au{sub 7}– and Au{sub 20}–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au{sub 7} (planar) and Au{sub 20} (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au{sub 20}-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  5. MN15-L: A New Local Exchange-Correlation Functional for Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory with Broad Accuracy for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyu S; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is widely used for applications of electronic structure theory in chemistry, materials science, and condensed-matter physics, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the exchange-correlation functional. Here, we present a new local exchange-correlation functional called MN15-L that predicts accurate results for a broad range of molecular and solid-state properties including main-group bond energies, transition metal bond energies, reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, atomic excitation energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, total atomic energies, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, and lattice constants of solids. The MN15-L functional has the same mathematical form as a previous meta-nonseparable gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional, MN12-L, but it is improved because we optimized it against a larger database, designated 2015A, and included smoothness restraints; the optimization has a much better representation of transition metals. The mean unsigned error on 422 chemical energies is 2.32 kcal/mol, which is the best among all tested functionals, with or without nonlocal exchange. The MN15-L functional also provides good results for test sets that are outside the training set. A key issue is that the functional is local (no nonlocal exchange or nonlocal correlation), which makes it relatively economical for treating large and complex systems and solids. Another key advantage is that medium-range correlation energy is built in so that one does not need to add damped dispersion by molecular mechanics in order to predict accurate noncovalent binding energies. We believe that the MN15-L functional should be useful for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, physics, materials science, and molecular biology. PMID:26722866

  6. Neuroplastic Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Painful Symptoms Reduction in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Phase II Randomized, Double Blind, Sham Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brietzke, Aline P.; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Dussan-Sarria, Jairo A.; Deitos, Alicia; Laste, Gabriela; Hoppe, Priscila F. T.; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário R.; de Amorim, Rivadavio F. B.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pegylated Interferon Alpha (Peg-IFN) in combination with other drugs is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and is related to severe painful symptoms. The aim of this study was access the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in controlling the painful symptoms related to Peg-IFN side effects. Materials and Methods: In this phase II double-blind trial, twenty eight (n = 28) HCV subjects were randomized to receive either 5 consecutive days of active tDCS (n = 14) or sham (n = 14) during 5 consecutive days with anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex region using 2 mA for 20 min. The primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels. Secondary outcomes were the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the Brazilian Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (B-PCP:S), and drug analgesics use. Results: tDCS reduced the VAS scores (P < 0.003), with a mean pain drop of 56% (p < 0.001). Furthermore, tDCS was able to enhance BDNF levels (p < 0.01). The mean increase was 37.48% in the active group. Finally, tDCS raised PPT (p < 0.001) and reduced the B-PCP:S scores and analgesic use (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Five sessions of tDCS were effective in reducing the painful symptoms in HCV patients undergoing Peg-IFN treatment. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS as a promising therapeutic tool to improve the tolerance of the side effects related to the use of Peg-IFN. Future larger studies (phase III and IV trials) are needed to confirm the clinical use of the therapeutic effects of tDCS in such condition. Trial registration: Brazilian Human Health Regulator for Research with the approval number CAAE 07802012.0.0000.5327. PMID:26793047

  7. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Scutellarin and Paeoniflorin in Sham-Operated and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Rats after Intravenous Administration of Xin-Shao Formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueting; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Jianchun; Gong, Zipeng; Yang, Wu; Wang, Aimin; Zheng, Jiang; Liu, Ting; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Jie; Mi, Ling; Li, Yongjun; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Yonglin

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Shao formula is a folk remedy widely used in China to prevent and cure stroke. Cerebral ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury often takes place during the treatment of stroke. Information about the pharmacokinetic behavior of the remedy under cerebral I/R injury conditions is lacking. The present study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of scutellarin and paeoniflorin, two major bioactive components of Xin-Shao formula, under physiological state in cerebral I/R injury rats. Neurobehavioral dysfunction was evaluated and cerebral infarcted volume was measured in middle cerebral artery occlusion I/R injury (MCAO) rats. Plasma samples were collected at various time points after a single dose (intravenous, i.v.) of Xin-Shao formula. The levels of plasma scutellarin and paeoniflorin at the designed time points were determined by a UPLC-MS/MS method, and drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Increase in terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z) and mean residence time (MRT(0-t)) of scutellarin as well as elevation in area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from 0 h to the terminal time point (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) of paeoniflorin, along with decreased clearance of paeoniflorin and scutellarin as well as reduced apparent volume of distribution (Vz) of paeoniflorin, were observed in MCAO rats, compared with those in sham-operated animals. The elimination of scutellarin and paeoniflorin were reduced in cerebral I/R injury reduced rats. PMID:27617986

  8. Modified sham feeding of foods with different macronutrient compositions differentially influences cephalic change of insulin, ghrelin, and NMR-based metabolomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of the macronutrient composition of foods on cephalic phase response of gastrointestinal hormones. In addition, the metabolomics of cephalic phase response has not been studied before. The objective of the present study was to assess cephalic phase endocrinological and metabolomic responses following modified sham feeding (MSF) of foods with different macronutrient compositions. Ten healthy males attended four separate test sessions after overnight fasting, for a 3-min MSF of water, high-fat, high-carbohydrate or high-protein food, respectively, in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at regular time points for 10min following the completion of MSF and assayed for plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance was used to acquire metabolomic profiles of the plasma samples. Plasma glucose increased after MSF of all test foods, but there were no differences due to the macronutrient composition of the test foods. MSF of the high-carbohydrate food elicited significantly higher insulin, and the high-protein food resulted in higher ghrelin compared to other test sessions. No significant change in glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide was found. Analysis of plasma metabolomic profiles revealed concentrations of lipids were lower after MSF while plasma glucose increased after MSF. There was also a macronutrient-dependent change in certain amino acids. In conclusion, short-term oral exposure to foods with different macronutrient compositions can induce a macronutrient-specific cephalic change in insulin and ghrelin, as well as metabolomic profiles.

  9. The Facilitative Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visuospatial Working Memory in Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Pre–post Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Philip; Huang, Han-Wei; Hu, Jon-Fan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lin, Chou-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi block tapping task (CBT), both with and without a concurrent motor interference task was used to measure VSWM capacity. Each DPN patient underwent a pre-treatment CBT, followed by tDCS or sham treatment, then a post-treatment CBT on two separate days. We found that although patients with severe DPN (Dyck’s grade 2a or 2b) showed comparable general intelligence scores on WAIS-IV as their age- and education-matched healthy counterparts, they nonetheless showed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on MOCA and working memory deficit on digit-span test of WAIS-IV. Furthermore, patients’ peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was positively correlated with their VSWM span in the most difficult CBT condition that involved backward-recall with motor interference such that patients with worse NCV also had lower VSWM span. Most importantly, anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC was able to improve low-performing patients’ VSWM span to be on par with the high-performers, thereby eliminating the correlation between NCV and VSWM. In summary, these findings suggest that (1) MCI and severe peripheral neuropathy can coexist with unequal severity in diabetic patients, (2) the positive correlation of VSWM and NCV suggests a link between peripheral and central neuropathies, and (3) anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC can improve DPN patients’ VSWM

  10. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  11. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Increases Pulsatile Growth Hormone Secretion and Circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 in a Time-Dependent Manner in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, Camilla M.; Killick, Roo; Keenan, Daniel M.; Baxter, Robert C.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Liu, Peter Y.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the time-dependent effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion. Design: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel group study. Participants: Sixty-five middle-aged men with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Intervention: Active (n = 34) or sham (n = 31) CPAP for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of active CPAP (n = 65). Measurements and Results: Fasting morning IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 blood levels at 0, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. Overnight GH secretion was calculated by mathematical deconvolution of serial GH measurements from serum samples collected every 10 min (22:00-06:00) during simultaneous polysomnography in a subset of 18 men (active n = 11, sham n = 7) at week 12. Active, compared with sham, CPAP increased IGF-1 at 12 weeks (P = 0.006), but not at 6 weeks (P = 0.44). Changes in IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1 were not different between groups at 6 or 12 weeks (all P ≥ 0.15). At week 24, there was a further increase in IGF-1 and a decrease in IGFBP-1 in the pooled group (P = 0.0001 and 0.046, respectively). In the subset, total (P = 0.001) and pulsatile (P = 0.002) GH secretion, mean GH concentration (P = 0.002), mass of GH secreted per pulse (P = 0.01) and pulse frequency (P = 0.04) were all higher after 12 weeks of CPAP compared with sham. Basal secretion, interpulse regularity, and GH regularity were not different between groups (all P > 0.11). Conclusions: Twelve weeks, but not 6 weeks, of CPAP increases IGF-1, with a further increase after 24 weeks. Total and pulsatile GH secretion, secretory burst mass and pulse frequency are also increased by 12 weeks. CPAP improves specific elements of the GH/IGF-1 axis in a time-dependent manner. Clinical Trials Registration: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Network, www.anzctr.org.au, number ACTRN12608000301369. Citation: Hoyos CM; Killick R; Keenan DM

  12. University Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Martin

    This publication explores a diverse collection of new university buildings. Ranging from the design of vast new campuses, such as that by Wilford and Stirling at Temasek, Singapore, through to the relatively modest yet strategically important, such as the intervention by Allies and Morrison at Southampton, this book examines the new higher…

  13. Universities 2035

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrift, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the future of Western higher education. Situated midway between an analysis and a polemic, it concerns itself with how we might begin to actively design the universities of the future. That will require a productionist account of higher education which is so far sadly lacking. But there are signs that such an account might be…

  14. Universal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobryn, Nancy M.

    Universal Studies, a study program designed to help students develop emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually, is described. Development of the personality and character of the individual is emphasized, as are innovation, creativity, individualized instruction, independent learning, and realizing human potential. These goals are characterized…

  15. Widener University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte; Allen, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1821, Widener University is a two-state (Pennsylvania and Delaware), four-campus, eight-college private institution serving approximately 6,700 students. Following arrival of the new senior vice president and provost in 2004 and subsequent reorganization of vice presidential responsibilities, Student Affairs is now led by a dean of…

  16. Merging Kohn-Sham and Orbital-Free DFT Calculations to Extend the LiH Hugoniot to Very High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Large-scale hydrodynamic simulations of fluids and plasmas under extreme conditions require knowledge of various properties such as the equation of state (EOS), mass diffusion, and shear viscosity. While many approaches exist for the determination of these properties, one of the most accurate employs quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations on large samples of atoms of the various species. Examples include the shock compression of metal hydrides and the mixing of deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel with ablator materials (such as C/H plastics and Be) in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The quantum nature of the electrons is described with two flavors of finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT), namely orbital-based Kohn-Sham (KS) and Orbital Free (OF). EOSs for Lithium Hydride and Lithium 6 Deuteride (Li6D) have been calculated with both KSMD and with OFMD. The shock Hugoniot for Li6D has been determined for temperatures up to 25 eV (5000 GPa) using a KSMD based EOS, and for T = 5 eV and above (up to 10,000 GPa) using an OFMD based EOS. KSMD simulations here have a practical upper limit of T = 25 eV due to the scaling of the computational work. The OFMD simulations have a lower limit of T = 5 eV since the OF DFT yields a poor description at low temperatures. The KSMD and OFMD Hugoniots agree well in the region of overlap (T = 5 to 25 eV). Comparisons will be presented with experimental data and with shock Hugoniots constructed from both existing EOS tables and from a new, improved SESAME table. By utilizing the KSMD and OFMD results to guide the parameter choices, the new EOS overall is a better match to melt and shock experimental data. This work was performed in collaboration with L. A. Collins, S. Crockett, M. P. Desjarlais, and F. Lambert and under the auspices of an agreement between CEA/DAM and NNSA/DP on cooperation on fundamental science. LANL is operated by LANS, LLC for the NNSA of the USDoE under contract no. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  17. It Ain't Just What You Do and the Way That You Do It: Why Discourse Matters in Higher Education Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    A number of Australian universities have established and sponsored interdisciplinary communities of practice (CoPs) to develop teaching and learning. CoPs are popularly defined as groups of people who share a passion for something and, together, learn how to do it better. Without further specification, this definition is of limited use in…

  18. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with mild or no knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled multi-centre trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy has been shown to be of no benefit to patients with concomitant knee osteoarthritis, but the optimal treatment of a degenerative meniscus tear in patients with mild or no knee osteoarthritis is unknown. This article describes the rationale and methodology of a randomized sham-controlled trial to assess the benefit of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of a medial meniscus tear in patients with mild or no knee osteoarthritis. The objective of the study is to test whether the benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with knee pain, medial meniscus lesion and mild/no knee osteoarthritis, is greater after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy than following sham surgery. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of treatment for degenerative meniscus tears in middle-aged patients (aged 35–55 years) with an MRI-verified medial meniscus lesion and mild or no knee radiographic osteoarthritis (grade 0–2 on the Kellgren & Lawrence scale). Patients will be randomized to receive either conventional arthroscopic partial meniscectomy or a sham surgery procedure. The primary outcome will be the KOOS5 derived from the ‘Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score’ at 2 years follow-up. Secondary outcomes at 2 years will include all five individual subscales of the KOOS, a global perceived effect score, the Short-Form-36 health status score, EQ-5D for economic appraisal and objective tests of muscle strength and physical function. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis will be evaluated at 5 years. Discussion Demonstration of no additional benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy on pain and function should lead to a change in clinical care of patients with a degenerative meniscus tear. The results of this study will provide empirical evidence for the potential benefit/harm of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared to a masked sham-therapeutics intervention. Trial registration NCT01264991 PMID

  19. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödinger, E.

    2011-02-01

    Preface; Part I. The de Sitter Universe: 1. Synthetic construction; 2. The reduced model: geodesics; 3. The elliptic interpretation; 4. The static frame; 5. The determination of parallaxes; 6. The Lemaître-Robertson frame; Part II. The Theory of Geodesics: 7. On null geodesics; i. Determination of the parameter for null lines in special cases; ii. Frequency shift; 8. Free particles and light rays in general expanding spaces, flat or hyperspherical; i. Flat spaces; ii. Spherical spaces; iii. The red shift for spherical spaces; Part III. Waves in General Riemannian Space-Time: 9. The nature of our approximation; 10. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory in a gravitational field; 11. Procuring approximate solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation from wave theory; Part IV. Waves in an Expanding Universe: 12. General considerations; 13. Proper vibrations and wave parcels; Bibliography.

  20. University lobbying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  1. Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed. PMID:24757668

  2. Open University

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-18

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  3. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  4. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the exact-exchange kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Bleiziffer, Patrick Krug, Marcel; Görling, Andreas

    2015-06-28

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, employing the frequency-dependent exact exchange kernel f{sub x} is presented. The resulting SC-exact-exchange-only (EXX)-ACFD method leads to even more accurate correlation potentials than those obtained within the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). In contrast to dRPA methods, not only the Coulomb kernel but also the exact exchange kernel f{sub x} is taken into account in the EXX-ACFD correlation which results in a method that, unlike dRPA methods, is free of self-correlations, i.e., a method that treats exactly all one-electron systems, like, e.g., the hydrogen atom. The self-consistent evaluation of EXX-ACFD total energies improves the accuracy compared to EXX-ACFD total energies evaluated non-self-consistently with EXX or dRPA orbitals and eigenvalues. Reaction energies of a set of small molecules, for which highly accurate experimental reference data are available, are calculated and compared to quantum chemistry methods like Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) or coupled cluster methods [CCSD, coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))]. Moreover, we compare our methods to other ACFD variants like dRPA combined with perturbative corrections such as the second order screened exchange corrections or a renormalized singles correction. Similarly, the performance of our EXX-ACFD methods is investigated for the non-covalently bonded dimers of the S22 reference set and for potential energy curves of noble gas, water, and benzene dimers. The computational effort of the SC-EXX-ACFD method exhibits the same scaling of N{sup 5} with respect to the system size N as the non-self-consistent evaluation of only the EXX-ACFD correlation energy; however, the prefactor increases significantly. Reaction energies from the SC-EXX-ACFD method deviate quite little from EXX-ACFD energies obtained non

  5. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS4 and KInSnS4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Ten AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS4(1-β), RbInGeS4(2), CsInGeS4(3-β), TlInGeS4(4-β), RbInSnS4(8-β) and CsInSnS4(9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa2S4 structure and CsInGeS4(3-α) and TlInGeS4(4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS4 structure have tetrahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS4(5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS4(6), KInSnS4(7), RbInSnS4(8-α) and TlInSnS4(10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. NaInSnS4(6) and KInSnS4(7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases.

  6. Purdue University

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.; Grabowski, Z.; Mayer, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    The Purdue University group, including several thesis students, is working on a measurement of high-spin nuclear states at ATLAS. They use in-beam gamma-ray techniques to investigate several aspects of nuclear structure at high spin, testing the validity of shell-model calculations for high-spin-yrast states near Z = 50. The nuclei are produced via deep inelastic reactions, rather than with the more conventional fusion reactions. This technique allows the study of neutron-rich nuclei that cannot be studied by other means. The group is studying proton-rich nuclei with N{approximately}82 using the FMA and an electron spectrometer. Furthermore, D. Nisius is a Ph.D. student, resident at ANL, performing his thesis work under the supervision of R.V.F. Janssens.

  7. Coupling multiscale X-ray physics and micromechanics for bone tissue composition and elasticity determination from micro-CT data, by example of femora from OVX and sham rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasslinger, Patricia; Vass, Viktoria; Dejaco, Alexander; Blanchard, Romane; Örlygsson, Gissur; Gargiulo, Paolo; Hellmich, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Due to its high resolution, micro-CT (Computed Tomograph) scanning is the key to assess bone quality of sham and OVX (ovariectomized) rats. Combination of basic X-ray physics, such as the energy- and chemistry-dependence of attenuation coefficients, with results from ashing tests on rat bones, delivers mineral, organic, and water volume fractions within the voxels. Additional use of a microelastic model for bone provides voxel-specific elastic properties. The new method delivers realistic bone mass densities, and reveals that OVX protocols may indeed induce some bone mass loss, while the average composition of the bone tissue remains largely unaltered.

  8. Role of Auriculotherapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Anxiety in University Students.

    PubMed

    Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Moura, Caroline de Castro; Côrrea, Bruna; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Silva, Andreia Maria; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG) activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMDs (RDC/TMDs), and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA) group (n = 31) and an AA sham group (n = 13). The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week). Results. Anxiety (p < 0.01) was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p = 0.04) and in the right side of the submandibular region (p = 0.02). Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p ≤ 0.01) and in the left side of the ATM (p < 0.01). In addition, electromyographic (EMG) activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs. PMID:26495012

  9. Role of Auriculotherapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Anxiety in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Moura, Caroline de Castro; Côrrea, Bruna; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Silva, Andreia Maria; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG) activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMDs (RDC/TMDs), and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA) group (n = 31) and an AA sham group (n = 13). The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week). Results. Anxiety (p < 0.01) was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p = 0.04) and in the right side of the submandibular region (p = 0.02). Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p ≤ 0.01) and in the left side of the ATM (p < 0.01). In addition, electromyographic (EMG) activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs. PMID:26495012

  10. Use of existing data for public health planning: a study of the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    al-Owais, A.; al-Suwaidi, K.; Amiri, N.; Carter, A. O.; Hossain, M. M.; Sheek-Hussein, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is of major public health importance. Accurate information on its occurrence, with particular reference to the prevalence of immunity and chronic infection (marked by the presence of hepatitis B core antibody and surface antigen, respectively, in serum), is essential for planning public health programmes for the control of the disease. The generation of marker prevalence data through serological surveys is costly and time-consuming. The present study in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, investigated the possibility of obtaining sufficiently accurate marker prevalence estimates from existing data to plan public health programmes. METHODS: Two antenatal screening databases, one student serological survey database, one immunization programme database and one pre-marriage screening database containing information on marker prevalence were identified. Epidemiological data were abstracted from these databases and analysed. RESULTS: The data showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and the prevalence of core antibody in young citizens in 1998 were approximately 2% and 14% respectively, that any immunization campaign aimed at citizens of the United Arab Emirates should target teenagers as they had the highest risk of acquiring the disease, and that pre-immunization screening of young adults would be wasteful. However, the data did not yield information on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in other population subgroups of public health significance. DISCUSSION: While data generated by the study are sufficient to support a hepatitis B immunization programme targeted at teenaged citizens, more accurate data, generated by a well-designed serological survey, would be essential for optimal public health planning. PMID:11143192

  11. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT-p < 0.001, KT-p < 0.001, and sham-p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  12. University Handbook. University of Wisconsin, Whitewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Whitewater.

    The University of Wisconsin-Whitewater's handbook is divided into major sections dealing with: the university; business services; university services; student matters; curricular matters; and personnel matters. Various topics are covered, including: tuition for senior citizens, medical insurance, risk management, degree requirements, student…

  13. Perceived Comfort and Blinding Efficacy in Randomised Sham-Controlled Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Trials at 2 mA in Young and Older Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Paulmann, Silke; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Background tDCS studies typically find that: lowest levels of comfort occur at stimulation-onset; young adult participants experience less comfort than older participants; and participants’ blinding seems effective at low current strengths. At 2 mA conflicting results have been reported, questioning the effectiveness of blinding in sham-controlled paradigms using higher current strengths. Investigator blinding is rarely reported. Objective Using a protocol with 30 min of 2 mA stimulation we sought to: (a) investigate the level of perceived comfort in young and older adults, ranging in age from 19 to 29 years and 63 to 76 years, respectively; (b) test investigator and participant blinding; (c) assess comfort over a longer stimulation duration; (d) add to the literature on protocols using 2 mA current strength. Methods A two-session experiment was conducted where sham and active stimulation were administered to the frontal cortex at the F8/FP1 sites in a within-subjects manner. Levels of perceived comfort were measured, using a visual analogue scale, at the start and end of stimulation in young and older adults. Post-stimulation, participants and investigators judged whether or not active stimulation was used. Results Comfort scores were lower at stimulation onset in both age groups. Older adults reported: (i) more comfort than young participants overall; (ii) comparable levels of comfort in sham and active stimulation; (iii) significantly more comfort than the young participants during active stimulation. Stimulation mode was correctly identified above chance in the second of the two sessions; 65% of all participants correctly identified the stimulation mode, resulting in a statistical trend. Similarly, the experimenter correctly identified stimulation mode significantly above chance, with 62% of all investigator judgements correct across 120 judgements. Conclusions Using 2 mA current strength over 30 minutes, tDCS stimulation comfort is lower at stimulation onset

  14. Educational outcomes associated with providing a comprehensive guidelines program about nursing care of preterm neonates receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Al-Rafay, Safy S; Al-Sharkawy, Sabah S

    2012-05-01

    Poor understanding or practice of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) causes devastating complications. Therefore, good Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nursing care for preterm neonates and close monitoring of complications is essential for successful TPN therapy. The study was conducted in NICU at Ain Shams University Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, using a quasi-experimental research design with prepost intervention assessments. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire sheet and an observation checklist (prepost format) and developed a comprehensive guidelines program about nursing care of TPN of preterm neonates. Results revealed that the program had a significant positive impact on nurses' knowledge and practice outcomes.

  15. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  16. Motivating University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a…

  17. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  18. Gambling with the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  19. The Latin American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by Mario Gongora;…

  20. What Are Good Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Raewyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how we can arrive at a concept of the good university. It begins with ideas expressed by Australian Vice-Chancellors and in the "league tables" for universities, which essentially reproduce existing privilege. It then considers definitions of the good university via wish lists, classic texts, horror lists, structural…

  1. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  2. University-Community Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1986-01-01

    Common issues in university-community relationships, such as neighborhood problems and their solutions, facility expansion, traffic and parking, crime, housing, recreation facilities, and city services, are discussed. Findings from a study of the university-community relationship at Ohio State University are outlined. (MSE)

  3. Sierra University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  4. Our Listless Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Students in the best universities do not believe in anything, and those universities are doing nothing about it. The great questions--God, freedom, and immortality--hardly touch the young. The universities have no vision, no view of what a human being must know in order to be considered educated. (MLW)

  5. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  6. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  7. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  8. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  9. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  10. Probiotics in dentistry: A boon or sham

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rahul; Mathur, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary supplements, which have been advocated for the prevention and the treatment of a wide range of diseases. These products consist of beneficial micro-organisms, which stimulate health promoting flora thus, suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Since, probiotics are now widely used in both medical (such as cancer risk reduction, gastrointestinal tract health, and urinary tract health) and dental specialties (reduction in caries development, in achieving periodontal health, reducing oral malodor, etc.), a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits are essential. This review focuses on the recent trends in use of probiotics in dentistry as well as the potential risks associated with them. PMID:24019796

  11. Strong correlation in Kohn-Sham DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet Giralt, Francesc; Mirtschink, André; Cremon, Jonas; Mendl, Christian; Giesbertz, Klaas; Reimann, Stephanie; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Mathematical Physics, Lund University Collaboration; Mathematics Department, Technische Universität München Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge on the strong-interacting limit of density functional theory can be used to construct exchange- correlation functionals able to address strongly-correlated systems without introducing any symmetry breaking. We report calculations on semiconductor nanostructures and one-dimensional models for chemical systems, showing that this approach yields quantitatively good results in both the weakly- and the strongly-correlated regimes, with a numerical cost much lower than the traditional wavefunction methods. This work has been supported by a VIDI grant of the NWO and a Marie Curie grant within the FP7 programme.

  12. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  13. Evaluation of the Immediate Effect of Auricular Acupuncture on Pain and Electromyographic Activity of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andréia Cristina de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; dos Santos, Douglas Meira; Melo, Nivea Cristina De; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amorim, César Ferreira; Politti, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of auricular acupuncture (AA) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius muscle and pain in nonspecific neck pain (NS-NP) patients. Twelve patients with NS-NP (NS-NP group) and 12 healthy subjects (HS Group) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Each subject received a single session of AA and sham AA (SAA). Surface EMG activity was measured in the upper trapezius muscle at different “step contractions” of isometric shoulder elevation (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% MVC). The outcome measure in patients with NS-NP was based on the numerical pain rating scale (NRS). AA treatment led to a significant decrease in EMG activity in both groups (NS-NP group: p = 0.0001; HS group: p < 0.0001—ANOVA test). This was not the case for the SAA treatment (NS-NP group: p = 0.71; HS group: p < 0.54). Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the NRS were found for both treatments (AA and SAA). This study demonstrated the immediate effect of auricular acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle but the effect of this intervention on pain symptoms in patients with nonspecific neck pain was inconclusive. PMID:26451155

  14. Evaluation of the Immediate Effect of Auricular Acupuncture on Pain and Electromyographic Activity of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andréia Cristina de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Dos Santos, Douglas Meira; Melo, Nivea Cristina De; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amorim, César Ferreira; Politti, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of auricular acupuncture (AA) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius muscle and pain in nonspecific neck pain (NS-NP) patients. Twelve patients with NS-NP (NS-NP group) and 12 healthy subjects (HS Group) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Each subject received a single session of AA and sham AA (SAA). Surface EMG activity was measured in the upper trapezius muscle at different "step contractions" of isometric shoulder elevation (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% MVC). The outcome measure in patients with NS-NP was based on the numerical pain rating scale (NRS). AA treatment led to a significant decrease in EMG activity in both groups (NS-NP group: p = 0.0001; HS group: p < 0.0001-ANOVA test). This was not the case for the SAA treatment (NS-NP group: p = 0.71; HS group: p < 0.54). Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the NRS were found for both treatments (AA and SAA). This study demonstrated the immediate effect of auricular acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle but the effect of this intervention on pain symptoms in patients with nonspecific neck pain was inconclusive.

  15. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p < 0.001, KT—p < 0.001, and sham—p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  16. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  17. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  18. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest…

  19. Is our Universe natural?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Sean M

    2006-04-27

    It goes without saying that we are stuck with the Universe we have. Nevertheless, we would like to go beyond simply describing our observed Universe, and try to understand why it is that way rather than some other way. When considering both the state in which we find our current Universe, and the laws of physics it obeys, we discover features that seem remarkably unnatural to us. Physicists and cosmologists have been exploring increasingly ambitious ideas in an attempt to explain how surprising aspects of our Universe can arise from simple dynamical principles.

  20. The Chinese Television University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)

  1. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design…

  2. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  3. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  4. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  5. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl Jaspers and…

  6. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  7. Talent Management for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  8. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  9. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  10. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  11. Universals, Typologies and Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    Two questions are raised: Is it possible to characterize the notion human language in terms of absolute and typological universals? And if so, what is the relationship between these universals and those formulated for primary languages? Given these questions, the purpose of the paper is to: (1) investigate some of the methodological considerations…

  12. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  13. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  14. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  15. The Kept University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Eyal; Washburn, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Examines the trend of increasing collaboration between American universities and corporations, including issues such as the academic-industrial complex, secrecy and science, the university as a business/commercial enterprise, who controls the research agenda, downsizing the humanities, and on-line marketing of course material. Expresses concerns…

  16. Faculty Handbook, Stanford University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    University policies, regulations, and procedures that apply to faculty members directly or indirectly, as well as the university's organization and governance, are described in the 1975 handbook. A brief history of Stanford's academic development and a bibliography to other information sources related to academic affairs are also provided.…

  17. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  18. Universal Playground Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This publication presents principles of universal playgrounds, designed to maximize accessibility for all children, with and without disabilities. First, the rationale for the universal playground is given including the importance of play and the value of integration. Next current guidelines for playground design are discussed including safety,…

  19. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  20. [The University in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Morris B.

    The university reflects the revolution in the world. Large numbers of "find out" students are not goal oriented and are affected by malaise; many approve of the use of violence in certain situations. Part of the revolution must be accepted and part rejected. The university is extremely vulnerable to violence and, unless it is contained, American…

  1. Biotechnology and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofsy, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Biotechnology is changing the values of the university's bioscience community. Priorities are distorted by entrepreneurial incentives and government pressures that increase the scientist's dependence on industry and the military. The university is seen as inattentive to the social, ethical, and educational challenges. (Author/MLW)

  2. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  3. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  4. Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jérôme

    2006-11-01

    We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.

  5. Evolution of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. D.

    The underlying principles and discoveries of cosmology are presented in a qualitative form. The General Theory of Relativity is the basis for the science of the structure of the Universe, and Friedmann in 1922-4 demonstrated that the Universe is either expanding or contracting; Hubble in 1929 provided evidence for expansion. The physical processes of the evolution of the Universe to date have been projected to include origins in a superdense, superhot state with violent reactions between elementary particles. The resulting matter fragmented into the stellar systems and agglomerations presently observed. Observational data of the most distant galaxies now covers a range of 10 Gpc. Current studies focus on the missing matter in the Universe and the mean density of matter, the gravitation of vacuum, relict radiation from the Big Bang, the curvature of space-time, and theories for the earliest moments of the Universe, including pancake theories, the synthesis of light elements, and black and white holes.

  6. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  7. The Transient Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin John

    When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

  8. Do Practical Standard Coupled Cluster Calculations Agree Better than Kohn–Sham Calculations with Currently Available Functionals When Compared to the Best Available Experimental Data for Dissociation Energies of Bonds to 3d Transition Metals?

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuefei; Zhang, Wenjing; Tang, Mingsheng; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-05-12

    Coupled-cluster (CC) methods have been extensively used as the high-level approach in quantum electronic structure theory to predict various properties of molecules when experimental results are unavailable. It is often assumed that CC methods, if they include at least up to connected-triple-excitation quasiperturbative corrections to a full treatment of single and double excitations (in particular, CCSD(T)), and a very large basis set, are more accurate than Kohn–Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). In the present work, we tested and compared the performance of standard CC and KS methods on bond energy calculations of 20 3d transition metal-containing diatomic molecules against the most reliable experimental data available, as collected in a database called 3dMLBE20. It is found that, although the CCSD(T) and higher levels CC methods have mean unsigned deviations from experiment that are smaller than most exchange-correlation functionals for metal–ligand bond energies of transition metals, the improvement is less than one standard deviation of the mean unsigned deviation. Furthermore, on average, almost half of the 42 exchange-correlation functionals that we tested are closer to experiment than CCSD(T) with the same extended basis set for the same molecule. The results show that, when both relativistic and core–valence correlation effects are considered, even the very high-level (expensive) CC method with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple cluster operators, namely, CCSDT(2)Q, averaged over 20 bond energies, gives a mean unsigned deviation (MUD(20) = 4.7 kcal/mol when one correlates only valence, 3p, and 3s electrons of transition metals and only valence electrons of ligands, or 4.6 kcal/mol when one correlates all core electrons except for 1s shells of transition metals, S, and Cl); and that is similar to some good xc functionals (e.g., B97-1 (MUD(20) = 4.5 kcal/mol) and PW6B95 (MUD(20) = 4.9 kcal/mol)) when the same basis set is used

  9. University Presses: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Robert B.

    Historical information on university presses and their problems are considered. University presses in the United States have their roots in 15th century England when the Oxford University Press was established in 1478. The first U.S. press to use the term "university press" was Cornell University; the press operated from 1869 until it was closed…

  10. Profiting from University Research: Tapping into University Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that industry sponsored research in the university environment is increasing. Lists reasons for companies to use university research. Notes 1980 Baigh-Dole Bill which allows the university first rights to technologies they develop. (MVL)

  11. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  12. California's "Free" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  13. Improved universal electrical connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Universal electrical connector for use with various types of electric cable, inserts, and pin styles is described. Connector may be used over variety of environmental conditions. Details of construction are discussed. Illustrations of connector are included.

  14. Evaluation of University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1979-01-01

    Faculty evaluation guidelines, which have been in effect for five years at North Carolina State University's School of Education, are described. Outcomes of this system are summarized, as well as some of the problems associated with it. (GDC)

  15. Institutional Strategies: Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    The planning process, objectives, and procedures used by Duke's chancellor during the retrenchment process are summarized. The emphasis was placed on enhancing the university's strengths while reducing costs and on enlisting faculty support and assistance in the change process. (MSE)

  16. Many Universes POSSIBLE!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pankaj K.

    An innovative scientific work on the evolution of the universe unravels a fresh phenomenon about the birth and evolution of a Big Bang. We see why Big Bang is not the earliest evolutionary stage of the universe rather it is necessarily just a part of the Universe which couldn't be revered more than a womb for clusters. SYNTESIS: The Big Bang starts from a black hole i.e. prior to Big Bang there was a black hole and there is expected a number of Big Bang in the universe going similar to our Big Bang and the whole process of the expansion and contraction of the Big Bang as described in the paper.

  17. Universality in string interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-09-01

    In this note, we provide evidence for universality in the low-energy expansion of tree-level string interactions. More precisely, in the α'-expansion of tree-level scattering amplitudes, we conjecture that the leading transcendental coefficient at each order in α' is universal for all perturbative string theories. We have checked this universality up to seven points and trace its origin to the ability to restructure the disk integrals of open bosonic string into those of the superstring. The accompanying kinematic functions have the same low-energy limit and do not introduce any transcendental numbers in their α'-corrections. Universality in the closed-string sector then follows from KLT-relations.

  18. University/industry research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The problems encountered in mixing industrial and university research goals can be major, but so can the benefits. The National Science Board (NSB) recently released a report on “University-Industry Research Relationships: Selected Studies” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983). It is an analysis of the much-discussed new trend toward increased industrial funding of university research projects.University laboratories cannot generally solve industry's R&D problems. Success for the corporation in sponsoring academic research is realized in the value of cooperative research programs as training exercises for future industrial scientists. An occasional patent arising from such a project is considered an added benefit, not a primary goal.

  19. Berkeley College, Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the controversial architectural technique of combining contemporary features with traditional designs at Yale University's Berkeley College, and discusses whether there is a place for this type of juxtaposition in architectural design. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  20. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  1. Physics of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Mendel

    ch. 1. Physics of the universe. Introduction. Is Newton's theory an explanation of gravity? The expanding universe. The oscillating universe cosmology. The theory of general relativity. The role of space and time. Geometry and matter. Generalization of Einstein's field equations. A unified field theory -- ch. 2. A language of cosmology: the mathematical basis of general relativity. Introduction. Einstein's tensor formulation. The Riemann curvature tensor. The geodesic equation. The vacuum equation. The crucial tests of general relativity. The logic of the spacetime language -- ch. 3. A unified field theory in general relativity: extension from the tensor to the quaternion language. Introduction. Factorization of Einstein's tensor field equations. The Riemann curvature tensor in quaternion form. The quaternion metrical field equations. A symmetric tensor-antisymmetric tensor representation of general relativity - gravity and electromagnetism. The Einstein field equations from the symmetric tensor part. The Maxwell field equations from the antisymmetric tensor part. Conclusions -- ch. 4. An oscillating, spiral universe cosmology. introduction. Dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the universe. Dynamics of the oscillating universe cosmology. Derivation of the Hubble law as an approximation. The spiral structure of the universe. Concluding remarks -- ch. 5. Dark matter. Introduction. The field equations and the ground state solution for the bound particle-antiparticle pair. Olber's paradox -- ch. 6. Concluding remarks. Black holes. Pulsars. On the human race and cosmology -- ch. 7. Philosophical considerations. On truth. Positivism versus realism, subjectivity versus objectivity. On Mach's influence in physics and cosmology. References and notes -- Postscript. Physics in the 21st century. Holism. The universe. The Mach principle and the origin of inertia from general relativity.

  2. The Endless Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Paul

    2003-09-24

    This talk will introduce the Cyclic Model of the Universe, a radical alternative to standard big bang/inflationary cosmology in which space and time exist indefinitely, high energy inflation is avoided, dark energy is given a prominent role, and the universe undergoes periodic epochs of expansion and cooling. The model, which is motivated by recent ideas in superstring theory, seems capable of reproducing all of the successes of the standard picture and leads to distinctive predictions.

  3. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  4. Decay of oscillating universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithani, Audrey Todhunter

    It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.

  5. The Low Temperature Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We are used to thinking of the universe as a hot place, full of bright stars, quasars, gamma ray bursts, and so on, emanating from a giant explosion-the Big Bang. However, the universe can also be a surprisingly cool place. It is permeated by a background radiation with a temperature close to that of liquid helium. This paper is based on a public lecture aimed at non-specialists.

  6. University contracts summary book

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The principal objectives of the Fossil Energy Program are to seek new ideas, new data, fundamental knowledge that will support the ongoing programs, and new processes to better utilize the nation's fossil energy resources with greater efficiency and environmental acceptability. Toward this end, the Department of Energy supports research projects conducted by universities and colleges to: Ensure a foundation for innovative technology through the use of the capabilities and talents in our academic institutions; provide an effective, two-way channel of communication between the Department of Energy and the academic community; and ensure that trained technical manpower is developed to carry out basic and applied research in support of DOE's mission. Fossil Energy's university activities emphasize the type of research that universities can do best - research to explore the potential of novel process concepts, develop innovative methods and materials for improving existing processes, and obtain fundamental information on the structure of coal and mechanisms of reactions of coal, shale oil, and other fossil energy sources. University programs are managed by different Fossil Energy technical groups; the individual projects are described in greater detail in this book. It is clear that a number of research areas related to the DOE Fossil Energy Program have been appropriate for university involvement, and that, with support from DOE, university scientific and technical expertise can be expected to continue to play a significant role in the advancement of fossil energy technology in the years to come.

  7. The University-Industry Relations of an Entrepreneurial University: The Case of the University of Twente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Frits

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Twente from a regional teaching university to a national research university, the "entrepreneurial university" of the Netherlands. Focuses on spinoffs from the university, an incubator in a business and science park and the generation of venture capital. Estimates the regional impact of such…

  8. University teaching - where next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    A one-day workshop will take place on 23 April 1999 at the University of Edinburgh's Conference and Training Centre to consider the topic `The future of university teaching? Multimedia, web and new technologies'. The workshop is being organized by Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre and will be attended by experts in distance learning from various institutions including the Clyde Virtual University and the Open University, plus a speaker from the USA. They will present case studies of the opportunities new technologies provide for higher education, covering all aspects from development of electronic courses through delivery mechanisms to user feedback. There is certainly an increasing need for quality teaching materials and new ways of learning. The workshop will aim to discuss how those involved in university teaching can benefit from new developments such as multimedia, the Internet, as well as new computing and networking technologies. Participation is free, with lunch and refreshments provided. More information and registration details can be found at http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/epcc-tec/JTAP/workshop/ or by e-mail to epcc-tec@epcc.ed.ac.uk.

  9. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  10. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  11. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  12. Music of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are quite familiar with what a supernova looks like — when these stars are destroyed in the most massive explosions in the universe, they leave their mark as one of the brightest objects in space, at least for several weeks. While the supernova can be seen, it cant be heard, as sound waves cannot travel through space. But what if the light waves emitted by the exploding star and other cosmological phenomena could be translated into sound? Thats the idea behind a Rhythms of the Universe, a musical project to sonify the universe by Grateful Dead percussionist and Grammy award-winning artist Mickey Hart that caught the attention of Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist George Smoot of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sounds courtesy of Keith Jackson. Images courtesy of NASA

  13. The Biological Universe Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic Evolution has been seen as leading to two possible world views: a physical universe in which life is rare or unique to Earth, and a biological universe, in which the processes of cosmic evolution commonly end in life. These two worldviews now hang in the balance, in the same way that the heliocentric and geocentric worldviews were in the balance four hundred years ago when Galileo wrote his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (1632). Astrobiology is the science that will decide which of the two modern astronomical worldviews is true. A third world view, the postbiological universe, is also possible and deserves more discussion. The confirmation of one of these worldviews will have profound implications for human destiny.

  14. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  15. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  16. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  17. The anamorphic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J. E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ''anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  18. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  19. The apparent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  20. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    2004-02-18

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain measurable phenomena, but not much larger. This allows the construction of a local ensemble of such universes, given modest extrapolations of the observed properties of the cosmos. We then assume that further out similar universes can be constructed, but with different standard model parameters, strongly correlated with the size in a definite way, where by size is meant the Hubble scale at late times. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes supporting life as we know it. The result allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Other possible implications of the assumptions made will be discussed, including a possible connection between the QCD vacuum structure and cosmological horizon structure. In all cases, our approach is as bottoms-up and as phenomenological as possible, suggesting that theories of the multiverse may eventually lay some claim of being scientific.

  1. The anamorphic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ``anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  2. Astrochemistry : The molecular universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen J.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.; Williams, David A.

    2002-04-01

    Helen J Fraser, Martin R S McCoustra and David A Williams present a simple guide to astrochemistry. Molecules play a fundamental role in many regions of our universe. The science where chemistry and astronomy overlap is known as astrochemistry, a branch of astronomy that has risen in importance over recent years. In this article we review the significance of chemistry in several astronomical years. IN this article we review the significance of chemistry in several astronomical environments including the early universe, interstellar clouds, starforming regions and protoplanetary disks. We discuss theoretical models, laboratory experiments and observational data, and present several recent and exciting results that challenge our perception of the ``molecular universe''.

  3. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  4. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  5. Understanding the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, George

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Steps to Astronomy: 1. The sky; 2. The origins of astronomy; 3. Gravity and orbits; 4. Light; 5. The astronomers' tools: telescopes and space probes; Part II. The Solar System: 6. Introducing the Solar System; 7. The inner Solar System; 8. The outer Solar System; 9. Smaller bodies in the Solar System; 10. Planets beyond the Solar System; Part III. Stars: 11. Our Sun; 12. A census of stars; 13. The formation of stars and planets; 14. Stellar structure; 15. Stellar evolution and death; Part IV. Galaxies and the Universe: 16. The Milky Way galaxy; 17. Galaxies; 18. Cosmology; 19. Life in the Universe; Index.

  6. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  7. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  8. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1996-09-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  9. The Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heacox, William D.

    2015-11-01

    Introducing the Universe; Part I. Conceptual Foundations: 1. Newtonian cosmology; 2. General relativity; 3. Relativistic cosmology; Part II. General Relativity: 4. General covariance; 5. Equivalence principle; 6. Space-time curvature; 7. Einstein field equations of gravitation; Part III. Universal Expansion: 8. Cosmological field equations; 9. Cosmography; 10. Expansion dynamics; Part IV. Expansion Models: 11. Radiation; 12. Matter; 13. Dark energy; 14. Observational constraints; 15. Concordance cosmological model; Part V. Expansion History: 16. Particle era; 17. Plasma era; 18. Galaxy era; 19. Afterword: the new modern cosmology; Part VI: Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  10. [Traditions of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Brazdzionyte, Julija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the dimensions of the traditions of the idea of the university that are relevant in our today's world--the autonomy of the university, education of a free and creative personality, and belonging to the unified space of studies--and to review the experience of Kaunas University of Medicine in the development of the traditions of university studies. The research object was university studies, and the methods applied in this research were analysis of literature and analysis of documents. The article consists of the introduction, two parts, and generalization. The first part discusses the autonomy of the university, the importance of liberal studies, and the influence of the European higher education and provides a generalized survey of the historical tradition of university studies in Lithuania. The second part of the article reviews the predominant factors that condition the development of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine: organization of studies and implementation of liberal studies realized through general university education subjects into the modern content of university studies. The generalization of the results of the performed analysis allows for stating that the contents and the organization of curricula and the ongoing reforms at Kaunas University of Medicine expand the continuity of the traditions of the European university education, highlight the idea of the university, and realize university studies that reflect modern global tendencies. PMID:17090986

  11. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  12. State University System of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some information about the State University System of Florida. The following are presented in this paper: (1) University Work Plans and Annual Reports; (2) State University System 2009 Annual Report; (3) Quick Facts: Planned New Degree Programs--2010 to 2013; (4) State University System Tuition Differential Summary, FY…

  13. Universal Design for Academic Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmen, John P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design (UD) can play a role in many aspects of academic life and is often thought of in the context of learning. However, this chapter focuses on the impact of UD on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that…

  14. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  15. Universals in the World's Musics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Jordania, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many decades of skepticism have prevented the field of musicology from embracing the importance of musical universals. When universals "have" been discussed, it has generally been in the form of meta-critiques about the concept of universals, rather than in positive proposals about actual universals. We present here a typology of four categories…

  16. The Urban University in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.

    The urban university has become the dominant institution of higher learning in America. Although the concept of university is in keeping with traditions in American higher education, there are major obstacles to the fulfillment of the urban university's purpose. The urban college and university have great potential in playing an increasingly…

  17. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  18. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  19. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  20. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  1. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  2. The Changing University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    This collection of papers investigates change and compares university education experiences worldwide, looking at it from the perspective of numbers of students, range of institutions, funding, institutional functions, boundaries, and directions, orientation of students and staff, and institutional change. After an introduction by Tom Schuler,…

  3. Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    Theories of scaling apply wherever similarity exists across many scales. This similarity may be found in geometry and in dynamical processes. Universality arises when the qualitative character of a system is sufficient to quantitatively predict its essential features, such as the exponents that characterize scaling laws. Within geomorphology, two areas where the concepts of scaling and universality have found application are the geometry of river networks and the statistical structure of topography. We begin this review with a pedagogical presentation of scaling and universality. We then describe recent progress made in applying these ideas to networks and topography. This overview leads to a synthesis that attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints. We also briefly review how scaling and universality have been applied to related problems in sedimentology-specifically, the origin of stromatolites and the relation of the statistical properties of submarine-canyon topography to the size distribution of turbidite deposits. Throughout the review, our intention is to elucidate not only the problems that can be solved using these concepts, but also those that cannot.

  4. Personnel Management. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual is one of 10 completed in the Ohio Management Improvement Program (MIP) during the 1971-73 biennium. In this project, Ohio's 34 public universities and colleges, in an effort directed and staffed by the Ohio Board of Regents, have developed manuals of management practices, in this case, concerning personnel management. Emphasis in this…

  5. University research in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The contributions which universities can make to aeronautical research projects are discussed. The activities of several facilities are presented to show the effectiveness of the educational and research programs. Reference is made to the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 which permits an exchange of federal agency personnel with state and local governments and with public and private higher education schools.

  6. College and University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Following an introductory discussion by E. J. Josey that provides a perspective on college and university libraries, the following essays are presented: (1) "Academic Library Planning--Definitions and Early Planning Studies in Academic Libraries" (Stanton F. Biddle); (2) "Academic Libraries and Academic Computing--Rationale for a Modern Marriage"…

  7. Mobility of University Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This study deals with interuniversity mobility. Part I examines the harmonization of action taken to encourage mobility, the removal of legislative and statutory obstacles to mobility, the simplification of university staff regulations and careers, and incentives to mobility. Part II describes the ideas and activities of UNESCO, the Council of…

  8. Highbrows in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Adriaan; Van Den Berg, Muriel

    2004-01-01

    Is it still possible to combine two programmes of study in higher education, and if so, what are the characteristics of these double-students and what kind of obstacles do they face? In the Netherlands, about 10 percent of students in university education take two studies at the same time. Different theoretical approaches offer hypotheses to…

  9. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  10. Creating Adaptable Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2010-01-01

    Shifting demographics, rising costs of operations, a changing competitive landscape, reductions in state appropriations, pressures for accountability, and a widespread economic decline characterize the environment in which today's colleges and universities operate. This article examines some of the current responses to these challenges and…

  11. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  12. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  13. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion…

  14. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  15. Islamist Movement Challenges Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisian and Egyptian universities, scholars face a growing Islamist resolve to remake their countries on the basis of religious principles. Both Tunisia and Egypt face questions that could affect higher education across the Middle East and North Africa: Can their new Islamist governments spread conservative religious values and also create…

  16. [Harvard University Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, David E.

    A series of three papers on the Harvard University Archives is presented. The first paper gives the history of the Archives and describes the collections. The second paper deals with the accessioning and preservation of records. The third paper describes the reference service. In each paper the particular description of the Harvard University…

  17. Discovering the Invisible Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of radio waves, infrared, and x-rays and their importance in describing the universe and its origins is discussed. Topics include radio waves from space, the radio pioneers of World War II, radio telescopes, infrared radiation, satellites, space missions, and x-ray telescopes. (KR)

  18. Universities in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Universities often seem to be far more concerned about their international connections than their local relationships. The local context seems not to matter much either to their jetsetting vice-chancellors or to their lecturers and researchers under pressure to get papers published in obscure journals. That is how it may seem, but it is not…

  19. [University of California Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Carol S.

    The historical development of the University of California Archives is traced. In 1929 the U.S. Bureau of the Budget foresaw the need to develop a method to rapidly separate valuable from routine documents and to establish guidelines for the evaluation of records. Records management -- a system to store, service, analyze, and weed documents -- has…

  20. Entropy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  1. Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal

    2010-06-15

    We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.

  2. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  3. Teaching Geomorphology at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David; Hamilton, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphology courses in British universities emphasize the main landform/process systems rather than more abstract concepts. Recommends a more theoretical focus on fundamental geomorphic processes and methodological problems. Available from: Faculty of Modern Studies, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford OX3 OBP, England. (Author/AV)

  4. University Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, John Bruce; Lewis, Steven

    This report is of an omnibus survey of campus attitudes conducted by the Survey Research Center (SRC) of the State University of New York at Buffalo. Its primary purpose was to provide accurate information as a basis for effective decisions by institutional policy makers. A random sample of 326 students, 98 faculty, and 95 staff participated in…

  5. Howard University Bookstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxon, Hazel Carter; Negron, Jaime

    1977-01-01

    Two full-time university bookstores, with three satellites helping during rush period, serve the Howard students and faculty. Solutions to problems of space, acquiring used books, and communications with faculty members are discussed, and the successful retailing of black studies books is described. (LBH)

  6. Evolution of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel

    2006-04-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a scientific revolution that is establishing its lasting foundations. The good agreement between many different sorts of observations and the predictions of the now-standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory gives us hope that this is humanity's first picture of the history of the universe as a whole that might actually be true. An unexpected feature of this new picture is that we humans appear to be central or special in many ways -- for example, we are made of the rarest stuff in the universe (stardust); we are intermediate in size between the smallest possible size (the Planck length) and the largest size (the cosmic horizon); and we are living at a pivotal time: the period in the history of the universe when its expansion began to accelerate rather than slow down, and in the middle of the ten-billion-year lifetime of our solar system and of the billion year most habitable period of our planet, and at what must be the end of the exponential growth of human impact on the earth. This talk will review key observations that support modern cosmology, describe some symbolic ways of understanding the modern cosmos, and discuss some possible implications of a cosmic perspective for our 21st century worldview. Based on a new book, The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos, by Joel R. Primack and Nancy Ellen Abrams (Riverhead Books, April 2006).

  7. Universal nanopatternable interfacial bonding.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Garland, Shaun; Howland, Michael; Revzin, Alexander; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-12-01

    A nanopatternable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomer layer is demonstrated as an interfacial adhesive for its intrinsic transferability and universal adhesiveness. Utilizing the well-established surface modification and bonding techniques of PDMS surfaces, irreversible bonding is formed (up to 400 kPa) between a wide range of substrate pairs, representing ones within and across different materials categories, including metals, ceramics, thermoset, and thermoplastic polymers.

  8. The Universal Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul

    The compulsory system of education is criticized on the grounds that it has become a regimented "universal trap" antithetical to democracy. In contrast to the Jeffersonian concept of education in the service of citizen initiative for the preservation of freedom, current compulsory education is a tool of industrialism and of a rigidly stratified…

  9. University Libraries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    1986-01-01

    College and university libraries are experiencing change in the ways they provide services and in their responses to rising costs and reduced financial support. These conditions result from three major phenomena: the information explosion, the technology revolution, and escalating library costs. (MLW)

  10. University-linked localities

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; Gnani, Shamini

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose that reframing the old concept of ‘academic general practices’ as ‘university-linked localities’ will help to integrate the work of those leading commissioning, education, research and public health. It will provide a ‘playground’ for different disciplines to creatively interact for the benefit of all. PMID:26265944

  11. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  12. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  13. The University Needs "You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities need English education professors who know what it is to teach five classes a day, accommodate IEPs, and still take on extracurricular activities. They need English education professors who not only present at NCTE Annual Conventions, but who also want to be in schools talking to teachers on a regular basis. They need…

  14. Organizing University Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    During a period of projected declining enrollments some years ago, colleges and universities began looking to business and industry for models and methods to achieve stability and exhibit accountability. Zero-based budgeting, computerized record keeping, and planned-programmed-budgeting systems found their way to college campuses. A trend to…

  15. University Libraries in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    1986-01-01

    This profile of university libraries in Pakistan covers history of higher education and role of the library; organization of library service (strong central library, decentralized library service, central library with department libraries); resources and collection building; technical processing; readers' services; administration and staffing;…

  16. Reinventing the University Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Eric

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how librarians and university press staffers could cooperate to improve the scholarly communication system. Causes of system decline, the environment for cooperation, several change models, possible changes to the publish or perish tenure system, and the probability of a slow transition to a new scholarly communications model are…

  17. Mapping the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Galaxies congregate into clusters, clusters amass into superclusters and so on - at every observed scale, as astronomers build maps of the sky, they find matter organized into clumps. Yet taken as a whole, the texture of the universe is smooth, in keeping with theory. A new "music of the spheres" may explain how ordered structures emerged from the original smooth chaos.

  18. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J

    2004-04-09

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific.

  19. Masters of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Matt; Stock, Dave

    2010-08-01

    MEETING REPORT Massive stars make a profound impact on their surroundings, their galaxies and the evolution of the universe as a whole. Matt Austin and Dave Stock report on an RAS Discussion Meeting that considered current progress in understanding these complex stars.

  20. Homecoming at Atwater University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah M.; Van Pelt, Scott; Kingsak, Phoebe; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Atwater University (AU) administration is struggling with an increased number of student alcohol-related problems. In particular, during the annual homecoming parade, students are extremely intoxicated and belligerent toward alumni. The new dean of students is appalled by the condoned student behavior. He also received two complaint letters from…

  1. Overseas Universities 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, R. G., Ed.

    Educational policies and programs in overseas universities of developing nations are explored in a series of nine articles. In "Development and the Role of the Humanities," Sir Cyril Philips calls for a reconsideration of the role of the humanities in the educational policies of developing nations and international aid-giving agencies. Malcolm…

  2. Images of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Carole

    1991-11-01

    Images of the Universe is a special collection of essays written to celebrate astronomy and the inauguration of the British Astronomical Association. Colin Ronan opens the book with a fascinating account of developments over the past hundred years. Next, the solar system is explored by Richard Baum, John Rogers, Richard McKim, and Patrick Moore. Comets and meteors are explained by David Hughes. The stars, birthplace of the elements, are examined by Jacqueline Mitton and John Isles. Paul Murdin gives an account of the brightest supernova to be seen from Earth since 1604. Iain Nicolson explores G2, the single dwarf called the Sun. Heather Couper and Nigel Henbest look at the Milky Way, the hazy band of light that is the edge on view of our galaxy. Malcolm Longair looks beyond our own galaxy into the deep sky. Paul Davies gives an account of the first one second of the existence of our expanding Universe. How did it all happen? Martin Rees, the cosmologist, speculates on the origin of the Universe. The ensuing narrative by many famous astronomers and science writers is written at a general level and will be accessible to anyone with a passing interest in the astronomical wonders of our universe. Carole Stott is the author of The Greenwich Guide to Stargazing (1990), and The Greenwich Guide to Astronomy in Action (1990).

  3. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  4. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  5. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  6. Tax Reform & University Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  7. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  8. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  9. The Universe's First Fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster VersionFigure 1Figure 2

    This is an image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stars and galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation. This infrared image covers a region of space so large that light would take up to 100 million years to travel across it. Figure 1 is the same image after stars, galaxies and other sources were masked out. The remaining background light is from a period of time when the universe was less than one billion years old, and most likely originated from the universe's very first groups of objects -- either huge stars or voracious black holes. Darker shades in the image on the left correspond to dimmer parts of the background glow, while yellow and white show the brightest light.

    Brief History of the Universe In figure 2, the artist's timeline chronicles the history of the universe, from its explosive beginning to its mature, present-day state.

    Our universe began in a tremendous explosion known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (left side of strip). Observations by NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer and Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe revealed microwave light from this very early epoch, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, providing strong evidence that our universe did blast into existence. Results from the Cosmic Background Explorer were honored with the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics.

    A period of darkness ensued, until about a few hundred million years later, when the first objects flooded the universe with light. This first light is believed to have been captured in data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The light detected by Spitzer would have originated as visible and ultraviolet light, then stretched, or redshifted, to lower-energy infrared wavelengths during its long voyage to reach us across expanding space. The light detected by the

  10. Universe or Multiverse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Part I. Overviews: 1. Introduction and overview Bernard Carr; 2. Living in the multiverse Steven Weinberg; 3. Enlightenment, knowledge, ignorance, temptation Frank Wilczek; Part II. Cosmology and Astrophysics: 4. Cosmology and the multiverse Martin J. Rees; 5. The anthropic principle revisited Bernard Carr; 6. Cosmology from the top down Stephen Hawking; 7. The multiverse hierarchy Max Tegmark; 8. The inflationary universe Andrei Linde; 9. A model of anthropic reasoning: the dark to ordinary matter ratio Frank Wilczek; 10. Anthropic predictions: the case of the cosmological constant Alexander Vilenkin; 11. The definition and classification of universes James D. Bjorken; 12. M/string theory and anthropic reasoning Renata Kallosh; 13. The anthropic principle, dark energy and the LHC Savas Dimopoulos and Scott Thomas; Part III. Particle Physics and Quantum Theory: 14. Quarks, electrons and atoms in closely related universes Craig J. Hogan; 15. The fine-tuning problems of particle physics and anthropic mechanisms John F. Donoghue; 16. The anthropic landscape of string theory Leonard Susskind; 17. Cosmology and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics Viatcheslav Mukhanov; 18. Anthropic reasoning and quantum cosmology James B. Hartle; 19. Micro-anthropic principle for quantum theory Brandon Carter; Part IV. More General Philosophical Issues: 20. Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle Lee Smolin; 21. Making predictions in a multiverse: conundrums, dangers, coincidences Anthony Aguirre; 22. Multiverses: description, uniqueness and testing George Ellis; 23. Predictions and tests of multiverse theories Don N. Page; 24. Observation selection theory and cosmological fine-tuning Nick Bostrom; 25. Are anthropic arguments, involving multiverses and beyond, legitimate? William R. Stoeger; 26. The multiverse hypothesis: a theistic perspective Robin Collins; 27. Living in a simulated universe John D. Barrow; 28. Universes galore: where will it all end? Paul

  11. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  12. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughery, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  13. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  14. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  15. Mapping the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km/s are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the 'Great Wall' with a minimum extent of 60/h Mpc x 170/h Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s per Mpc. The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  16. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughery, Mike

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  17. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. PMID:17812575

  18. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  19. Our evolving universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    Our Evolving Universe is a lucid, non-technical and infectiously enthusiastic introduction to current astronomy and cosmology. Highly illustrated throughout with the latest colour images from the world's most advanced telescopes, it also provides a colourful view of our Universe. Malcolm Longair takes us on a breathtaking tour of the most dramatic recent results astronomers have on the birth of stars, the hunt for black holes and dark matter, on gravitational lensing and the latest tests of the Big Bang. He leads the reader right up to understand the key questions that future research in astronomy and cosmology must answer. A clear and comprehensive glossary of technical terms is also provided. For the general reader, student or professional wishing to understand the key questions today's astronomers and cosmologists are trying to answer, this is an invaluable and inspiring read.

  20. Beyond universal precautions.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1995-01-01

    Universal precautions have gained wide acceptance in the literature and are promoted by major health care regulatory bodies as a measure to prevent nosocomial transmission of bloodborne diseases. Nevertheless, Dr. James G. Wright and associates (see pages 1089 to 1095 of this issue) provide evidence of the infrequent use of universal precautions by surgeons in Toronto. Their findings are consistent with those of similar studies and point to the limitations of any safety approach that relies on the active compliance of individuals rather than on passive, environmental controls. Successful approaches to optimizing workplace safety should first emphasize passive measures for risk abatement, including firm policies, the use of safer equipment and techniques, procedural safeguards and regular monitoring. Routine voluntary screening of patients undergoing procedures that pose a high risk of contamination may improve compliance to safety procedures by health care personnel. Further study is required. PMID:7712416

  1. The universal Higgs fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Pier Paolo; Kannike, Kristjan; Masina, Isabella; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a `universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our `universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M h = 124 .4 ± 1 .6 GeV.

  2. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  3. Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.; Carnes, K.; Needham, V.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has fabricated the niobium resonators and some other linac components required for the superconducting accel/decel linac now in operation at Kansas State University. Several staff members from KSU spent a substantial period of time at ANL during FY 1985 in order to learn the technology, and they return occasionally to assemble and test the resonators. There is a continuing interchange of technical information between ANL and KSU related to linac operations, tuning, and resonator maintenance.

  4. Universal Stoppers Are Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard P.; Wetzel, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A stopper is called "universal" if it can be used to plug pipes whose cross-sections are a circle, a square, and an isosceles triangle, with the diameter of the circle, the side of the square, and the base and altitude of the triangle all equal. Echoing the well-known result for equal cubes that is attributed to Prince Rupert, we show that it is…

  5. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Welcome to Imagine the Universe! Contained on this CD-ROM you will find three astronomy and space science learning centers, individually captured from the World Wide Web in December of 2000. Each site contains its own learning adventure full of facts, fun, beautiful images, movies, and excitement. (1) Imagine The Universe: this site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (2) StarChild- a learning center for young astronomers: the 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles. This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (3) Astronomy Picture of the Day: APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2000 entries of this award-winning site and included them on the disk. The images and information provide a wonderful resource for all ages. This site can be viewed on-line at http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html.

  6. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Universal grating coupler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Flueckiger, Jonas; Lin, Charlie; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-10-01

    A universal design methodology for grating couplers based on the silicon-on-insultator platform is presented in this paper. Our design methodology accomodates various etch depths, silicon thickness (e.g., 220 nm, 300 nm), incident angles, and cladding materials (e.g., silicon oxide or air), and has been verified by simulations and measurement results. Further more, the design methodology presented can be applied to a wide range, from 1260 nm to 1675 nm, of wavelengths.

  8. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  9. A Universal Syntax Checker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, John Francis, III

    A universal syntax checker was constructed to be utilized with a text editor in a time-sharing environment. This syntax checker is a top-down, left-right, slow-back parser that will provide, when supplied the syntax of any language in the Backus-normal form, a syntax check for any string written in a language described. The procedure is capable of…

  10. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  11. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  12. Astronomy in Romanian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, Mihail

    In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

  13. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  14. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  15. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power.

  16. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  17. Universality and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

    The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

  18. The universal ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C.

    1998-01-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when "genetic temperatures" were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell "crystallized," i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of "cooling," with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  19. The Universal Oxygen Connector.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark A; Gombkoto, Rebecca L M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of using the Universal Oxygen Connector. Until now, an oxygen hose was only able to connect to a 22-mm fitting, such as those found on humidifiers used in the recovery room, and oxygen tubing was only able to connect to a Christmas tree type adapter. The Universal Oxygen Connector, manufactured and sold by International Medical, Inc (Burnsville, Minn), was developed to allow the practitioner to attach either a 22-mm oxygen hose, oxygen tubing, or a 15-mm oxygen adapter to the same connector. Patients benefit from the administration of supplemental oxygen in the perioperative period. Supplemental oxygen has been shown to decrease postoperative hypoxemia, infection, and in some cases, nausea and vomiting. As such, oxygen should be administered during transport from the operating room to the recovery room, in the recovery room, and at times during transport to the patient room and in the patient room. Oxygen also should be administered whenever a patient receiving oxygen is transported. Use of the Universal Oxygen Connector decreases material waste, decreases hospital costs, saves time and effort and, most importantly, promotes patient safety by providing a versatile system for oxygen delivery.

  20. Worth the Journey: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe: Bulletin of the AAUP, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Described is the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, which is the nation's largest museum devoted to archaeology and anthropology. Though not an art museum, the University Museum contains objects of artistic quality as well as artifacts that reveal whole cultures of such areas as the Near East, Mediterranean, and Egypt. (JMD)

  1. Who Should Go to University? Justice in University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben; Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Current debates regarding justice in university admissions most often approach the question of access to university from a technical, policy-focussed perspective. Despite the attention that access to university receives in the press and policy literature, ethical discussion tends to focus on technical matters such as who should pay for university…

  2. Green University Initiatives in China: A Case of Tsinghua University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wanxia; Zou, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China's green university pioneer, as a case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to…

  3. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  4. Critiquing Neoliberalism in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    While students chanting "No cuts, No fees, No corporate universities" may be dismissed as youthful hyperbole by some, it is not as superficial a characterisation of the state of our public university system as it seems.

  5. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  6. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"…

  7. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on what…

  8. A University of the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The term "open university" was coined by that visionary "seedsman" of reformist ideas Michael Young in an article for a 1962 number of "Where?" magazine. He proposed an "open university" to prepare people for external degrees at London University, with three key functions: (1) to organise new and better correspondence courses for the degree; (2)…

  9. Remembering the University of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Nineteen essays comprise this personal and historical look at the University of Utah and the relationship between the university, its people, and the community. Essays include: "One Cannot Live Long Enough to Outgrow a University" (Ramona Wilcox Cannon); "Ever in the Freshness of Its Youth" (G. Homer Durham); "The Final Payoff" (David W. Evans);…

  10. The Universality of Acquisitional Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salus, Peter H.

    This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…

  11. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  12. Industry Investment in University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldart, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Practical, political, and ethical issues result from industry investments in university research. These issues are discussed in terms of the commercialization of university research, challenge to academic integrity (considering academic freedom and government funding), and implications for the university (considering contracts, mergers,…

  13. Widening Participation in University Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara; Carrington, Suzanne; Bland, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports how one Australian university and the Queensland Department of Education and Training (DET) are working together to increase the number of school students from low socio-economic backgrounds enrolling in undergraduate university degrees. This innovative program involves university lecturers and school teachers working together…

  14. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs of…

  15. Flordia State University

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Frawley, A.; Myers, E.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne fabricated the niobium resonators and some auxiliary devices for the superconducting-linac energy booster built at Florida State University. Personnel from FSU came to ANL to assemble and test the resonators. The main resonator fabrication work for FSU was completed during 1986, but we continue to interact with personnel concerning ongoing refinements in the technology. Topics in which we were most recently involved are (1) a change in the method of cooling the FSU resonators and (2) the transfer of information about fast tuner upgrades. During the past year there was very little interaction.

  16. Journey Through the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2005-12-01

    Journey through the Universe held its first Journey Week January 21-28, 2005 in Hilo, Hawaii. This ambitious program uses the fi elds of space, earth science and exploration to engage communities with long-term connections to science, mathematics and technology. All content is aligned to state and national education standards. Last year, the Hawaii-based program trained 135 teachers, visited more than 120 classrooms, talked to more than 5,000 students and hosted three family science events for more than 2,500 people. In 2006 the program seeks to reach an additional 8,000 students in public, private and charter schools in North Hawaii.

  17. Optimal Universal Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Yunlong; Ma, Teng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Wang, Zhi-Xi

    2016-01-01

    We study universal uncertainty relations and present a method called joint probability distribution diagram to improve the majorization bounds constructed independently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230401 (2013)] and [J. Phys. A. 46, 272002 (2013)]. The results give rise to state independent uncertainty relations satisfied by any nonnegative Schur-concave functions. On the other hand, a remarkable recent result of entropic uncertainty relation is the direct-sum majorization relation. In this paper, we illustrate our bounds by showing how they provide a complement to that in [Phys. Rev. A. 89, 052115 (2014)]. PMID:27775010

  18. On separate universes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-10-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in ΛCDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary wavelength, a new result which in standard perturbation theory is equivalent to a relativistic second-order calculation. We show that nonlinear gravitational dynamics does not generate observable contributions that scale like local-type non-Gaussianity f{sup loc}{sub NL}, and hence does not contribute to a scale-dependent galaxy bias Δ b ∝ k{sup −2} on large scales; rather, the locally measurable long-short mode coupling assumes a form essentially identical to subhorizon perturbation theory results, once the long-mode density perturbation is replaced by the synchronous-comoving gauge density perturbation. Apparent f{sup loc}{sub NL}-type contributions arise through projection effects on photon propagation, which depend on the specific large-scale structure tracer and observable considered, and are in principle distinguishable from the local mode coupling induced by gravity. We conclude that any observation of f{sup loc}{sub NL} beyond these projection effects

  19. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  20. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.