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  1. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level.

  2. Colonization of burn wounds in Ain Shams University Burn Unit.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Salah; Mabrouk, Amr; Maher, Ashraf

    2003-05-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 70 burned patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, with the aim to verify the pattern of microbial colonization of burn wounds. Throughout the study period starting from 1 June 1999 till 31 May 2001, 281 sampling procedures (surface swabs) were performed from the burn wounds. A total of 301 microbial isolates were grown in cultures. Eight different species of bacteria, and only one species of Candida (C. albicans) were detected. There was no incidence of recovery of anaerobic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%), then Escherichia coli (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (11.6%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8.3%), Enterobacter species (6.6%), and lastly Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (5.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Studying the time-related changes in burn wound microbial colonization showed an initial predominance of gram-positive cocci upon admission (70.7%) over gram-negative bacilli (27.6%). During the first 5 days, gram-negative bacilli started to predominate (55.7%) over gram-positive cocci (40.3%). Burn wound sampling performed starting from the sixth day onwards, revealed further prevalence of gram-negative bacilli (72.7%) over gram-positive cocci (22.7%). As for Candida albicans, there was a gradual increase in the frequency of its recovery as time elapsed from admission. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  3. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  4. Incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy in Ain-shams University Maternity Hospital, Egypt: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ihab Serag; Gomaa, Ihab Adel; Fathi, Hisham Mohamed; Sukkar, Ghada Fathi Mahmoud

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy over 6 years in Ain-shams University Maternity Hospital. Detailed chart review of all cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomy, 2003-2008, including previous obstetric history, details of the index pregnancy, indications for emergency peripartum hysterectomy, outcome of the hysterectomy and infant morbidity. The overall rate of emergency peripartum hysterectomy was 149 of 66,306 or 2.24 per 1,000 deliveries. The primary indications for hysterectomies were placenta accreta/increta 59 (39.6 %), uterine atony 37 (24.8 %), uterine rupture 35 (23.5 %) and placenta previa without accreta 18 (12.1 %). After hysterectomy, 115 (77 %) women were admitted to the intensive care unit. Women were discharged home after a mean 11.2 day length of stay. Using multifactorial logistic regression analysis, we found that woman's age, atonic uterus, placenta accreta/increta, previous cesarian section and ruptured uterus were independent predictors for peripartum hysterectomy Abnormal placentation was the main indication for peripartum hysterectomy. The risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy were morbid adherence of placentae in scared uteri, uterine atony and uterine rupture. The most important step in prevention of major postpartum hemorrhage is recognizing and assessing women's risk. The risk of peripartum hysterectomy seems to be significantly decreased by limiting the number of cesarean section deliveries, thus reducing the occurrence of abnormal placentation in the form of placenta accreta, increta or percreta.

  5. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jehan M; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants' road crossing behaviors. Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together with modification of the traffic environment (such as

  6. Awareness of Breast Cancer among Female Students at Ain Shams University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Dina N. K.; Ghali, Ramy R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and early detection methods and to identify knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Ain Shams University female students. This is a descriptive cross sectional study. Most study participants had low level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The most widely known risk factors by the students were smoking 66.9%, followed by radiation to the chest 63.7% and genetic factors 63.7%. Most of the students (81.6%) identified breast lump as a symptom for breast cancer. However, non lump symptoms were less known and less than half were aware of other warning signs. Mass media such as TV and/or radio were identified as the main source of information on breast cancer by 89.1% of students followed by relatives 39.2%. Only 8.8% of students identified correctly the appropriate time to perform breast self examination and 1.3% reported performing it regularly every month. The most common reasons for not practicing BSE were” did not know how to perform it” (47.7%) and lack of interest (35%). The findings of this study showed that there is low level of knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs and BSE among female university students and that only few students practice BSE monthly. Health care workers should develop effective breast health programs targeting youth to help females to gain healthy habits starting very early during their formative years. PMID:24373275

  7. Awareness of breast cancer among female students at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Dina Nabih Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R

    2013-11-04

    The present study aimed to determine knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and early detection methods and to identify knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Ain Shams University female students. This is a descriptive cross sectional study.Most study participants had low level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The most widely known risk factors by the students were smoking 66.9%, followed by radiation to the chest 63.7% and genetic factors 63.7%. Most of the students (81.6%) identified breast lump as a symptom for breast cancer. However, non lump symptoms were less known and less than half were aware of other warning signs. Mass media such as TV and/or radio were identified as the main source of information on breast cancer by 89.1% of students followed by relatives 39.2%. Only 8.8% of students identified correctly the appropriate time to perform breast self examination and 1.3% reported performing it regularly every month. The most common reasons for not practicing BSE were" did not know how to perform it" (47.7%) and lack of interest (35%). The findings of this study showed that there is low level of knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs and BSE among female university students and that only few students practice BSE monthly. Health care workers should develop effective breast health programs targeting youth to help females to gain healthy habits starting very early during their formative years.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards self medication at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ezz, N F A; Ez-Elarab, H S

    2011-12-01

    Self medication is usually defined as intake of any type of drugs for treating oneself without professional supervision to relieve an illness or a condition. Self medication is an issue with serious global implications. In this study it was aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of self medication by the near coming physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of randomly selected medical students from Ain Shams University. Data was collected using self administered questionnaire. Verbal consent was ensured before applying the questionnaire. The Chi square was performed using SPSS 16 to identify associations and differences. The sample consisted of 300 students 67% females and 33% male students. Prevalence of self medication was 55%. Out of which 58.8%, 54.4%, 87.2%, 12%, 28% took antibiotic, vitamins, analgesics, sedatives, herbal products respectively without physician prescription. As regards the personal behavior towards following any prescription 14.4% always followed properly the prescription compared to 63.3% always discontinued the drug on feeling improvement, and 13.6% always repeated the prescription without seeking medical advice. Also 60% said that they increased the dose without medical advice. As regards the reported side effects 4.8%, 1.6%, 12% as a result of interaction between drugs, increase dose without medical advice and early stopping of treatment respectively. Self medication by medical students is an important issue to be avoided and need to be added to the curriculum of undergraduate students and raise the community awareness about these hazards and drawbacks.

  9. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jehan M.; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. Results: The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants’ road crossing behaviors. Conclusion: Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together

  10. Impact of life style on the nutritional status of medical students at Ain Shams University.

    PubMed

    Bakr, E M; Ismail, N A; Mahaba, H M

    2002-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of medical students and to determine its relation to their life style. The study involved 317 students at, Am Shams University. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, mid-arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness and body mass index were measured. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire including data about some life style factors and food-frequency consumption. The study revealed that 41.3% of the students were of normal weight while 9.5% of the sample were underweight, 36.9% were overweight and 12.5% were obese. The mean mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) of males was significant higher than that of females, while the mean triceps skin fold (TSF) of females was significant higher than that of males. The food frequency questionnaire analysis showed that most of students consume all food groups items faire. There was no statistical significant difference between the body mass index (BMI) of students and different types of food consumption. About two thirds of the students used to practice exercise, 26.9% of the students practiced exercise for less than 2 hours per week, while 33.9% of them for more than 2 hours. There was no statistical significant difference between the BMI of students and different types of exercise. However, there was significant higher percentage of males play sports and practice running (44.7% and 19.4% respectively) compared to (11.7% and 8.1%) of females. Sixty four percent of the students usually have regular meals. About 87.2% of obese compared to 64.9% of normal weight students eat snacks between meals, the difference was statistically significant. Obese individuals eat more during watching television and during feeling of stress compared to non-obese and the difference was statistically significant. The duration of practicing exercise, sports and playing computer was significantly higher

  11. Assessment of health literacy among outpatient clinics attendees at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Egypt: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almaleh, R; Helmy, Y; Farhat, E; Hasan, H; Abdelhafez, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of conducting this study is to measure health literacy (HL) and to investigate the factors associated with inadequate HL in a sample of outpatient clinics attendees (i.e. patients and companions) at Ain Shams University (ASU) Hospitals. It is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on 805 attendees of the outpatient clinics at El-Demerdash University Hospital of ASU Hospitals. The Arabic versions of the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire-short version-were used to assess HL. The level of HL and factors influencing it were analyzed using correlation and binary logistic regression tests. It was found that 81% of the participants had limited comprehensive health literacy (CHL; 34.3% inadequate and 46.7% problematic), while only 18.9% had sufficient CHL. Regarding functional health literacy (FHL), it was found that 84% had limited FHL (50.6% inadequate and 33.4% problematic), while only 16.1% had sufficient FHL. Females were more likely to have inadequate FHL. On the other hand, males, individuals with low educational levels, and attendees identified as patients as well as participants with inadequate FHL were more likely to have inadequate CHL. The majority of our study population has limited HL. Extensive research is warranted to explore the extent of the problem on multi-institutional and national levels and to investigate more explanatory factors. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines.

  13. Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University.

    PubMed

    El-Lamie, I K; Shehata, N A; Abou-Loz, S K; El-Lamie, K I

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of extended surgical staging in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in the presence of cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy. 16 patients aged between 13 and 40 years (mean 20.5) diagnosed and treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit. Ain Shams University, during the period from May 1994 to October 1999. Six patients were diagnosed with dysgerminoma, six with immature teratoma and four with endodermal sinus tumor. Only seven cases were primarily managed at the unit and were subjected to proper surgical staging as required by FIGO (two in each of the stages IC, IIC and IIIA and one in stage IV). However, the remaining nine cases were referred to the unit, six after having unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and no surgical staging, one patient after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO), and one with recurrent dysgerminoma in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum following suboptimal treatment. None of these cases were surgically re-explored and all including the first six cases were given the standard BEP chemotherapy for 4-6 courses (mean 5.8). Follow-up ranged from 7-72 months (mean 30.5). All patients are alive without any evidence of disease recurrence except for one patient with a stage IIIA immature teratoma who had a local and distant recurrence and is undergoing second-line chemotherapy. All patients have their menstrual function preserved except for three patients; one having 46,XX pure gonadal dysgenesis with a preoperative FSH level of 120 U/l and the eldest two patients having a TAH+BSO as they had completed their families. Three patients are currently pregnant. In view of the high chemosensitivity and curability of ovarian germ cell tumors and their occurrence in young patients, every effort should be made to preserve one ovary and the uterus for future reproduction even in advanced cases. The role of revisional surgical staging, in particular

  14. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  15. An epidemiologic study of the health status among elderly in Ain Shams Geriatric Unit.

    PubMed

    Aisha, A F; Fahim, H I; Gabal, M S; Ashour, M A

    1993-01-01

    A cross-sectional research was done aiming at the assessment of geriatric daily activities, gait and balance, besides assessment of different presentation of common diseases which occur commonly in the elderly. Special Geriatric Unit has been established in Ain Shams University Hospitals in 1984. This study included all those consulting that clinic in the period from January to April 1992. Out of 516 elderly, 270 (52.3%) were males and 246 (47.7%) were females and 478 (70%) of them were in the age group 60-70 years. Eating and wearing Clothes without help decreases with aging from 60-80 years (P < 0.001). Musculoskeletal functional disorders (joint pain and backpain) were the most frequent findings in both sexes (P < 0.001). Incontinence was the most prevalent genitourinary disorder among females Diabetes in combination with other diseases as hypertension and ischemic heart diseases was the most prevalent systemic disorder (28%). Therefore, it is recommended that these findings should be put into consideration for preventive gerontology.

  16. Allergenic Dermatophagoides mites causing asthma among schoolchildren at Ain-Shams District, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammad K

    2011-04-01

    The present study was performed on house dust samples collected from ten homes of schoolchildren suffering from asthma at Ain-Shams district, over a period of two years (2008 & 2009). The data revealed that the total annual density of the two allergenic mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) & Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was 202 individual mites with 22 asthmatic children in the first year, and individual mites increased to 268 with 36 asthmatic children in the second year. The two house dust mites were more abundant in bedrooms than in living ones (292 & 187 mites, respectively). The prevalence of the house dust mites on the mattresses and furniture were higher in bedrooms and living rooms than on the floors (340 & 140 mite, respectively). Winter season recorded the highest prevalence for both mites in the first and second year (87 & 110, respectively). Summer represented the lowest values (19 & 25, respectively).

  17. Assessing the level of breast cancer awareness among recently diagnosed patients in Ain Shams University Hospital.

    PubMed

    El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Youssef, Almoatazbellah; Alsara, Mohammad; Aly, Mohamed K; Mostafa, Mohamed; Yehia, Ahmed; Hurlbert, Marc; El-Tawab, Reda Abd; Mohamed, Mona M

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy among Egyptian women. The majority of Egyptian breast cancer patients present at late stages of the disease with a large tumor size compared to Western countries. Low breast cancer awareness, social and cultural factors were suggested to play crucial role in late presentation of breast cancer among Egyptians. The aim of our present study is to establish a questionnaire-based survey that can assess levels of breast cancer awareness among Egyptians. Patients enrolled were interviewed and answered 60 questions related to knowledge, symptoms, risk factors, prevention and management options of breast cancer. We evaluated our interactions with breast cancer patients and defined the level of awareness gained from education and culture of Egyptian women. Our results described that Egyptian breast cancer patients lack knowledge about their illness and condition. The lowest levels of awareness were related to age, education and culture. We concluded that breast cancer public awareness and women education programs covering factors identified in our study is warranted among Egyptian population. Overview To assess breast cancer awareness among recently diagnosed breast cancer Egyptian patients. Among 289 interviewed breast cancer patients we enrolled 45 patients who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. Participants were asked to answer a validated 60-item questionnaire that inquires about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, symptoms, prevention, general management and willingness to participate in awareness campaigns. The average of interview time was about 45 min, depending on patient's age and education level. The mean age of included patients was 48.2 ± 10.19 years. Geographical distribution revealed that 66.7% patients were from Cairo and the rest were from other governorates, including Aswan, Sharqia, Mansora, Qena, Kalyobia, Elminya and Sohag. Among interviewed patients 85% were non-working housewives, 42.2% of them were illiterate. Questions about knowledge of breast cancer revealed that 53.33% of patients knew an acquaintance with breast cancer; however, they spent a median time of 3 months to seek medical advice after recognizing the first symptom with a delay range between a month and 72 months. We found that 73% of the participants presented to a physician with the same first recognized symptom and 75.6% didn't think of cancer then as a possible diagnosis. Total breast cancer knowledge scores had an average of 13.3 (out of 35 knowledge points), with 93% of the patients recognizing "painless breast mass" as a breast cancer symptom and 44% only recognized the concept of breast self examination. Interestingly, 61.4% identified breastfeeding as a risk factor for breast cancer, 60% did not recognize mammography as an early detection method, and 57.7% agreed that clinical breast examination (CBE) is important for early detection. Regarding management, 75% said breast cancer was potentially curable and 60% said medical care could be helpful regardless the age of presentation. Egyptian breast cancer patients knew little about their condition. Less awareness was related to age and education level. Low knowledge of risk factors, early detection and management of breast cancer should be addressed by designing patient education programs, where less educated patients are supported by health care professionals to participate in the management of breast cancer. Moreover, we found that 67% and 97% of enrolled breast cancer patients were willing as well to participate in spreading awareness among their community and among their own families, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence, Etiology, and Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures in Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt: A 4-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Amr; Helal, Hesham; Mohamed, Abdel Rahman; Mahmoud, Nada

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a worldwide increase in maxillofacial trauma incidence; the pattern and etiology of these injuries varies from one country to another depending on socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors. This study aims to realize the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures in our department. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all facial trauma patients admitted to our department during 2009 to 2012. Patients' data including gender, age, etiology of trauma, the pattern and demographic distribution of fractures of maxillofacial skeleton, and associated injuries were analyzed and compared with previously published data. The chi-square test was used with a p value of less than 0.05, which was considered statistically significant. There is a significant increase in maxillofacial fractures incidence in the past 2 years than former ones. There is a male predominance with highest incidence in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Road traffic accident is the most common etiological factor followed by violence. There is increase in mandibular fracture incidence compared with midface. The significant increased incidence of maxillofacial fracture due to motor car accidents and assaults in the past 2 years reflects a behavioral change within the community. PMID:25136412

  19. Pattern of renal diseases among elderly Egyptians patients with acute or chronic renal diseases in Ain Shams University and Nasser Institute Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Adel M; Mady, Gamal E; Ahmad, Ahmad A; el-Shar-Kawy, Magdy E; Aly, Ahmad R; Khalil, Hazem H M

    2005-12-01

    This study among elderly renal Egyptian patients (n=220) with only 20 of them were subjected to renal biopsy. Results showed: diabetic nephropathy in 28.2%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 25.5%, UTI, cystitis and pyelonephritis in 6.8%, renal stones in 5.9%, obstructive uropathy in 7.6%, simple cysts in 4.5%, CRF of unknown origin in 13.1%, and others in 26.4%. DM and HTN were S related to kidney function tests and increase in elderly. Other cardiovascular risk factors and smoking are reported by previous workers to be HS related to renal diseases. Age was significantly related to GFR, BUN and Cr. but sex difference was not significantly related to renal diseases. Multiple myeloma, lupus nephritis, vasculitis and hepatitis B were all recorded in few numbers of elderly Egyptians. HCV was more common and more likely to cause renal diseases. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasound was confirmatory to clinical renal diseases diagnosis. Among patients (n=20) biopsies showed focal necrotizing GN in 20%, membranous nephropathy in 50% and renal amyloidosis in 30%. CTIN was associated in some cases due to NSAID intake. Analgesic nephropathy was a common problem that might lead to ARF in some cases especially in the elderly. Ultrasound results among the biopsy group were confirmatory to clinical diagnosis.

  20. Education and Modernization in Egypt. Selections from Seminars Organized by Ain Shams University, Cairo for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (1972 and 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah El-Din Kotb, Yusef, Ed.

    This book presents selections from seminars whose purpose was to provide American teacher educators and faculty from related disciplines with a first-hand exposure to the modernization process in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The analysis of this topic focuses on three major areas affected in the modernization process: education, culture, and…

  1. The Advanced TEFL Teacher-Training Practicum at Ain Shams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Describes an advanced training course for English teachers that attempts to help students reconsider and refocus their prior professional experience through sharing it with other professionals. Experience is reconsidered in the light of state-of-the-art understanding coming from linguistics and psychology. (Author)

  2. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  3. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  4. AinS quorum sensing regulates the Vibrio fischeri acetate switch.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sarah V; Mandel, Mark J; Ruby, Edward G

    2008-09-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate but, in a metabolic shift termed the acetate switch, they subsequently utilize the acetate, removing it from the medium. In contrast, an ainS mutant strain grown in this medium does not remove the excreted acetate, which accumulates to lethal levels. The acetate switch is characterized by the induction of acs, the gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, leading to uptake of the excreted acetate. Wild-type cells induce an acs transcriptional reporter 25-fold, coincident with the disappearance of the extracellular acetate; in contrast, the ainS mutant did not display significant induction of the acs reporter. Supplementation of the medium of an ainS mutant with octanoyl-HSL restored normal levels of acs induction and acetate uptake. Additional mutant analyses indicated that acs regulation was accomplished through the regulator LitR but was independent of the LuxIR quorum-signaling pathway. Importantly, the acs mutant of V. fischeri has a competitive defect when colonizing the squid, indicating the importance of proper control of acetate metabolism in the light of organ symbiosis. This is the first report of quorum-sensing control of the acetate switch, and it indicates a metabolic connection between acetate utilization and cell density.

  5. Sham Electroacupuncture Methods in Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Wen-ting; Zheng, Xia-wei; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2017-01-01

    Sham electroacupuncture (EA) control is commonly used to evaluate the specific effects of EA in randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). However, establishing an inert and concealable sham EA control remains methodologically challenging. Here, we aimed to systematically investigate the sham EA methods. Eight electronic databases were searched from their inception to April 2015. Ten out of the 17 sham EA methods were identified from 94 RCTs involving 6134 participants according to three aspects: needle location, depth of needle insertion and electrical stimulation. The top three most frequently used types were sham EA type A, type L and type O ordinally. Only 24 out of the 94 trials reported credibility tests in six types of sham EA methods and the results were mainly as follows: sham EA type A (10/24), type B (5/24) and type Q (5/24). Compared with sham EA controls, EA therapy in 56.2% trials reported the specific effects, of which the highest positive rate was observed in type N (3/4), type F (5/7), type D (4/6) and type M (2/3). In conclusion, several sham EA types were identified as a promising candidate for further application in RCTs. Nonetheless, more evidence for inert and concealable sham EA control methods is needed. PMID:28106094

  6. Rethinking the role of sham TMS

    PubMed Central

    Duecker, Felix; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approaches are widely used in basic and clinical research to ensure that observed effects are due to the intended neural manipulation instead of being caused by various possible side effects. We here critically discuss several methodological aspects of sham TMS. Importantly, we propose to carefully distinguish between the placebo versus sensory side effects of TMS. In line with this conceptual distinction, we describe current limitations of sham TMS approaches in the context of placebo effects and blinding success, followed by a short review of our own work demonstrating that the sensory side effects of sham TMS are not unspecific as often falsely assumed. Lastly, we argue that sham TMS approaches are inherently insufficient as full-fledged control conditions as they fail to demonstrate the specificity of TMS effects to a particular brain area or time point of stimulation. Sham TMS should therefore only complement alternative control strategies in TMS research. PMID:25767458

  7. Rethinking the role of sham TMS.

    PubMed

    Duecker, Felix; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approaches are widely used in basic and clinical research to ensure that observed effects are due to the intended neural manipulation instead of being caused by various possible side effects. We here critically discuss several methodological aspects of sham TMS. Importantly, we propose to carefully distinguish between the placebo versus sensory side effects of TMS. In line with this conceptual distinction, we describe current limitations of sham TMS approaches in the context of placebo effects and blinding success, followed by a short review of our own work demonstrating that the sensory side effects of sham TMS are not unspecific as often falsely assumed. Lastly, we argue that sham TMS approaches are inherently insufficient as full-fledged control conditions as they fail to demonstrate the specificity of TMS effects to a particular brain area or time point of stimulation. Sham TMS should therefore only complement alternative control strategies in TMS research.

  8. PPIs and kidney disease: from AIN to CKD.

    PubMed

    Moledina, Dennis G; Perazella, Mark A

    2016-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed and available over-the-counter, and are taken by millions of patients around the world, often for many months to years. While PPIs have an excellent overall safety profile, concerns have been raised about adverse renal events, specifically their association with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). While only a small proportion of patients develop AIN from PPIs, these drugs are now a common cause of drug-induced AIN in the developed world due to their widespread and prolonged use. PPI-induced AIN is often subtle and without systemic allergic manifestations; subclinical, leading to gradually progressive kidney failure; delayed, median time from drug initiation to AIN diagnosis often exceeds 6 months; and often unsuspected prior to a biopsy. While the association between PPIs and AIN is well described, the population incidence of PPI-induced AIN and its contribution to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was unclear, until recently. First, two population-based studies described higher risk of AIN and acute kidney injury in patients prescribed PPIs. Second, evidence suggests that on intermediate to longer term follow-up, patients have a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate after an episode of PPI-induced AIN and patients prescribed PPIs have higher CKD risk.

  9. Exact Kohn-Sham potential of strongly correlated finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Rubio, A.

    2009-12-14

    The dissociation of molecules, even the most simple hydrogen molecule, cannot be described accurately within density functional theory because none of the currently available functionals accounts for strong on-site correlation. This problem led to a discussion of properties that the local Kohn-Sham potential has to satisfy in order to correctly describe strongly correlated systems. We derive an analytic expression for the nontrivial form of the Kohn-Sham potential in between the two fragments for the dissociation of a single bond. We show that the numerical calculations for a one-dimensional two-electron model system indeed approach and reach this limit. It is shown that the functional form of the potential is universal, i.e., independent of the details of the two fragments.

  10. Sham surgery trial controls: perspectives of patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Swift, Teresa L

    2012-07-01

    This study reports on qualitative research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson's Disease and their relatives on the subject of "sham surgery." It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients' research participation decisions are discussed.

  11. Fabrication of AIN Nano-Structures Using Polarity Control by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Eom, Daeyong; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Jeon, Minhwan; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the crystallographic polarity transition of AIN layers grown by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD), with varying trimethylaluminum (TMAI) pre-flow rates. AIN layers grown without TMAI pre-flow had a mixed polarity, consisting of Al- and N-polarity, and exhibited a rough surface. With an increasing rate of TMAI pre-flow, the AIN layer was changed to an Al-polarity, with a smooth surface morphology. Finally, AIN nano-pillars and nano-rods of Al-polarity were fabricated by etching a mixed polarity AIN layer using an aqueous KOH solution.

  12. Venus - Aine Corona (F-MIDR 59S164)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan radar image shows a region approximately 300 kilometers (180 miles) across, centered on 59 degrees south latitude, 164 degrees east longitude and located in a vast plain to the south of Aphrodite Terra. The data for this image was obtained in January 1991. The large circular structure near the center of the image is a corona, approximately 200 kilometers (120 miles) in diameter and provisionally named Aine Corona. Just north of Aine Corona is one of the flat-topped volcanic constructs known as 'pancake' domes for their shape and flap-jack appearance. This pancake dome is about 35 kilometers (21 miles) in diameter and is thought to have formed by the eruption of an extremely viscous lava. Another pancake dome is located inside the western parts of the annulus of the corona fractures. Complex fracture patterns like the one in the upper right of the image are often observed in association with coronae and various volcanic features. They are thought to form because magma beneath the surface follows pre-existing fracture patterns. When eruptions or other movements of the magma occur, the magma drains from the fractures and the overlying surface rock collapses. Other volcanic features associated with Aine Corona include a set of small domes, each less than 10 kilometers (6 miles) across, located along the southern portion of the annulus of fractures, and a smooth, flat region in the center of the corona, probably a relatively young lava flow. The range of volcanic features associated with coronae suggests that volcanism plays a significant role in their formation.

  13. Perspective: Kohn-Sham density functional theory descending a staircase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyu S; Li, Shaohong L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-10-07

    This article presents a perspective on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) for electronic structure calculations in chemical physics. This theory is in widespread use for applications to both molecules and solids. We pay special attention to several aspects where there are both concerns and progress toward solutions. These include: 1. The treatment of open-shell and inherently multiconfigurational systems (the latter are often called multireference systems and are variously classified as having strong correlation, near-degeneracy correlation, or high static correlation; KS-DFT must treat these systems with broken-symmetry determinants). 2. The treatment of noncovalent interactions. 3. The choice between developing new functionals by parametrization, by theoretical constraints, or by a combination. 4. The ingredients of the exchange-correlation functionals used by KS-DFT, including spin densities, the magnitudes of their gradients, spin-specific kinetic energy densities, nonlocal exchange (Hartree-Fock exchange), nonlocal correlation, and subshell-dependent corrections (DFT+U). 5. The quest for a universal functional, where we summarize some of the success of the latest Minnesota functionals, namely MN15-L and MN15, which were obtained by optimization against diverse databases. 6. Time-dependent density functional theory, which is an extension of DFT to treat time-dependent problems and excited states. The review is a snapshot of a rapidly moving field, and-like Marcel Duchamp-we hope to convey progress in a stimulating way.

  14. Perspective: Kohn-Sham density functional theory descending a staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoyu S.; Li, Shaohong L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a perspective on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) for electronic structure calculations in chemical physics. This theory is in widespread use for applications to both molecules and solids. We pay special attention to several aspects where there are both concerns and progress toward solutions. These include: 1. The treatment of open-shell and inherently multiconfigurational systems (the latter are often called multireference systems and are variously classified as having strong correlation, near-degeneracy correlation, or high static correlation; KS-DFT must treat these systems with broken-symmetry determinants). 2. The treatment of noncovalent interactions. 3. The choice between developing new functionals by parametrization, by theoretical constraints, or by a combination. 4. The ingredients of the exchange-correlation functionals used by KS-DFT, including spin densities, the magnitudes of their gradients, spin-specific kinetic energy densities, nonlocal exchange (Hartree-Fock exchange), nonlocal correlation, and subshell-dependent corrections (DFT+U). 5. The quest for a universal functional, where we summarize some of the success of the latest Minnesota functionals, namely MN15-L and MN15, which were obtained by optimization against diverse databases. 6. Time-dependent density functional theory, which is an extension of DFT to treat time-dependent problems and excited states. The review is a snapshot of a rapidly moving field, and—like Marcel Duchamp—we hope to convey progress in a stimulating way.

  15. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-15

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-01

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Is sham laser a valid control for acupuncture trials?

    PubMed

    Irnich, Dominik; Salih, Norbert; Offenbächer, Martin; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Methodological problems of acupuncture trials focus on adequate placebo controls. In this trial we evaluated the use of sham laser acupuncture as a control procedure. Thirty-four healthy volunteers received verum laser (invisible infrared laser emission and red light, 45 s and 1 J per point) and sham laser (red light) treatment at three acupuncture points (LI4, LU7 and LR3) in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design. The main outcome measure was the ratio of correct to incorrect ratings of treatment immediately after each session. The secondary outcome measure was the occurrence of deqi-like sensations at the acupuncture points and their intensity on a 10-fold visual analog scale (VAS; 10 being the strongest sensible sensation). We pooled the results of three former trials to evaluate the credibility of sham laser acupuncture when compared to needle acupuncture. Fifteen out of 34 (44%) healthy volunteers (age: 28 ± 10.7 years) identified the used laser device after the first session and 14 (41%) after the second session. Hence, both treatments were undistinguishable (P = .26). Deqi-like sensations occurred in 46% of active laser (2.34 VAS) and in 49.0% of sham laser beams (2.49 VAS). The credibility of sham laser was not different from needle acupuncture. Sham laser acupuncture can serve as a valid placebo control in laser acupuncture studies. Due to similar credibility and the lack of sensory input on the peripheral nervous system, sham laser acupuncture can also serve as a sham control for acupuncture trials, in order to evaluate needling effects per se.

  18. Is Sham Laser a Valid Control for Acupuncture Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Irnich, Dominik; Salih, Norbert; Offenbächer, Martin; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Methodological problems of acupuncture trials focus on adequate placebo controls. In this trial we evaluated the use of sham laser acupuncture as a control procedure. Thirty-four healthy volunteers received verum laser (invisible infrared laser emission and red light, 45 s and 1 J per point) and sham laser (red light) treatment at three acupuncture points (LI4, LU7 and LR3) in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design. The main outcome measure was the ratio of correct to incorrect ratings of treatment immediately after each session. The secondary outcome measure was the occurrence of deqi-like sensations at the acupuncture points and their intensity on a 10-fold visual analog scale (VAS; 10 being the strongest sensible sensation). We pooled the results of three former trials to evaluate the credibility of sham laser acupuncture when compared to needle acupuncture. Fifteen out of 34 (44%) healthy volunteers (age: 28 ± 10.7 years) identified the used laser device after the first session and 14 (41%) after the second session. Hence, both treatments were undistinguishable (P = .26). Deqi-like sensations occurred in 46% of active laser (2.34 VAS) and in 49.0% of sham laser beams (2.49 VAS). The credibility of sham laser was not different from needle acupuncture. Sham laser acupuncture can serve as a valid placebo control in laser acupuncture studies. Due to similar credibility and the lack of sensory input on the peripheral nervous system, sham laser acupuncture can also serve as a sham control for acupuncture trials, in order to evaluate needling effects per se. PMID:21772922

  19. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  20. Controlling of the electrical resistivity of GaN layer using AIN nucleation layer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min-Su; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Hyun Hwi

    2011-08-01

    The sheet resistance (Rs) of undoped GaN films on AIN/c-plane sapphire substrate was investigated. The Rs was strongly dependent on the AIN layer thickness and semi-insulating behavior was observed. To clarify the effect of crystalline property on Rs, the crystal structure of the GaN films has been studied using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A compressive strain was introduced by the presence of AIN nucleation layer (NL) and was gradually relaxed as increasing AIN NL thickness. This relaxation produced more threading dislocations (TD) of edge-type. Moreover, the surface morphology of the GaN film was changed at thicker AIN layer condition, which was originated by the crossover from planar to island grains of AIN. Thus, rough surface might produce more dislocations. The edge and mixed dislocations propagating from the interface between the GaN film and the AIN buffer layer affected the electric resistance of GaN film.

  1. Electronically switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Wu, Daw-An; Hernandez, Arvel; Glover, Gary H; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2008-04-09

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse) without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.

  2. Second-order kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we introduce a semi-implicit second-order correction scheme to the kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model. This approach is validated by performing realistic exchange-correlation energy calculations of atoms and dimers of the first two rows of the Periodic Table, finding good agreement with the expected values. Additionally, we simulate the ethane molecule, where we recover the bond lengths and compare the results with standard methods. Finally, we discuss the current applicability of pseudopotentials within the lattice kinetic Kohn-Sham approach.

  3. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  4. Assessment of prescription pattern in asthma therapy at Shamli hospitals.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rishabh; Sharma, Sanjay; Keshri, Lav; Wal, Pranay

    2012-05-01

    This drug utilization or prescription-monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the drug-prescribing trend of anti-asthmatic drugs in various hospitals (health care centre) of Shamli, (Prabuddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India). The study was conducted in three famous hospitals of Shamli on three hundred thirty (330) patients, using a developed prescription auditing Performa. Data was recorded from the co-operating patients, attending the outpatient department using a chance random sample method for six months by interviewing and information was filled in the performa. The collected data was studied statistically for determining the most prominently prescribed medication for the treatment. The collected information suggested that β-agonist were the most frequently prescribed anti-asthmatic drugs followed by corticosteroids, Methylxanthine, anti-histaminics and leukotriene antagonist. Also the performed prescription analysis revealed that there is significant difference in the prescriptions for multiple drug therapy (90%) as compared to single drug therapy (10%). Also even after the commercial development of pulmonary targeted systems, oral dosage form like tablets (54.93%) were preferred over inhalation (31.69%). Thus, it can be concluded that the present prescribing pattern of antiasthmatics in Shamli does not completely meet standard guidelines for the asthma treatment. Hence there is a need of awareness amongst the physicians of Shamli so that they can follow the guidelines while treating asthma. Also the patients must be encouraged to use newly developed inhalational drug delivery systems for improving the treatment.

  5. A hydrologic and archeologic study of climate change in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Yasin al-Tikiriti, Walid

    2003-01-01

    Aridity trends established for Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, for the past 4500 years correlate with the trends of increased well depths and declining groundwater levels. Depth of wells found at archeologic sites at Hili near Al Ain were correlated to groundwater levels. Trends of declining groundwater levels were related to trends of increasing aridity (climate change). The increasing aridity had a pronounced affect on man's development in Al Ain area as well. For example, nonirrigation farming could not be successfully sustained at the end of the Bronze Age. This thwarted the economic development until the falaj (a water conveyance structure) was introduced in the Iron Age. The aridity trends in Al Ain correspond to contemporaneous aridity trends noted in Mesopotamia and the Dead Sea area, as well as the Middle East, Mediterranean, and northern Africa, in general. Other global climatic changes that are contemporaneous with climate change at Al Ain have been noted. The increased aridity (desertification) trends at Al Ain are contemporaneous with increased atmospheric CO 2 trends as reported by Indermuhle et al. [Nature (398) 121].

  6. The paradox of sham therapy and placebo effect in osteopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cerritelli, Francesco; Verzella, Marco; Cicchitti, Luca; D’Alessandro, Giandomenico; Vanacore, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placebo, defined as “false treatment,” is a common gold-standard method to assess the validity of a therapy both in pharmacological trials and manual medicine research where placebo is also referred to as “sham therapy.” In the medical literature, guidelines have been proposed on how to conduct robust placebo-controlled trials, but mainly in a drug-based scenario. In contrast, there are not precise guidelines on how to conduct a placebo-controlled in manual medicine trials (particularly osteopathy). The aim of the present systematic review was to report how and what type of sham methods, dosage, operator characteristics, and patient types were used in osteopathic clinical trials and, eventually, assess sham clinical effectiveness. Methods: A systematic Cochrane-based review was conducted by analyzing the osteopathic trials that used both manual and nonmanual placebo control. Searches were conducted on 8 databases from journal inception to December 2015 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent reviewers conducted the study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Results: A total of 64 studies were eligible for analysis collecting a total of 5024 participants. More than half (43 studies) used a manual placebo; 9 studies used a nonmanual placebo; and 12 studies used both manual and nonmanual placebo. Data showed lack of reporting sham therapy information across studies. Risk of bias analysis demonstrated a high risk of bias for allocation, blinding of personnel and participants, selective, and other bias. To explore the clinical effects of sham therapies used, a quantitative analysis was planned. However, due to the high heterogeneity of sham approaches used no further analyses were performed. Conclusion: High heterogeneity regarding placebo used between studies, lack of reporting information on placebo methods and within-study variability between

  7. Pre-Stimulus Sham TMS Facilitates Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Duecker, Felix; Sack, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows non-invasive manipulation of brain activity during active task performance. Because every TMS pulse is accompanied by non-neural effects such as a clicking sound and somato-sensation on the head, control conditions are required to ensure that changes in task behavior are indeed due to the induced neural effects. However, the non-neural effects of TMS in the context of a given task performance are largely unknown and, consequently, it is unclear what constitutes a valid control condition. We explored the non-neural effects of TMS on visual target detection. Participants received single pulse sham TMS to each hemisphere at different time points prior to target appearance during a visual target detection task. It was hypothesized that the clicking sound of a sham TMS pulse differentially affects performance depending on the location of the coil and the timing of the pulse.Our results show that, first, sham TMS caused a facilitation of reaction times when preceding the target stimulus by 150, 200, and 250 ms, whereas earlier and later time windows were not effective. Second, positioning the TMS coil ipsilateral instead of contralateral relative to the target stimulus improved reaction times. Third, infrequent noTMS trials that were interleaved with sham TMS trials had oddball-like properties resulting in increased reaction times during noTMS. The clicking sound produced by sham TMS influences task performance in multiple ways. These non-neural effects of TMS need to be controlled for in TMS research and the present findings provide an empirical basis for deciding what constitutes a valid control condition. PMID:23469232

  8. Four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham theory.

    PubMed

    Saue, Trond; Helgaker, Trygve

    2002-06-01

    A four-component relativistic implementation of Kohn-Sham theory for molecular systems is presented. The implementation is based on a nonredundant exponential parametrization of the Kohn-Sham energy, well suited to studies of molecular static and dynamic properties as well as of total electronic energies. Calculations are presented of the bond lengths and the harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies of Au(2), Hg(2+)(2), HgAu(+), HgPt, and AuH. All calculations are based on the full four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, employing nonrelativistic local, gradient-corrected, and hybrid density functionals. The relevance of the Coulomb and Breit operators for the construction of relativistic functionals is discussed; it is argued that, at the relativistic level of density-functional theory and in the absence of a vector potential, the neglect of current functionals follows from the neglect of the Breit operator. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bypassing the Kohn-Sham equations with machine learning.

    PubMed

    Brockherde, Felix; Vogt, Leslie; Li, Li; Tuckerman, Mark E; Burke, Kieron; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-10-11

    Last year, at least 30,000 scientific papers used the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory to solve electronic structure problems in a wide variety of scientific fields. Machine learning holds the promise of learning the energy functional via examples, bypassing the need to solve the Kohn-Sham equations. This should yield substantial savings in computer time, allowing larger systems and/or longer time-scales to be tackled, but attempts to machine-learn this functional have been limited by the need to find its derivative. The present work overcomes this difficulty by directly learning the density-potential and energy-density maps for test systems and various molecules. We perform the first molecular dynamics simulation with a machine-learned density functional on malonaldehyde and are able to capture the intramolecular proton transfer process. Learning density models now allows the construction of accurate density functionals for realistic molecular systems.Machine learning allows electronic structure calculations to access larger system sizes and, in dynamical simulations, longer time scales. Here, the authors perform such a simulation using a machine-learned density functional that avoids direct solution of the Kohn-Sham equations.

  10. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  11. Diagnosing drug-induced AIN in the hospitalized patient: A challenge for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Perazella, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a relatively common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). While prerenal AKI and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) are the most common forms of AKI in the hospital, AIN is likely the next most common. Clinicians must differentiate the various causes of hospital-induced AKI; however, it is often difficult to distinguish AIN from ATN in such patients. While standardized criteria are now used to classify AKI into stages of severity, they do not permit differentiation of the various types of AKI. This is not a minor point, as these different AKI types often require different therapeutic interventions. Clinicians assess and differentiate AIN from these other AKI causes by utilizing clinical assessment, various imaging tests, and certain laboratory data. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed with mixed results. While a few serum tests, such as eosinophilia may be helpful, examination of the urine with tests such as dipstick urinalysis, urine chemistries, urine eosinophils, and urine microscopy are primarily utilized. Unfortunately, these tools are not always sufficient to definitively clinch the diagnosis, making it a challenging task for the clinician. As a result, kidney biopsy is often required to accurately diagnose AIN and guide management. PMID:24691017

  12. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  13. Element orbitals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Ying, Lexing

    2012-05-08

    We present a method to discretize the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix in the pseudopotential framework by a small set of basis functions automatically contracted from a uniform basis set such as planewaves. Each basis function is localized around an element, which is a small part of the global domain containing multiple atoms. We demonstrate that the resulting basis set achieves meV accuracy for 3D densely packed systems with a small number of basis functions per atom. The procedure is applicable to insulating and metallic systems.

  14. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-15

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  15. A Case Report on the Effect of Sham Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Zotelli, Vera Lucia Rasera; Grillo, Cássia Maria; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2016-10-01

    When nausea, an extremely unpleasant symptom, is experienced during dental treatment, it generates disorders and obstacles for both the patient and the professional, compromising the good quality of dental care. Clinical studies have confirmed the antiemetic action of acupuncture and shown its use for the treatment of nausea and vomiting. In the scientific literature there are several recent studies that address the placebo effect of acupuncture. The aim of this manuscript is to present a case report of a 46-year-old Caucasian male patient, who had severe symptoms of nausea while undergoing dental care. Treatment with sham acupuncture (acupuncture simulation) obtained a positive result of nausea prevention. We will discuss three possible hypotheses concerning this result: (1) there was action of Deqi; (2) high expectations of the patient; and (3) association with specific learned response. The patient in this case report received nonpenetrating sham acupuncture at acupoint Neiguan (PC6), which resulted in the complete remission of nausea during an intra-oral impression-taking procedure, but it is unclear whether the placebo effect was triggered by the action of Deqi, the high expectations of the patient, an association with a learned response, or by the interaction of all these factors.

  16. THE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION VERSUS SHAM CUEING ON SCAPULAR POSITION DURING EXERCISE IN PATIENTS WITH SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Cheryl J; Tregoning, Mason B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Conventional therapeutic exercise programs are commonly used to treat patients with scapular dyskinesis. There are no studies that have examined traditional therapeutic exercise programs with the addition of remote triggered electrical stimulation (ES) to affect the position of the scapula (using spine to scapular border distance as a reference point) during the performance of exercises that have lower upper trapezius (UT) to lower trapezius (LT) ratio exercises. Purpose The purpose of this pilot study was to compare scapular position after performance of three low UT/LT ratio therapeutic exercises in two conditions, electrical stimulation (ESTherex) and sham electrical stimulation (ShamTherex) in asymptomatic persons who were positive for scapular dyskinesis. Study Design Randomized trial, single-blinded Methods Eleven asymptomatic university students representing 15 scapulae with a positive Scapular Dyskinesis Test were recruited as subjects. Participants were randomized into exercise and electrical stimulation (ESTherex) or exercise and sham electrical stimulation (ShamTherex). Subjects performed side-lying shoulder external rotation and flexion, and prone horizontal abduction with external rotation in both conditions. Scapular position was assessed during active abduction at four angles before and after performance of these exercises. Results There were no significant differences in scapula to spine distance between ESTherex and ShamTherex groups at 0, 45, 90 and 120 degrees of shoulder abduction. A between group difference (ESTherex and ShamTherex) approached significance at 45 degrees (p = 0.089, CI=-.152 to 1.88 cm) with the post mean measurement of the ShamTherex group (6.44 cm) greater than the post mean measurement of the ESTherex group (5.57 cm). The ESTherex showed a significant pre-to-post mean within group improvement in spine to scapula distance at 120 degrees (mean 2.76 cm, t=4.89, p=.003). Conclusions Electrical stimulation with

  17. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  18. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  19. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  20. Performance Variables: Some Versions of Dylan's "It Ain't Me, Babe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland A.

    1979-01-01

    Using Bob Dylan's three somewhat different versions of "It Ain't Me, Babe," the author investigates the variables of Dylan's performances and how they alter the meanings of his songs, and suggests that the more we know about popular song the more we will understand the songs we subsequently encounter. (KC)

  1. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  2. AIN-Coated Al(2)O(3) Substrates For Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elzbieta; Lowry, Lynn; Herman, Martin; Lee, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Type of improved ceramic substrate for high-frequency, high-power electronic circuits combines relatively high thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride with surface smoothness of alumina. Consists of 15-micrometer layer of AIN deposited on highly polished alumina. Used for packaging millimeter-wave gallium arsenide transmitter chips, power silicon chips, and like.

  3. Targeted versus Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening in a Single Egyptian Center

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Safaa S.; El-Farrash, Rania A.; Taha, Hesham M.; Bishoy, Helbees E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To compare targeted neonatal hearing screening (TNHS) and universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) since many developing countries, including Egypt, implement selective screening for high-risk neonates. Methods. 150 neonates were assessed; 50 full terms consecutively admitted to the well-baby nursery and 100 neonates consecutively admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Ain Shams University. Patients were further subdivided into high-risk group which included 50 neonates with multiple risk factors for hearing loss and low risk group which included 50 neonates with only one risk factor. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were used for hearing screening. Auditory brain response (ABR) was performed 3 months later for failed TEOAEs. Results. The most frequent risk factor was consanguinity (46%). In the well-baby population, 16% failed TEOAEs. In the NICU, 30% of the low risk and 38% of the high risk groups failed TEOAEs. Regarding ABR, failed results were 12%, 10%, and 8% in the high-risk, low-risk, and healthy groups, respectively. Conclusion. The use of TNHS would have missed 8% of neonates from the well-baby group who actually had PCHL (permanent congenital hearing loss). The use of UNHS would identify all cases with PCHL, allowing for early intervention and follow-up. PMID:24167734

  4. An exploratory pilot study to design and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sue; Lewith, George; Brien, Sarah; Little, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Kinesiology is a complementary therapy assessing subtle change in manual muscle testing results to select individualised treatments. We report the exploratory 2-stage development and pilot of a sham kinesiology treatment for use in a clinical trial to evaluate the specific effects of this intervention. 1. To design, pilot and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment in a kinesiology-aware population. 2. To pilot the sham kinesiology in a cross-over study of sham versus real kinesiology, and to make an exploratory assessment of its credibility in a kinesiology-naïve population. 1. 10 kinesiology-aware volunteers received a specially designed sham treatment weekly for 5 weeks which was subject to a credibility assessment. 2. 10 kinesiology-naïve patients with low back pain were randomised to receive 4 real and 4 sham treatments in a cross-over design; the treatments were subject to a credibility assessment. 100% of participants found the sham protocol a credible treatment as measured by the credibility questionnaire. 100% of patients having real treatment first did not recognise that the second set of treatments were sham. Small numbers precluded the use of formal statistical tests. In this small sample it appeared feasible to deliver an apparently credible sham kinesiology treatment. This feasibility study has allowed us to develop a sham treatment for use in a larger prospective clinical trial of kinesiology in patients with low back pain. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Open-system Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2012-03-07

    A simple model for electron transport through molecules is provided by the source-sink potential (SSP) method [F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof, and M. Zhuang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 144104 (2007)]. In SSP, the boundary conditions of having an incoming and outgoing electron current are enforced through complex potentials that are added to the Hamiltonian. Depending on the sign of the imaginary part of the potentials, current density is generated or absorbed. In this way, a finite system can be used to model infinite molecular electronic devices. The SSP has originally been developed for the Hückel method and subsequently it has been extended [F. Goyer and M. Ernzerhof, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 174101 (2011)] to the Hubbard model. Here we present a step towards its generalization for first-principles electronic structure theory methods. In particular, drawing on our earlier work, we discuss a new generalized density functional theory for complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. This theory enables us to combine SSP and Kohn-Sham theory to obtain a method for the description of open systems that exchange current density with their environment. Similarly, the Hartree-Fock method is extended to the realm of non-Hermitian, SSP containing Hamiltonians. As a proof of principle, we present the first applications of complex-density functional theory (CODFT) as well as non-Hermitian Hartree-Fock theory to electron transport through molecules. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  6. Development of a sham comparator for thoracic spinal manipulative therapy for use with shoulder disorders.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lori A; Kardouni, Joseph R; Lopes Albers, Andrea Diniz; Ely, Jacqueline M

    2013-02-01

    Prior studies indicate thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) improves shoulder pain and disability. However, these studies are limited by no control or sham-treatment group. A valid sham comparator for thoracic SMT is needed. Subjects (n=69) without shoulder pain were randomized to one of three groups: thoracic SMT, sham-SMT, or sham-ultrasound; and told they were randomized to manual therapy, range of motion, or ultrasound respectively. Perceived effects of the treatment on shoulder motion, pain, and functional were questioned before and after treatment. Believability was assessed by asking if the subject believed they received the active or inactive intervention. Shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was measured with a digital inclinometer before and after treatment by a blinded examiner. Believability of treatment was not significantly different between the SMT and sham-SMT (p=0.12), but a greater proportion (p=0.03) believed they received the active treatment in the SMT group (78.3%) as compared to the sham-ultrasound (47.8%). No differences in perception of treatment effects between the treatment groups were detected (p≥0.1). Shoulder internal rotation AROM increased in the thoracic SMT group (mean difference=3.7°; p=0.006), but did not change within the sham-SMT (p=0.44) or sham-ultrasound (p=0.18) groups. Shoulder flexion did not change within any group. These preliminary results indicate the sham-SMT is an adequate sham comparator for SMT with similar expectations and believability as SMT active treatment. The sham-SMT had an inert effect on shoulder AROM. Sham-ultrasound was not believable as an active treatment. Future studies need to validate these results in patients with shoulder pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  8. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  9. Alcohol-related road traffic injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to prospectively study the demography, severity of injury and outcome of alcohol-related road traffic collision (RTC) injuries in the United Arab Emirates. Data of RTC Registry of Al-Ain City were prospectively collected from Al-Ain and Tawam hospitals during the period of April 2006 to October 2007. It included all RTC trauma patients who were admitted or those who died after arrival to these hospitals. Car occupants with complete data on alcohol use were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups, those who reported using alcohol and those who did not. Out of the 771 car occupants, sixteen (16) used alcohol (2.1%), 15 (94%) of them were males. The median (range) age of the alcohol group was significantly higher than those without alcohol (35 (15-53) years compared with 26 (1-78) years, p = 0.02). The UAE nationals were significantly more (P = 0.01) and the revised trauma score was significantly less in the alcohol group (P = 0.03). Head/face was the most commonly injured region in the alcohol group (94%). Self reported alcohol-related car collisions in Al-Ain City had a low incidence. It affected older Emirati male nationals and was associated with lower revised trauma score, mainly due to head injury. There is a need for a national registry with data on alcohol abuse so as to assess its effects and strategies for its prevention.

  10. Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

  11. A Novel Method of Measuring Cardiac Preservation Injury Demonstrates University of Wisconsin Solution Is Associated with Less Ischemic Necrosis than Celsior in Early Cardiac Allograft Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    George, Timothy J.; Arnaoutakis, George J.; Beaty, Claude A.; Shah, Ashish S.; Conte, John V.; Halushka, Marc K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose No consensus exists on the optimal heart preservative solution (HPS) for cardiac allograft preservation. The significance of varying degrees of acute ischemic necrosis (AIN) in early transplant biopsies is unknown. We investigated the effects of HPS on early cardiac histopathology by developing a novel grading system of AIN. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database of orthotopic heart transplants (OHT) identifying all hearts preserved with University of Wisconsin (UW) or Celsior (CS) solutions. A single blinded cardiovascular pathologist graded AIN severity on early post-transplant biopsies. Primary stratification was by HPS. Multivariable models examined mortality, AIN grade, primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and right heart failure (RHF). Results From 1996–2010, 174 adult OHT were preserved with UW (42) or CS (132) from which 431 biopsies were reviewed. UW and CS had similar 30-day (p=0.79) and 1-year mortality (p=0.92). CS was associated with significantly more AIN on the 1st (p=0.02) and 2nd (p=0.04) biopsies. This association persisted on multivariable analysis (1st biopsy OR: 2.93[1.26–6.83], p=0.01 and 2nd biopsy OR: 2.08[0.99–4.34], p=0.05). When stratified by AIN score, 30-day and 1-year mortality were similar (p>0.05). However, on adjusted analysis, increasing AIN score on the 1st biopsy was strongly associated with an increased incidence of PGD (OR: 1.59[1.02–2.47], p=0.04) and RHF (OR: 2.45[1.14–5.27], p=0.02). Conclusions Our novel grading system provides a simple, reproducible method for determining AIN. Preservation with UW is associated with less AIN than CS solution. Early biopsy ischemia is associated with primary graft dysfunction and right heart failure. AIN may have prognostic significance and its routine evaluation should be considered. PMID:22209353

  12. Randomized crossover clinical trial of real and sham peripheral prism glasses for hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Keeney, Karen; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia and without visual neglect. Methods Patients recruited at 13 clinics were allocated by minimization into a double-masked, crossover trial with two groups. One group received real (57Δ) oblique and sham (≤ 5Δ) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. A masked data collector at each clinic administered questionnaires after each 4-week crossover period. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the two periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said “yes” to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. Results Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs. 36%; odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (p=0.002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. Conclusion Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Applications to clinical practice Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia. PMID:24201760

  13. Sham Surgery Controls in Parkinson Disease Clinical Trials: Views of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; De Vries, Raymond; Holloway, Robert G.; Wilson, Renee; Parnami, Sonali; Kim, H. Myra; Frank, Samuel; Kieburtz, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background Sham surgery controls are increasingly used in neurosurgical clinical trials in Parkinson disease (PD), but remain controversial. We interviewed participants of such trials, specifically examining their understanding and attitudes regarding sham surgery. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with participants of three sham surgery controlled trials for PD, focusing on their understanding of sham design, their reactions to it, its impact on decision-making, and their understanding of post-trial availability of the experimental intervention and its impact on decisions to participate. Results All subjects (N=90) understood the two-arm design; most (86%) described the procedural differences between the arms accurately. 92% referred to scientific or regulatory reasons as rationales for the sham control, with 62% specifically referring to the placebo effect. 91% said post-trial availability of the experimental intervention had a strong (48%) or some (43%) influence on their decision to participate but only 68% understood the conditions for post-trial availability. Conclusions Most subjects in sham surgery controlled PD trials comprehend the sham surgery design and its rationale. Although there is room for improvement, most subjects of sham surgery trials appear to be adequately informed. PMID:22927064

  14. The effect of customised and sham foot orthoses on plantar pressures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of foot orthoses has been evaluated in many clinical trials with sham foot orthoses used as the control intervention in at least 10 clinical trials. However, the mechanical effects and credibility of sham orthoses has been rarely quantified. This study aimed to: (i) compare the effects on plantar pressures of three sham foot orthoses to a customised foot orthosis, and (ii) establish the perceived credibility and the expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Methods Thirty adults aged between 18 and 51 participated in this study. At 0 and 4 weeks, plantar pressure data were collected for the heel, midfoot and forefoot using the pedar®-X in-shoe system for the following five randomly assigned conditions: (i) shoe alone, (ii) customised foot orthosis, (iii) contoured polyethylene sham foot orthosis, (iv) contoured EVA sham foot orthosis, and (v) flat EVA sham foot orthosis. At the initial data collection session, each participant completed a Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) to determine the credibility and expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Results Compared to the shoe alone at week 0, the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis was the only condition to not significantly effect peak pressure at any region of the foot. In contrast, the contoured EVA sham orthosis, the flat EVA sham orthosis and the customised orthosis significantly reduced peak pressure at the heel. At the medial midfoot, all sham orthoses provided the same effect as the shoe alone, which corresponded to effects that were significantly different to the customised orthosis. There were no differences in peak pressure between conditions at the other mask regions, the lateral midfoot and forefoot. When the conditions were compared at week 4, the differences between the conditions were generally similar to the findings observed at week 0. With respect to credibility and expected benefit, all orthotic conditions were considered the same with the exception

  15. Sham Acupressure Controls Used in Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Critique

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K. P.; Wang, Tao; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the commonly utilized sham acupressure procedures in existing acupressure trials, and to assess whether different types of sham interventions yield different therapeutic outcomes, and, as far as possible, to identify directions for the future development of an adequate sham acupressure method. Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing true acupressure with sham interventions were included. Thirteen electronic databases were adopted to locate relevant studies from inception to July 3, 2014. Meanwhile, eight Chinese journals on complementary and alternative medicine were manually searched to locate eligible articles. In addition, eligible studies listed in the reference lists of the included papers and other related systematic reviews on acupressure were also screened to further search any potentially eligible trials. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the risk of bias assessment tool developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Descriptive analysis was adopted to summarize the therapeutic outcomes. Results Sixty-six studies with 7265 participants were included. Methodological quality of the included trials was generally satisfactory. Six types of sham acupressure approaches were identified and “non-acupoint” stimulation was the most frequently utilized sham point while an acupressure device was the most commonly used approach for administering sham treatments. Acupressure therapy was a beneficial approach in managing a variety of health problems and the therapeutic effect was found to be more effective in the true acupressure groups than that in the sham comparative groups. No clear association could be identified between different sham acupressure modalities and the reported treatment outcomes. Conclusions A great diversity of sham acupressure controls have been used in clinical practice and research. A solid conclusion whether different sham alternatives are related to different treatment outcomes

  16. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy.

  17. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the DIC-pump in unicellular algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1989-04-01

    SHAM at 1 or 2 mM inhibits dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrating mechanisms in unicellular green algae as measured by photosynthetic oxygen evolution or by {sup 14}C-inorganic carbon uptake (using silicone oil centrifugation techniques). This inhibition was reversed by high levels of DIC whereby the cells do not require the concentrating mechanism. SHAM inhibited the DIC-pump, which uses external CO{sub 2}, in three species of algae, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Scenedesmus obliquus when adapted to low CO{sub 2} and assayed around neutral pH. Scenedesmus adapted to air at pH 9.0 to use external HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were not affected by SHAM. It is important to establish low optimum concentrations of SHAM, which varied with the algal species. The mechanism of SHAM inhibition of the CO{sub 2} concentrating process is unknown. SHAM inhibits alternative respiration in these algae, but SHAM may also inhibit other reactions involving H{sup +} gradients or transporters associated with the DIC-pump.

  18. Evaluation of Sham-CPAP as a Placebo in CPAP Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodway, George W.; Weaver, Terri E.; Mancini, Cristina; Cater, Jacqueline; Maislin, Greg; Staley, Bethany; Ferguson, Kathleen A.; George, Charles F.P.; Schulman, David A.; Greenberg, Harly; Rapoport, David M.; Walsleben, Joyce A.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the use of sham-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment as a placebo intervention. Design and Setting: Analysis of polysomnograms performed in fixed order without sham-CPAP and on the first night of the sham-CPAP intervention in participants in the CPAP Apnea Trial North American Program (CATNAP), a randomized, placebo controlled trial evaluating the effects of CPAP treatment on daytime function in adults with newly diagnosed mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 5 - 30). Participants: The first 104 CATNAP participants randomized to the sham-CPAP intervention arm. Measurements and Results: Compared to the polysomnographic measures without sham-CPAP, the study on the first night with sham-CPAP had statistically significant differences that suggested a decrease in sleep quality: decreased sleep efficiency, increased arousal index, increased time in stage 1 NREM sleep, and prolonged latency to REM sleep. However, all of these differences had a relatively small effect size. Compared to the polysomnogram without sham-CPAP, the number of hypopneas on the sham-CPAP polysomnogram was significantly increased and the number of apneas significantly decreased. Relatively minor differences in AHI with and without sham-CPAP were present and were dependent on the criteria used to score hypopneas. Conclusion: Comparison of polysomnograms with and without sham-CPAP revealed differences that, although statistically significant, were small in magnitude and had relatively low effect sizes suggesting minimal clinical significance. The results support the use of sham-CPAP as a placebo intervention in trials evaluating the effects of CPAP treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Clinical Trial Information: This paper was a secondary analysis of clinical trial data. CATNAP: CPAP Apnea Trial North American Program, the trial from which the data were obtained, is registered with clinicaltrial

  19. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R.; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hocky, Glen M.; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A.; Voth, Gregory A.; Kovar, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  20. Comparison of universal and targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iman Z; Eid, Yara M; El Orabi, Hussein; Ibrahim, Hani Refat

    2014-08-01

    To compare universal vs targeted screening for thyroid dysfunction and to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant Egyptian women. A total of 168 of pregnant women who attended the outpatient obstetric clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital (Cairo, Egypt) for antenatal care between September 2011 and December 2011 were enrolled. Based on the detailed data collection and results of laboratory testing, they were subdivided into the high- and low-risk group for thyroid disease according to the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines, as well as into groups by trimester for application of American Thyroid Association guidelines. The group values were subjected to statistical analysis for estimating the prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and for identifying significant differences. Of the 168 patients, 104 were classified into the low-risk group and 64 into the high-risk group. Using the trimesteric and normal population cutoff values for thyroid functions, the prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 56% (n=94) and 44.6% (n=75) respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the high- and low-risk group regarding prevalence of either clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, and no significant differences were found regarding the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the first, second, or third trimester. Use of the most recent Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines led to missed detection of clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism in 34.5% of pregnant women. Universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction should thus be adopted throughout Egypt. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Luís; da Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; de Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. PMID:27533271

  2. A ground-state-directed optimization scheme for the Kohn-Sham energy.

    PubMed

    Høst, Stinne; Jansík, Branislav; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Reine, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve

    2008-09-21

    Kohn-Sham density-functional calculations are used in many branches of science to obtain information about the electronic structure of molecular systems and materials. Unfortunately, the traditional method for optimizing the Kohn-Sham energy suffers from fundamental problems that may lead to divergence or, even worse, convergence to an energy saddle point rather than to the ground-state minimum--in particular, for the larger and more complicated electronic systems that are often studied by Kohn-Sham theory nowadays. We here present a novel method for Kohn-Sham energy minimization that does not suffer from the flaws of the conventional approach, combining reliability and efficiency with linear complexity. In particular, the proposed method converges by design to a minimum, avoiding the sometimes spurious solutions of the traditional method and bypassing the need to examine the structure of the provided solution.

  3. Randomized crossover clinical trial of real and sham peripheral prism glasses for hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Alex R; Keeney, Karen; Peli, Eli

    2014-02-01

    There is a major lack of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of prismatic treatments for hemianopia. Evidence for their effectiveness is mostly based on anecdotal case reports and open-label evaluations without a control condition. To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia. Double-masked, randomized crossover trial at 13 study sites, including the Peli laboratory at Schepens Eye Research Institute, 11 vision rehabilitation clinics in the United States, and 1 in the United Kingdom. Patients were 18 years or older with complete homonymous hemianopia for at least 3 months and without visual neglect or significant cognitive decline. Patients were allocated by minimization into 2 groups. One group received real (57-prism diopter) oblique and sham (<5-prism diopter) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. Each crossover period was 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the 2 periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said yes to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs 36%; odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.8-21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (P = .002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia

  4. Validation of a sham comparator for thoracic spinal manipulation in patients with shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lori A; Kardouni, Joseph R; Sousa, Catarina O; Ely, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-01

    The evidence to guide use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for patients with shoulder pain is limited. A validated sham comparator is needed to ascertain the unique effects of SMT. We investigated the plausibility of a thoracic sham-SMT comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. Participants (n = 56) with subacromial impingement syndrome were randomized to thoracic SMT or a sham-SMT. An examiner blinded to group assignment took measures pre- and post-treatment of shoulder active range of motion (AROM) and perceived effects of the assigned intervention. Treatment consisted of six upper, middle and lower thoracic SMT or sham-SMT. The sham-SMT was identical to the SMT, except no thrust was applied. Believability as an active treatment was measured post-treatment. Believability as an active treatment was not different between groups (χ(2) = 2.19; p = 0.15). Perceptions of effects were not different between groups at pre-treatment (t = 0.12; p = 0.90) or post-treatment (t = 0.40; p = 0.69), and demonstrated equivalency with 95% confidence between groups at pre- and post-treatment. There was no significant change in shoulder flexion in either group over time, or in the sham-SMT for internal rotation (p > 0.05). The SMT group had an increase of 6.49° in internal rotation over time (p = 0.04). The thoracic sham-SMT of this study is a plausible comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. The sham-SMT was believable as an active treatment, perceived as having equal beneficial effects both when verbally described and after familiarization with the treatment, and has an inert effect on shoulder AROM. This comparator can be considered for used in clinical trials investigating thoracic SMT. IRB number: HM 13182. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of a sham comparator for thoracic spinal manipulation in patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lori A.; Kardouni, Joseph R.; Sousa, Catarina O.; Ely, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to guide use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for patients with shoulder pain is limited. A validated sham comparator is needed to ascertain the unique effects of SMT. We investigated the plausibility of a thoracic sham-SMT comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. Participants (n = 56) with subacromial impingement syndrome were randomized to thoracic SMT or a sham-SMT. An examiner blinded to group assignment took measures pre- and post-treatment of shoulder active range of motion (AROM) and perceived effects of the assigned intervention. Treatment consisted of six upper, middle and lower thoracic SMT or sham-SMT. The sham-SMT was identical to the SMT, except no thrust was applied. Believability as an active treatment was measured post-treatment. Believability as an active treatment was not different between groups (χ2 = 2.19; p = 0.15). Perceptions of effects were not different between groups at pre-treatment (t = 0.12; p = 0.90) or post-treatment (t = 0.40; p = 0.69), and demonstrated equivalency with 95% confidence between groups at pre- and post-treatment. There was no significant change in shoulder flexion in either group over time, or in the sham-SMT for internal rotation (p > 0.05). The SMT group had an increase of 6.49° in internal rotation over time (p = 0.04). The thoracic sham-SMT of this study is a plausible comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. The sham-SMT was believable as an active treatment, perceived as having equal beneficial effects both when verbally described and after familiarization with the treatment, and has an inert effect on shoulder AROM. This comparator can be considered for used in clinical trials investigating thoracic SMT. IRB number HM 13182. PMID:25261090

  6. Focal electrical stimulation as an effective sham control for active rTMS and biofeedback treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Mennemeier, Mark; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren; Brackman, Sharon; Chelette, Kenneth C; Brown, Ginger; Vuong, Mai

    2013-01-01

    A valid sham control is important for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an experimental and clinical tool. Given the manner in which rTMS is applied, separately or in combination with self-regulatory approaches, and its intended impact on brain states, a valid sham control of this type may well serve as a meaningful control for biofeedback studies, where efforts to develop a credible control have often been less than ideal. This study examined the effectiveness of focal electrical stimulation of the frontalis muscle as a sham technique for blinding participants to high-frequency rTMS over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at durations, intensities, and schedules of stimulation similar to many clinical applications. In this within-subjects single blind design, 19 participants made guesses immediately after receiving 54 counterbalanced rTMS sessions (sham, 10Hz, 20Hz); 7 (13%) of the guesses were made for sham, 31 (57%) were made for 10Hz, and 16 (30%) were made for 20Hz. Participants correctly guessed the sham condition 6% (CI: 1%, 32%) of the time, which is less than the odds of chance (i.e., of guessing at random, 33%); correctly guessed the 10Hz condition 66% (CI: 43%, 84%) of the time, which was greater than chance; and correctly guessed the 20Hz condition 41% (CI: 21%, 65%) of the time, which was no different than chance. Focal electrical stimulation therefore can be an effective sham control for high-frequency rTMS of the DLPFC, as well as for active biofeedback interventions. Participants were unaware that electrical stimulation was, in fact, sham rTMS. PMID:23702828

  7. Accurate time propagation method for the coupled Maxwell and Kohn-Sham equations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-08-01

    An accurate method for time propagation of the coupled Maxwell and time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation is presented. The new approach uses a simultaneous fourth-order Runge-Kutta-based propagation of the vector potential and the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The approach is compared to the conventional fourth-order Taylor propagation and predictor-corrector methods. The calculations show several computational and numerical advantages, including higher computational performance, greater stability, better accuracy, and faster convergence.

  8. High Quality Al-Polar AIN Growth on (0001) Sapphire Using Polarity-Selective Thermal Etching by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Minhwan; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Eom, Daeyong; Pyeon, Jaedo; Heo, Cheon; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we suggest a polarity-selective in-situ thermal etching and re-growth process for the fabrication of high quality Al terminated AIN epilayers by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Mixed-polar AIN layers grown on a thin (5 nm) buffer layer at a high temperature (950 degrees C) exhibited high crystalline quality. Surface morphologies of in-situ thermally etched AIN layers depended on the grain size and distance between grains. Increasing the initial grain size and diminishing the space between grains increased etching depth and width. During re-growth, threading dislocations were bent and annihilated in the vicinity of voids, which were formed by lateral growth of Al-polar AIN regions after thermal etching. Finally, a high quality Al-polar AIN template, as verified by an aqueous KOH solution, was successfully fabricated.

  9. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  10. Monitoring Water Resources from Space in an Arid Watershed of Al Ain City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebreyesus, Dawit; Temimi, Marouane; Fares, Ali; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-04-01

    Closing water balance is very crucial on laying effective Water Resources Management strategies. The goal of this study is to assess the potential of satellite imagery to close the water budget over the region of Al Ain city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in the UAE. Water storage variation over the study area was determined from 2005 to 2014 by calculating the difference between inflows and outflows of the system. The outflow included evapotranspiration and discharged wastewater after treatment. The study area comprises Zakher Lake where the treated wastewater is discharged. A series of Landsat images were used to monitor the changes in the lake extent and infer total water volume using a high resolution (15m) digital elevation model. Evapotranspiration was estimated from NCEP reanalysis data over agriculture and green areas in the watershed delineated using Landsat images. The inflow included precipitation, desalinated water supply, and water reuse. Precipitation was obtained from Al Ain airport observations. Water supply from desalination plants and water reuse reported by local authorities were also used. Time series of GRACE observation over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation. The inferred water storage and GRACE anomalies were in agreement as the obtained correlation coefficient was 0.53. Both time series showed a significant decreasing trend suggesting that water storage in the study area is being depleted.

  11. Sulfide geochemistry and genesis of Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper deposits in northwestern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slim-Shimi, N.; Moëlo, Y.; Tlig, S.; Lévy, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Chouichia and Ain el Bey copper veins that occur in the Eastern Atlas fold belt in northwestern Tunisia, are hosted in Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary sequences in a regional transcurrent shear zone. Paragenetic assemblages were formed during four distinct stages all of which are separated by fracturing and brecciation: Stage 1 consists of low temperature siderite (160 180 °C) formation in association with pyrite, including framboidal pyrite and marcasite. Stage 2 includes pseudomorphing of marcasite by As-rich pyrite and arsenopyrite, and formation of chalcopyrite at higher temperatures (200 300 °C) from S-rich, Fe-Cu-bearing fluids; As contents in individual pyrite and arsenopyrite crystals increase markedly in the rims relative to the centers, thus indicating non-equilibrium conditions. Stage 3 involves fracturing and brecciation predating deposition of enargite, luzonite and tennantite at Ain el Bey, and famatinite and tetrahedrite at Chouichia, from As-Sb-Bi-bearing ore-forming fluids; tennantite-tetrahedrite series exhibit iron and copper-excess replacements in tetrahedral sites inter-related with Cu-Fe interactions (electron transfer). In Stage 4 fracturing was followed by calcite formation in voids. Comprehensive data was obtained from scanning electron microprobe (SEM) and microprobe chemical analyses of minerals, geothermometry using sulfur isotopes, As contents in arsenopyrite crystals and fluid inclusions in siderite and calcite, support an input of magmatic hydrothermal ore-forming fluids, although contamination by sedimentary sulfur were also identified.

  12. Sham Feeding with Chewing Gum in Early Stage of Acute Pancreatitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zongxing; Liang, Hongyin; Huang, Zhu; Tang, Jiajia; Tang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Background The correlation between sham feeding and acute pancreatitis (AP) has only been examined in limited studies. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of sham feeding in the early stage of AP. Material/Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Equal groups of AP patients were recruited. Patients in the sham feeding group received chewing gum 4 times a day after admission. All patients in the trial received standard treatment consistent with the guidelines for AP. The primary outcomes were mortality, length of stay (LOS), and medical expenses. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of complications and other adverse events, return of gastrointestinal function, the details of enteral nutrition and intra-abdominal pressure. Results From May 2014 to December 2015, a total of 204 patients were recruited. The LOS and hospital costs in the sham feeding group were reduced, although mortality was equivalent between groups. The return of gastrointestinal function occurred earlier in the sham feeding group, with no complications related to gum chewing. Conclusions Sham feeding with chewing gum is safe and efficacious in the early stage of AP. PMID:28154369

  13. Sham feeding disrupts phase III of the duodenal migrating motor complex in humans.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Veyrac, M; Michel, H

    1995-09-01

    The role of the vagus nerve in the control of the intestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of physiological vagal stimulation with sham feeding on phase III of the MMC. Antroduodenal motility was recorded in six healthy volunteers. The first phase III was used as a control, and sham feeding was performed during the second phase III. The MMC was disrupted within 1.5 +/- 0.4 min of sham feeding and its duration was shorter than the control phase III. Phase III propagation was inhibited in all subjects, most of them exhibiting no propagation beyond the third duodenal recording site. During sham feeding, the antrum exhibited transient phasic contractions in five out of six subjects. The duodenal motility index recorded for up to 30 min after the onset of the sham feeding was unchanged in five out of six subjects. We conclude that sham feeding consistently interrupted phase III of the duodenal MMC and induced antral contractions, but failed to provoke significant motor events in the duodenum.

  14. Psychophysiological effects of massage-myofascial release after exercise: a randomized sham-control study.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Olea, Nicolas; Martínez, Marin Manuel; Hidalgo-Lozano, Amparo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Concepción; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of massage on neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) after high-intensity exercise. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial using between-groups design. The study was conducted at a university-based sports medicine clinic. Sixty-two (62) healthy active students age 18-26 participated. Participants, randomized into two groups, performed three 30-second Wingate tests and immediately received whole-body massage-myofascial induction or placebo (sham ultrasound/magnetotherapy) treatment. The duration (40 minutes), position, and therapist were the same for both treatments. Dependent variables were surface electromyography (sEMG) of quadriceps, profile of mood states (POMS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) of trapezius and masseter muscles. These data were assessed at baseline and after exercise and recovery periods. Generalized estimating equations models were performed on dependent variables to assess differences between groups. Significant differences were found in effects of treatment on sEMG of Vastus Medialis (VM) (p = 0.02) and vigor subscale (p = 0.04). After the recovery period, there was a significant decrease in electromyographic (EMG) activity of VM (p = 0.02) in the myofascial-release group versus a nonsignificant increase in the placebo group (p = 0.32), and a decrease in vigor (p < 0.01) in the massage group versus no change in the placebo group (p = 0.86). Massage reduces EMG amplitude and vigor when applied as a passive recovery technique after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Massage may induce a transient loss of muscle strength or a change in the muscle fiber tension-length relationship, influenced by alterations of muscle function and a psychological state of relaxation.

  15. Tucker-tensor algorithm for large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, Phani; Gavini, Vikram; Blesgen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we propose a systematic way of computing a low-rank globally adapted localized Tucker-tensor basis for solving the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) problem. In every iteration of the self-consistent field procedure of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem, we construct an additive separable approximation of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The Tucker-tensor basis is chosen such as to span the tensor product of the one-dimensional eigenspaces corresponding to each of the spatially separable Hamiltonians, and the localized Tucker-tensor basis is constructed from localized representations of these one-dimensional eigenspaces. This Tucker-tensor basis forms a complete basis, and is naturally adapted to the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. Further, the locality of this basis in real-space allows us to exploit reduced-order scaling algorithms for the solution of the discrete Kohn-Sham eigenvalue problem. In particular, we use Chebyshev filtering to compute the eigenspace of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, and evaluate nonorthogonal localized wave functions spanning the Chebyshev filtered space, all represented in the Tucker-tensor basis. We thereby compute the electron-density and other quantities of interest, using a Fermi-operator expansion of the Hamiltonian projected onto the subspace spanned by the nonorthogonal localized wave functions. Numerical results on benchmark examples involving pseudopotential calculations suggest an exponential convergence of the ground-state energy with the Tucker rank. Interestingly, the rank of the Tucker-tensor basis required to obtain chemical accuracy is found to be only weakly dependent on the system size, which results in close to linear-scaling complexity for Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for both insulating and metallic systems. A comparative study has revealed significant computational efficiencies afforded by the proposed Tucker-tensor approach in comparison to a plane-wave basis.

  16. Neurofeedback, sham neurofeedback, and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schönenberg, Michael; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Scheeff, Jonathan; Logemann, Alexander; Keune, Philipp M; Hautzinger, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Many studies suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback might be beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, numbers of well controlled studies are low and neurofeedback techniques are regarded as highly controversial. The present trial examined the efficacy (compared with sham neurofeedback) and efficiency (compared with meta-cognitive therapy) of a standard EEG neurofeedback protocol in adults with ADHD. We did a concurrent, triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial using authorised deception in adults with ADHD from one centre (University of Tübingen) in Tübingen, Germany. Participants were eligible if they fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, were aged between 18 years and 60 years, and had no or stable use of medication for at least 2 months with no intention to change. We excluded participants who had comorbid schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury; substance abuse or dependence; or current or planned other psychological treatment. Those eligible were randomly assigned to three groups: a neurofeedback group which received 30 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks, a sham neurofeedback group which received 15 sham followed by 15 verum θ-to-β neurofeedback sessions over 15 weeks, or a meta-cognitive group therapy group which received 12 sessions over 12 weeks. Participants were assigned equally to one of the three interventions through a computerised minimisation randomisation procedure stratified by sex, age, and baseline symptom severity of ADHD. Participants were masked as to whether they were receiving neurofeedback or sham neurofeedback, but those receiving meta-cognitive therapy were aware of their treatment. Clinical assessors (ie, those assessing outcomes) and research staff who did the neurofeedback training were masked to participants' randomisation status only for neurofeedback

  17. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral-Jr, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: En la investigación científica, hay varias dietas estándar para los animales, generalmente concebidas por instituciones científicas. La dieta AIN-93 es ampliamente utilizada, pero hay algunos informes de esteatosis hepática en ratones Wistar alimentadas con esta dieta. Objetivo: Evaluar las repercusiones hepáticas de la ingesta de la dieta estándar AIN-93 en ratones Wistar. Métodos: Cuarenta recién destetados, ratones Wistar machos, con 21 días de edad fueron alimentados con la dieta AIN-93 o una dieta comercial, durante 1 mes o 4 meses. El aumento de peso, la bioquímica sérica, la histología hepática y el perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos fueron analizados. Resultados: Se observó esteatosis hepática, especialmente en el grupo alimentado con la dieta AIN-93. Glucosa en suero, peso absoluto y relativo del hígado y los niveles hepáticos de ácidos grasos oleico, palmitoleico, esteárico y palmítico se relacionaron con la esteatosis observada, mientras el lipidograma y los marcadores sanguíneos de la función hepática, no se relacionaron. Conclusión: La dieta estándar AIN-93 causó esteatosis hepática aguda en ratones Wistar, que puede comprometer su uso como una dieta estándar para los estudios experimentales con roedores. El perfil de ácidos grasos hepáticos se asoció con la esteatosis, con posibles implicaciones para el pronóstico de la enfermedad.

  18. Management of toxic cyanobacteria for drinking water production of Ain Zada Dam.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Amel; Brient, Luc; Boucetta, Sabrine; Ouzrout, Rachid; Bormans, Myriam; Bensouilah, Mourad

    2017-07-01

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in Algerian reservoirs represent a potential health problem, mainly from drinking water that supplies the local population of Ain Zada (Bordj Bou Arreridj). The objective of this study is to monitor, detect, and identify the existence of cyanobacteria and microcystins during blooming times. Samples were taken in 2013 from eight stations. The results show that three potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera with the species Planktothrix agardhii were dominant. Cyanobacterial biomass, phycocyanin (PC) concentrations, and microcystin (MC) concentrations were high in the surface layer and at 14 m depth; these values were also high in the treated water. On 11 May 2013, MC concentrations were 6.3 μg/L in MC-LR equivalent in the drinking water. This study shows for the first time the presence of cyanotoxins in raw and treated waters, highlighting that regular monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins must be undertaken to avoid potential health problems.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N A; Eapen, V; Bener, A

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of fear was explored in 340 adolescents in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. More than 50% reported feeling extremely frightened of 6 out of 60 fear items surveyed. These items were: someone dying in the family (66.5%), parents getting divorced (65.3%), the devil (63.8%), breaking a religious law (61.5%), being kidnapped (53.2%) and being adopted (49.9%). The level of fear showed a significant positive correlation with female gender, parental death/divorce, living with a single parent/relatives, living in low income families and an adverse home environment. Nearly half of the children reported that the fear caused considerable distress and interfered with daily activities.

  20. Is sham acupuncture as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture? It's too early to say.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Chu, Qin; Wang, Shu; Lai, Hilary; Xie, Bing-Bing

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical trials and experimental studies claim that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. However, these studies have no standard sham acupuncture control and many other factors can affect the clinical effect. These factors include needle retention time, treatment frequency, and the total number of treatments needed for satisfactory results, and all can change the clinical effect. The majority of existing acupuncture treatment studies do not consider these factors and lack standard dosage criteria. Therefore, it is still too early to conclude that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. This article investigates the factors that influence the curative effect of acupuncture as to help set a standard for acupuncture studies in the future.

  1. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Luís; Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado da; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro de; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2016-08-15

    to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. identificar e sintetizar as evidências oriundas de ensaios clínicos randomizados que testaram a efetividade da acupuntura tradicional chinesa em relação à sham acupuntura para o tratamento dos fogachos em mulheres com câncer de mama no climatério. revisão sistemática guiada pelas recomendações da Colaboração Cochrane. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL Cochrane, CINAHL e LILACS. Adotou-se a combinação dos descritores: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, vasomotor symptoms. foram identificados 272 estudos, sendo 5 selecionados e analisados. Foi observada discreta superioridade da acupuntura tradicional em relação à sham, entretanto, sem fortes associações estatísticas. as evidências obtidas não foram suficientes para afirmar quanto à efetividade da acupuntura tradicional em relação

  2. THE ETHICS OF SHAM SURGERY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: BACK TO THE FUTURE?

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Teresa; Huxtable, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Despite intense academic debate in the recent past over the use of ‘sham surgery’ control groups in research, there has been a recent resurgence in their use in the field of neurodegenerative disease. Yet the primacy of ethical arguments in favour of sham surgery controls is not yet established. Preliminary empirical research shows an asymmetry between the views of neurosurgical researchers and patients on the subject, while different ethical guidelines and regulations support conflicting interpretations. Research ethics committees faced with a proposal involving sham surgery should be aware of its ethical complexities. An overview of recent and current placebo-controlled surgical trials in the field of Parkinson's Disease is provided here, followed by an analysis of the key ethical issues which such trials raise. PMID:22150772

  3. Kohn-Sham potential for a strongly correlated finite system with fractional occupancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, A.; Proetto, C. R.

    2016-11-01

    Using a simplified one-dimensional model of a diatomic molecule, the associated interacting density and corresponding Kohn-Sham (KS) potential have been obtained analytically for all fractional molecule occupancies N between 0 and 2. For the homonuclear case, and in the dissociation limit, the exact Kohn-Sham potential builds a barrier at the midpoint between the two atoms, whose strength increases linearly with N , with 1 Sham potential with regards to the strength of the electron-electron repulsion is clearly displayed by our model; without this property both the unusual barrier and the plateau features will be absent.

  4. Acupuncture for hot flushes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a randomised, sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Il; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kim, Kun Hyung; Rho, Jin Ju; Choi, Min Sun; Yoon, Sang Ho; Choi, Sun-Mi; Kang, Kyung Won; Ahn, Hong Yup; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2011-12-01

    To determine the effect of acupuncture in treating hot flushes in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. The study was a randomised single-blind sham-controlled clinical trial. Perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with moderate or severe hot flushes were randomised to receive real or sham acupuncture. Both groups underwent a 4-week run-in period before the treatment. The real acupuncture group received 11 acupuncture treatments for 7 weeks, and the control group underwent sham acupuncture on non-acupuncture points during the same period. Both groups were followed for 8 weeks after the end of treatment period. Changes from baseline in the hot flush scores at week 7, measured by multiplying the hot flush frequency and severity, were the primary outcome. Hot flush frequency, severity and menopause-related symptoms measured with the Menopause Rating Scale Questionnaire were regarded as secondary outcomes. 54 participants were randomised into the real acupuncture group (n=27) and the sham acupuncture group (n=27). The mean change in hot flush scores was -6.4±5.2 in the real acupuncture group and -5.6±9.2 in the sham group at week 7 from values at the start of the acupuncture treatment (10.0±8.1 vs 11.7±12.6), respectively (p=0.0810). No serious adverse events were observed during the whole study period. Compared to sham acupuncture, acupuncture failed to show significantly different effects on the hot flush scores but showed partial benefits on the hot flush severity. Further consideration is needed to develop appropriate strategies for distinguishing non-specific effects from observed overall effectiveness of acupuncture for hot flushes. Whether acupuncture has point-specific effects for hot flushes should be also considered in designing future researches.

  5. Discrimination accuracy between real and sham press needles in the hands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungha; Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Sunmi; Park, Jeonghwan; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the blinding effectiveness of a modified blunt sham press needle on the basis of the ability of subjects to discriminate between real and sham acupuncture needles compared with their discrimination ability based on pure guessing, and to define differences between senses (touch and vision) in the rates of correctly identified needles. Sixty-three healthy students and staff members were recruited through convenience sampling. First, real or sham acupuncture was randomly administered to the left LI4 point while subjects could not observe the needle tip. A real or sham needle tip was then shown to the subjects. Finally, a random combination of real or sham acupuncture needles were randomly administered to the left and right LI4 points, this time with the subjects observing the procedure. In all conditions the subjects gave their judgement as Yes or No in response to questions asking them to identify the needle type. The proportion of correct judgements (P(C)) was computed for the last part of the trial in left and right LI4 points, and the rates of correctly identified needles for each trial were obtained. The subjects' accuracy of discrimination between the real and sham acupuncture needles in left and right LI4 points was not significantly different from that based on pure guess (P(C)=0.50 (chance level)), which indicates complete inability to discriminate between needles. The rates of correctly identified needles using touch, vision and a combination of both senses were not significantly different (p=0.807). The findings from this study show that this sham acupuncture device successfully blinded subjects to real and sham press needles, suggesting that it is effective for subject blinding in studies on acupuncture using press needles, and facilitating evaluation of the effects of acupuncture in placebo-controlled trials using a rigorous scientific research methodology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  6. Adaptive solver of a Kohn-Sham equation for an atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowski, Zbigniew

    2009-06-01

    An adaptive numerical algorithm solving a Kohn-Sham equation for an atom confined in a spherical cavity is presented. The Kohn-Sham equation is solved by the high order finite element method with Lobatto polynomials as the basis set. Based on this method the adaptive algorithm is proposed, which leads to a simple and efficient algorithm. The details of the adaptive algorithm are discussed. Numerical results for N, Al, Ga and In atoms are provided. Using this procedure very high accuracy was obtained with a very small number of mesh nodes.

  7. A Randomized Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Blumberger, Daniel M.; Tran, Lisa C.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Hoy, Kate E.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has demonstrated some efficacy in treatment-resistant major depression (TRD). The majority of previous controlled studies have used anodal stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a control location such as the supraorbital region for the cathode. Several open-label studies have suggested effectiveness from anodal stimulation to the left DLPFC combined with cathodal stimulation to the right DLPFC. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of tDCS using anodal stimulation to the left DLPFC and cathodal stimulation to the right DLPFC compared to sham tDCS. Methods: Subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from a tertiary care university hospital. Twenty-four subjects with TRD and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression greater than 21 were randomized to receive tDCS or sham tDCS. The rates of remission were compared between the two treatment groups. Results: The remission rates did not differ significantly between the two groups using an intention to treat analysis. More subjects in the active tDCS group had failed a course of electroconvulsive therapy in the current depressive episode. Side effects did not differ between the two groups and in general the treatment was very well tolerated. Conclusion: Anodal stimulation to the left DLPFC and cathodal stimulation to the right DLPFC was not efficacious in TRD. However, a number of methodological limitations warrant caution in generalizing from this study. Ongoing, controlled studies should provide further clarification on the efficacy of this stimulation configuration in TRD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01078948. PMID:22912618

  8. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. Methods and analysis In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. PMID:26739742

  9. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  10. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  11. Is the Kohn-Sham Oscillator Strength Exact at the Ionization Threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zenghui; van Faassen, Meta; Burke, Kieron

    2009-03-01

    It is well-established that the highest occupied orbital of the exact Kohn-Sham potential of any system is at -I, where I is the ionization energy. Therefore, in optical response, the non-interacting Kohn-Sham electrons in the ground-state potential have a first ionization threshold that exactly matches that of the real system[1]. We show that corresponding the Kohn-Sham oscillator strength is not exact at the first ionization threshold by explicit demonstration for the helium atom. We use a simple fit of the entire photoabsorption spectrum of both the Kohn-Sham potential for helium and that of real helium. We use oscillator strength sum rules[2] to determine the fit parameters, so this fit should be generally useful. [1] M. A. L. Marques, C. A. Ullrich, F. Nogueira, et al. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006 [2] U. Fano and J. W. Cooper. Rev. Mod. Phys., 40(3), 441-507, 1968

  12. Light-Emitting Diode Versus Sham in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Paul E.; Hews, Katherine; Windon, Lowell; Chasse, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the application of the light emitting diode (LED) to sham LED in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods Eighteen subjects met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into 2 groups: light emitting diode or sham LED. The subjects received either the LED at 12 J/cm2 or sham LED along 2 points of the plantar fascia. Subjects in both groups received a 10 minute transverse friction massage and participated in 4 plantar fascia stretching exercises. All subjects received a total of 6 treatments over 3 weeks. Progress was assessed using the lower extremity functional and analog pain scale. Results No significant difference was found between treatment groups (P = .845). There was a significant difference in pain and outcome scores over time within both groups (P < .35). Conclusion Among patients with plantar fasciitis, the use of LED did not result in greater improvement in function or pain compared with sham treatment. The findings suggest that manual intervention and passive stretching activities may have provided significant pain relief and improvement in functional outcome scores. PMID:26644784

  13. The effect of acupuncture on postmenopausal symptoms and reproductive hormones: a sham controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sunay, Didem; Ozdiken, Muruvvet; Arslan, Huseyin; Seven, Ali; Aral, Yalcin

    2011-03-01

    Acupuncture is commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms and other gynaecological conditions. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate whether acupuncture has an effect on menopausal symptoms and to explore whether this effect is related to changes in hormone levels. Materials and methods A total of 53 postmenopausal women were alternately assigned into two treatment groups: acupuncture (n=27) and sham acupuncture (n=26). Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The serum oestradiol, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) levels were measured at baseline and again after the first and last sessions. The Student t test was used for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for not normally distributed data. The group differences in MRS scores were assessed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. After treatment, total MRS, and the somatic and psychological subscale scores were significantly lower in the acupuncture group than the sham group (all p=0.001). The severity of hot flushes was found to be significantly decreased after treatment in acupuncture group (p=0.001). In the acupuncture group LH levels were lower and oestradiol levels were significantly higher than sham group (p=0.046 and p=0.045, respectively) after treatment, but there was no difference in FSH levels. Acupuncture was effective in reducing menopausal complaints when compared to sham acupuncture and can be considered as an alternative therapy in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory beyond Kohn-Sham Slater determinants.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Johanna I; Nielsen, Søren E B; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-08-03

    When running time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations for real-time simulations of non-equilibrium dynamics, the user has a choice of initial Kohn-Sham state, and typically a Slater determinant is used. We explore the impact of this choice on the exchange-correlation potential when the physical system begins in a 50 : 50 superposition of the ground and first-excited state of the system. We investigate the possibility of judiciously choosing a Kohn-Sham initial state that minimizes errors when adiabatic functionals are used. We find that if the Kohn-Sham state is chosen to have a configuration matching the one that dominates the interacting state, this can be achieved for a finite time duration for some but not all such choices. When the Kohn-Sham system does not begin in a Slater determinant, we further argue that the conventional splitting of the exchange-correlation potential into exchange and correlation parts has limited value, and instead propose a decomposition into a "single-particle" contribution that we denote v, and a remainder. The single-particle contribution can be readily computed as an explicit orbital-functional, reduces to exchange in the Slater determinant case, and offers an alternative to the adiabatic approximation as a starting point for TDDFT approximations.

  15. The Ethics of Sham Surgery on Research Subjects with Cognitivie Impairments that Affect Decision-Making Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Miller, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Populations recruited to participate in sham surgery clinical trials sometimes include patients with cognitive impairments that affect decision-making capacity. In this commentary we examine arguments for and against including these patients in sham surgery clinical trials. We argue that patients with cognitive impairments that affect decision-making capacity should not be excluded from a sham surgery clinical trial if there are scientific reasons for including them in the study and basic ethical requirements for clinical research are met. PMID:20570755

  16. High pressure sintering of non-oxide materials. [hot pressing AIN, TiC, and alpha-Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimado, M.; Ogawa, N.; Koizumi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pure materials of AIN, alpha-Si3N4 and TiC, without additives were sintered at 800 C to 1400 C under the pressures of 30 kbar and 50 kbar for 0.5 hours. The maximum density of sintered bodies for the cited materials was nearly 100% for AIN, 98% for TiC and 96% for alpha-Si3N4.

  17. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Stroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Khot, Sandeep P; Davis, Arielle P; Crane, Deborah A; Tanzi, Patricia M; Lue, Denise Li; Claflin, Edward S; Becker, Kyra J; Longstreth, W T; Watson, Nathaniel F; Billings, Martha E

    2016-07-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predicts poor functional outcome after stroke and increases the risk for recurrent stroke. Less is known about continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on stroke recovery. In a pilot randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, adult stroke rehabilitation patients were assigned to auto-titrating or sham CPAP without diagnostic testing for OSA. Change in Functional Independence Measure (FIM), a measure of disability, was assessed between rehabilitation admission and discharge. Over 18 months, 40 patients were enrolled and 10 withdrew from the study: 7 from active and 3 from sham CPAP (p > 0.10). For the remaining 30 patients, median duration of CPAP use was 14 days. Average CPAP use was 3.7 h/night, with at least 4 h nightly use among 15 patients. Adherence was not influenced by treatment assignment or stroke severity. In intention-to-treat analyses (n = 40), the median change in FIM favored active CPAP over sham but did not reach statistical significance (34 versus 26, p = 0.25), except for the cognitive component (6 versus 2.5, p = 0.04). The on-treatment analyses (n = 30) yielded similar results (total FIM: 32 versus 26, p = 0.11; cognitive FIM: 6 versus 2, p = 0.06). A sham-controlled CPAP trial among stroke rehabilitation patients was feasible in terms of recruitment, treatment without diagnostic testing and adequate blinding-though was limited by study retention and CPAP adherence. Despite these limitations, a trend towards a benefit of CPAP on recovery was evident. Tolerance and adherence must be improved before the full benefits of CPAP on recovery can be assessed in larger trials. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Contribution to the hydrodynamic modeling of groundwater in the Ain El Bel syncline Wilaya of Djelfa (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azlaoui, Mohamed; Nezli, Imed Eddine; Djelita, Belkhier; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2017-02-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, the protection and preservation of water resources is based on integrated resource managements, which will prove a fruitful way to deal with pollution and shortage of water-the source of life for man on Earth. Djelfa region, and particularly Ain El Bel, the potential water has not able to satisfy human needs,and agriculture, and industry. This article is a contribution to hydrodynamic modeling of the Barremian aquifer of Ain El Bel syncline, with "Modflow" software wich provides a deterministic two-dimensional numerical simulation in steady state and transient of underground water in the studied aquifer. The main results provided a better view of different scenarios to the piezometrics fluctuations. The established predictions show an alarming state of this aquifer, where the need for integrated management of groundwater resources is, to ensure sustainable development.

  19. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Stroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Sandeep P.; Davis, Arielle P.; Crane, Deborah A.; Tanzi, Patricia M.; Li Lue, Denise; Claflin, Edward S.; Becker, Kyra J.; Longstreth, W.T.; Watson, Nathaniel F.; Billings, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predicts poor functional outcome after stroke and increases the risk for recurrent stroke. Less is known about continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on stroke recovery. Methods: In a pilot randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, adult stroke rehabilitation patients were assigned to auto-titrating or sham CPAP without diagnostic testing for OSA. Change in Functional Independence Measure (FIM), a measure of disability, was assessed between rehabilitation admission and discharge. Results: Over 18 months, 40 patients were enrolled and 10 withdrew from the study: 7 from active and 3 from sham CPAP (p > 0.10). For the remaining 30 patients, median duration of CPAP use was 14 days. Average CPAP use was 3.7 h/night, with at least 4 h nightly use among 15 patients. Adherence was not influenced by treatment assignment or stroke severity. In intention-to-treat analyses (n = 40), the median change in FIM favored active CPAP over sham but did not reach statistical significance (34 versus 26, p = 0.25), except for the cognitive component (6 versus 2.5, p = 0.04). The on-treatment analyses (n = 30) yielded similar results (total FIM: 32 versus 26, p = 0.11; cognitive FIM: 6 versus 2, p = 0.06). Conclusions: A sham-controlled CPAP trial among stroke rehabilitation patients was feasible in terms of recruitment, treatment without diagnostic testing and adequate blinding—though was limited by study retention and CPAP adherence. Despite these limitations, a trend towards a benefit of CPAP on recovery was evident. Tolerance and adherence must be improved before the full benefits of CPAP on recovery can be assessed in larger trials. Citation: Khot SP, Davis AP, Crane DA, Tanzi PM, Li Lue D, Claflin ES, Becker KJ, Longstreth WT, Watson NF, Billings ME. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized sham-controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1019–1026. PMID

  20. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Stason, William B; Davis, Roger B; Legedza, Anna R T; Schnyer, Rosa N; Kerr, Catherine E; Stone, David A; Nam, Bong Hyun; Kirsch, Irving; Goldman, Rose H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial created from the two week placebo run-in periods for two nested trials that compared acupuncture and amitriptyline with their respective placebo controls. Comparison of participants who remained on placebo continued beyond the run-in period to the end of the study. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 270 adults with arm pain due to repetitive use that had lasted at least three months despite treatment and who scored ≥3 on a 10 point pain scale. Interventions Acupuncture with sham device twice a week for six weeks or placebo pill once a day for eight weeks. Main outcomemeasures Arm pain measured on a 10 point pain scale. Secondary outcomes were symptoms measured by the Levine symptom severity scale, function measured by Pransky's upper extremity function scale, and grip strength. Results Pain decreased during the two week placebo run-in period in both the sham device and placebo pill groups, but changes were not different between the groups (-0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.52 to 0.25, P = 0.49). Changes in severity scores for arm symptoms and grip strength were similar between groups, but arm function improved more in the placebo pill group (2.0, 0.06 to 3.92, P = 0.04). Longitudinal regression analyses that followed participants throughout the treatment period showed significantly greater downward slopes per week on the 10 point arm pain scale in the sham device group than in the placebo pill group (-0.33 (-0.40 to -0.26) v -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.09), P = 0.0001) and on the symptom severity scale (-0.07 (-0.09 to -0.05) v -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.03), P = 0.02). Differences were not significant, however, on the function scale or for grip strength. Reported adverse effects were different in the two groups. Conclusions The sham device had greater

  1. Cerebral Hemodynamics With rTMS in Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Maiti, Rituparna; Nizamie, S Haque

    2016-04-08

    The authors studied cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol dependence and evaluated their changes with application of high-frequency rTMS. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, sham-controlled clinical study was conducted with patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-IV-TR). The study population comprised 25 subjects each in active rTMS, sham rTMS, and healthy control groups. At baseline, cerebral hemodynamic indices were measured with transcranial Doppler sonography. Subjects in the active rTMS group received 10 sessions of rTMS daily; the sham group was administered sham rTMS with the same parameters. Cerebral hemodynamic parameters were repeated 5 minutes after the last rTMS session. At baseline, mean velocity (MV) of both middle cerebral artery (MCA; R-MCA: p=0.003; L-MCA: p=0.002) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; R-ACA: p=0.003; L-ACA: p=.001) was significantly reduced. Pulsatility index (PI) of MCA (p<0.001) and resistance index (RI) of ACA (R-ACA: p=0.009; L-ACA: p=0.008) were increased in alcohol-dependent subjects in comparison with healthy controls. In the active rTMS group, except L-MCA PI, significant differences were observed in values of MV, PI, and RI of both MCA and ACA following rTMS intervention; such changes were not evident in the sham rTMS group. The changes in mean difference in MV of L-MCA (p=0.006) and L-ACA (p=0.015) were statistically significant in the active rTMS group, in comparison with the sham group. Significant differences were also observed between the two groups postintervention, in RI of L-MCA (p=0.001) and ACA (R-ACA: p=0.010; L-ACA: p=0.015). Alcohol dependence may result in altered cerebral hemodynamic parameters, which can be improved with high-frequency rTMS application.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected from the 142 schools in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate. Outcomes measured included serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), plasma lipids, blood sugar, blood pressure and anthropometric data, nutrition and lifestyle variables. Results Fourty-one participants (19.7%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level ≤15 ng/mL [≤37.5 nmol/L]. Using a cutoff level of 25(OH) D of ≤20 ng/ml [≤50 nmol/l] 143 participants (45.4%) were vitamin D insufficient. Overall 65.1% of study participants were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between boys (10%) and girls (28%). In a final multivariate model, serum 25(OH) D concentrations were inversely correlated with female gender, consumption of fast food per week, and body mass index and positively correlated with physical activity scores after adjustment for age. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in adolescents, and more common in girls. PMID:23311702

  3. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. Methods All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. Results 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Conclusions Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed. PMID:23861931

  4. Water-rock interaction and geochemistry of groundwater from the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi; Tiri, Ammar

    2012-02-01

    Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, and inverse geochemical modeling techniques were used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution within the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria. Cluster analysis based on major ion contents defined 3 main chemical water types, reflecting different hydrochemical processes. The first group water, group 1, has low salinity (mean EC = 735 μS/cm). The second group waters are classified as Cl-HCO(3)-alkaline earth type. The third group is made up of water samples, the cation composition of which is dominated by Ca and Mg with anion composition varying from dominantly Cl to dominantly HCO(3) plus SO(4). The varifactors obtained from R-mode FA indicate that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to the presence and dissolution of some carbonate, silicate, and evaporite minerals in the aquifer. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flow paths indicates the dominant processes are the consumption of CO(2), the dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and halite, along with the precipitation of calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, and quartz.

  5. YAG Laser Vitreolysis vs Sham YAG Vitreolysis for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag P; Heier, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-01

    Vitreous floaters are common and can worsen visual quality. YAG vitreolysis is an untested treatment for floaters. To evaluate YAG laser vitreolysis vs sham vitreolysis for symptomatic Weiss ring floaters from posterior vitreous detachment. This single-center, masked, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed from March 25, 2015, to August 3, 2016, in 52 eyes of 52 patients (36 cases and 16 controls) treated at a private ophthalmology practice. Patients were randomly assigned to YAG laser vitreolysis or sham YAG (control). Primary 6-month outcomes were subjective change measured from 0% to 100% using a 10-point visual disturbance score, a 5-level qualitative scale, and National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25). Secondary outcomes included objective change assessed by masked grading of color fundus photography and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity. Fifty-two patients (52 eyes; 17 men and 35 women; 51 white and 1 Asian) with symptomatic Weiss rings were enrolled in the study (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [8.0] years for the YAG laser group and 61.1 [6.6] years for the sham group). The YAG laser group reported greater symptomatic improvement (54%) than controls (9%) (difference, 45%; 95% CI, 25%-64%; P < .001). In the YAG laser group, the 10-point visual disturbance score improved by 3.2 vs 0.1 in the sham group (difference, -3.0; 95% CI, -4.3 to -1.7; P < .001). A total of 19 patients (53%) in the YAG laser group reported significantly or completely improved symptoms vs 0 individuals in the sham group (difference, 53%; 95% CI, 36%-69%, P < .001). Compared with sham, NEI VFQ-25 revealed improved general vision (difference, 16.3; 95% CI, 0.9-31.7; P = .04), peripheral vision (difference, 11.6; 95% CI, 0.8-22.4; P = .04), role difficulties (difference, 17.3; 95% CI, 8.0-26.6; P < .001), and dependency (difference, 5.6; 95% CI, 0.5-10.8; P = .03) among the YAG laser group

  6. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  7. Traditional Chinese acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis but delivering treatment with high expectations of improvement was superior to delivering treatment with neutral expectations.

    PubMed

    Grotle, Margreth

    2011-01-01

    What are the comparative effects of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture (TCA) and sham acupuncture for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) when controlling for the effect of the acupuncturists' communication styles. A nested 2-stage randomised clinical trial, where patients were randomised to 1 of 3 style groups, waiting list, high expectations, or neutral expectations, and nested within style, TCA, or sham acupuncture. A hospital general internal medicine department in Texas, USA. Men and women over 49 years with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Additional inclusion criteria were pain in the knee in the preceding 2 weeks, > 3/10 on a visual analogue scale, no prior treatment with acupuncture, stable treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, or glucosamine. Exclusion criterion was intraarticular injections in the knee in the previous 2 months. Randomisation of 560 participants allocated 238 to the high expectations group, 242 to the neutral expectations group, and 80 to the waiting list group. Six acupuncturists licensed in traditional Chinese medicine carried out the intervention. For the communication style intervention, providers conveyed high expectations of improvement, by using positive utterances such as 'I think this will work for you', while neutral expectations were conveyed with uncertainty utterances such as 'It may or may not work for you'. For the acupuncture intervention the procedure and specific points were standardised by a panel consisting of the acupuncturists in each of the 2 arms: TCA points on the basis of clinical practice, and sham points outside the relevant meridians. The primary outcomes were Joint-Specific Multidimensional Assessment of Pain (J-MAP), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale, and Satisfaction with Knee Procedure (SKIP) measured at 4 weeks, 6 weeks (end of treatment), and 3 months. 527 (94%) participants completed the

  8. Randomized, Sham Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Painful Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yon Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Im, Dal Jae; Lee, Hye Sun; Han, Kyung Ah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor (M1), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and sham tDCS in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN). Methods Patients with PDPN (n=60) were divided randomly into the three groups (n=20 per group). Each group received anodal tDCS with the anode centered over the left M1, DLPFC, or sham stimulation for 20 minutes at intensity of 2 mA for 5 consecutive days. A blinded physician rated the patients' pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, anxiety score, sleep quality, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the pain threshold (PT) to pressure. Results After the tDCS sessions, the M1 group showed a significantly greater reduction in VAS for pain and PT versus the sham and DLPFC groups (p<0.001). The reduction in VAS for pain was sustained after 2 and 4 weeks of follow-up in the M1 group compared with the sham group (p<0.001, p=0.007). Significant differences were observed among the three groups over time in VAS for pain (p<0.001), CGI score (p=0.01), and PT (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed among the groups in sleep quality, anxiety score, or BDI score immediately after tDCS. Conclusion Five daily sessions of tDCS over the M1 can produce immediate pain relief, and relief 2- and 4-week in duration in patients with PDPN. Our findings provide the first evidence of a beneficial effect of tDCS on PDPN. PMID:24466511

  9. Are All Placebo Effects Equal? Placebo Pills, Sham Acupuncture, Cue Conditioning and Their Association

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Cook, Amanda; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2013-01-01

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for “placebo responders.” However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of

  10. Effects of acupuncture for initiation of labor: a double-blind randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ajori, Ladan; Nazari, Leila; Eliaspour, Dariush

    2013-05-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether use of acupuncture could initiate labor at term and thus reduce post-term induction. Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 80 women at 38 weeks of gestation or greater were randomized to acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. Acupuncture points LI4, SP6 and BL67 were needled bilaterally. The primary outcome was initiation of labor. The time from acupuncture to delivery, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcome and Apgar scores were recorded. The trial is registered at irct.ir, number IRCT201111218151N1. Eighty women were randomized and 75 women completed the study procedure. Age, BMI, parity and gestational age were similar in both groups. Spontaneous labor was initiated in 94.7 % of acupuncture group and 89.2 % of sham acupuncture group (p = 0.430). There were no statistically significant difference between groups for time from enrollment to delivery (p = 0.06). According to this study, it seems that acupuncture was not effective in labor initiation compared to sham acupuncture.

  11. A spectral scheme for Kohn-Sham density functional theory of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Elliott, Ryan S.; James, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn-Sham equations for periodic systems - the plane-wave method - is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn-Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  12. Efficacy of acupunture in patients with chronic neck pain--a randomised, sham controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nilay; Ozcan, Emel; Sezen, Kasim; Karatas, Omer; Issever, Halim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electroacupuncture and sham acupuncture in the treatment of patients with chronic neck pain. 31 patients with chronic neck pain were included in a randomised, controlled trial. Electric stimulation was given for 30 minutes at low frequency (1-4Hz), pulse width of 200 micros, interrupted wave form. Of the 29 patients who completed the therapy, 13 were assigned to conventional acupuncture and 16 to sham acupuncture groups, receiving 3 sessions a week for a total of 10 sessions, each lasting for 30 minutes. Patients were evaluated before and after therapy and 3 months later by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the bodily pain subscale of the Short Form Health Survey-36 scale. The treating physician was different from the evaluating physician who, like the patient, was blinded. VAS scores in both groups significantly reduced after therapy and at 3 months post-therapy, but the difference between groups was not significant. In respect of bodily pain, there was a significant improvement in the acupuncture group after therapy (P<0.01). Stimulation of conventional acupuncture points was not generally superior to needling ofnonspecific points on the neck, and both treatments were associated with improvement of symptoms. Needles inserted into the neck are likely to be an inappropriate sham control for acupuncture.

  13. ACKS2: Atom-condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraelen, T.; Ayers, P. W.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.

    2013-02-01

    A new polarizable force field (PFF), namely atom-condensed Kohn-Sham density functional theory approximated to second order (ACKS2), is proposed for the efficient computation of atomic charges and linear response properties of extended molecular systems. It is derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), making use of two novel ingredients in the context of PFFs: (i) constrained atomic populations and (ii) the Legendre transform of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy. ACKS2 is essentially an extension of the Electronegativity Equalization Method (EEM) [W. J. Mortier, S. K. Ghosh, and S. Shankar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 4315 (1986)], 10.1021/ja00275a013 in which two major EEM shortcomings are fixed: ACKS2 predicts a linear size-dependence of the dipole polarizability in the macroscopic limit and correctly describes the charge distribution when a molecule dissociates. All ACKS2 parameters are defined as atoms-in-molecules expectation values. The implementation of ACKS2 is very similar to that of EEM, with only a small increase in computational cost.

  14. Experimental Control for the Ovariectomized Rat Model: Use of Sham Versus Nonmanipulated Animal.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Marlena C; Morel, Patrick C H

    2016-01-01

    One of 2 models required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for registration of a treatment for osteoporosis, the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, is widely used in scientific studies investigating sex hormone-deficient bone loss. The use of control nonhuman animals is critical because bone turnover may be affected by animal stress, use of anesthetic, and the mechanisms involved in wound healing. Historically, researchers have used sham-operated animals who undergo the same manipulations as the OVX rats, but ethical concerns require consideration of unmanipulated (unoperated) control animals to minimize animal distress and unnecessary procedures. Herein, we report the results of 3 studies including OVX, sham, and unmanipulated rats and the effects on bone mineral density and content (BMD/BMC) during 2 to 6 months postsurgery. Our data indicate that while OVX animals generally had lower BMD and BMC than animals in either of the control groups, no differences were observed between sham and unmanipulated animals at any of the time points assessed. However, because bone turnover is a long-term process, studies with longer duration and multiple endpoints are warranted to confirm these results.

  15. A spectral scheme for Kohn–Sham density functional theory of clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amartya S. Elliott, Ryan S. James, Richard D.

    2015-04-15

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn–Sham equations for periodic systems – the plane-wave method – is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn–Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain- United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Baynouna, Latifa M; Revel, Anthony D; Nagelkerke, Nico JD; Jaber, Tariq M; Omar, Aziza O; Ahmed, Nader M; Nazirudeen, Mohammad K; Al Sayed, Mamdouh F; Nour, Fuad A; Abdouni, Sameh

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years the citizens of the United Arab Emirates have experienced major changes in life-style secondary to increased affluence. Currently, 1 in 5 adults have diabetes mellitus, but the associations (clustering) among risk factors, as well as the relevance of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, in this population is unknown. Aim To investigate the prevalence and associations among cardiovascular risk factors in this population, and explore to what extent associations can be explained by the metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III criteria. Method A community based survey, of conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted among 817 national residents of Al Ain city, UAE. These factors were fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, lipid profile, BMI, waist circumference, smoking, or CHD family history. Odds ratios between risks factors, both unadjusted and adjusted for age and sex as well as adjusted for age, sex, and metabolic syndrome were calculated. Results Various risk factors were positively associated in this population; associations that are mostly unexplained by confounding by age and sex. For example, hypertension and diabetes were still strongly related (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.7) after adjustment. An increased waist circumference showed similar relationship with hypertension (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5–3.5). Diabetes was related to an increased BMI (OR 1.5; 96% CI 1.0–2.3). Smoking was also associated with diabetes (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.3). Further adjustment for metabolic syndrome reduced some associations but several remained. Conclusion In this population risk-factors cluster, but associations do not appear to be explained by the presence/absence of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome. Associations provide valuable information in planning interventions for screening and management. PMID:19371412

  18. Combination of e-beam lithography and of high velocity AIN/diamond-layered structure for SAW filters in X band.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Philippe; Assouar, Mohamed B; Elmazria, Omar; Hakiki, M El; Mortet, Vincent; Alnot, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we report on the fabrication results of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating at frequencies up to 8 GHz. In previous work, we have shown that high acoustic velocities (9 to 12 km/s) are obtained from the layered AIN/diamond structure. The interdigital transducers (IDTs) made of aluminium with resolutions up to 250 nm were successfully patterned on AIN/diamond-layered structures with an adapted technological process. The uniformity and periodicity of IDTs were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. A highly oriented (002) piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film was deposited on the nucleation side of the CVD diamond by magnetron sputtering technique. The X-ray diffraction effectuated on the AIN/diamond-layered structure exhibits high intensity peaks related to the (002) AIN and (111) diamond orientations. According to the calculated dispersion curves of velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2), the AIN layer thickness was chosen in order to combine high velocity and high K2. Experimental data extracted from the fabricated SAW devices match with theoretical values quite well.

  19. A New Method for Sham-Controlled Acupuncture in Experimental Visceral Pain - a Randomized, Single-Blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Juel, Jacob; Liguori, Stefano; Liguori, Aldo; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Graversen, Carina; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-07-01

    Acupuncture is increasingly used as an alternative to medical therapy for various pain conditions. To study the effect of acupuncture in experimental and clinical studies, a control condition with sham acupuncture is needed. However, as such models have not been established in assessment of acupunctures effect against visceral pain, this study aimed to validate a new method for blinded sham acupuncture in experimental rectal pain. Fifteen subjects underwent a sequence of either sham or real acupuncture in randomized order. In the sham arm, a hollow inner tube with a sharp tip was fitted into an outer tube and subjects were blinded to the stimulations. Before and after the intervention, pain was induced by rectal stimulation with an inflatable balloon distended until the subjects' pain threshold was reached. The resting electroencephalogram (EEG) was quantified by spectral power analysis to explore the central nervous system effects objectively. Additionally, after the second study day, the subject was asked to indicate the sequence of interventions. A significant increase in rectal balloon volume was observed after sham 12 ± 21 mL (P = 0.049) and acupuncture 17 ± 30 mL (P = 0.046). However, the change in volume was not different between groups (P = 0.6). No differences in EEG spectral power distributions between sham and acupuncture were seen (all P > 0.6). The correct sequence of sham and acupuncture was indicated by 36% of the subjects (P = 0.4). The presented sham procedure provides a valid method for blinding of "sham acupuncture" and may be used in future blinded controlled trials of acupuncture for visceral pain. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Randomized sham-controlled trials in endoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Allison R; Popov, Violeta; Thompson, Christopher C

    2017-08-09

    Sham procedures in endoscopy are used with the intention of controlling for placebo response, potentially allowing more precise evaluation of treatment effect. Nevertheless, this type of study may impose significant risk without potential benefit for those in the sham group. The aim of the current study is to systematically review and analyze the endoscopic literature to assess the safety of sham controls. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for endoscopic sham procedures for all dates through July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials comparing an endoscopic therapy with a sham were included. Primary outcome was adverse events (AE) categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. Results were combined using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed with I-squared, and publication bias was assessed with the Egger test and funnel plots. Data were extracted from 34 publications (1987-2017; 100% full-text), with a total of 2,492 procedures (1,355 treatment/1,137 sham). Sham procedures involved upper endoscopy (31 studies) and ERCP (3 studies). Treatment arms included procedures with the following indications: weight loss (38.2%), GI bleeding (26.5%), GERD (20.6%), sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) (8.8%), and dysphagia (6.2%). Overall percentage of severe adverse events (SAE) in the sham group was 1.7% (19/1137). Of these, the most common SAE in sham groups were need for surgery/intensive care unit (ICU) stay (35.3%), post-ERCP pancreatitis (23.5%), and perforation (11.8%). There was no significant difference in the odds of developing a severe adverse event between the treatment group and the sham group (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.7 - 2.3]). The frequency of adverse events in endoscopic sham procedures is substantial, and subjects patients to considerable morbidity. These results raise a serious ethical dilemma regarding the use of sham-controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. High-altitude headache: the effects of real vs sham oxygen administration.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Durando, Jennifer; Giudetti, Lucia; Pampallona, Alan; Vighetti, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude, or hypobaric hypoxia, headache has recently emerged as an interesting model to study placebo and nocebo responses, and particularly their peripheral mechanisms. In this study, we analyze the response of this type of headache to either real or sham (placebo) oxygen (O(2)) administration at an altitude of 3500 m, where blood oxygen saturation (SO(2)) drops from the normal value of about 98% to about 85%. In a trial in which a double-blind administration of either 100% O(2) or sham O(2) was administered, we tested pre- and post-exercise headache, along with fatigue, heart rate (HR) responses, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) salivary concentration. Although real O(2) breathing increased SO(2) along with a decrease in pre- and post-exercise headache, fatigue, HR, and PGE(2), placebo O(2) changed neither pre-/post-exercise headache nor SO(2)/HR/PGE(2), but it decreased fatigue. However, in another group of subjects, when sham O(2) was delivered after 2 previous exposures to O(2) (O(2) preconditioning), it decreased fatigue, post-exercise headache, HR, and PGE(2), yet without any increase in SO(2). Three main findings emerge from these data. First, placebo O(2) is effective in reducing post-exercise headache, along with HR and PGE(2) decrease, only after O(2) preconditioning. Second, pre-exercise (at rest) headache is not affected by placebo O(2), which emphasizes the limits of a placebo treatment at high altitude. Third, fatigue is affected by placebo O(2) even without prior O(2) conditioning, which suggests the higher placebo sensitivity of fatigue compared with headache pain at high altitude.

  2. Electromagnetic effects on forearm disuse osteopenia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Joseph A; Short, Walter H; Sheehe, Paul R; Hickman, Rebecca M; Feiglin, David H

    2011-05-01

    A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, feasibility and dosing study was undertaken to determine if a common pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment could moderate the substantial osteopenia that occurs after forearm disuse. Ninety-nine subjects were randomized into four groups after a distal radius fracture, or carpal surgery requiring immobilization in a cast. Active or identical sham PEMF transducers were worn on the distal forearm for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 8 weeks starting after cast removal ("baseline") when bone density continues to decline. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry were measured in the distal forearm by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at entry ("baseline") and 8, 16, and 24 weeks later. Significant average BMD losses after baseline were observed in the affected forearm at all time points (5-7% distally and 3-4% for the radius/ulna shaft). However, after adjusting for age, gender, and baseline BMD there was no evidence of a positive effect of active versus sham PEMF treatment on bone loss by DXA or pQCT for subjects completing all visits (n = 82, ∼20 per group) and for an intent-to-treat analysis (n = 99). Regardless of PEMF exposure, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was normal at baseline and 8 weeks, while serum c-terminal collagen teleopeptide (CTX-1) was markedly elevated at baseline and less so at 8 weeks. Although there was substantial variability in disuse osteopenia, these results suggested that the particular PEMF waveform and durations applied did not affect the continuing substantial disuse bone loss in these subjects. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Randomized sham-controlled trial of acupuncture for postoperative pain control after stapled haemorrhoidopexy.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, M R; Aydemir-Dogruyol, K; Issel, R; Sauerland, S

    2012-08-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy usually causes moderate to strong postoperative pain. Chinese studies have found that acupuncture may have an analgesic effect in posthaemorrhoidectomy patients. This is the first Western study aiming assess the efficacy of acupuncture as an adjunct analgesic therapy after stapled haemorrhoidopexy. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients were allocated to three groups. Conventional drug therapy (oral diclofenac and metamizol, local lidocaine) served as baseline analgesia. In the control group (n = 17) only this regimen was used. In addition to baseline analgesia, 17 patients received verum acupuncture. Sham acupuncture was performed on 16 patients. Being the primary outcome measure, pain was measured twice daily using the numerical rating scale (NRS) and compared statistically by repeated-measures analysis of variance. The study was registered (DRKS00003116). Results  After verum acupuncture, pain intensity was not significantly lower when compared with conventional analgesia (primary hypothesis, P = 0.057), but was when compared to sham acupuncture (P = 0.007). In the afternoon of postoperative day 1, for example, NRS was 2.7 (SD 1.5) in the verum group, but 4.0 (1.0) in the sham group and 4.1 (1.9) under conventional analgesia. Furthermore, significantly fewer rescue analgesics were necessary if verum acupuncture was applied. Cardiovascular parameters were stable in all three groups, and no complications were recorded. In posthaemorrhoidectomy patients, acupuncture appears to be an effective adjunct to conventional analgesia. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations and to refine the acupuncture technique. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M. R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-01

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100-200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings-of the order of 1000-fold-relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688 atoms using

  5. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-15

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688

  6. Therapeutic ultrasound versus sham ultrasound for the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ulus, Yasemin; Tander, Berna; Akyol, Yesim; Durmus, Dilek; Buyukakıncak, Ozlem; Gul, Ulku; Canturk, Ferhan; Bilgici, Ayhan; Kuru, Omer

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of ultrasound (US) therapy on pain, physical function, ambulation activity, disability and psychological status in patients with knee OA. Forty-two inpatients with bilateral knee OA were randomized by an independent researcher not involved in the data assessment, to receive either therapeutic continuous US (group 1) or sham US (group 2). A 1-MHz US head was used, set to an intensity of 1 W/cm(2) for 10 min. All patients received 20 min of hot packs, 10 min of interferential current, and 15 min of quadriceps isometric exercise of both knees. Patients in each group received treatments five times weekly for 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment sessions. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), 50-m walking speed, Lequesne index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The patients with knee OA had significant improvements in pain, stiffness, functional activity, walking time, disability, depression and anxiety scores with therapeutic US and sham US (P < 0.05). The improvement in pain VAS scores, WOMAC scores, Lequesne index and HADS scores were not significantly different in patients treated with US and sham US (P > 0.05). No side-effects were reported during or after the US treatment periods. US therapy is safe but use of US in addition to conventional physical therapy programs seems to have no further significant effect in people with knee OA. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Schizophrenia With Predominant Negative Symptoms: A Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Palm, Ulrich; Keeser, Daniel; Hasan, Alkomiet; Kupka, Michael J; Blautzik, Janusch; Sarubin, Nina; Kaymakanova, Filipa; Unger, Ina; Falkai, Peter; Meindl, Thomas; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Padberg, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Negative symptoms are highly relevant in the long-term course of schizophrenia and are an important target domain for the development of novel interventions. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been investigated as a treatment option in schizophrenia. In this proof-of-concept study, 20 schizophrenia patients with predominantly negative symptoms were randomized to either 10 sessions of add-on active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (anode: left DLPFC/F3; cathode: right supraorbital/F4). Primary outcome measure was the change in the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) sum score; secondary outcomes included reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and improvement of depressive symptoms, cognitive processing speed, and executive functioning. Sixteen patients underwent 4 functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) scans (pre and post 1st and pre and post 10th tDCS) to investigate changes in resting state network connectivity after tDCS. Per-protocol analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in SANS score after active (-36.1%) than after sham tDCS (-0.7%). PANSS sum scores decreased significantly more with active (-23.4%) than with sham stimulation (-2.2%). Explorative analysis of fcMRI data indicated changes in subgenual cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) connectivity within frontal-thalamic-temporo-parietal networks. The results of this first proof-of-concept study indicate that prefrontal tDCS may be a promising intervention for treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms. Large-scale randomized controlled studies are needed to further establish prefrontal tDCS as novel treatment for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Randomised sham-controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Pengo, Martino F; Xiao, Sichang; Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Reed, Kate; Shah, Nimish; Chen, Tao; Douiri, Abdel; Hart, Nicholas; Luo, Yuanming; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Williams, Adrian; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John; Steier, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by a loss of neuromuscular tone of the upper airway dilator muscles while asleep. This study investigated the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with OSA. Patients and methods This was a randomised, sham-controlled crossover trial using transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the upper airway dilator muscles in patients with confirmed OSA. Patients were randomly assigned to one night of sham stimulation and one night of active treatment. The primary outcome was the 4% oxygen desaturation index, responders were defined as patients with a reduction >25% in the oxygen desaturation index when compared with sham stimulation and/or with an index <5/hour in the active treatment night. Results In 36 patients (age mean 50.8 (SD 11.2) years, male/female 30/6, body mass index median 29.6 (IQR 26.9–34.9) kg/m2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.5 (4.6) points, oxygen desaturation index median 25.7 (16.0–49.1)/hour, apnoea-hypopnoea index median 28.1 (19.0–57.0)/hour) the primary outcome measure improved when comparing sham stimulation (median 26.9 (17.5–39.5)/hour) with active treatment (median 19.5 (11.6–40.0)/hour; p=0.026), a modest reduction of the mean by 4.1 (95% CI −0.6 to 8.9)/hour. Secondary outcome parameters of patients' perception indicated that stimulation was well tolerated. Responders (47.2%) were predominantly from the mild-to-moderate OSA category. In this subgroup, the oxygen desaturation index was reduced by 10.0 (95% CI 3.9 to 16.0)/hour (p<0.001) and the apnoea-hypopnoea index was reduced by 9.1 (95% CI 2.0 to 16.2)/hour (p=0.004). Conclusion Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal dilators during a single night in patients with OSA improves upper airway obstruction and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01661712. PMID:27435610

  9. Dynamical Correction to Linear Kohn-Sham Conductances from Static Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, S.; Stefanucci, G.

    2013-07-01

    For molecules weakly coupled to leads the exact linear Kohn-Sham (KS) conductance can be orders of magnitude larger than the true linear conductance due to the lack of dynamical exchange-correlation (xc) corrections. In this work we show how to incorporate dynamical effects in KS transport calculations. The only quantity needed is the static xc potential in the molecular junction. Our scheme provides a comprehensive description of Coulomb blockade without breaking the spin symmetry. This is explicitly demonstrated in single-wall nanotubes where the corrected conductance is in good agreement with experimental data whereas the KS conductance fails dramatically.

  10. Existence of minimizers for Kohn-Sham within the local spin density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the work by Anantharaman and Cancès (2009 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré (C) 26 2425-55) and prove the existence of minimizers for the spin-polarized Kohn-Sham model in the presence of a magnetic field within the local spin density approximation. We show that for any magnetic field that vanishes at infinity, the existence of minimizers is ensured for neutral or positively charged systems. The proof relies on classical concentration-compactness techniques.

  11. Numerical Methods for a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Model Based on Optimal Transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huajie; Friesecke, Gero; Mendl, Christian B

    2014-10-14

    In this paper, we study numerical discretizations to solve density functional models in the "strictly correlated electrons" (SCE) framework. Unlike previous studies, our work is not restricted to radially symmetric densities. In the SCE framework, the exchange-correlation functional encodes the effects of the strong correlation regime by minimizing the pairwise Coulomb repulsion, resulting in an optimal transport problem. We give a mathematical derivation of the self-consistent Kohn-Sham-SCE equations, construct an efficient numerical discretization for this type of problem for N = 2 electrons, and apply it to the H2 molecule in its dissociating limit.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice among Chinese acupuncturists receiving sham and/or placebo acupuncture: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunlan; Zhou, Xinyao; Pang, Ran

    2015-06-01

    Placebo and sham acupuncture are common control strategies in acupuncture studies. However, the perception and practice of these approaches in acupuncturists are poorly documented. To investigate knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of sham and/or placebo acupuncture among Chinese acupuncturists. A cross-sectional survey conducted in six different tertiary care hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing, China. A total of 92 licensed acupuncturists were asked to complete a predesigned and structured questionnaire on-site. A response rate of 92.4% (n=85) was achieved. Almost all participants (99%, n=84) had moderate knowledge about sham and/or placebo acupuncture, but only a minority (27%, n=23) reported an excellent understanding. The general attitude towards sham and/or placebo acupuncture was positive. Most respondents (99%, n=84) thought such controls were necessary and the majority (81%, n=69) believed they were feasible in acupuncture research. More than two-thirds of participants (71%, n=60) had applied sham and/or placebo acupuncture, but only a few (8%, 5/60) used it as the most common control strategy in clinical trials. The result of our survey suggests that Chinese acupuncturists have a moderate knowledge of, and a positive attitude towards, sham and/or placebo acupuncture. Research into sham and/or placebo acupuncture is limited in comparison with other control strategies. Therefore, an in-service education programme for acupuncturists and standardisation of sham and/or placebo acupuncture need to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    DOE PAGES

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-04-27

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractionalmore » occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.« less

  14. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Hubertus J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Finally, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  15. Application of Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Kohn-Sham Theory to the Hooke's Atom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z.; Sahni, V.

    1997-03-01

    The quantum-mechanical interpretation of Kohn-Sham theory is in terms of two fields. The first E_ee(r), representative of Pauli and Coulomb correlations, is determined by Coulomb's law from the pair-correlation density. The second Z_t_c(r) is representative of the correlation contribution to the kinetic energy, and is proportional to the difference in fields obtained as the derivative of the noninteracting and interacting system kinetic-energy-density tensors. The potential (functional derivative) v_ee^KS(r)=δE_ee^KS[ρ]/δρ (r) where E_ee^KS[ ρ] is the Kohn-Sham electron-interaction energy functional, is the work done to move an electron in the sum of the fields. The quantum-mechanical electron-interaction E_ee[ρ] and correlation-kinetic T_c[ρ] energy components of E_ee^KS[ρ] can also be expressed in virial form in terms of the fields E_ee(r) and Z_t_c(r) , respectively. In this paper we consider the ground state of the Hooke's atom from this physical perspective, and present an entirely analytical solution of the kinetic-energy-density tensors, the Hartree, Pauli, Coulomb, and correlation-kinetic components of the fields, potentials, their asymptotic structure, and energies.

  16. Efficient iterative method for solving the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Shao, Sihong; E, Weinan

    2012-11-06

    We present for the first time an efficient iterative method to directly solve the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) density functional theory. Due to the existence of the negative energy continuum in the DKS operator, the existing iterative techniques for solving the Kohn-Sham systems cannot be efficiently applied to solve the DKS systems. The key component of our method is a novel filtering step (F) which acts as a preconditioner in the framework of the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. The resulting method, dubbed the LOBPCG-F method, is able to compute the desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the positive energy band without computing any state in the negative energy band. The LOBPCG-F method introduces mild extra cost compared to the standard LOBPCG method and can be easily implemented. We demonstrate our method in the pseudopotential framework with a planewave basis set which naturally satisfies the kinetic balance prescription. Numerical results for Pt$_{2}$, Au$_{2}$, TlF, and Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ indicate that the LOBPCG-F method is a robust and efficient method for investigating the relativistic effect in systems containing heavy elements.

  17. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-04-27

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  18. Blinding the blinded - assessing the effectiveness of a sham treatment in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber trial.

    PubMed

    Rainolds, Dan; Long, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for a variety of problem wounds as an adjunctive treatment. The therapeutic impact of adding HBOT to a wound-healing regimen in many cases remains unclear and an ongoing need exists for additional randomised controlled trials. Many of these clinical studies require a sham group of study participants. To date, there has not been any published research on the concealment of sham treatments in multiplace hyperbaric chambers. The aim of this pilot project was to validate the existing blinding procedures used at one hyperbaric facility. Sixty-six volunteer recreational scuba divers, who had not previously been exposed to compression in a hyperbaric chamber, were recruited through local dive shops. One group was pressurised to 203 kPa and the other was minimally pressurised to 121 kPa, the minimum pressure required to cause middle ear pressure changes. Both protocols implemented continuous, though subtle, pressure variations toward the attainment of the final target pressure. A nearly identical number of subjects in both the 203 kPa (n = 32) and 121 kPa (n = 34) groups believed they had undergone a treatment pressure to 203 kPa (72% versus 71%) indicating a similarity of perception between the two groups.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Sun, Jie-Guang

    2010-05-01

    We aim to study the efficacy of acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorder. A single-blind randomized control trial was conducted in 50 children. These children were randomly assigned to the treatment group with tongue acupuncture (40 sessions over 8 weeks) or the control group (sham tongue acupuncture to nonacupoints in the tongue). There was improvement in both the treatment and control groups in all assessed measures but more so in the treatment than in the control group: (1) eye-hand coordination, performance, and practical reasoning of Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale; (2) sensory-motor, social, affectual, language, and total score of Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Scale; (3) Comprehension Language age in the Reynell Language Developmental Scale; and (4) Total Score and Mental Age in Symbolic Play Test. The only statistically significant improvement in the treatment as compared to the control group was seen in self-care and cognition domains of the Functional Independence Measure for children. We had demonstrated that a short course of acupuncture had efficacy in improving various developmental and behavioral aspects of children with autism. The long-term efficacy in functional gain needs to be further explored.

  20. Topological analysis of electron densities from Kohn-Sham and subsystem density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Kiewisch, Karin; Eickerling, Georg; Reiher, Markus; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2008-01-28

    In this study, we compare the electron densities for a set of hydrogen-bonded complexes obtained with either conventional Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculations or with the frozen-density embedding (FDE) method, which is a subsystem approach to DFT. For a detailed analysis of the differences between these two methods, we compare the topology of the electron densities obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT and FDE in terms of deformation densities, bond critical points, and the negative Laplacian of the electron density. Different kinetic-energy functionals as needed for the frozen-density embedding method are tested and compared to a purely electrostatic embedding. It is shown that FDE is able to reproduce the characteristics of the density in the bonding region even in systems such as the F-H-F(-) molecule, which contains one of the strongest hydrogen bonds. Basis functions on the frozen system are usually required to accurately reproduce the electron densities of supermolecular calculations. However, it is shown here that it is in general sufficient to provide just a few basis functions in the boundary region between the two subsystems so that the use of the full supermolecular basis set can be avoided. It also turns out that electron-density deformations upon bonding predicted by FDE lack directionality with currently available functionals for the nonadditive kinetic-energy contribution.

  1. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-04-27

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  2. Kohn-Sham orbitals and potentials from quantum Monte Carlo molecular densities.

    PubMed

    Varsano, Daniele; Barborini, Matteo; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-02-07

    In this work we show the possibility to extract Kohn-Sham orbitals, orbital energies, and exchange correlation potentials from accurate Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) densities for atoms (He, Be, Ne) and molecules (H2, Be2, H2O, and C2H4). The Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) densities based on accurate Jastrow Antisymmetrised Geminal Power wave functions are calculated through different estimators. Using these reference densities, we extract the Kohn-Sham quantities with the method developed by Zhao, Morrison, and Parr (ZMP) [Phys. Rev. A 50, 2138 (1994)]. We compare these extracted quantities with those obtained form CISD densities and with other data reported in the literature, finding a good agreement between VMC and other high-level quantum chemistry methods. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the ZMP procedure to QMC molecular densities, that can be used for the testing and development of improved functionals and for the implementation of embedding schemes based on QMC and Density Functional Theory.

  3. Kohn-Sham orbitals and potentials from quantum Monte Carlo molecular densities

    SciTech Connect

    Varsano, Daniele; Barborini, Matteo; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-02-07

    In this work we show the possibility to extract Kohn-Sham orbitals, orbital energies, and exchange correlation potentials from accurate Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) densities for atoms (He, Be, Ne) and molecules (H{sub 2}, Be{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) densities based on accurate Jastrow Antisymmetrised Geminal Power wave functions are calculated through different estimators. Using these reference densities, we extract the Kohn-Sham quantities with the method developed by Zhao, Morrison, and Parr (ZMP) [Phys. Rev. A 50, 2138 (1994)]. We compare these extracted quantities with those obtained form CISD densities and with other data reported in the literature, finding a good agreement between VMC and other high-level quantum chemistry methods. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the ZMP procedure to QMC molecular densities, that can be used for the testing and development of improved functionals and for the implementation of embedding schemes based on QMC and Density Functional Theory.

  4. Efficient iterative method for solving the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Shao, Sihong; E, Weinan

    2013-07-01

    We present for the first time an efficient iterative method to directly solve the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) density functional theory. Due to the existence of the negative energy continuum in the DKS operator, the existing iterative techniques for solving the Kohn-Sham systems cannot be efficiently applied to solve the DKS systems. The key component of our method is a novel filtering step (F) which acts as a preconditioner in the framework of the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. The resulting method, dubbed the LOBPCG-F method, is able to compute the desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the positive energy band without computing any state in the negative energy band. The LOBPCG-F method introduces mild extra cost compared to the standard LOBPCG method and can be easily implemented. We demonstrate our method in the pseudopotential framework with a planewave basis set which naturally satisfies the kinetic balance prescription. Numerical results for Pt2, Au2, TlF, and Bi2Se3 indicate that the LOBPCG-F method is a robust and efficient method for investigating the relativistic effect in systems containing heavy elements.

  5. Reconstructed materia medica of the Medieval and Ottoman al-Sham.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2002-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the medicinal uses of natural substances in medieval and Ottoman al-Sham (the Levant). It involved a meticulous survey of a wide range of historical sources spanning approximately 1100 years and including medical and pharmacological literature, travelogues, geographical and agricultural literature, dictionaries, archives, the Genizah and other medieval sources. Our main goal was to arrive at a reconstruction of the unwritten materia medica of the medieval and Ottoman Levant. Of the many and varied medicinal substances on which we were able to extract information, we were able to identify 286. These are presented according to the following classification: 234 species of plants (81.8%); 27 species of animals (9.5%); 15 kinds of minerals (5.2%) and 10 substances of other or mixed origin (3.5%). Analysis of the data showed that the region under study served as the geographic origin of the majority of the substances, only a minority of the materials was imported. The main reason for this is the geographic location of the Levant as a junction between three continents, as a cultural meeting point and as trade center. Finally, our data revealed that the al-Sham region was an independent source of production and marketing of medicinal substances during the medieval and Ottoman periods.

  6. Sham versus transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, C.W.; Reddy, P.; Johnson, H.; Ramsay, J.W.; Carter, S.C. . Dept. of Urology)

    1993-01-02

    Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) is a single-session, minimally invasive outpatient treatment for patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction. The authors designed a prospective randomized trial to identify any placebo response. Patients with a Madsen symptom score over 8 for at least 6 months were eligible for study. Patients with renal dysfunction, upper urinary tract disease, co-existing bladder disease and malignant prostatic change were excluded. 43 patients were studied: 21 were randomized to receive a sham treatment and 22 to thermotherapy. The thermotherapy group showed a 70% decrease in the mean Madsen score, a 53% increase in flow-rate, and 92% decrease in residual urine volume. No Significant change was seen in these mean indices in the sham group. There was no difference in the main complication of transient hematuria between the two groups. However, there was a 22% frequency of acute retention in the TUMT group. The results show a little significant placebo component to the subjective and objective improvement that occurs in patients who have received TUMT.

  7. Energy differences between Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock wave functions yielding the same electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görling, Andreas; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    1995-06-01

    Kohn-Sham wave functions yielding the Hartree-Fock ground-state densities of alkaline-earth and noble-gas atoms are calculated. From the Kohn-Sham wave functions the corresponding noninteracting kinetic energies and the exchange energies are calculated according to the density-functional definition. The difference between the density-functional and the Hartree-Fock exchange energies for a given electron density is found to be surprisingly small. This justifies, at least for the systems studied here, the common practice of using Hartree-Fock exchange energies as reference values to assess the quality of today's approximate density functionals for the exchange energy. The calculated Kohn-Sham wave functions give energies with the atomic Hamiltonian operators which are de facto identical to the corresponding values obtained from the optimized potential method. The influence of a coupling parameter turning on the electron-electron interaction on the difference between Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock kinetic and exchange energies is investigated. Various hybrid schemes which combine the Kohn-Sham and the Hartee-Fock methods are compared. For the atomic systems investigated here, the different exchange and correlation energies occurring in these schemes are found in most cases to deviate very little from the standard Kohn-Sham exchange and correlation energies. Finally, the formulation and validity of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in basis set representations are discussed.

  8. High-impact exercise strengthens bone in osteopenic ovariectomized rats with the same outcome as Sham rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Akiko; Sogo, Naota; Nagasawa, Seigo; Shimizu, Takuya; Umemura, Yoshihisa

    2003-09-01

    The effect of jump exercise on middle-aged osteopenic rats was investigated. Forty-two 9-mo-old female rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (OVX). Three months after surgery, the rats were divided into the following groups: Sham sedentary, Sham exercised, OVX sedentary, and OVX exercised. Rats in the exercise groups jumped 10 times/day, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk, with a jumping height of 40 cm. Less than 1 min was required for the jump training. After the experiment, the right tibia and femur were dissected, and blood was obtained from each rat. OVX rats were observed to have increased body weights and decreased bone mass in their tibiae and femurs. Jump-exercised rats, on the other hand, had significantly increased tibial bone mass, strength, and cortical areas. The bone mass and strength of OVX exercised rats increased to approximately the same extent as Sham exercised rats, despite estrogen deficiency or osteopenia. Our data suggest that jump exercise has beneficial effects on lower limb bone mass, strength, bone mineral density, and morphometry in middle-aged osteopenic rats, as well as in Sham rats.

  9. Comparing the effects of individualized, standard, sham and no acupuncture in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is an effective yet complex therapy, integrating syndrome differentiation, selection of appropriate acupoints and skillful needling techniques. Clinicians carefully tailor acupuncture treatment to each patient. However, most clinical trials of acupuncture have been based on a standardized formula of points for every patient without properly accounting for individualdifferences and, as a result, have not been reflective of the true efficacy of clinical practice. To determine the efficacy of meridian-based syndrome differentiation and Sa-am acupuncture, we have designed a simple pragmatic trial providing individualized treatments while working within a general framework. Methods/Design The study is designed to be a parallel, patient- and assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of250 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) will be recruited from two independent hospitals, Semyung University Oriental Medicine Hospital in Chung-ju and Dongguk University Oriental Hospital in Ilsan, South Korea. Patients will be randomly allocated into four treatment groups: 1. individualized, meridian-based syndrome differentiation and Sa-am acupuncture treatment;2. standard acupuncture treatment;3. sham acupuncture treatment; and 4. no acupuncture treatment. Patients in groups 1 to 3 will be treated by certified oriental medicine doctors twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the self-reported total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score change. The trial will also include secondary outcome measures. Discussion This trial is designed to determine the efficacy of individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with knee OA by comparing the differences between individualized, standard, sham and no acupuncture treatments. The results of this trial may validate the efficacy of individualized acupuncture therapy, encouraging its widespread use. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  10. A Study on AIN Film-Based SAW Attenuation in Liquids and Their Potential as Liquid Ethanol Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhonggui; Wang, Yinshen; Xie, Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report attenuation characteristics of aluminum nitride (AIN) film-based surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in liquids and their potential as liquid ethanol sensors. An AIN film-based SAW resonator was fabricated for liquid sensing application. The fabricated SAW device had a Rayleigh wave mode at a resonant frequency of 147.1 MHz and a low temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of −21.7 ppm/K. The signal attenuation in the transmission line of the SAW device was presented when ethanol (ETH) droplets and deionized water (DIW) with different concentrations and volume (0.2–1 µL) were dropped on the sensing area respectively. The attenuation of SAW as a function of time and liquid position was investigated. Residues left on the wave propagation path resulted in a frequency shift of the SAW device after liquid evaporation. For ETH, there was a 49 kHz frequency shift caused by a large amount of residues, while the frequency shift of DIW was not distinct, on account of a clean surface. The linear relationship between evaporation rate and ethanol concentration was demonstrated. The evaporation rate of ethanol droplets showed good consistency, and the evaporation time variation was less than 5% at each concentration level. Therefore, the proposed SAW device had great potentials to determine ethanol concentrations based on evaporation rate. PMID:28783095

  11. A sham-controlled randomized trial of adjunctive light therapy for non-seasonal depression.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Antosik-Wójcińska, Anna Z; Dominiak, Monika; Bzinkowska, Dorota; Borzym, Agnieszka; Sokół-Szawłowska, Marlena; Bodzak-Opolska, Gabriela; Antoniak, Dorota; Święcicki, Łukasz

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of morning bright light therapy (BLT) in the treatment of patients with a current major depressive episode (MDE) in bipolar and unipolar disorder without a seasonal pattern. It was a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Adults, ages 18-70 years were randomized to treatment either with BLT or a sham negative ion generator (as a placebo control). The subjects were required to be on a stable and therapeutic dose of psychotropic medication for at least 4 weeks prior to enrollment and their treatment had to be insufficiently effective. Their clinical state was monitored at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items (HDRS-21), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and Patient Global Impression (PGI) were used. The results were analyzed with an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety-five patients were enrolled (50 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 45 with unipolar depression). Fifty-two patients were randomized to treatment with BLT and forty-three were in the placebo group (ITT population). Eighty-three subjects completed the study. There were 12 dropouts (5 in the light group and 7 in the placebo group). After 14 days of treatment, a significant improvement was found in all groups (p<0.001). The subjects treated with BLT did not significantly differ in terms of improvement in HDRS-21 scores at the endpoint when compared to patients treated with placebo (p=0.2). However, further analysis demonstrated significantly higher response (50% v. 27.9%, p=0.02) and remission rates (28.8% v. 11.6%, p=0.04) among patients treated with morning BLT when compared to placebo group. It should be noted that in the population of drug-resistant patients, BLT was more efficacious than placebo. There were no statistically significant differences between unipolar and bipolar disorders (p=0

  12. Randomized sham-controlled trial evaluating efficacy and safety of endoscopic gastric plication for primary obesity: The ESSENTIAL trial.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shelby; Swain, James M; Woodman, George; Antonetti, Marc; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Jonnalagadda, Sreeni S; Ujiki, Michael; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Ponce, Jaime; Ryou, Marvin; Reynoso, Jason; Chhabra, Rajiv; Sorenson, G Brent; Clarkston, Wendell K; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Eagon, J Christopher; Mullady, Daniel K; Leslie, Daniel; Lavin, Thomas E; Thompson, Christopher C

    2017-02-01

    Evaluate safety and efficacy of the pose™ procedure for obesity treatment. Subjects with Class I to II obesity were randomized (2:1) to receive active or sham procedure, after each investigator performed unblinded lead-in cases. All subjects were provided low-intensity lifestyle therapy. Efficacy end points were the mean difference in percent total body weight loss (%TBWL) at 12 months between randomized groups, and responder rate achieving ≥5% TBWL. The primary safety end point was incidence of reported adverse events. Three hundred thirty-two subjects were randomized (active, n = 221; sham, n = 111); thirty-four subjects were included in the unblinded lead-in cohort. Twelve-month results were mean TBWL 7.0 ± 7.4% in lead-in, 4.95 ± 7.04% in active, and 1.38 ± 5.58% in sham groups, respectively. Responder rate was 41.55% in active and 22.11% in sham groups, respectively (P < 0.0001); mean responder result was 11.5% TBWL. The differences observed between active and sham groups for co-primary end points were statistically significant (P < 0.0001); however, super superiority margin as set forth in the study design was not met. No unanticipated adverse events or deaths occurred. Procedure-related serious adverse event rates were 5.0% (active) and 0.9% (sham), P = 0.068. The pose procedure was safe and resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss over sham through 1 year. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. On the Kohn-Sham density response in a localized basis set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Dietrich; Koval, Peter

    2009-07-01

    We construct the Kohn-Sham density response function χ0 in a previously described basis of the space of orbital products. The calculational complexity of our construction is O(N2Nω) for a molecule of N atoms and in a spectroscopic window of Nω frequency points. As a first application, we use χ0 to calculate the molecular spectra from the Petersilka-Gossmann-Gross equation. With χ0 as input, we obtain the correct spectra with an extra computational effort that grows also as O(N2Nω) and, therefore, less steeply in N than the O(N3) complexity of solving Casida's equations. Our construction should be useful for the study of excitons in molecular physics and in related areas where χ0 is a crucial ingredient.

  14. Origin of static and dynamic steps in exact Kohn-Sham potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, M. J. P.; Ramsden, J. D.; Godby, R. W.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of exact properties of the exchange-correlation (xc) functional is important for improving the approximations made within density functional theory. Features such as steps in the exact xc potential are known to be necessary for yielding accurate densities, yet little is understood regarding their shape, magnitude, and location. We use systems of a few electrons, where the exact electron density is known, to demonstrate general properties of steps. We find that steps occur at points in the electron density where there is a change in the `local effective ionization energy' of the electrons. We provide practical arguments, based on the electron density, for determining the position, shape, and height of steps for ground-state systems, and extend the concepts to time-dependent systems. These arguments are intended to inform the development of approximate functionals, such as the mixed localization potential (MLP), which already demonstrate their capability to produce steps in the Kohn-Sham potential.

  15. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.

  16. Auricular Acupuncture, Education, and Smoking Cessation: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Ian D.; Wilson, Jeffrey; Studt, Pat; Shakleton, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of acupuncture alone and in combination with education on smoking cessation and cigarette consumption. Methods. We prospectively studied 141 adults in a quasi-factorial design using acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and education. Results. All groups showed significant reductions in smoking and posttreatment cigarette consumption, with the combined acupuncture–education group showing the greatest effect from treatment. The trend continued in follow-up; however, significant differences were not maintained. Greater pack-year history (i.e. the number of years smoking multiplied by baseline number of cigarettes smoked per year, divided by 20 cigarettes per pack) negatively correlated with treatment effect. Trend analysis suggested 20 pack-years as the cutoff point for this correlation. Conclusions. Acupuncture and education, alone and in combination, significantly reduce smoking; however, combined they show a significantly greater effect, as seen in subjects with a greater pack-year history. PMID:12356614

  17. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; ...

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. Wemore » present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.« less

  18. Molecular Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential from the correlated ab initio electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, Oleg V.; van Leeuwen, Robert; Baerends, Evert Jan

    1995-09-01

    The molecular Kohn-Sham (KS) exchange-correlation potential vxc has been constructed for LiH from the correlated ab initio density ρ by means of the simple iterative procedure developed by van Leeuwen and Baerends [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994)]. The corresponding KS energy characteristics, such as the kinetic energy of noninteracting particles Ts, kinetic part of the exchange-correlation energy Tc, and energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital ɛN, have been obtained with reasonable accuracy. A relation between the form of vxc and the electronic structure of LiH has been discussed. Test calculations for the two-electron H2 molecule have shown the efficiency of the procedure.

  19. Configuration interaction with Kohn Sham orbitals and their relation to excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouř, Petr

    2001-09-01

    Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals in CH 2, formaldehyde and acetone molecules were used as reference states for configuration interaction (CI) instead of the usual Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. A little difference in overall accuracy of electronic excitation energies was found between these schemes. However, analysis of the wave functions indicated that Slater determinant with the KS orbitals is more suitable for construction of the electronic states. Typically, the main expansion coefficients for the CI/KS procedure were closer to unity than those for HF. The difference was most pronounced for the lowest-energy transitions, while the two methods provided more comparable results for the higher-energy states. Similar behaviour of singlet and triplet states was observed. The results justify the common practice of using the KS determinant as a wave function, for example in sum-over-states theories.

  20. On Atoms-in-Molecules Energies from Kohn-Sham Calculations.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

    2017-10-06

    Herein, we discuss three methods to partition the total molecular energy into additive atomic contributions within the framework of Bader's atoms-in-molecules theory and in the particular context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The first method is derived from the virial theorem, whereas the two other schemes, termed "standard" and "model", are based on Pendás' interacting-quantum-atoms decomposition. The methods are then compared for a dataset of molecules of interest for direct application in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Finally, the relevance of the three methods for the prediction of intrinsic reactivity properties (e.g., electrophilicity) or for unravelling the nature of chemical bonding (e.g., in halogen bonds, beyond the pure electrostatic point of view), is examined and paves the way for their more systematic use for the in silico design of new reactants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Construction of integrable model Kohn-Sham potentials by analysis of the structure of functional derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiduk, Alex P.; Staroverov, Viktor N.

    2011-01-15

    A directly approximated exchange-correlation potential should, by construction, be a functional derivative of some density functional in order to avoid unphysical results. Using generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) as an example, we show that functional derivatives of explicit density functionals have a very rigid inner structure, the knowledge of which allows one to build the entire functional derivative from a small part. Based on this analysis, we develop a method for direct construction of integrable Kohn-Sham potentials. As an illustration, we transform the model potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends (which is not a functional derivative) into a semilocal exchange potential that has a parent GGA, yields accurate energies, and is free from the artifacts inherent in existing semilocal potential approximations.

  2. Brain structural properties predict psychologically mediated hypoalgesia in an 8-week sham acupuncture treatment for migraine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jixin; Mu, Junya; Liu, Qianqian; Dun, Wanghuan; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies described brain structural changes that comprise the mechanisms underlying individual differences in migraine development and maintenance. However, whether such interindividual variability in migraine was observed in a pretreatment scan is a predisposition for subsequent hypoalgesia to placebo treatment that remains largely unclear. Using T1-weighted imaging, we investigated this issue in 50 healthy controls (HC) and 196 patients with migraine without aura (MO). An 8-week double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled acupuncture was used, and we only focused on the data from the sham acupuncture group. Eighty patients participated in an 8-weeks sham acupuncture treatment, and were subdivided (50% change in migraine days from baseline) into recovering (MOr) and persisting (MOp) patients. Optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional connectivity analysis were performed to evaluate brain structural and functional changes. At baseline, MOp and MOr had similar migraine activity, anxiety and depression; reduced migraine days were accompanied by decreased anxiety in MOr. In our findings, the MOr group showed a smaller volume in the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and decreased mPFC-related functional connectivity was found in the default mode network. Additionally, the reduction in migraine days after placebo treatment was significantly associated with the baseline gray matter volume of the mPFC which could also predict post-treatment groups with high accuracy. It indicated that individual differences for the brain structure in the pain modulatory system at baseline served as a substrate on how an individual facilitated or diminished hypoalgesia responses to placebo treatment in migraineurs. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4386-4397, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrating process in unicellular green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Rates of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution, for measuring K{sub 0.5}(CO{sub 2} + HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K{sub i}(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO{sub 2} uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar NaHCO{sub 3}), and the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with 100 micromolar ({sup 14}C)HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O{sub 2} evolution and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO{sub 3}. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO{sub 2} accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related.

  4. Influence of vulvar hygiene on cytology of vaginal smears after sham artificial insemination in sows.

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, H; Desnoyers, M; Vaillancourt, D; Martineau, G P

    1995-01-01

    The description of vaginal cytology in the sow in relation to artificial insemination (AI) has never been reported. Poor vulvar hygiene is frequently imputed as a cause for the development of endometritis after AI and could thus enhance the inflammatory response of the genital tract. The goal of this study was to use cytology as an objective tool to evaluate the vulvar hygiene during sham AI. Sixty-eight sows were matched according to their parity and week of mating and divided into 2 groups: treatment sows (CVS) had their vulva cleaned with a 1:2000 Hibitane solution and control sows (SVS) had theirs soiled with feces. Both groups of sows were inseminated twice with saline following this vulvar treatment, once at detection of estrus and a 2nd time 24 hours later. Vestibular smears were taken before each AI, and vaginal smears were taken after each AI from the material present on the insemination spirette. Cytological smears were described by the predominant type of cells, namely epithelial, neutrophil, or no predominance. Results showed no significant differences between the 2 groups and no evolution in the predominance of neutrophils from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). The pooled results from the 2 groups showed an increase in cellularity from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). Neither the cellularity nor predominant cell type in vestibular or vaginal smears from estrus sows are predictors of vulvar hygiene during sham AI (P > 0.05). PMID:8521352

  5. Time- and Task-Dependent Non-Neural Effects of Real and Sham TMS

    PubMed Central

    Duecker, Felix; de Graaf, Tom A.; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided. PMID:24040080

  6. EEG Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of 2 vs. 3 treatments/week. Method Unmedicated 6-12 year-olds with DSM-IV ADHD were randomized to active NF vs. sham NF and to 2X vs. 3X/week treatment frequency. Frequency switch was allowed after treatment 24. Results In two school years 39 participants were recruited; 34 (87%) completed all 40 treatments. Child/parent guesses about assigned treatment were no better than chance. At treatment 24, 38% chose 2X/wk; 62% chose 3X/wk. Both active NF and sham yielded large pre-post improvement on parent ratings, but NF no more than sham. Conclusions Blinding appears to work and sham does not prevent recruitment/retention. Treatment frequency of 3X/wk seems preferred over 2X/wk and was as effective. A large double-blind RCT is feasible and necessary to test specific NF effectiveness. PMID:22617866

  7. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  8. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  9. Severity of early childhood caries in preschool children attending Al-Ain Dental Centre, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kowash, M B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the severity of and contributing factors of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children presented to a paediatric dentistry department in Al-Ain Dental Centre, United Arab Emirates; to study the level of any previous dental care provided to these children and to establish a baseline database for further research and the resources required for serving preschool children in Al-Ain (UAE). Cross-sectional prospective. The sample consisted of all healthy children below 5 years of age who presented for their initial visits to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry during a 3-month period. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding demographic data, feeding history and dietary habits, and oral hygiene practices. The dental examination of children was conducted by the investigator with the help of a mouth mirror and Sirona dental unit light source. One hundred and seventy six children with a mean age of 3.7 years were included in the study and 78 (44 %) children were still bottle-fed on demand at the time of examination. More than half of the children consumed sweets more than once/day and 58 % either never or rarely brushed their teeth. Only one child was given fluoride. Two-thirds of children had never visited a dentist before and 63 % had poor oral hygiene. The mean dmft and dmfs scores were 10.9 and 32.1, respectively. The care index was very low (6.4 %). The high level of dental decay could be attributed to on-demand bottle feeding, high sweet consumption, poor oral hygiene, lack of use of fluoride prevention and lack of regular dental visits. There is a great need for prospective studies and community preventive programmes to solve the continuing problem of ECC.

  10. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Effects on Motor Intracortical Neurophysiology: A Sham-Controlled Investigation.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Matt P; Paxton, Roger J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) versus sham stimulation on intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation within the motor cortex. Such data are needed to better understand the presumed neurophysiologic effects of rTMS. The authors hypothesized that, compared with sham stimulation, 20 Hz rTMS will decrease ICI and increase intracortical facilitation in healthy volunteers. Using single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS, the authors evaluated prestimulation and poststimulation effects on motor cortex neurophysiology in neurologically healthy volunteers who received 2,000 stimuli of either 20 Hz rTMS (n = 11) or sham rTMS (n = 8). Primary outcomes were changes in ICI and intracortical facilitation and secondary outcomes were changes in motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude, and both were assessed using separate 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. For ICI, there were main effects of time (P = 0.002) and group (P < 0.001) with a significant group-by-time interaction (P < 0.01). Intracortical inhibition decreased after rTMS, but was unchanged by sham rTMS. Intracortical facilitation results revealed a main effect of group (P = 0.02) and a significant group-by-time interaction (P = 0.048). Intracortical facilitation increased after rTMS and was slightly reduced after sham rTMS. The group-by-time interactions for motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude were not significant. High-frequency rTMS significantly influences the excitatory and inhibitory outputs of motor intracortical networks, specifically increasing intracortical facilitation and reducing ICI as compared with sham stimulation. Such changes were observed despite no significant changes in broader measures of motor cortex activation, that is, motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude.

  11. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on energy intake in obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Kovtun, Kyle; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is among the leading risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A reciprocal relationship between obesity and OSA has been proposed, which may be due to excessive food intake. We conducted a pilot study to test the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on energy intake (EI) in OSA patients using a sham-controlled crossover design. In-laboratory total daily EI was assessed after 2 mo of active and sham CPAP. Four men were enrolled (age ± SEM: 51.8 ± 2.1 y; body mass index: 31.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2). All received active treatment first. Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, snack) were served in excess portions at fixed times and additional palatable snacks were freely available throughout the day. Total EI was lower after active (3744 ± 511 kcal/d) vs. sham (4030 ± 456 kcal/d) CPAP but this difference was not significant (p = 0.51) due to variability in the free snack intake. When only fixed eating occasions were considered, daily EI was significantly lower in the active (3105 ± 513 kcal/d) vs. sham (3559 ± 420 kcal/d) condition (p = 0.006). This small pilot and feasibility study is the first to utilize a sham-controlled design to investigate the effects of CPAP treatment on objective measures of EI. Findings suggest that CPAP may cause a reduction in fixed meal intake. In demonstrating feasibility of study methodology, our study also suggests a larger randomized sham-controlled trial be conducted to fully characterize the effects of CPAP treatment on EI and energy balance overall. PMID:27769851

  12. Temperature-Controlled Delivery of Radiofrequency Energy in Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Arjan P; Lam, Tze J; Meurs-Szojda, Maria M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2017-08-01

    Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. Forty patients with fecal incontinence in whom maximal conservative management had failed were randomly assigned to receiving either radiofrequency energy or sham procedure. Fecal incontinence was measured using the Vaizey incontinence score (range, 0-24). The impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life was measured by using the fecal incontinence quality-of-life score (range, 1-4). Measurements were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Anorectal function was evaluated using anal manometry and anorectal endosonography at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline, Vaizey incontinence score was 16.8 (SD 2.9). At t = 6 months, the radiofrequency energy group improved by 2.5 points on the Vaizey incontinence score compared with the sham group (13.2 (SD 3.1), 15.6 (SD 3.3), p = 0.02). The fecal incontinence quality-of-life score at t = 6 months was not statistically different. Anorectal function did not show any alteration. Patients with severe fecal incontinence were included in the study, thus making it difficult to generalize the results. Both radiofrequency energy and sham procedure improved the fecal incontinence score, the radiofrequency energy procedure more than sham. Although statistically significant, the clinical impact for most of the patients was negligible. Therefore, the radiofrequency energy procedure should not be recommended for patients with fecal incontinence until patient-related factors associated with treatment success are known. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A373.

  13. Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Bandello, Francesco; Belfort, Rubens; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Gillies, Mark; Heier, Jeffrey; Loewenstein, Anat; Yoon, Young-Hee; Jacques, Marie-Louise; Jiao, Jenny; Li, Xiao-Yan; Whitcup, Scott M

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant; OZURDEX, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) compared with sham in eyes with vision loss due to macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Two identical, multicenter, masked, randomized, 6-month, sham-controlled clinical trials (each of which included patients with BRVO and patients with CRVO). A total of 1267 patients with vision loss due to ME associated with BRVO or CRVO. A single treatment with DEX implant 0.7 mg (n = 427), DEX implant 0.35 mg (n = 414), or sham (n = 426). The primary outcome measure for the pooled data from the 2 studies was time to achieve a > or =15-letter improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary end points included BCVA, central retinal thickness, and safety. After a single administration, the time to achieve a > or =15-letter improvement in BCVA was significantly less in both DEX implant groups compared with sham (P<0.001). The percentage of eyes with a > or =15-letter improvement in BCVA was significantly higher in both DEX implant groups compared with sham at days 30 to 90 (P<0.001). The percentage of eyes with a > or =15-letter loss in BCVA was significantly lower in the DEX implant 0.7-mg group compared with sham at all follow-up visits (P< or =0.036). Improvement in mean BCVA was greater in both DEX implant groups compared with sham at all follow-up visits (P< or =0.006). Improvements in BCVA with DEX implant were seen in patients with BRVO and patients with CRVO, although the patterns of response differed. The percentage of DEX implant-treated eyes with intraocular pressure (IOP) of > or =25 mmHg peaked at 16% at day 60 (both doses) and was not different from sham by day 180. There was no significant between-group difference in the occurrence of cataract or cataract surgery. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant can both reduce the risk of vision loss and improve the

  14. Electroacupuncture Therapy in Nicotine Dependence: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    BİLİCİ, Mustafa; GÜVEN, Sertaç; KÖŞKER, Selcen; ŞAFAK, Ayşe; SEMİZ, Ümit Başar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The number of non-pharmacological controlled studies is insufficient in the treatment of nicotine dependence (ND). Nevertheless, non-pharmacological treatments, such as electroacupuncture (EA), are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of ND. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy and safety of “true EA therapy” (TEAT) compared to those of “sham EA therapy” (SEAT) in ND treatment. Methods Eligible patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for ND (n=450) were included in the study. This study was a double-blinded, sham-controlled clinical trial with a 4-week treatment period and 4-week follow-up conducted between June and December 2009 at a psychiatry outpatient clinic. One hundred and sixty four adult (≥18 years; 44 men, 120 women) cigarette smokers out of 450 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study in a ratio of 1:1 to receive TEAT (n=84) or SEAT (n=80). Routine biochemical and hematological tests, chest X-Ray, and ECG were carried out; end-expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured too. Clinical characteristics were obtained through the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). EA was carried out by a trademark device, Antismoke 3000®. Efficacy analyses were performed on “intent-to-treat analysis.” Primary outcome was the differences from baseline to endpoint in mean FNDT, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and CO levels at week 4. Secondary outcomes were the same variables at week 8. These variables were assessed via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Mean baseline FNDT, HRSD, HAS, and CO levels of the groups were statistically similar. TEAT and SEAT groups demonstrated no significant changes in the outcome variables and smoking cessation rates (35.7% and 30%, respectively). Of those remaining outside of the study, 8.3% were from the TEAT group and 8.7% were from the SEAT group

  15. Active Albuterol or Placebo, Sham Acupuncture, or No Intervention in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Kelley, John M.; Boyd, Ingrid O.E.; Dutile, Stefanie; Marigowda, Gautham; Kirsch, Irving; Israel, Elliot; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND In prospective experimental studies in patients with asthma, it is difficult to determine whether responses to placebo differ from the natural course of physiological changes that occur without any intervention. We compared the effects of a bronchodilator, two placebo interventions, and no intervention on outcomes in patients with asthma. METHODS In a double-blind, crossover pilot study, we randomly assigned 46 patients with asthma to active treatment with an albuterol inhaler, a placebo inhaler, sham acupuncture, or no intervention. Using a block design, we administered one each of these four interventions in random order during four sequential visits (3 to 7 days apart); this procedure was repeated in two more blocks of visits (for a total of 12 visits by each patient). At each visit, spirometry was performed repeatedly over a period of 2 hours. Maximum forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was measured, and patients’ self-reported improvement ratings were recorded. RESULTS Among the 39 patients who completed the study, albuterol resulted in a 20% increase in FEV1, as compared with approximately 7% with each of the other three interventions (P<0.001). However, patients’ reports of improvement after the intervention did not differ significantly for the albuterol inhaler (50% improvement), placebo inhaler (45%), or sham acupuncture (46%), but the subjective improvement with all three of these interventions was significantly greater than that with the no-intervention control (21%) (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Although albuterol, but not the two placebo interventions, improved FEV1 in these patients with asthma, albuterol provided no incremental benefit with respect to the self-reported outcomes. Placebo effects can be clinically meaningful and can rival the effects of active medication in patients with asthma. However, from a clinical-management and research-design perspective, patient self-reports can be unreliable. An assessment of untreated

  16. New Particle Formation Events During 2013 in Hada Al Sham, Saudi-Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Hyvärinen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M.; Hussein, T.; Khodeir, M.; Shehata, A.; Laaksonen, A. J.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    New particle formation (NPF) is the dominant source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and plays an important role in the global climate (Kulmala et al., 2013). NPF events has been observed in various places around the world (Kulmala et al., 2007). Arabian Peninsula has one of the highest aerosol burdens due to dust storms, local petroleum industry, traffic and advection from southern Asia. Here we present results of new particle formation event analysis from the first full year of measurements in the new measurement station in Hada Al Sham, Saudi-Arabia. The background station in Hada Al Sham (21.802° North, 39.729° East, 254 m a.s.l.) was founded at the end of 2012 on an agricultural test field 60 km to southeast from the city of Jeddah. The terrain around the station is arid desert with very scarce yearly precipitation. There are no local pollution sources. Main instrumentation include: PM2.5 and PM10, number size distribution (7 nm - 10 μm) and total concentration, absorption and scattering coefficients, and the basic weather parameters. We analysed the twin DMPS data from year 2013 classifying new particle formation events by visual day-to-day method. The days were classified following the principal presented in Dal Maso et al., (2005). The data coverage was 264 days (72.3 %) of the year. 210 Days (79.5 %) were classified as NPF event (Class I and II) days, 37 days (14.0 %) as undefined and 17 days (6.4 %) as non-event days. The analysis of the NPF event days was considered again as the freshly formed particles was observed shrinking after the original growth in most of the NPF event days. Typical event day DMPS data with a shrinking mode of particles is presented in Fig.1. Some of the days involved simultaneous shrinking and growth of the particles. Table 1 summarizes the frequency of each type of event day. Events G S G + S unclear 210 25 102 33 50 Days 100 11.9 48.6 15.7 23.8 (%) Table 1. Reclassification of the event days (classes I and II). G is

  17. Electroacupuncture Therapy in Nicotine Dependence: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Mustafa; Güven, Sertaç; Köşker, Selcen; Şafak, Ayşe; Semiz, Ümit Başar

    2016-03-01

    The number of non-pharmacological controlled studies is insufficient in the treatment of nicotine dependence (ND). Nevertheless, non-pharmacological treatments, such as electroacupuncture (EA), are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of ND. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy and safety of "true EA therapy" (TEAT) compared to those of "sham EA therapy" (SEAT) in ND treatment. Eligible patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for ND (n=450) were included in the study. This study was a double-blinded, sham-controlled clinical trial with a 4-week treatment period and 4-week follow-up conducted between June and December 2009 at a psychiatry outpatient clinic. One hundred and sixty four adult (≥18 years; 44 men, 120 women) cigarette smokers out of 450 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study in a ratio of 1:1 to receive TEAT (n=84) or SEAT (n=80). Routine biochemical and hematological tests, chest X-Ray, and ECG were carried out; end-expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured too. Clinical characteristics were obtained through the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). EA was carried out by a trademark device, Antismoke 3000®. Efficacy analyses were performed on "intent-to-treat analysis." Primary outcome was the differences from baseline to endpoint in mean FNDT, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and CO levels at week 4. Secondary outcomes were the same variables at week 8. These variables were assessed via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mean baseline FNDT, HRSD, HAS, and CO levels of the groups were statistically similar. TEAT and SEAT groups demonstrated no significant changes in the outcome variables and smoking cessation rates (35.7% and 30%, respectively). Of those remaining outside of the study, 8.3% were from the TEAT group and 8.7% were from the SEAT group; there was no statistical difference

  18. Orbitals from local RDMFT: Are they Kohn-Sham or natural orbitals?

    SciTech Connect

    Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Rubio, Angel

    2015-08-07

    Recently, an approximate theoretical framework was introduced, called local reduced density matrix functional theory (local-RDMFT), where functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are minimized under the additional condition that the optimal orbitals satisfy a single electron Schrödinger equation with a local potential. In the present work, we focus on the character of these optimal orbitals. In particular, we compare orbitals obtained by local-RDMFT with those obtained with the full minimization (without the extra condition) by contrasting them against the exact NOs and orbitals from a density functional calculation using the local density approximation (LDA). We find that the orbitals from local-RMDFT are very close to LDA orbitals, contrary to those of the full minimization that resemble the exact NOs. Since local RDMFT preserves the good quality of the description of strong static correlation, this finding opens the way to a mixed density/density matrix scheme, where Kohn-Sham orbitals obtain fractional occupations from a minimization of the occupation numbers using 1-RDM functionals. This will allow for a description of strong correlation at a cost only minimally higher than a density functional calculation.

  19. SHAM: High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Costello, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level simulated seismic tests (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) in-plant piping system with two servohydraulic actuators, each capable of generating 40 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to study the behavior of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. The performance of six different dynamic pipe support systems was compared in these tests and the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve were investigated. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. Very preliminary evaluations lead to the observation that, in general, failures of dynamic supports (in particular snubbers) occur only at load levels that substantially exceed the design capacity. Pipe strains at load levels exceeding the design level threefold are quite small, and even when exceeding the design level eightfold are quite tolerable. Hence, under seismic loading, even at extreme levels and in spite of multiple support failures, pipe failure is unlikely. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Development of the cyclic cluster model formalism for Kohn-Sham auxiliary density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Janetzko, Florian; Köster, Andreas M; Salahub, Dennis R

    2008-01-14

    The development of the cyclic cluster model (CCM) formalism for Kohn-Sham auxiliary density functional theory (KS-ADFT) methods is presented. The CCM is a direct space approach for the calculation of perfect and defective systems under periodic boundary conditions. Translational symmetry is introduced in the CCM by integral weighting. A consistent weighting scheme for all two-center and three-center interactions appearing in the KS-ADFT method is presented. For the first time, an approach for the numerical integration of the exchange-correlation potential within the cyclic cluster formalism is derived. The presented KS-ADFT CCM implementation was applied to covalent periodic systems. The results of cyclic and molecular cluster model (MCM) calculations for trans-polyacetylene, graphene, and diamond are discussed as examples for systems periodic in one, two, and three dimensions, respectively. All structures were optimized. It is shown that the CCM results represent the results of MCM calculations in the limit of infinite molecular clusters. By analyzing the electronic structure, we demonstrate that the symmetry of the corresponding periodic systems is retained in CCM calculations. The obtained geometric and electronic structures are compared with available data from the literature.

  1. [Closed claims in obstetrics: A study based on French Sham insurance data].

    PubMed

    Theissen, A; Fuz, F; Carbonne, B; Bonnet, L; Rouquette-Vincenti, I; Niccolai, P; Raucoules-Aime, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the medicolegal claims related to obstetrics in French hospitals. We did retrospective study on insurance claims provided by Sham insurances and which has been settled by a court over a 3-year period (2004-2006). We analyzed 66 closed claims that occurred between 1983 and 2005 in French hospitals (54 general hospitals and 12 academic). The average time between the declaration of the claim and the court conviction was 6 years. The average amount of compensation per claim was 500,000 €. The damage occurred during vaginal delivery (n=44), planned (n=5) or unplanned (n=4) cesarean. The more often claims are fetal asphyxia (n=24) or shoulder dystocia (n=8). The consequences are very important: cerebral palsy (16), death of the newborn (12), death of the mother (2) or brachial plexus injuries (6). The causes identified by the expert are always multifactorial with generally a misdiagnosis (n=27), a decision making error (n=36), a care error by the midwife (n=21) and/or a delay in medical care (n=13). These data should help strengthen the quality approach in obstetrics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. All-electron Kohn-Sham density functional theory on hierarchic finite element spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Volker; Linder, Christian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a real space formulation of the Kohn-Sham equations is developed, making use of the hierarchy of finite element spaces from different polynomial order. The focus is laid on all-electron calculations, having the highest requirement onto the basis set, which must be able to represent the orthogonal eigenfunctions as well as the electrostatic potential. A careful numerical analysis is performed, which points out the numerical intricacies originating from the singularity of the nuclei and the necessity for approximations in the numerical setting, with the ambition to enable solutions within a predefined accuracy. In this context the influence of counter-charges in the Poisson equation, the requirement of a finite domain size, numerical quadratures and the mesh refinement are examined as well as the representation of the electrostatic potential in a high order finite element space. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in computations on noble gases. In addition the finite element basis proves its flexibility in the calculation of the bond-length as well as the dipole moment of the carbon monoxide molecule.

  3. Efficient treatment of the Hartree interaction in the relativistic Kohn-Sham problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Alexei V.; Majumder, Sonjoy; Rösch, Notker

    2005-10-01

    We elaborate the two-component Douglas-Kroll reduction of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham problem of relativistic density-functional theory as introduced by Matveev and Rösch [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3997 (2003)]. That method retains corrections to the Coulomb self-interaction (or Hartree) term of the energy functional that are due to the picture change. Using analytic expressions for the matrix elements, one is able to abandon the resolution of the identity approach for a crucial step of the relativistic transformation. Thus, a major source of uncertainties of the method is eliminated because basis sets no longer have to be extended by functions of higher angular momentum, previously required to ensure kinetic balance. This approach also relies on the electron charge-density fitting scheme via an auxiliary basis set. An efficient approximate implementation results if one restricts the relativistic transformation to the spherically symmetric atom-centered auxiliary functions. It provides accurate results while simplifying greatly the expressions for the matrix elements of the relativistically transformed operators and significantly reducing the computational effort. We demonstrate the performance of the method for the fine structure of one-electron levels of the Hg atom, the g-tensor shifts of NO2, and the properties of the diatomic molecules Bi2, Pb2, PbO, and TlH.

  4. Comparison of enrollees and decliners of Parkinson disease sham surgery trials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wilson, Renee M; Kim, H Myra; Holloway, Robert G; De Vries, Raymond G; Frank, Samuel A; Kieburtz, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Concerns have been raised that persons with serious illnesses participating in high-risk research, such as PD patients in sham surgery trials, have unrealistic expectations and are vulnerable to exploitation. A comparison of enrollees and decliners of such research may provide insights about the adequacy of decision making by potential subjects. We compared 61 enrollees and 10 decliners of two phase II neurosurgical intervention (i.e., cellular and gene transfer) trials for PD regarding their demographic and clinical status, perceptions and attitudes regarding research risks, potential direct benefit, and societal benefit, and perspectives on the various potential reasons for and against participation. In addition to bivariate analyses, a logistic regression model examined variables regarding risks and benefits as predictors of participation status. Enrollees perceived lower risk of harm while tolerating higher risk of harm and were more action oriented, but did not have more advanced disease. Both groups rated hope for benefit as a strong reason to participate, whereas the fact that the study's purpose was not solely to benefit them was rated as "not a reason" against participation. Hope for benefit and altruism were rated higher than expectation of benefit as reasons in favor of participation for both groups. Enrollees and decliners are different in their views and attitudes toward risk. Although both are attracted to research because of hopes of personal benefit, this hope is clearly distinguishable from an expectation of benefit and does not imply a failure to understand the main purpose of research.

  5. The nature of innate and adaptive interleukin-17A responses in sham or bacterial inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Deborah L W; Ingram, Rebecca J; Lowther, Daniel E; Muir, Roshell; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Altmann, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of numerous diseases ranging from benign infections (pharyngitis and impetigo) to severe infections associated with high mortality (necrotizing fasciitis and bacterial sepsis). As with other bacterial infections, there is considerable interest in characterizing the contribution of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) responses to protective immunity. We here show significant il17a up-regulation by quantitative real-time PCR in secondary lymphoid organs, correlating with increased protein levels in the serum within a short time of S. pyogenes infection. However, our data offer an important caveat to studies of IL-17A responsiveness following antigen inoculation, because enhanced levels of IL-17A were also detected in the serum of sham-infected mice, indicating that inoculation trauma alone can stimulate the production of this cytokine. This highlights the potency and speed of innate IL-17A immune responses after inoculation and the importance of proper and appropriate controls in comparative analysis of immune responses observed during microbial infection. PMID:22384827

  6. Potential-energy surfaces of local excited states from subsystem- and selective Kohn-Sham-TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyrshin, Arseny; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    Calculating excited-state potential-energy surfaces for systems with a large number of close-lying excited states requires the identification of the relevant electronic transitions for several geometric structures. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is very efficient in such calculations, but the assignment of local excited states of the active molecule can be difficult. We compare the results of the frozen-density embedding (FDE) method with those of standard Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) and simpler QM/MM-type methods. The FDE results are found to be more accurate for the geometry dependence of excitation energies than classical models. We also discuss how selective iterative diagonalization schemes can be exploited to directly target specific excitations for different structures. Problems due to strongly interacting orbital transitions and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, we apply FDE and the selective KS-TDDFT to investigate the potential energy surface of a high-lying π → π∗ excitation in a pyridine molecule approaching a silver cluster.

  7. Understanding band gaps of solids in generalized Kohn-Sham theory.

    PubMed

    Perdew, John P; Yang, Weitao; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zenghui; Gross, Eberhard K U; Scheffler, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2017-03-14

    The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. However, the gap in the band structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn-Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density-functional theory. Here, we give a simple proof of a theorem: In generalized KS theory (GKS), the band gap of an extended system equals the fundamental gap for the approximate functional if the GKS potential operator is continuous and the density change is delocalized when an electron or hole is added. Our theorem explains how GKS band gaps from metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) and hybrid functionals can be more realistic than those from GGAs or even from the exact KS potential. The theorem also follows from earlier work. The band edges in the GKS one-electron spectrum are also related to measurable energies. A linear chain of hydrogen molecules, solid aluminum arsenide, and solid argon provide numerical illustrations.

  8. Understanding band gaps of solids in generalized Kohn–Sham theory

    PubMed Central

    Perdew, John P.; Yang, Weitao; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zenghui; Gross, Eberhard K. U.; Scheffler, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. However, the gap in the band structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn–Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density-functional theory. Here, we give a simple proof of a theorem: In generalized KS theory (GKS), the band gap of an extended system equals the fundamental gap for the approximate functional if the GKS potential operator is continuous and the density change is delocalized when an electron or hole is added. Our theorem explains how GKS band gaps from metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) and hybrid functionals can be more realistic than those from GGAs or even from the exact KS potential. The theorem also follows from earlier work. The band edges in the GKS one-electron spectrum are also related to measurable energies. A linear chain of hydrogen molecules, solid aluminum arsenide, and solid argon provide numerical illustrations. PMID:28265085

  9. All-electron Kohn–Sham density functional theory on hierarchic finite element spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Volker; Linder, Christian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a real space formulation of the Kohn–Sham equations is developed, making use of the hierarchy of finite element spaces from different polynomial order. The focus is laid on all-electron calculations, having the highest requirement onto the basis set, which must be able to represent the orthogonal eigenfunctions as well as the electrostatic potential. A careful numerical analysis is performed, which points out the numerical intricacies originating from the singularity of the nuclei and the necessity for approximations in the numerical setting, with the ambition to enable solutions within a predefined accuracy. In this context the influence of counter-charges in the Poisson equation, the requirement of a finite domain size, numerical quadratures and the mesh refinement are examined as well as the representation of the electrostatic potential in a high order finite element space. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in computations on noble gases. In addition the finite element basis proves its flexibility in the calculation of the bond-length as well as the dipole moment of the carbon monoxide molecule.

  10. Optimized unrestricted Kohn-Sham potentials from ab initio spin densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Jacob, Christoph R.; Reiher, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the exchange-correlation potential from accurate ab initio electron densities can provide insights into the limitations of the currently available approximate functionals and provide guidance for devising improved approximations for density-functional theory (DFT). For open-shell systems, the spin density is introduced as an additional fundamental variable in spin-DFT. Here, we consider the reconstruction of the corresponding unrestricted Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials from accurate ab initio spin densities. In particular, we investigate whether it is possible to reconstruct the spin exchange-correlation potential, which determines the spin density in unrestricted KS-DFT, despite the numerical difficulties inherent to the optimization of potentials with finite orbital basis sets. We find that the recently developed scheme for unambiguously singling out an optimal optimized potential [Ch. R. Jacob, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244102 (2011), 10.1063/1.3670414] can provide such spin potentials accurately. This is demonstrated for two test cases, the lithium atom and the dioxygen molecule, and target (spin) densities from full configuration interaction and complete active space self-consistent field calculations, respectively.

  11. Kohn-Sham density functional theory prediction of fracture in silicon carbide under mixed mode loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. W. K.; Pan, Z. L.; Warner, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    The utility of silicon carbide (SiC) for high temperature structural application has been limited by its brittleness. To improve its ductility, it is paramount to develop a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling crack propagation. In this manuscript, we present direct ab initio predictions of fracture in SiC under pure mode I and mixed mode loading, utilizing a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KSDFT) framework. Our results show that in both loading cases, cleavage occurs at a stress intensity factor (SIF) only slightly higher than the Griffith toughness, focusing on a (1 1 1) [1 \\bar{1} 0] crack in the 3C-SiC crystal structure. This lattice trapping effect is shown to decrease with mode mixity, due to the formation of a temporary surface bond that forms during decohesion under shear. Comparing the critical mode I SIF to the value obtained in experiments suggests that some plasticity may occur near a crack tip in SiC even at low temperatures. Ultimately, these findings provide a solid foundation upon which to study the influence of impurities on brittleness, and upon which to develop empirical potentials capable of realistically simulating fracture in SiC.

  12. Geologic reconnaissance of the Al Qunfidhah area, Tihamat Ash Sham quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earhart, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    Preliminary mineral investigations in the A1 Qunfidhah area, Tihamat Ash Sham quadrangle, indicate that four target zones merit detailed study. These are (1) the West Gossan, (2) the pyrocalstic pile 13 Kilometers of Suq A1 Khamis, (3) the Wadi Sishah copper prospect, and (4) the Wadi Yiba copper prospect. Copper sulfides and carbonates appear to be the most abundant economic minerals present, although nickel, zinc, lead, molybdenum, gold, and silver may also occur in important amounts. In addition to locating specific target zones, the results delimit particular stratigraphic horizons which should be included in future regional mineral investigations. The rocks of the area are comprised of a eugeosynclinal assemblage of Precambrian metavolcanics and metasediments which are intruded by granitic rocks of at least two ages. Rocks which predate the latest granite intrusive are regionally metamorphosed, folded, and faulted. In most cases, zones containing economic minerals occur at or near the top of a volcanic pile and in marine sedimentary, rocks above the volcanic pile. The results from preliminary studies suggest a close genetic relationship between sulfide mineralization and volcanism.

  13. Full Parallel Implementation of an All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Storchi, Loriano

    2014-09-09

    A full distributed-memory implementation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of the program BERTHA (Belpassi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 12368-12394) is presented, where the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is replicated on all the parallel processes, each process working on subsets of the global matrices. The key feature of the implementation is an efficient procedure for switching between two matrix distribution schemes, one (integral-driven) optimal for the parallel computation of the matrix elements and another (block-cyclic) optimal for the parallel linear algebra operations. This approach, making both CPU-time and memory scalable with the number of processors used, virtually overcomes at once both time and memory barriers associated with DKS calculations. Performance, portability, and numerical stability of the code are illustrated on the basis of test calculations on three gold clusters of increasing size, an organometallic compound, and a perovskite model. The calculations are performed on a Beowulf and a BlueGene/Q system.

  14. A hydrometeorological and geospatial analysis of precipitation within the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge using the R2AIn-GIS tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, William John, Jr.

    Weather radar (radio detection and ranging) is a specialized meteorological tool used to sample and track meteorological objects. This tool is critical for meteorologists and public decision-makers to inform and provide for their constituents in a timely manner, often with the protection of lives and property on the line. With the application of using meteorological and geospatial data in the realm of geographic information systems (G.I.S.), the task of blending the two sciences to inhibit further research and dissemination of information occurs. This study focuses on the creation and implementation of a new geospatial tool, the Radar and Rainfall Analyzed in GIS (R2AIn-GIS) tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool was built upon the initial concepts from Zhang and Srinivasan's (2010) NEXRAD validation and calibration (NEXRAD-VC) tool for G.I.S. R2AIn-GIS is updated to support the latest software features present in the geospatial world as well as analyze dual-polarization radar products. To test the R2AIn-GIS tool, a warm seasonal precipitation study along with statistical analysis was performed over the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge in Minnesota, the largest prairie and wetland restoration site. Utilizing rain gauges operated by the United States Geological Survey, warm season precipitation events from 24 May 2012 to 31 August 2013 were analyzed using the R2AIn-GIS tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool calculates the values from various dual-polarization radar products in conjunction with the recorded precipitation gauges to provide a detailed depiction of the weather event. Statistical tests including several iterations of multiple-linear regression of various combinations of dual-polarization radar variables allowed determination of rainfall rate prediction equations over the study area. This contributes to the body of radar literature regarding the best prediction equations for other locations. Unlike treatments in prior literature, most of the various assumptions in multiple

  15. Use of beat-to-beat cardiovascular variability data to determine the validity of sham therapy as the placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Henley, Charles E; Wilson, Thad E

    2014-11-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine researchers often use sham therapy as the placebo control during clinical trials. Optimally, the sham therapy should be a hands-on procedure that is perceptually indistinguishable from osteopathic manipulative treatment, does not create an effect on its own, and is not a treatment intervention. However, the sham therapy itself may often influence the outcome. The use of cardiovascular variability (eg, beat-to-beat heart rate variability) as a surrogate for the autonomic nervous system is one objective method by which to identify such an effect. By monitoring cardiovascular variability, investigators can assess autonomic nervous system activity as a response to the sham therapy and quickly determine whether or not the selected sham therapy is a true placebo control. The authors provide evidence for assessment of beat-to-beat heart rate variability as one method for assuring objectivity of sham therapy as a placebo control in osteopathic manipulative medicine research.

  16. Validation Study of Kim's Sham Needle by Measuring Facial Temperature: An N-of-1 Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Lim, Nara; Choi, Sun Mi; Kim, Sungchul

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In 2008, Kim's sham needle was developed to improve the quality of double-blinded studies. The aim of this study is to validate Kim's sham needle by measuring facial temperature. Methods. We designed “N-of-1” trials involving 7 smokers. One session was composed of 2 stimulations separated by a 2 h washout period. Six sessions were applied daily for all subjects. Infrared thermal imaging was used to examine the effects of acupuncture (HT8, KI2) on facial temperature following smoking-induced decrease. Results. All subjects demonstrated decreased temperatures after sham needle treatment, but 5 of the 7 subjects showed increased temperatures after real needle treatment. 6 of the 7 subjects showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between treatments with real and sham needles. Thus, the physiological stimulation of Kim's sham needle is different from that of a real needle, suggesting that Kim's sham needle is a potential inactive control intervention. PMID:22474506

  17. Plasma concentrations of regulatory peptides in obesity following modified sham feeding (MSF) and a liquid test meal.

    PubMed

    Wisén, O; Björvell, H; Cantor, P; Johansson, C; Theodorsson, E

    1992-04-29

    Plasma concentrations of regulatory peptides were monitored in groups of obese and normal-weight subjects following modified sham feeding and a liquid fatty meal. Following modified sham feeding a significant increase in immunoreactive cholecystokinin (CCK) in plasma was recorded in both groups. In the obese subjects, however, the concentrations following sham feeding were significantly lower than in normal-weight subjects, and the initial part of the response was negative. Basal and modified sham feeding stimulated immunoreactive pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentrations in plasma did not differ between the groups. After the liquid fatty meal plasma CCK concentrations increased similarly in both groups. In contrast immunoreactive neurotensin and somatostatin concentrations following the meal were lower in the obese group, and a changed concentration-time pattern for somatostatin was observed in the obese group. Postprandial concentrations of PP and immunoreactive gastrin were not different in the groups. The results indicate that the plasma concentration patterns of CCK, somatostatin and NT are disarranged in obesity. The changes may promote rapid propulsion and absorption of ingested food, and facilitate deposition of fat in adipose tissue in obesity and thus may be of pathophysiological importance.

  18. [Influence of vagal stimulation by deep breathing and sham feeding on autonomic system response in healthy women].

    PubMed

    Furgała, Agata; Mazur, Marcel; Kolasińska-Kloch, Władysława; Thor, Piotr J

    2008-01-01

    Sham feeding (SF) opposite to deep breathing (DB) is not standard method for testing autonomic nervous system but is widely used for parasympathetic stimulation of gastrointestinal secretion and motility. Differences in vagal autonomic system response induced by both methods resulted from different localization of receptors and cortical and spinal autonomic centers.

  19. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in mechanically ventilated patients: A randomized, sham-controlled pilot trial with blinded outcome assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Michelle E.; Truong, Alexander D.; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) versus sham on leg strength at hospital discharge in mechanically ventilated patients. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized pilot study of NMES versus sham applied to 3 bilateral lower extremity muscle groups for 60 minutes daily in ICU. Between 6/2008 and 3/2013, we enrolled adults who were receiving mechanical ventilation within the first week of ICU stay, and who could transfer independently from bed to chair before hospital admission. The primary outcome was lower extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge using Medical Research Council score (maximum = 30). Secondary outcomes at hospital discharge included walking distance and change in lower extremity strength from ICU awakening. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00709124. Results We stopped enrollment early after 36 patients due to slow patient accrual and the end of research funding. For NMES versus sham, mean (SD) lower extremity strength was 28(2) versus 27(3), p=0.072. Among secondary outcomes, NMES versus sham patients had a greater mean (SD) walking distance (514(389) vs. 251(210) feet, p=0.050) and increase in muscle strength (5.7(5.1) vs. 1.8(2.7), p=0.019). Conclusions In this pilot randomized trial, NMES did not significantly improve leg strength at hospital discharge. Significant improvements in secondary outcomes require investigation in future research. PMID:25307979

  20. Retention of blinding at follow-up in a randomized clinical study using a sham-control cervical manipulation procedure for neck pain: secondary analyses from a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Howard; Triano, John T; Soave, David; Dinulos, Maricelle; Ross, Kim; Tran, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Participants in clinical trials of spinal manipulation have not been rigorously blinded to group assignment. This study reports on secondary analyses of the retention of participant blinding beyond the immediate posttreatment time frame following a single-session, randomized clinical study. A novel control cervical manipulation procedure that has previously been shown to be therapeutically inert was contrasted with a typical manipulation procedure. A randomized clinical study of a single session of typical vs sham-control manipulation in patients with chronic neck pain was conducted. Findings of self-reported group registration at 24 to 48 hours posttreatment were computed. The Blinding Index (BI) of Bang et al was then applied to both the immediate and post-24- to 48-hour results. Twenty-four to 48 hours after treatment, 94% and 22% of participants in the typical and control groups, respectively, correctly identified their group assignment. When analyzed with the BI of Bang et al, the immediate posttreatment BI for the group receiving a typical manipulation was 0.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.03 to 0.47); for the group receiving a control manipulation, it was 0.19 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.43). The BI at post-24 hours was as follows: typical = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.59-0.91) and control = -0.34 (95% CI, -0.58 to -0.11). This study found that the novel sham-control cervical manipulation procedure may be effective in blinding sham group allocation up to 48 hours posttreatment. It appears that, at 48 hours posttreatment, the modified form of the typical cervical manipulation was not. The sham-control procedure appears to be a promising procedure for future clinical trials. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  1. 1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Landgrebe, Michael; Hajak, Göran; Wolf, Stefan; Padberg, Frank; Klupp, Philipp; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Polak, Thomas; Höppner, Jacqueline; Haker, Rene; Cordes, Joachim; Klenzner, Thomas; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kammer, Thomas; Graf, Erika; Koller, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Pöppl, Timm B; Kreuzer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    2017-08-05

    Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity. This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus. Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex. The primary outcome was the change in the sum score of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) of Goebel and Hiller from baseline to end of treatment. A total of 163 patients were enrolled in the study (real rTMS: 75; sham rTMS: 78). At day 12, the baseline mean of 43.1 TQ points in 71 patients assigned to real rTMS changed by -0.5 points; it changed by 0.5 points from a baseline of 42.1 in 75 patients randomized to sham rTMS (adjusted mean difference between groups: -1.0; 95.19% confidence interval: -3.2 to 1.2; p = 0.36). All secondary outcome measures including measures of depression and quality of life showed no significant differences either (p > 0.11). The number of participants with side-effects or adverse events did not differ between groups. Real 1-Hz-rTMS over the left temporal cortex was well tolerated but not superior compared with sham rTMS in improving tinnitus severity. These findings are in contrast to results from studies with smaller sample sizes and put the efficacy of this rTMS protocol for treatment of chronic tinnitus into question. Controlled Trials: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89848288. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of fat absorption and impact of sham feeding on postprandial lipema

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Rosa Chavez; Mattes, Richard D.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Given the importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia to increase risk for atherosclerosis, in the present study, stable isotope-labeled meals were fed to healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females) to investigate the kinetics chylomicron synthesis and the impact of sensory exposure to lipid on metabolism. Methods Subjects performed 2, 24-hr inpatient studies which entailed consumption of a liquid formula evening meal containing 30g of oil (+13C2 triolein) on day 1. Breakfast (day 2) consisted of TAG fed as capsules (30g oil + 13C7 triolein) to avoid activation of mouth taste receptors. Next, modified sham feeding of cream cheese occurred over 2 hrs. In the 2 trials, the stimulus was higher-fat (HF) and lower-fat (LF) cream cheese. A liquid meal was consumed at lunch. Blood sampling occurred intermittently and chylomicron particles Sf >400-TAG, were analyzed by GC/MS. Results 13C2-Label was found in fasting-state lipoproteins and individuals with higher body fat percentages demonstrated greater dilution of meal-TAG from endogenous sources. For both trials, 13 ± 4% of lipoprotein-TAG oleic acid was derived from the previous evening meal. Incremental AUC for TAG during HF was ~2½ times higher than after LF exposure (46 ±15 vs 17 ± 5 μmol/l × hr, P=0.04). The greater HF morning lipemia occurred with elevated glucose, insulin and NEFA peaks following lunch. Conclusions These data support a connection between enteral lipid metabolism and oral fat exposure, resulting in elevated postprandial lipemia. The results suggest that the intestine may participate in a mechanism coordinating oral fat signaling with control of subsequent macronutrient disposal in the body. PMID:20493191

  3. Exact exchange potential evaluated from occupied Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cinal, M.; Holas, A.

    2011-06-15

    The reported algorithm determines the exact exchange potential v{sub x} in an iterative way using energy shifts (ESs) and orbital shifts (OSs) obtained with finite-difference formulas from the solutions (occupied orbitals and their energies) of the Hartree-Fock-like equation and the Kohn-Sham-like equation, the former used for the initial approximation to v{sub x} and the latter for increments of ES and OS due to subsequent changes of v{sub x}. Thus, the need for solution of the differential equations for OSs, used by Kuemmel and Perdew [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043004 (2003)], is bypassed. The iterated exchange potential, expressed in terms of ESs and OSs, is improved by modifying ESs at odd iteration steps and OSs at even steps. The modification formulas are related to the optimized-effective-potential equation (satisfied at convergence) written as the condition of vanishing density shift (DS). They are obtained, respectively, by enforcing its satisfaction through corrections to approximate OSs and by determining the optimal ESs that minimize the DS norm. The proposed method, successfully tested for several closed-(sub)shell atoms, from Be to Kr, within the density functional theory exchange-only approximation, proves highly efficient. The calculations using the pseudospectral method for representing orbitals give iterative sequences of approximate exchange potentials (starting with the Krieger-Li-Iafrate approximation) that rapidly approach the exact v{sub x} so that, for Ne, Ar, and Zn, the corresponding DS norm becomes less than 10{sup -6} after 13, 13, and 9 iteration steps for a given electron density. In self-consistent density calculations, orbital energies of 10{sup -4} hartree accuracy are obtained for these atoms after, respectively, 9, 12, and 12 density iteration steps, each involving just two steps of v{sub x} iteration, while the accuracy limit of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} hartree is reached after 20 density iterations.

  4. Adaptive Finite Element Method for Solving the Exact Kohn-Sham Equation of Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Holst, Michael; Weare, John H.

    2009-04-14

    Results of the application of an adaptive finite element (FE) based solution using the FETK library of M. Holst to Density Functional Theory (DFT) approximation to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules are reported. The severe problem associated with the rapid variation of the electronic wave functions in the near singular regions of the atomic centers is treated by implementing completely unstructured simplex meshes that resolve these features around atomic nuclei. This concentrates the computational work in the regions in which the shortest length scales are necessary and provides for low resolution in regions for which there is no electron density. The accuracy of the solutions significantly improved when adaptive mesh refinement was applied, and it was found that the essential difficulties of the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues equation were the result of the singular behavior of the atomic potentials. Even though the matrix representations of the discrete Hamiltonian operator in the adaptive finite element basis are always sparse with a linear complexity in the number of discretization points, the overall memory and computational requirements for the solver implemented were found to be quite high. The number of mesh vertices per atom as a function of the atomic number Z and the required accuracy e (in atomic units) was esitmated to be v (e;Z) = 122:37 * Z2:2346 /1:1173 , and the number of floating point operations per minimization step for a system of NA atoms was found to be 0(N3A*v(e,Z0) (e.g. Z=26, e=0.0015 au, and NA=100, the memory requirement and computational cost would be ~0.2 terabytes and ~25 petaflops). It was found that the high cost of the method could be reduced somewhat by using a geometric based refinement strategy to fix the error near the singularities.

  5. Nephrotoxicity of uranyl fluoride in uninephrectomized and sham-operated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K.; Gelein, R.M.; Morrow, P.E.; Diamond, G.L.

    1988-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the nephrotoxicity of the uranium-containing compound uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/) is enhanced after unilateral nephrectomy. Unilaterally nephrectomized (NPX) and sham-operated (SO) rats were given single intravenous injections of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ at doses delivering 100 or 250 micrograms U/kg 16 days after surgery. Between the second and third day after the administration of either dose of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/, the urinary excretion of the cellular enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the plasma solute albumin began to increase significantly in both the NPX and SO rats. The urinary excretion of the plasma solute glucose did not begin to increase significantly in the NPX and SO rats until 4 days after the administration of either dose of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/. During the fifth day following the administration of either dose of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ (which was also the last day that urinary data were collected) the urinary excretion of LDH, AST, and glucose in the NPX and SO rats was greater than that during any previous day. The urinary excretion of these three compounds during this fifth day was greater in the SO rats than in the NPX rats. Also during the fifth day following the injection of either dose of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/, the fractional excretion of glucose was higher in the SO rats than in the NPX rats. By the end of the fifth day, the level of histologically demonstrable cellular necrosis in the pars recta of proximal tubules in the renal cortex and outer medulla of the NPX and SO rats was statistically similar. Therefore, the nephropathy in rats induced by UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ is not made more severe as a result of unilateral nephrectomy.

  6. Slow breathing as a means to improve orthostatic tolerance: a randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Lewis, Nia C S; Sikken, Elisabeth L G; Thomas, Kate N; Ainslie, Philip N

    2013-07-15

    Endogenous oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow have been associated with improved orthostatic tolerance. Although slow breathing induces such responses, it has not been tested as a therapeutic strategy to improve orthostatic tolerance. With the use of a randomized, crossover sham-controlled design, we tested the hypothesis that breathing at six breaths/min (vs. spontaneous breathing) would improve orthostatic tolerance via inducing oscillations in mean arterial BP (MAP) and cerebral blood flow. Sixteen healthy participants (aged 25 ± 4 yr; mean ± SD) had continuous beat-to-beat measurements of middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), BP (finometer), heart rate (ECG), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure during an incremental orthostatic stress test to presyncope by combining head-up tilt with incremental lower-body negative pressure. Tolerance time to presyncope was improved (+15%) with slow breathing compared with spontaneous breathing (29.2 ± 5.4 vs. 33.7 ± 6.0 min; P < 0.01). The improved tolerance was reflected in elevations in low-frequency (LF; 0.07-0.2 Hz) oscillations of MAP and mean MCAv, improved metrics of dynamic cerebrovascular control (increased LF phase and reduced LF gain), and a reduced rate of decline for MCAv (-0.60 ± 0.27 vs. -0.99 ± 0.51 cm·s(-1)·min(-1); P < 0.01) and MAP (-0.50 ± 0.37 vs. -1.03 ± 0.80 mmHg/min; P = 0.01 vs. spontaneous breathing) across time from baseline to presyncope. Our findings show that orthostatic tolerance can be improved within healthy individuals with a simple, nonpharmacological breathing strategy. The mechanisms underlying this improvement are likely mediated via the generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during slow and deep breathing and the related beneficial impact on cerebrovascular and autonomic function.

  7. Modified Sham Feeding of Sweet Solutions in Women with and without Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Klein, DA; Schebendach, JE; Brown, AJ; Smith, GP; Walsh, BT

    2009-01-01

    Although it is possible that binge eating in humans is due to increased responsiveness of orosensory excitatory controls of eating, there is no direct evidence for this because food ingested during a test meal stimulates both orosensory excitatory and postingestive inhibitory controls. To overcome this problem, we adapted the modified sham feeding technique (MSF) to measure the orosensory excitatory control of intake of a series of sweetened solutions. Previously published data showed the feasibility of a “sip-and-spit” procedure in nine healthy control women using solutions flavored with cherry Kool Aid® and sweetened with sucrose (0-20%)1. The current study extended this technique to measure the intake of artificially sweetened solutions in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and in women with no history of eating disorders. Ten healthy women and 11 women with BN were randomly presented with cherry Kool Aid® solutions sweetened with five concentrations of aspartame (0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.28%) in a closed opaque container fitted with a straw. They were instructed to sip as much as they wanted of the solution during 1-minute trials and to spit the fluid out into another opaque container. Across all subjects, presence of sweetener increased intake (p<0.001). Women with BN sipped 40.5-53.1% more of all solutions than controls (p=0.03 for total intake across all solutions). Self-report ratings of liking, wanting and sweetness of solutions did not differ between groups. These results support the feasibility of a MSF procedure using artificially sweetened solutions, and the hypothesis that the orosensory stimulation of MSF provokes larger intake in women with BN than controls. PMID:18773914

  8. A randomized sham-controlled trial of a neurodynamic technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Price, Don D; Robinson, Michael E; Vincent, Kevin R; George, Steven Z

    2009-10-01

    Randomized, controlled trial. To assess the believability of a novel sham intervention for a neurodynamic technique (NDT) in participants with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Additionally, we wished to assess a potential mechanism of NDT (hypoalgesia) and to compare outcomes related to clinical pain and upper extremity disability between NDT and a sham intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests that NDT is effective in the treatment of CTS. A sham-controlled study is lacking from the literature and could provide insight to the efficacy of NDT, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Participants with signs and symptoms consistent with CTS provided baseline measures of expectation, clinical pain intensity, upper extremity disability, and experimental pain sensitivity. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either a NDT known to anatomically stress the median nerve or a sham technique intended to minimize stress to the median nerve. Following brief exposure to the assigned technique, expectation was reassessed to observe for group-dependent changes. Participants received the assigned intervention over 3 weeks. Additionally, all participants received a prefabricated wrist splint for their involved hands, with instructions to sleep in the splint and to wear it during painful activities when awake. Following 3 weeks of the assigned intervention and splint wear, baseline measures were reassessed and participants were asked which intervention they believed they had received. Forty females agreed to participate. Expectations for pain relief and perceived group assignment were similar between the groups. Within-session decreases in clinical pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity were observed independent of group assignment. Reduction of temporal summation was observed only in participants receiving NDT. Significant improvements in clinical pain intensity and upper extremity disability were observed at 3 weeks, independent of group

  9. A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of a Neurodynamic Technique in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bialosky, Joel E.; Bishop, Mark D.; Price, Don D.; Robinson, Michael E.; Vincent, Kevin R.; George, Steven Z.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Randomized, controlled trial. Objectives To assess the believability of a novel sham intervention for a neurodynamic technique (NDT) in participants with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Additionally, we wished to assess a potential mechanism of NDT (hypoalgesia) and to compare outcomes related to clinical pain and upper extremity disability between NDT and a sham intervention. Background Preliminary evidence suggests that NDT is effective in the treatment of CTS. A sham-controlled study is lacking from the literature and could provide insight to the efficacy of NDT, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Methods Participants with signs and symptoms consistent with CTS provided baseline measures of expectation, clinical pain intensity, upper extremity disability, and experimental pain sensitivity. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either a NDT known to anatomically stress the median nerve or a sham technique intended to minimize stress to the median nerve. Following brief exposure to the assigned technique, expectation was reassessed to observe for group-dependent changes. Participants received the assigned intervention over 3 weeks. Additionally, all participants received a prefabricated wrist splint for their involved hands, with instructions to sleep in the splint and to wear it during painful activities when awake. Following 3 weeks of the assigned intervention and splint wear, baseline measures were reassessed and participants were asked which intervention they believed they had received. Results Forty females agreed to participate. Expectations for pain relief and perceived group assignment were similar between the groups. Within-session decreases in clinical pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity were observed independent of group assignment. Reduction of temporal summation was observed only in participants receiving NDT. Significant improvements in clinical pain intensity and upper extremity

  10. Delocalization error and "functional tuning" in Kohn-Sham calculations of molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen; Srebro, Monika

    2014-08-19

    Kohn-Sham theory (KST) is the "workhorse" of numerical quantum chemistry. This is particularly true for first-principles calculations of ground- and excited-state properties for larger systems, including electronic spectra, electronic dynamic and static linear and higher order response properties (including nonlinear optical (NLO) properties), conformational or dynamic averaging of spectra and response properties, or properties that are affected by the coupling of electron and nuclear motion. This Account explores the sometimes dramatic impact of the delocalization error (DE) and possible benefits from the use of long-range corrections (LC) and "tuning" of functionals in KST calculations of molecular ground-state and response properties. Tuning refers to a nonempirical molecule-specific determination of adjustable parameters in functionals to satisfy known exact conditions, for instance, that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should be equal to the negative vertical ionization potential (IP) or that the energy as a function of fractional electron numbers should afford straight-line segments. The presentation is given from the viewpoint of a chemist interested in computations of a variety of molecular optical and spectroscopic properties and of a theoretician developing methods for computing such properties with KST. In recent years, the use of LC functionals, functional tuning, and quantifying the DE explicitly have provided valuable insight regarding the performance of KST for molecular properties. We discuss a number of different molecular properties, with examples from recent studies from our laboratory and related literature. The selected properties probe different aspects of molecular electronic structure. Electric field gradients and hyperfine coupling constants can be exquisitely sensitive to the DE because it affects the ground-state electron density and spin density distributions. For π-conjugated molecules, it is shown how the

  11. Better than sham? A double-blind placebo-controlled neurofeedback study in primary insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Griessenberger, Hermann; Gnjezda, Maria-Teresa; Heib, Dominik P. J.; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Thibault et al. (doi:10.1093/awx033) for a scientific commentary on this article. Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the ‘law of effect’. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard. Earlier treatment approaches using sensorimotor-rhythm neurofeedback indicated that training to increase 12–15 Hz sensorimotor rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex during wakefulness could reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy symptoms and even improve sleep quality by enhancing sleep spindle activity (lying in the same frequency range). In the present study we sought to critically test whether earlier findings on the positive effect of sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback on sleep quality and memory could also be replicated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study on 25 patients with insomnia. Patients spent nine polysomnography nights and 12 sessions of neurofeedback and 12 sessions of placebo-feedback training (sham) in our laboratory. Crucially, we found both neurofeedback and placebo feedback to be equally effective as reflected in subjective measures of sleep complaints suggesting that the observed improvements were due to unspecific factors such as experiencing trust and receiving care and empathy from experimenters. In addition, these improvements were not reflected in objective electroencephalographic-derived measures of sleep quality. Furthermore, objective electroencephalographic measures that potentially reflected mechanisms underlying the efficacy of neurofeedback such as spectral

  12. The role of oxbow lakes in the off-channel storage of bed material along the Ain River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieras, Pauline Lola; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, T. C.; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie

    2013-04-01

    Incidents of chute cutoff redistribute floodplain sediment into rivers, causing downstream bar growth while simultaneously creating accommodation space for the storage of sediment within the floodplain in the form of oxbow lakes. Oxbows may be able to sequester enough sediment to balance the amount produced by chute incision, but the long-term consequences of chute cutoff on reach-scale sediment budgets have so far remained unclear. This has been due to a relative paucity of field observations that quantify the exchange of coarse sediment between the channel and floodplain. Here, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to document the sediment budget of a reach of the Ain River, France, that has experienced three recent incidents of chute cutoff. Monitoring of the river prior to chute incision allowed us to precisely quantify the rates of bed-material transfer over a thirteen-year period using a combination of bathymetric surveys, LiDAR data, and aerial photographs. The abandoned channels under study sequestered between 17 and 40% of the sediment introduced to the channel, with most of the rest of the sediment being stored within the river itself. Aggradation of the abandoned channels was not evenly distributed, instead occurring by the growth of point bars and thus implying that the abandoned channel planform may be an important control on aggradation rates. Our results make clear that although oxbows may provide a significant sink for bed material, the amount of sediment sequestered within them cannot compensate for the loading caused by chute incision.

  13. Development and usability of the MAINtAIN, an inventory assessing nursing staff behavior to optimize and maintain functional activity among nursing home residents: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Nienke O; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Bours, Gerrie J J W; Hamers, Jan P H; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2016-02-02

    Functional decline is common in nursing home residents. Nursing staff can help prevent this decline, by encouraging residents to be more active in functional activities. Questionnaires measuring the extent to which nursing staff encourage functional activity among residents are lacking. In addition, there are no measurement instruments to gain insight into nursing staff perceived barriers and facilitators to this behavior. The aim of this study was to develop, and study the usability, of the MAastrIcht Nurses Activities INventory (MAINtAIN), an inventory assessing a) the extent to which nursing staff perceive to perform behaviors that optimize and maintain functional activity among nursing home residents and b) the perceived barriers and facilitators related to this behavior. Using a mixed-methods approach the MAINtAIN was developed and its usability was studied. Development was based on literature, expert opinions, focus group (N = 3) and individual interviews (N = 14) with residents and staff from nine nursing homes in the Netherlands. Usability was studied in a cross-sectional study with 37 nurses and certified nurse assistants; data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Development of the MAINtAIN resulted in two distinctive parts: MAINtAIN-behaviors and MAINtAIN-barriers. MAINtAIN-behaviors, targeting nursing staff behavior to optimize and maintain functional activity, includes 19 items covering activities of daily living, household activities, and miscellaneous activities. MAINtAIN-barriers addresses the perceived barriers and facilitators related to this behavior and comprises 33 items covering barriers and facilitators related to the residents, the professionals, the social context, and the organizational and economic context. The usability study showed that the inventory was not difficult to complete, that items and response options were clear, and that the number of missing values was low. Few items showed a floor or ceiling effect. The

  14. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-01

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 -15 g/cm 3 and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α -quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a new liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.

  15. Quaternionic formulation of the two-component Kohn-Sham equations and efficient exploitation of point group symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Markus K.

    2017-08-01

    The quaternionic formulation of the time-reversal invariant quasirelativistic Kohn-Sham equations with exact Hartree-Fock exchange leads to hypercomplex one-component equations with half of the dimension compared to the original two-component problem. The combination of the quaternionic equations with point group symmetry exploitation for D2 h and its subgroups by construction of corepresentations leads to quaternionic, complex, or real algorithms depending on the structure of the point group. In this work, the quaternionic approach with point group symmetry exploitation of the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory by Saue and Jensen [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6211 (1999)] will be adopted to the quasirelativistic two-component Kohn-Sham scheme for closed-shell systems. The implementation in the program system TURBOMOLE is applied to the large lead cluster P b56 as a test case.

  16. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a newmore » liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.« less

  17. Condition on the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy and modern parametrization of the Thomas-Fermi density.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghyung; Constantin, Lucian A; Perdew, John P; Burke, Kieron

    2009-01-21

    We study the asymptotic expansion of the neutral-atom energy as the atomic number Z-->infinity, presenting a new method to extract the coefficients from oscillating numerical data. Recovery of the correct expansion yields a condition on the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy that is important for the accuracy of approximate kinetic energy functionals for atoms, molecules, and solids. For example, this determines the small gradient limit of any generalized gradient approximation and conflicts somewhat with the standard gradient expansion. Tests are performed on atoms, molecules, and jellium clusters using densities constructed from Kohn-Sham orbitals. We also give a modern, highly accurate parametrization of the Thomas-Fermi density of neutral atoms.

  18. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a new liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.

  19. Influence of electroencephalography neurofeedback training on episodic memory: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Rogel, Ainat; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Gordon, Shirley; Meiran, Nachshon; Todder, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between memory processes and oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) are well established. Neurofeedback training (NFT) may cause participants to better regulate their brain EEG oscillations. The present study is a double-blind sham-controlled design investigating the effect of NFT on memory. NFT included up-training upper alpha (UA) band, up-training sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) band and sham protocol. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups. NFT sessions (30 min each) took place twice weekly for a total of 10 sessions while memory testing took place pre- and post-training. The results indicate dissociation between SMR and UA NFT and different memory processes. While the SMR protocol resulted in improving automatic, item-specific and familiarity-based processes in memory, the UA protocol resulted in improved strategic and controlled recollection. The implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham theory for π-π* transitions. I. Polyenes, cyanines, and protonated imines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Stephan; Nonnenberg, Christel; Frank, Irmgard

    2003-12-01

    We present a self-consistent field algorithm for the restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham method which can be used to calculate excited states that have the same spatial symmetry as the corresponding ground states. The method is applied to π-π* transitions in polyenes, cyanines, and protonated imines. Excitation energies obtained with gradient corrected functionals are found to be significantly redshifted; the shift is constant within a homologous series. Planar excited state geometries have been optimized for all systems.

  1. Validation of a simplified sham acupuncture technique for its use in clinical research: a randomised, single blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Marcelo; Zaffaroni, Ana; Alvarez, Ramón; Clark, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The validity of a new sham acupuncture technique was tested on acupuncture naïve healthy subjects. The procedure was tested in accupoints LI4 and ST6 in a randomised, single blind and crossover study. The participants were blind to which technique they received. 32 healthy volunteers (15 men, 17 women, aged between 20 and 62 years, mean age 34 years) were recruited at the Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) real acupuncture or (2) sham acupuncture. After 30 min, the patients were 'needled' again in a crossover design. Main outcome measures A yes/no questionnaire was used to assess the credibility and characteristics of the procedure. For the credibility question (do you think you received real acupuncture?) no statistically significant group differences were evident before or after the crossover. Subjects who answered yes to this question ranged from 14/16 (87.5%) before crossover to 10/16 (62.5%) after crossover for the sham and 12/16 (75%) before crossover to 15/16 (93.8%) after crossover for the real acupuncture. The question that showed a significant difference (only after crossover) was the question, "did you feel the needle penetrating the skin?"; after crossover 12/16 (75%) subjects in the real acupuncture group said yes and 2/16 (12%) subjects in the sham group said yes to this question (p<0.01). These data suggests that this method is credible and constitutes a simple and inexpensive technique for use as a control in clinical research in acupuncture naïve subjects.

  2. Effect of Spinal Manipulation of Upper Cervical Vertebrae on Blood Pressure: Results of a Pilot Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Christine M; Salsbury, Stacie A; Vining, Robert D; Long, Cynthia R; Pohlman, Katherine A; Weeks, William B; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot sham-controlled clinical trial was to estimate the treatment effect and safety of toggle recoil spinal manipulation for blood pressure management. Fifty-one participants with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (systolic blood pressure ranging from 135 to 159 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ranging from 85 to 99 mm Hg) were allocated by an adaptive design to 2 treatments: toggle recoil spinal manipulation or a sham procedure. Participants were seen by a doctor of chiropractic twice weekly for 6 weeks and remained on their antihypertensive medications, as prescribed, throughout the trial. Blood pressure was assessed at baseline and after study visits 1, 6 (week 3), and 12 (week 6), with the primary end point at week 6. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean blood pressure changes from baseline between groups at each end point, controlling for sex, age, body mass index, and baseline blood pressure. Adjusted mean change from baseline to week 6 was greater in the sham group (systolic, -4.2 mm Hg; diastolic, -1.6 mm Hg) than in the spinal manipulation group (systolic, 0.6 mm Hg; diastolic, 0.7 mm Hg), but the difference was not statistically significant. No serious and few adverse events were noted. Six weeks of toggle recoil spinal manipulation did not lower systolic or diastolic blood pressure when compared with a sham procedure. No serious adverse events from either treatment were reported. Our results do not support a larger clinical trial. Further research to understand the potential mechanisms of action involving upper cervical manipulation on blood pressure is warranted before additional clinical investigations are conducted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High frequency chest wall oscillation for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amit K; Diette, Gregory B; Hatipoğlu, Umur; Bilderback, Andrew; Ridge, Alana; Harris, Vanessa Walker; Dalapathi, Vijay; Badlani, Sameer; Lewis, Stephanie; Charbeneau, Jeff T; Naureckas, Edward T; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2011-09-10

    High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is used for airway mucus clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of HFCWO early in the treatment of adults hospitalized for acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized, multi-center, double-masked phase II clinical trial of active or sham treatment initiated within 24 hours of hospital admission for acute asthma or COPD at four academic medical centers. Patients received active or sham treatment for 15 minutes three times a day for four treatments. Medical management was standardized across groups. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to therapy after four treatments (minutes used/60 minutes prescribed) and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included change in Borg dyspnea score (≥ 1 unit indicates a clinically significant change), spontaneously expectorated sputum volume, and forced expired volume in 1 second. Fifty-two participants were randomized to active (n = 25) or sham (n = 27) treatment. Patient adherence was similarly high in both groups (91% vs. 93%; p = 0.70). Patient satisfaction was also similarly high in both groups. After four treatments, a higher proportion of patients in the active treatment group had a clinically significant improvement in dyspnea (70.8% vs. 42.3%, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. HFCWO is well tolerated in adults hospitalized for acute asthma or COPD and significantly improves dyspnea. The high levels of patient satisfaction in both treatment groups justify the need for sham controls when evaluating the use of HFCWO on patient-reported outcomes. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the role of HFCWO in improving in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00181285.

  4. Acupuncture relieves symptoms in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a randomized, sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Bicer, M; Eren, G A; Tas, S; Tugcu, V; Tasci, A I; Cek, M

    2015-09-01

    There are multiple approaches to the management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS); and lately the data suggesting the ability of acupuncture treatment to decrease pain, positively impact quality of life and potentially modulate inflammation has suggested it as a potential therapeutic option for men with CP/CPPS. We conducted this study to determine whether acupuncture is really an effective therapeutic modality for CP/CPPS in terms of >50% decrease in total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score from baseline compared with sham. One hundred patients with CP/CPPS (category III B) in an outpatient urology clinic were randomized to receive acupuncture at either seven acupoints bilaterally or sham points adjacent to these points. NIH-CPSI was completed by each patient before and 6, 8, 16, 24 weeks after the treatment. Mean values of total CPSI score and subscores after the treatment and on follow-up following the treatment were compared. Of the acupuncture participants, 92% were NIH-CPSI responders (>50% decrease in total NIH-CPSI score from baseline) compared with 48% of sham participants, 8 weeks after the end of the therapy. Both groups experienced significant decrease in CPSI subscores throughout the whole follow-up period; however, the decline remained significantly greater in the active acupuncture group as compared with the sham group. Our results show that the use of acupuncture in treatment of men with CP/CPPS symptoms resulted in a significant decrease in total NIH-CPSI scores.

  5. Dehydration followed by sham rehydration contributes to reduced neuronal activation in vasopressinergic supraoptic neurons after water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Knight, W David; Ji, Lisa L; Little, Joel T; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This experiment tested the role of oropharyngeal and gastric afferents on hypothalamic activation in dehydrated rats instrumented with gastric fistulas and allowed to drink water or isotonic saline compared with euhydrated controls (CON). Rats were water-deprived for 48 h (48 WD) or 46 h WD with 2 h rehydration with water (46+W) or isotonic saline (46+S). 46+W and 46+S rats were given water with fistulas open (46+WO/46+SO, sham) or closed (46+WC/46+SC). Compared with CON, water deprivation increased and water rehydration decreased plasma osmolality, while sham rehydration had no effect. Water deprivation increased c-Fos staining in the lamina terminalis. However, none of the sham or rehydration treatments normalized c-Fos staining in the lamina terminalis. Analysis of AVP and c-Fos-positive neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) revealed reduced colocalization in 46+WO and 46+SC rats compared with 48 WD and 46+SO rats. However, 46+WO and 46+SC rats had higher c-Fos staining in the SON than 46+WC or CON rats. Examination of c-Fos in the perinuclear zone (PNZ) revealed that sham and rehydrated rats had increased c-Fos staining to CON, while 48 WD and 46+SO rats had little or no c-Fos staining in this region. Thus, preabsorptive reflexes contribute to the regulation of AVP neurons in a manner independent of c-Fos expression in the lamina terminalis. Further, this reflex pathway may include inhibitory interneurons in the PNZ region surrounding the SON.

  6. tDCS in patients with disorders of consciousness: sham-controlled randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Ledoux, Didier; Demertzi, Athena; Laureys, Steven

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effects of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (DLPF-tDCS) on Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scores in severely brain-damaged patients with disorders of consciousness. In a double-blind sham-controlled crossover design, anodal and sham tDCS were delivered in randomized order over the left DLPF cortex for 20 minutes in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS) assessed at least 1 week after acute traumatic or nontraumatic insult. Clinical assessments were performed using the CRS-R directly before and after anodal and sham tDCS stimulation. Follow-up outcome data were acquired 12 months after inclusion using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Patients in MCS (n = 30; interval 43 ± 63 mo; 19 traumatic, 11 nontraumatic) showed a significant treatment effect (p = 0.003) as measured by CRS-R total scores. In patients with VS/UWS (n = 25; interval 24 ± 48 mo; 6 traumatic, 19 nontraumatic), no treatment effect was observed (p = 0.952). Thirteen (43%) patients in MCS and 2 (8%) patients in VS/UWS further showed postanodal tDCS-related signs of consciousness, which were observed neither during the pre-tDCS evaluation nor during the pre- or post-sham evaluation (i.e., tDCS responders). Outcome did not differ between tDCS responders and nonresponders. tDCS over left DLPF cortex may transiently improve signs of consciousness in MCS following severe brain damage as measured by changes in CRS-R total scores. This study provides Class II evidence that short-duration tDCS of the left DLPF cortex transiently improves consciousness as measured by CRS-R assessment in patients with MCS.

  7. Impact of effective versus sham continuous positive airway pressure on liver injury in obstructive sleep apnoea: Data from randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Jullian-Desayes, Ingrid; Tamisier, Renaud; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Launois-Rollinat, Sandrine H; Trocme, Candice; Levy, Patrick; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Pepin, Jean-Louis

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) could be an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurrence and progression. The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on non-invasive markers of NAFLD has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6-12 weeks of effective CPAP on the FibroMax test (comprising components including the SteatoTest, NashTest and FibroTest) through three randomized sham controlled studies. The FibroMax test was performed in 103 obstructive sleep apnoea patients (apnoea + hypopnoea index > 15/h) enrolled in a randomized study comparing sham versus effective CPAP. At baseline, 40.4% of patients in the sham CPAP group and 45.5% in the CPAP group exhibited liver steatosis. Furthermore, 39.6% of patients in the sham CPAP group and 58.4% in the CPAP group displayed borderline or possible non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Six to twelve weeks of effective CPAP did not demonstrate any impact on reducing steatosis, NASH or liver fibrosis even after adjustment for gender, BMI, baseline apnoea + hypopnoea index and severity of liver injury. A number of non-invasive markers of liver damage are increased in untreated obstructive sleep apnoea patients, potentially contributing to cardiometabolic risk, but they do not improve after 6-12 weeks of effective CPAP treatment. NCT01196845 (ADISAS), NCT00464659 (MneSAS) and NCT00669695 (StatinflaSAS) at ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Spectrum-splitting approach for Fermi-operator expansion in all-electron Kohn-Sham DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, Phani; Gavini, Vikram; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a spectrum-splitting approach to conduct all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculations by employing Fermi-operator expansion of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The proposed approach splits the subspace containing the occupied eigenspace into a core subspace, spanned by the core eigenfunctions, and its complement, the valence subspace, and thereby enables an efficient computation of the Fermi-operator expansion by reducing the expansion to the valence-subspace projected Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The key ideas used in our approach are as follows: (i) employ Chebyshev filtering to compute a subspace containing the occupied states followed by a localization procedure to generate nonorthogonal localized functions spanning the Chebyshev-filtered subspace; (ii) compute the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian projected onto the valence subspace; (iii) employ Fermi-operator expansion in terms of the valence-subspace projected Hamiltonian to compute the density matrix, electron density, and band energy. We demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method on benchmark materials systems involving silicon nanoclusters up to 1330 electrons, a single gold atom, and a six-atom gold nanocluster. The benchmark studies on silicon nanoclusters revealed a staggering fivefold reduction in the Fermi-operator expansion polynomial degree by using the spectrum-splitting approach for accuracies in the ground-state energies of ˜10-4Ha/atom with respect to reference calculations. Further, numerical investigations on gold suggest that spectrum splitting is indispensable to achieve meaningful accuracies, while employing Fermi-operator expansion.

  9. Physical Meaning of Virtual Kohn-Sham Orbitals and Orbital Energies: An Ideal Basis for the Description of Molecular Excitations.

    PubMed

    van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, several benchmark studies on the performance of large sets of functionals in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of excitation energies have been performed. The tested functionals do not approximate exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies closely. We highlight the advantages of (close to) exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies for a simple description, very often as just a single orbital-to-orbital transition, of molecular excitations. Benchmark calculations are performed for the statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP) functional for the potential [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 1344; 2001, 114, 652], which approximates the true Kohn-Sham potential much better than LDA, GGA, mGGA, and hybrid potentials do. An accurate Kohn-Sham potential does not only perform satisfactorily for calculated vertical excitation energies of both valence and Rydberg transitions but also exhibits appealing properties of the KS orbitals including occupied orbital energies close to ionization energies, virtual-occupied orbital energy gaps very close to excitation energies, realistic shapes of virtual orbitals, leading to straightforward interpretation of most excitations as single orbital transitions. We stress that such advantages are completely lost in time-dependent Hartree-Fock and partly in hybrid approaches. Many excitations and excitation energies calculated with local density, generalized gradient, and hybrid functionals are spurious. There is, with an accurate KS, or even the LDA or GGA potentials, nothing problematic about the "band gap" in molecules: the HOMO-LUMO gap is close to the first excitation energy (the optical gap).

  10. Shams 1 - Design and operational experiences of the 100MW - 540°C CSP plant in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Sanz, Borja; Behnke, Klaus; Witt, Thomas; Viereck, Detlef; Schwarz, Mark André

    2017-06-01

    SHAMS 1 ("Shams" means "Sun" in Arabic) Concentrated Solar Power plant is a very successful example of a modern plant, which combines the known configuration of a parabolic trough technology with the well-established power generation technologies operated at 540°C live steam temperature while respecting the specific requirement of the daily starts and shutdowns. In addition to the high live steam temperature challenge and being located in the middle of the desert approx. 120 km south west of the city of Abu Dhabi, the plant has to face, the plant has to fact several atmospheric challenges like the high dust concentration, wind storms, and high ambient temperature. This paper, written jointly by Shams Power Company - the project and operating company and MAN Diesel & Turbo - the steam turbine original manufacturer, describes the challenges in optimizing the design of the steam turbine to fulfill the requirement of fast start up while operating the plant on daily transient pattern for minimum 30 years. It also addresses the several atmospheric challenges and how the project and operating company has overcame them. Finally, the paper gives a snap shot on the operational experience and record of the plant showing that despite the very challenging environment, the budgeted target has been exceeded in the first two years of operation.

  11. The Effects of Acupuncture at Real or Sham Acupoints on the Intrinsic Brain Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Baohui; Min, Baoquan; Wang, Zhenchang; Zhou, Aihong; Li, Yong; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that acupuncture can modulate a widely distributed brain network in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Acupuncture at different acupoints could exert different modulatory effects on the brain network. However, whether acupuncture at real or sham acupoints can produce different effects on the brain network in MCI or AD patients remains unclear. Using resting-state fMRI, we reported that acupuncture at Taixi (KI3) induced amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) change of different brain regions in MCI patients from those shown in the healthy controls. In MCI patients, acupuncture at KI3 increased or decreased ALFF in the different regions from those activated by acupuncture in the healthy controls. Acupuncture at the sham acupoint in MCI patients activated the different brain regions from those in healthy controls. Therefore, we concluded that acupuncture displays more significant effect on neuronal activities of the above brain regions in MCI patients than that in healthy controls. Acupuncture at KI3 exhibits different effects on the neuronal activities of the brain regions from acupuncture at sham acupoint, although the difference is only shown at several regions due to the close distance between the above points. PMID:26064166

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for generalised anxiety disorder: a pilot randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Bragdon, Laura B; Zertuche, Luis; Hyatt, Christopher J; Hallion, Lauren S; Tolin, David F; Goethe, John W; Assaf, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise for treating generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) but has only been studied in uncontrolled research. This is the first randomised controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01659736) to investigate the efficacy and neural correlates of rTMS in GAD. Twenty five participants (active n = 13; sham, n = 12) enrolled. rTMS was targeted at the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, 1 Hz, 90% resting motor threshold). Response and remission rates were higher in the active v. sham groups and there were significant group × time interactions for anxiety, worry and depressive symptoms, favouring active v. sham. In addition, right DLPFC activation during a decision-making gambling task increased at post-treatment for active rTMS only, and changes in neuroactivation correlated significantly with changes in worry symptoms. Findings provide preliminary evidence that rTMS may improve GAD symptoms in association with modifying neural activity in the stimulation site. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p < 0.05). Mindfulness meditation reduced pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p < 0.001) ratings more than placebo analgesia. Mindfulness meditation also reduced pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple

  14. Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with Exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE trial): randomised, sham-controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, P L; Slebos, D-J; Cardoso, P F G; Cetti, E; Voelker, K; Levine, B; Russell, M E; Goldin, J; Brown, M; Cooper, J D; Sybrecht, G W

    2011-09-10

    Airway bypass is a bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction procedure for emphysema whereby transbronchial passages into the lung are created to release trapped air, supported with paclitaxel-coated stents to ease the mechanics of breathing. The aim of the EASE (Exhale airway stents for emphysema) trial was to evaluate safety and efficacy of airway bypass in people with severe homogeneous emphysema. We undertook a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled study in 38 specialist respiratory centres worldwide. We recruited 315 patients who had severe hyperinflation (ratio of residual volume [RV] to total lung capacity of ≥0·65). By computer using a random number generator, we randomly allocated participants (in a 2:1 ratio) to either airway bypass (n=208) or sham control (107). We divided investigators into team A (masked), who completed pre-procedure and post-procedure assessments, and team B (unmasked), who only did bronchoscopies without further interaction with patients. Participants were followed up for 12 months. The 6-month co-primary efficacy endpoint required 12% or greater improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 1 point or greater decrease in the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score from baseline. The composite primary safety endpoint incorporated five severe adverse events. We did Bayesian analysis to show the posterior probability that airway bypass was superior to sham control (success threshold, 0·965). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391612. All recruited patients were included in the analysis. At 6 months, no difference between treatment arms was noted with respect to the co-primary efficacy endpoint (30 of 208 for airway bypass vs 12 of 107 for sham control; posterior probability 0·749, below the Bayesian success threshold of 0·965). The 6-month composite primary safety endpoint was 14·4% (30 of 208) for airway bypass versus 11·2% (12 of 107) for sham control

  15. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M; Farris, Suzan R; Ray, Jenna N; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-11-18

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p < 0.05). Mindfulness meditation reduced pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p < 0.001) ratings more than placebo analgesia. Mindfulness meditation also reduced pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple

  16. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Central) along with a hand search of selected bibliographies were searched from inception up to April 2012. Two reviewers independently selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated manipulative therapy compared to sham manipulative therapy in adults, assessed risk of bias and extracted data concerning participants, intervention, kind of sham, outcome measures, duration of follow-up, profession, data on efficacy and adverse events. Pooled (standardized) mean differences or risk differences were calculated were possible using a random effects model. The primary outcomes were pain, disability, and perceived recovery. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results In total 965 references were screened for eligibility and 19 RCTs (n = 1080) met the selection criteria. Eight studies were considered of low risk of bias. There is moderate level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD] - 0.68, 95% confidence interval (-1.06 to -0.31). There is low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief (SMD - 0.37, -0.69 to -0.04) at short- term follow-up. In patients with musculoskeletal disorders, we found moderate level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.73, -1.21 to -0.25) immediate after treatment and low level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.52, -0.87 to -0.17) at short term

  17. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  18. Oscillating square wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered during slow wave sleep does not improve declarative memory more than sham: A randomized sham controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Badran, Bashar W.; Halford, Jonathan J.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; George, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current wave form (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Objective/Hypothesis Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Methods Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517mA/CM2, and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with one-minute inter-block intervals (25 minutes total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. Results There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1±3.0SD more associations) (sham = 3.8±3.1S.D more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6±2.7 S.D. correctly typed sequences) compared to

  19. Oscillating Square Wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Delivered During Slow Wave Sleep Does Not Improve Declarative Memory More Than Sham: A Randomized Sham Controlled Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; Halford, Jonathan J; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L; Uhde, Thomas W; Borckardt, Jeffery J; George, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current waveform (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517 mA/cm(2), and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75 Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with 1-min inter-block intervals (25 min total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1 ± 3.0 SD more associations) (sham = 3.8 ± 3.1 SD more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6 ± 2.7 SD correctly typed sequences) compared to sham stimulation (2.3 ± 2.2 SD correctly typed

  20. Acupuncture for Dysphagia after Chemoradiation in Head and Neck Cancer: Rationale and Design of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weidong; Wayne, Peter M.; Davis, Roger B.; Buring, Julie E.; Li, Hailun; Goguen, Laura A.; Rosenthal, David S.; Tishler, Roy B.; Posner, Marshall R.; Haddad, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Dysphagia is a common side effect following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Current dysphagia management includes swallowing therapy and dilation procedures, but these treatments have limitations. While acupuncture has been reported to positively impact swallowing function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with dysphagia, current evidence is inconclusive. Material and Methods In an ongoing trial, 42 squamous cell carcinoma HNC patients, who are receiving platinum-based CRT with curative intent, are being recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. They are randomized to 12 sessions of either active acupuncture or to sham acupuncture during and following CRT over a 24-week period. Blinded research staff assesses outcomes at baseline, 20 weeks post-CRT (end of acupuncture), and 12 months after baseline (6-month follow-up). The primary outcome is change in M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory score from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include QOL measures pertaining to HNC patients. In addition, a subset of study patients are tested for salivary flow rates and cytokines, including plasma transforming growth factor –β1 and interleukin 6 (n=10 per arm), to preliminarily explore the biological mechanisms of acupuncture for dysphagia. Discussion This paper addresses unique challenges related to study design in nonpharmacological, sham-controlled acupuncture trials including development of evidence-based credible verum and sham treatment protocols, blinding, and assuring fidelity of treatment. Results of this study will inform the feasibility of conducting a large scale trial and will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of acupuncture for dysphagia in HNC patients. PMID:22406102

  1. Do placebo effects associated with sham osteopathic procedure occur in newborns? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Marta; Cardinali, Lucia; Barlafante, Gina; Pizzolorusso, Gianfranco; Renzetti, Cinzia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Placebo effect has been largely studied and debated in medicine. Research focused mainly on children and adults but not on newborns. In osteopathy, few studies documented this effect and no research has been conducted in newborns. To assess the presence of placebo effect in newborns using sham osteopathic manipulative treatment. Randomized control trial. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Italy. Two groups (103 patients each) of preterm infants aged 29-36 weeks without medical complications received routine pediatric care and osteopathic sham therapy was administrated to the study group only for the entire period of hospitalization. Primary end point was the mean reduction of length of stay at discharge. Secondary objective was the change in daily weight gain. 206 newborns entered the study. No difference between sham and control group was found for the primary outcome length of stay (30.0±20.3; 28.8±18.9; p=0.70). Multivariate analysis showed no difference between study and control group on length of stay. A negative association was found for gestational age (-2.33; 95% CI -3.81 to -0.85; p=0.002), birth weight (-0.01; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.01; p<0.001) and milk volume at study enrollment (-0.02; 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01; p=0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in the field showing no placebo effect on newborns. Further discussions are opened concerning the age when placebo effect starts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From the Kohn-Sham band gap to the fundamental gap in solids. An integer electron approach.

    PubMed

    Baerends, E J

    2017-06-21

    It is often stated that the Kohn-Sham occupied-unoccupied gap in both molecules and solids is "wrong". We argue that this is not a correct statement. The KS theory does not allow to interpret the exact KS HOMO-LUMO gap as the fundamental gap (difference (I - A) of electron affinity (A) and ionization energy (I), twice the chemical hardness), from which it indeed differs, strongly in molecules and moderately in solids. The exact Kohn-Sham HOMO-LUMO gap in molecules is much below the fundamental gap and very close to the much smaller optical gap (first excitation energy), and LDA/GGA yield very similar gaps. In solids the situation is different: the excitation energy to delocalized excited states and the fundamental gap (I - A) are very similar, not so disparate as in molecules. Again the Kohn-Sham and LDA/GGA band gaps do not represent (I - A) but are significantly smaller. However, the special properties of an extended system like a solid make it very easy to calculate the fundamental gap from the ground state (neutral system) band structure calculations entirely within a density functional framework. The correction Δ from the KS gap to the fundamental gap originates from the response part v(resp) of the exchange-correlation potential and can be calculated very simply using an approximation to v(resp). This affords a calculation of the fundamental gap at the same level of accuracy as other properties of crystals at little extra cost beyond the ground state bandstructure calculation. The method is based on integer electron systems, fractional electron systems (an ensemble of N- and (N + 1)-electron systems) and the derivative discontinuity are not invoked.

  3. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cosmo, Camila; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; de Araújo, Arão Nogueira; do Rosário, Raphael Silva; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Montoya, Pedro; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé

    2015-01-01

    Background Current standardized treatments for cognitive impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain limited and their efficacy restricted. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for enhancing cognitive performance in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the effects of tDCS in reducing cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not yet been investigated. Methods A parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of tDCS on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with ADHD. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group and performed a go/no-go task before and after a single session of either anodal stimulation (1 mA) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation. Results A nonparametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test revealed no significant differences between the two groups of individuals with ADHD (tDCS vs. sham) in regard to behavioral performance in the go/no go tasks. Furthermore, the effect sizes of group differences after treatment for the primary outcome measures—correct responses, impulsivity and omission errors—were small. No adverse events resulting from stimulation were reported. Conclusion According to these findings, there is no evidence in support of the use of anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an approach for improving inhibitory control in ADHD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to assess the cognitive effects of tDCS in individuals with ADHD. Further research is needed to assess the clinical efficacy of tDCS in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512 PMID:26267861

  4. Acupuncture for tension-type headache: a multicentre, sham-controlled, patient-and observer-blinded, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Endres, Heinz G; Böwing, Gabriele; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Lange, Stefan; Maier, Christoph; Molsberger, Albrecht; Zenz, Michael; Vickers, Andrew J; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Acupuncture treatment is frequently sought for tension-type headache (TTH), but there is conflicting evidence as to its effectiveness. This randomised, controlled, multicentre, patient-and observer-blinded trial was carried out in 122 outpatient practices in Germany on 409 patients with TTH, defined as > or =10 headache days per month of which < or =1 included migraine symptoms. Interventions were verum acupuncture according to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine or sham acupuncture consisting of superficial needling at nonacupuncture points. Acupuncture was administered by physicians with specialist acupuncture training. Ten 30-min sessions were given over a six-week period, with additional sessions available for partial response. Response was defined as >50% reduction in headache days/month at six months and no use of excluded concomitant medication or other therapies. In the intent-to-treat analysis (all 409 patients), 33% of verum patients and 27% of sham controls (p=0.18) were classed as responders. Verum was superior to sham for most secondary endpoints, including headache days (1.8 fewer; 95% CI 0.6, 3.0; p=0.004) and the International Headache Society response criterion (66% vs. 55% response, risk difference 12%, 95% CI: 2%-21%; p=0.024).). The relative risk on the primary and secondary response criterion was very similar ( approximately 0.8); the difference in statistical significance may be due to differences in event rate. TTH improves after acupuncture treatment. However, the degree to which treatment benefits depend on psychological compared to physiological effects and the degree to which any physiological effects depend on needle placement and insertion depth are unclear.

  5. Randomized clinical trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus sham electrical stimulation in patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    van der Wilt, A A; Giuliani, G; Kubis, C; van Wunnik, B P W; Ferreira, I; Breukink, S O; Lehur, P A; La Torre, F; Baeten, C G M I

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in the treatment of faecal incontinence (FI) by means of an RCT. Patients aged over 18 years with FI were included in a multicentre, single-blinded RCT. The primary endpoint was reduction in the median or mean number of FI episodes per week. Secondary endpoints were changes in measures of FI severity, and disease-specific and generic quality of life. Outcomes were compared between PTNS and sham stimulation after 9 weeks of treatment. A higher proportion of patients in the PTNS (13 of 29) than in the sham (6 of 30) group showed a reduction of at least 50 per cent in the median number of FI episodes/week (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2·40, 95 per cent c.i. 1·10 to 5·24; P = 0·028), but not in the mean number of episodes/week (10 of 29 versus 8 of 30; IRR 1·42, 0·69 to 2·92; P = 0·347). The absolute median number of FI episodes per week decreased in the PTNS but not in the sham group (IRR 0·66, 0·44 to 0·98; P = 0·041), as did the mean number (IRR 0·65 (0·45 to 0·97); P = 0·034). Scores on the Cleveland Clinic Florida faecal incontinence scale decreased significantly in both groups, but more steeply in the PTNS group (mean difference -1·3, 95 per cent c.i. -2·6 to 0·0; P = 0·049). The aggregated mental component score of Short Form 36 improved in the PTNS but not in the sham group (mean difference 5·1, 0·5 to 9·6; P = 0·028). PTNS may offer a small advantage in the clinical management of FI that is insufficiently responsive to conservative treatment. The key challenge will be to identify patients who may benefit most from this minimally invasive surgical procedure. Registration number: NCT00974909 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Elastic Tape Improved Shoulder Joint Position Sense in Chronic Hemiparetic Subjects: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Matheus Bragança; Desloovere, Kaat; Russo, Thiago Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Background Elastic tape has been widely used in clinical practice in order to improve upper limb (UL) sensibility. However, there is little evidence that supports this type of intervention in stroke patients. Objective To verify the effect of elastic tape, applied to the paretic shoulder, on joint position sense (JPS) during abduction and flexion in subjects with chronic hemiparesis compared to sham tape (non-elastic tape). Furthermore, to verify if this potential effect is correlated to shoulder subluxation measurements and sensorimotor impairment. Methods A crossover and sham-controlled study was conducted with post-stroke patients who were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) those who received Sham Tape (ST) first and after one month they received Elastic Tape (ET); 2) those who received Elastic Tape (ET) first and after one month they received Sham Tape (ST). The JPS was evaluated using a dynamometer. The absolute error for shoulder abduction and flexion at 30° and 60° was calculated. Sensorimotor impairment was determined by Fugl-Meyer, and shoulder subluxation was measured using a caliper. Results Thirteen hemiparetic subjects (average time since stroke 75.23 months) participated in the study. At baseline (before interventions), the groups were not different for abduction at 30° (p = 0.805; p = 0.951), and 60° (p = 0.509; p = 0.799), or flexion at 30° (p = 0.872; p = 0.897) and 60° (p = 0.853; p = 0.970). For the ET group, differences between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010), and flexion at 30° p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010) were observed. For the ST group, differences were also observed between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010), and flexion at 30° (p<0.010,) and 60° (p<0.010). Potential effects were only correlated with shoulder subluxation during abduction at 30° (p = 0.001, r = -0.92) and 60° (p = 0.020, r = -0.75). Conclusion Elastic tape improved shoulder

  7. Elastic Tape Improved Shoulder Joint Position Sense in Chronic Hemiparetic Subjects: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gabriela Lopes Dos; Souza, Matheus Bragança; Desloovere, Kaat; Russo, Thiago Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Elastic tape has been widely used in clinical practice in order to improve upper limb (UL) sensibility. However, there is little evidence that supports this type of intervention in stroke patients. To verify the effect of elastic tape, applied to the paretic shoulder, on joint position sense (JPS) during abduction and flexion in subjects with chronic hemiparesis compared to sham tape (non-elastic tape). Furthermore, to verify if this potential effect is correlated to shoulder subluxation measurements and sensorimotor impairment. A crossover and sham-controlled study was conducted with post-stroke patients who were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) those who received Sham Tape (ST) first and after one month they received Elastic Tape (ET); 2) those who received Elastic Tape (ET) first and after one month they received Sham Tape (ST). The JPS was evaluated using a dynamometer. The absolute error for shoulder abduction and flexion at 30° and 60° was calculated. Sensorimotor impairment was determined by Fugl-Meyer, and shoulder subluxation was measured using a caliper. Thirteen hemiparetic subjects (average time since stroke 75.23 months) participated in the study. At baseline (before interventions), the groups were not different for abduction at 30° (p = 0.805; p = 0.951), and 60° (p = 0.509; p = 0.799), or flexion at 30° (p = 0.872; p = 0.897) and 60° (p = 0.853; p = 0.970). For the ET group, differences between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010), and flexion at 30° p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010) were observed. For the ST group, differences were also observed between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (p<0.010) and 60° (p<0.010), and flexion at 30° (p<0.010,) and 60° (p<0.010). Potential effects were only correlated with shoulder subluxation during abduction at 30° (p = 0.001, r = -0.92) and 60° (p = 0.020, r = -0.75). Elastic tape improved shoulder JPS of subjects with chronic hemiparesis

  8. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W; Nicholson, Don M; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  9. A meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding following colectomy: should gum chewing be included in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols?

    PubMed

    Ho, Yiu M; Smith, Stephen R; Pockney, Peter; Lim, Patrick; Attia, John

    2014-01-01

    Sham feeding has been shown to hasten the return of GI function following colorectal surgery, before the advent of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Few data exist regarding the efficacy of sham feeding in the modern era, with rapid postoperative feeding. We sought to perform a meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding in colorectal surgery, with a separate analysis on trials that used rapid postoperative feeding. Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched by using the terms gum OR sham feeding OR chew AND (colorect OR resect). All studies were randomized controlled trials (in any language) performed on adults, comparing standard care with gum chewing following colorectal resection. From 439 citations, 10 articles were included. The intervention was sham feeding by means of gum chewing. The outcome measures were time to return of flatus, time to first bowel movement, complication rates, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, and reoperation rates. Ten randomized controlled trials (n = 612) were included. Sham feeding resulted in a reduction in time to flatus of 31 minutes (p = 0.003) and time to first bowel movement of 30 minutes (p = 0.05). Sham feeding also resulted in a reduction in length of stay by 0.5 days (p = 0.007), and a reduction in complication rates (relative risk = 0.687, p = 0.017), although this appeared to be associated with publication bias. Analysis of trials that used rapid postoperative feeding (n = 282) revealed no difference in postoperative GI function. This review was limited by the heterogeneity of postoperative feeding regimes, in addition to limited reporting by trials of postoperative morbidity. Sham feeding following colorectal surgery is safe, results in small improvements in GI recovery, and is associated with a reduction in the length of hospital stay. It confers no advantage if patients are placed on a rapid postoperative feeding regime.

  10. Development of Protocols for Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials of Complex Treatment Interventions: Japanese Acupuncture for Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Diane; Kay, Joseph; Shields, Monica; Wayne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little research has been conducted in the West to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Japanese acupuncture (JA). The characteristics that define and differentiate JA from Chinese acupuncture styles add specific challenges to the operationalization of treatment protocols for use in clinical trials. Objectives To develop an ecologically valid and viable multimodal treatment intervention, including active and sham protocols, for use in a pilot randomized sham-controlled trial of a style of JA in treating endometriosis related chronic pelvic pain in adolescents and young women. Methods A focus group format was used to systematize the diagnostic framework, operationalize the intake, design the treatment protocols, and develop a viable and effective sham acupuncture intervention using the Streitberger device and sham moxibustion. Implementation of the treatment protocol employed the manualization process to provide flexibility of treatment while assuring replicability and standardization. Setting The Japanese Acupuncture Department at the New England School of Acupuncture in Newton, MA. Results Completed study visit forms indicated good compliance of study practitioners with active and sham treatment protocols. The specific JA protocols used in our pilot study were well tolerated by the adolescent girls who participated in the trial. No serious adverse events were reported by any participants. Our protocols were successful in maintaining patient blinding and minimizing differences in outcome expectations between treatment groups. Conclusions Manualization provided a viable method for conforming to the interactive nature of JA treatments, yet facilitated compliance with a replicable treatment protocol. Sham controls of complex, multicomponent JA interventions pose unique challenges. The modified Streitberger needle in conjunction with sham moxibustion showed promise as a viable control in clinical trails of JA; both components of this sham protocol

  11. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    PubMed

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.

  12. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with ataxia: A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Benussi, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo; Cotelli, Maria; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted the possibility of modulating the excitability of cerebellar circuits using transcranial direct current stimulation. The present study investigated whether a single session of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation could improve symptoms in patients with ataxia. Nineteen patients with ataxia underwent a clinical and functional evaluation pre- and post-double-blind, randomized, sham, or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, on the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, on the 9-Hole Peg Test, and on the 8-Meter Walking Time (P < 0.001). At the end of the sessions, all performance scores were significantly different in the sham trial, compared to the intervention trial. A single session of anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation can transiently improve symptoms in patients with ataxia and might represent a promising tool for future rehabilitative approaches. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Ilyas S.; Aleem, Idris; Evaniew, Nathan; Busse, Jason W.; Yaszemski, Michael; Agarwal, Arnav; Einhorn, Thomas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = −7.7 mm; 95% CI −13.92 to −1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = −0.88; 95% CI −6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials. PMID:27539550

  14. Kohn–Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron–photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn–Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron–photon Kohn–Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light–matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  15. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Ilyas S; Aleem, Idris; Evaniew, Nathan; Busse, Jason W; Yaszemski, Michael; Agarwal, Arnav; Einhorn, Thomas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-19

    Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = -7.7 mm; 95% CI -13.92 to -1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = -0.88; 95% CI -6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials.

  16. The pole expansion and selected inversion technique for solving Kohn-Sham density functional theory at large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; E, Weinan; He, Lixin; Lu, Jianfeng; Yang, Chao; Ying, Lexing

    2013-03-01

    The standard diagonalization based method for solving Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) requires N eigenvectors for an O(N) * O(N) Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix, with N being the number of electrons in the system. The computational cost for such procedure is expensive and scales as O(N3). We have developed a novel pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEXSI) method, in which KSDFT is solved by evaluating the selected elements of the inverse of a series of sparse symmetric matrices, and the overall algorithm scales at most O(N2) for all materials including metallic and insulating systems without any truncation. The PEXSI method can be used with orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis set, and the electron density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic force are calculated simultaneously and accurately without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Combined with atomic orbital basis functions, the PEXSI method can be applied to study the electronic structure of boron nitride nanotube and carbon nanotube with more than 10,000 atoms on a single processor. U.S. Department of Energy DE-AC02-05CH11231

  17. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) for cluster headache treatment. Pathway CH-1: A randomized, sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Schoenen, Jean; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Lantéri-Minet, Michel; Láinez, Miguel JA; Gaul, Charly; Goodman, Amy M; Caparso, Anthony; May, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Background The pain and autonomic symptoms of cluster headache (CH) result from activation of the trigeminal parasympathetic reflex, mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). We investigated the safety and efficacy of on-demand SPG stimulation for chronic CH (CCH). Methods A multicenter, multiple CH attack study of an implantable on-demand SPG neurostimulator was conducted in patients suffering from refractory CCH. Each CH attack was randomly treated with full, sub-perception, or sham stimulation. Pain relief at 15 minutes following SPG stimulation and device- or procedure-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were evaluated. Findings Thirty-two patients were enrolled and 28 completed the randomized experimental period. Pain relief was achieved in 67.1% of full stimulation-treated attacks compared to 7.4% of sham-treated and 7.3% of sub-perception-treated attacks (p < 0.0001). Nineteen of 28 (68%) patients experienced a clinically significant improvement: seven (25%) achieved pain relief in ≥50% of treated attacks, 10 (36%), a ≥50% reduction in attack frequency, and two (7%), both. Five SAEs occurred and most patients (81%) experienced transient, mild/moderate loss of sensation within distinct maxillary nerve regions; 65% of events resolved within three months. Interpretation On-demand SPG stimulation using the ATI Neurostimulation System is an effective novel therapy for CCH sufferers, with dual beneficial effects, acute pain relief and observed attack prevention, and has an acceptable safety profile compared to similar surgical procedures. PMID:23314784

  18. Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations of non-resonant and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of non-resonant and resonant (resonant inelastic X-ray scattering) X-ray emission spectra simulated based upon Kohn-Sham density functional theory is assessed. Accurate non-resonant X-ray emission spectra with the correct energy scale are obtained when short-range corrected exchange-correlation functionals designed for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used. It is shown that this approach can be extended to simulate resonant inelastic X-ray scattering by using a reference determinant that describes a core-excited state. For this spectroscopy, it is found that a standard hybrid functional, B3LYP, gives accurate spectra that reproduce the features observed in experiment. However, the ability to correctly describe subtle changes in the spectra arising from different intermediate states is more challenging and requires averaging over conformations from a molecular dynamics simulation. Overall, it is demonstrated that accurate non-resonant and resonant X-ray emission spectra can be simulated directly from Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

  19. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qi-ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-song; Wu, Wen-tao; Ye, Mao-lin; Ma, Jiang-tao; Xu, Bang-bang; Zhang, Yin-gang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD −0.61, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, −0.77, −1.05 to −0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137

  20. Verum and sham acupuncture exert distinct cerebral activation in pain processing areas: a crossover fMRI investigation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Usichenko, Taras I; Wesolowski, Toni; Lotze, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although acupuncture is effective for treating pain, its site-specificity is questioned. The aim was to compare the cerebral responses of needling applied to an acupuncture point to the needling of a sham point, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Manual stimulation of the acupuncture (ST44) and sham points on the dorsum of the left foot was applied during fMRI in a crossover manner. fMRI data analysis was performed contrasting the ST44 and the sham conditions. Stimulation intensity, subjective discrimination of the needling site and the incidence of "Qi" sensation were additionally recorded. Stimulation of ST44 acupoint, in comparison to the sham procedure, was associated with an increased fMRI-activation in the primary somatosensory, the inferior parietal and the prefrontal cortex and the posterior insula. Sham needling was associated with increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula. Verum acupuncture increased the activity of discriminative somatosensory and cognitive pain processing areas of the brain, whereas sham needling activated the areas responsible for affective processing of pain. This may explain favorable effects of verum acupuncture in clinical studies about treatment of chronic pain patients.

  1. A pilot double-blind sham-controlled trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for patients with refractory schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Danilo Rocha; Gil, Alexei; Barbosa, Leonardo; Lobato, Maria Inês; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Favalli, Gabriela Pereira de Souza; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Daskalakis, Zafiris Jeffrey; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo da Silva

    2011-07-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Auditory verbal hallucinations occur in 50-70% of patients with schizophrenia and are associated with significant distress, decreased quality of life and impaired social functioning. This study aimed to investigate the effects of active compared with sham 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal-parietal cortex in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Symptom dimensions that were evaluated included general psychopathology, severity of auditory hallucinations, quality of life and functionality. Seventeen right-handed patients with refractory schizophrenia experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations and treated with clozapine were randomly allocated to receive either active rTMS or sham stimulation. A total of 384 min of rTMS was administered over 20 days using a double-masked, sham-controlled, parallel design. There was a significant reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores in the active group compared with the sham group. There was no significant difference between active and sham rTMS on Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and functional assessment staging (FAST) scores. Compared with sham stimulation, active rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in clozapine-treated patients showed a positive effect on general psychopathology. However, there was no effect on refractory auditory hallucinations. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population-based sample in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Hussein; Carruthers, S George; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Al-Maskari, Fatima; Afandi, Bachar; Reed, Richard; Lukic, Miodrag; Nicholls, M Gary; Kazam, Elsadig; Algawi, Kais; Al-Kaabi, Jumaa; Leduc, Charles; Sabri, Sufyan; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Elkhumaidi, Seham; Agarwal, Mukesh; Benedict, Sheela

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications in the adult population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and assess the degree of metabolic control in subjects with diagnosed DM. A random sample of houses of Emirati citizens living in Al Ain, UAE was surveyed. Fasting blood glucose was determined by glucose meter and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted if blood sugar was <7 mmol/l. DM was defined according to the WHO criteria. Pre-diabetes status was based on fasting venous blood glucose concentration of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or 2h post-OGTT venous blood glucose level of 7.8-11.0 mmol/l. There were 2455 adults (>18) living in the 452 surveyed houses of which 10.2% reported having the diagnosis of DM. A total of 373 men and non-pregnant women underwent testing, and after adjustment for factors affecting participation probability the prevalence of diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM and pre-diabetes was 10.5, 6.6 and 20.2%, respectively. Age-standardized rates for DM (diagnosed and undiagnosed) and pre-diabetes among 30-64 years old were 29.0 and 24.2%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that only age and body mass index (BMI) were significantly independently related to undiagnosed DM. In patients with diagnosed DM, the prevalence rates for retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease were 54.2, 34.7, 40.8, 11.1 and 10.5%, respectively. A significant proportion of subjects with undiagnosed DM and pre-diabetes also had micro- and macro-vascular complications. The proportion of subjects with diagnosed DM who achieved internationally recognized targets for HbA1c (<7%), LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/l) and blood pressure (<130/80 mmHg) was 33.3, 30.8 and 42.1%, respectively. This study confirms the previously reported high prevalence of DM in the UAE. Diabetic complications were highly prevalent among subjects with diagnosed and undiagnosed DM. Metabolic control was suboptimal in most

  3. A Clinical Audit on Diabetes Care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Abdulla; Elnour, Asim; Abdulle, Abdishakur

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To implement a prospective interventional clinical audit to evaluate the current clinical practice and the effect of standard interventions on the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: 254 patients with T2DM where recruited in a specialized diabetes care center in Al-Ain, UAE. The diabetes care components were audited before (baseline) and after (3 and 6 months) implementation of Institute of Clinical System Improvement (ICSI) guidelines. Data was compared against international guidelines to achieve target goals of normoglycemia, blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). We measured changes in mean scores of patient satisfaction level regarding diabetes care at similar intervals, by validated Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18). Results: We observed a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG; mean± SD; 9.3 ± 0.03 vs 7.4 ± 0.3mmol/l; P=0.03), and HbA1c (8.7 ± 0.02 vs 8.1 ± 0.02 %; P=0.04) levels after 6 months compared with baseline. Patients who achieved target FBG and HbA1c levels improved significantly (45.7 vs 81.1%; P=0.03), and (40.1 vs 73.6%; P=0.04), respectively. The LDL-C levels improved, though this was not statistically significant. Patients achieving target of BP control improved significantly (SBP 142±7.6 and DBP 95±6.2 vs SBP 136±8.2 and DBP 87±5.8 mmHg;P=0.05). Conclusions: The results of this interventional audit were generally positive and emphasized the feasibility of improving the current clinical practice. Our individualized approach has helped us to achieve a better target in glycemic and BP control as well as patient satisfaction. Further research is needed to understand the long-term impact of our structured approach to improve the quality of T2DM care in the UAE. PMID:23136620

  4. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  5. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  6. Packaging Comprehension Materials: Towards Effective Language Instruction in Difficult Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Norman; Gary, Judith O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research findings from a three-year curriculum research and development project involving developing English language materials for science education students at Ains Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Materials concentrate on comprehension skills of listening and reading and are taught by a cassette tape player in conjunction with…

  7. Low-Level Laser Therapy Facilitates Superficial Wound Healing in Humans: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    McLoda, Todd A.; Seegmiller, Jeff G.; David Baxter, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been promoted for its beneficial effects on tissue healing and pain relief. However, according to the results of in vivo studies, the effectiveness of this modality varies. Our purpose was to assess the putative effects of LLLT on healing using an experimental wound model. Design and Setting: We used a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled design with 2 within-subjects factors (wound and time) and 1 between-subjects factor (group). Data were collected in the laboratory setting. Subjects: Twenty-two healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 175.6 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 76.2 ± 14.2 kg). Measurements: Two standardized 1.27-cm2 abrasions were induced on the anterior forearm. After wound cleaning, standardized digital photos were recorded. Each subject then received LLLT (8 J/cm2; treatment time = 2 minutes, 5 seconds; pulse rate = 700 Hz) to 1 of the 2 randomly chosen wounds from either a laser or a sham 46-diode cluster head. Subjects reported back to the laboratory on days 2 to 10 to be photographed and receive LLLT and on day 20 to be photographed. Data were analyzed for wound contraction (area), color changes (chromatic red), and luminance. Results: A group × wound × time interaction was detected for area measurements. At days 6, 8, and 10, follow-up testing revealed that the laser group had smaller wounds than the sham group for both the treated and the untreated wounds (P < .05). No group × wound × time differences were detected for chromatic red or luminance. Conclusions: The LLLT resulted in enhanced healing as measured by wound contraction. The untreated wounds in subjects treated with LLLT contracted more than the wounds in the sham group, so LLLT may produce an indirect healing effect on surrounding tissues. These data indicate that LLLT is an effective modality to facilitate wound contraction of partial-thickness wounds. PMID:15496990

  8. Deep brain stimulation in the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region: responses observed during active and sham programming

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michael S; Mann, Giselle; Foote, Kelly D; Shapira, Nathan A; Bowers, Dawn; Springer, Utaka; Knight, William; Martin, Pamela; Goodman, Wayne K

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in the treatment of medication‐refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This region has been previously explored with lesion therapy, but with the advent of DBS there exists the possibility of monitoring the acute and chronic effects of electrical stimulation. The stimulation‐induced benefits and side effects can be reversibly and blindly applied to a variety of locations in this region. Objective To explore the acute effects of DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region. Methods Ten total DBS leads in five patients with chronic and severe treatment‐refractory OCD were tested. Patients were examined 30 days after DBS placement and received either “sham” testing or actual testing of the acute effects of DBS (the alternative condition tested 30 days later). Results Pooled responses were reviewed for comparability of distribution using standard descriptive methods, and relationships between the variables of interest were sought using χ2 analysis. A total of 845 stimulation trials across the five patients were recorded and pooled. Of these 16% were elicited from sham stimulation and 17% from placebo (0 V stimulation). A comparison of active to sham trials showed that sham stimulation was not associated with significant side effects or responses from patients. Non‐mood‐related responses were found to be significantly associated with the ventral lead contacts (0 and 1) (p = 0.001). Responses such as taste, smell and smile were strongly associated with the most ventral lead positions. Similarly, physiological responses—for example, autonomic changes, increased breathing rate, sweating, nausea, cold sensation, heat sensation, fear, panic and panic episodes—were significantly associated with ventral stimulation (p = 0.001). Fear and panic responses appeared clustered around the

  9. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Petteri; Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  10. Ain't Misbehavin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining order in the classroom is a concern that ranks near the top of "every" teacher's list, no matter the subject taught. Successful classroom management will not only make the teaching--and learning--process easier, but it also will benefit the teacher's energy level and sanity. Recent studies suggest that controlling students' behavior…

  11. MN15-L and MN-15: New Kohn-Sham Density Functionals with Board Accuracy for Main-Group and Transition Metal Chemistry and Noncovalent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoyu; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G.; Donald G. Truhlar Team

    The accuracy of Kohn-Sham density functional theory depends on the exchange-correlation functional. Local functionals depending on only the density (ρ) , density gradient (grad), and possibly kinetic energy density (τ) have been popular because of their low cost and simplicity, but the most successful functionals for chemistry have involved nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (hybrid functionals). We have designed a new meta gradient approximation called MN15-L and a new hybrid meta gradient approximation called MN15 and tested them systematically for 17 absolute atomic energies, 51 noncovalent interaction energies, 56 data on transition metal atoms and molecules, and for 298 other atomic and molecular energetic data, including main-group and transition metal bond energies, ionization potentials, proton affinities, reaction barrier heights, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, excitation energies, and isomerization energies. When compared with 84 previous density MN15 and MN15-L give respectively the smallest and second smallest mean unsigned errors (MUEs, in kcal/mol) on all 422 data with errors for the 4 subsets above being: MN15: 6, 0.26, 4.4, 1.6; MN15-L: 7, 0.45, 4.3, 2.0. Third best: M06: 4, 0.35, 7.7, 2.2. Best previous local functional: M06-L: 7, 0.42, 6.0, 3.5. Other popular functionals: B3LYP: 18, 0.82, 8.2, 4.3; HSE06: 33, 0.58, 8.8, 3.6; TPSS: 18, 0.89, 7.25, 5.0; PBE, 47, 0.88, 9.1, 6.0. MN15-L also performs well for solid-state cohesive energies. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and inorganic catalyst design center from university of Minnesota.

  12. Are sham acupuncture interventions more effective than (other) placebos? A re-analysis of data from the Cochrane review on placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus; Niemann, Karin; Meissner, Karin

    2010-10-01

    A recent Cochrane review on placebo interventions for all kinds of conditions found that 'physical placebos' (which included sham acupuncture) were associated with larger effects over no-treatment control groups than 'pharmacological placebos'. We re-analyzed the data from this review to investigate whether effects associated with sham acupuncture differed from those of other 'physical placebos'. All trials included in the Cochrane review as investigating 'physical placebos' were classified as investigating either (sham) acupuncture or other physical placebos. The latter group was further subclassified into groups of similar interventions. Data from the Cochrane review were re-entered into the RevMan 5 software for meta-analysis. The primary analysis was a random-effects analysis of trials reporting continuous outcomes of trials that used either sham acupuncture or other physical placebos. Out of a total of 61 trials which reported a continuous outcome measure, 19 compared sham acupuncture and 42 compared other physical placebos with a no-treatment control group. The trials re-analyzed were highly heterogeneous regarding patients, interventions and outcomes measured. The pooled standardized mean difference was -0.41 (95% confidence interval -0.56, -0.24) between sham acupuncture and no treatment and -0.26 (95% CI -0.37, -0.15) between other physical placebos and no treatment (p value for subgroup differences = 0.007). Significant differences were also observed between subgroups of other physical placebos. Due to the heterogeneity of the trials included and the indirect comparison our results must be interpreted with caution. Still, they suggest that sham acupuncture interventions might, on average, be associated with larger effects than pharmacological and other physical placebos. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ab initio analytical infrared intensities for periodic systems through a coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschio, Lorenzo; Kirtman, Bernard; Orlando, Roberto; Rèrat, Michel

    2012-11-01

    A fully analytical method for calculating Born charges and, hence, infrared intensities of periodic systems, is formulated and implemented in the CRYSTAL program, which uses a local Gaussian type basis set. Our efficient formalism combines integral gradients with first-order coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn Sham electronic response to an electric field. It avoids numerical differentiation with respect to wave vectors, as in some Berry phase approaches, and with respect to atomic coordinates. No perturbation equations for the atomic displacements need to be solved. Several tests are carried out to verify numerical stability, consistency in one, two, and three dimensions, and applicability to large unit cells. Future extensions to piezoelectricity and Raman intensities are noted.

  14. Calculation of the defect kinetic energy in Kohn-Sham theory by means of local-scaling transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; López-Boada, Roberto; Maldonado, Jorge; Koga, Toshikatsu; Kryachko, Eugene S.

    1993-09-01

    The kinetic-energy difference ΔT=T-Ts[ρ0] is calculated for the helium isoelectronic series and for the beryllium atom. Ts[ρ0] is in this case the kinetic energy corresponding to a noninteracting N-particle system which, however, has the same density ρ0 as the exact interacting system. These densities ρ0 were assumed in the present case to be well represented by those coming from the optimal Hylleraas-type expansions for the He isoelectronic series and by the Bunge-Esquivel 650-term configuration-interaction wave function for Be. The calculations are carried out by means of a constrained variational method based on local-scaling transformations. The connection between this approach and the one based on the Kohn-Sham equations is discussed.

  15. Power Series Approximation for the Correlation Kernel Leading to Kohn-Sham Methods Combining Accuracy, Computational Efficiency, and General Applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Jannis; Bleiziffer, Patrick; Görling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    A power series approximation for the correlation kernel of time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. Using this approximation in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem leads to a new family of Kohn-Sham methods. The new methods yield reaction energies and barriers of unprecedented accuracy and enable a treatment of static (strong) correlation with an accuracy of high-level multireference configuration interaction methods but are single-reference methods allowing for a black-box-like handling of static correlation. The new methods exhibit a better scaling of the computational effort with the system size than rivaling wave-function-based electronic structure methods. Moreover, the new methods do not suffer from the problem of singularities in response functions plaguing previous ACFD methods and therefore are applicable to any type of electronic system.

  16. Elliptic Preconditioner for Accelerating the Self-Consistent Field Iteration in Kohn--Sham Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2013-10-28

    We discuss techniques for accelerating the self consistent field (SCF) iteration for solving the Kohn-Sham equations. These techniques are all based on constructing approximations to the inverse of the Jacobian associated with a fixed point map satisfied by the total potential. They can be viewed as preconditioners for a fixed point iteration. We point out different requirements for constructing preconditioners for insulating and metallic systems respectively, and discuss how to construct preconditioners to keep the convergence rate of the fixed point iteration independent of the size of the atomistic system. We propose a new preconditioner that can treat insulating and metallic system in a unified way. The new preconditioner, which we call an elliptic preconditioner, is constructed by solving an elliptic partial differential equation. The elliptic preconditioner is shown to be more effective in accelerating the convergence of a fixed point iteration than the existing approaches for large inhomogeneous systems at low temperature.

  17. How the vestibular system interacts with somatosensory perception: A sham-controlled study with galvanic vestibular stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrè, Elisa R.; Day, Brian L.; Bottini, Gabriella; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular system has widespread interactions with other sensory modalities. Here we investigate whether vestibular stimulation modulates somatosensory function, by assessing the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand with or without galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). We found that left anodal and right cathodal GVS, significantly enhanced sensitivity to mild shocks on either hand, without affecting response bias. There was no such effect with either right anodal and left cathodal GVS or sham stimulation. Further, the enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity following GVS does not strongly depend on the duration of GVS, or the interval between GVS and tactile stimulation. Vestibular inputs reach the somatosensory cortex, increasing the sensitivity of perceptual circuitry. PMID:23827220

  18. Expectancy, self-efficacy, and placebo effect of a sham supplement for weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to one of three conditions: 1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement; 2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo; or 3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the three groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

  19. Expectancy, Self-Efficacy, and Placebo Effect of a Sham Supplement for Weight Loss in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults with metabolic syndrome. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement, (2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo, or (3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy.

  20. Calculation of negative electron affinity and aqueous anion hardness using kohn-Sham HOMO and LUMO energies.

    PubMed

    De Proft, Frank; Sablon, Nick; Tozer, David J; Geerlings, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An important chemical property emerging from density-functional theory is the hardness, which can be evaluated as half of the difference between the vertical ionisation energy and electron affinity of the system. For many gas phase molecules, however, the electron affinity is negative and standard ways of evaluating this property are troublesome. In this contribution, we investigate an unconventional approximation for the electron affinity, based on the Kohn-Sham orbital energies of the frontier orbitals and the ionisation potential. It is shown that, for a large series of molecules possessing negative electron affinities, this methodology yields reasonable values for this quantity and that the correlation of the computed values with the experimental affinities from electron transmission spectroscopy is superior to other theoretical approaches. In a second part of this contribution, the hardness of a series of stable negative ions is evaluated in aqueous solution.

  1. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in children with ataxic cerebral palsy: A sham-controlled, crossover, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Duarte, Natália de Almeida Carvalho; Lima, Vânia L C Carvalho; Zanon, Nelci; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the use of anodal tDCS of the cerebellar region combined with treadmill training to improve balance and functional performance in children with ataxic cerebral palsy. Single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover, pilot study. Rehabilitation center and research motion analysis laboratory. Children (N = 6) with ataxic cerebral palsy and balance deficit. Static balance (oscillations of the center of pressure), functional balance (Pediatric Balance Scale) and functional performance (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory) were evaluated. Significant reductions occurred in oscillations of the center of pressure with eyes closed after active anodal tDCS only. The effects of treadmill training on functional balance and functional performance in mobility were maintained in the active tDCS group only. These preliminary data support the notion that anodal tDCS of the cerebellar region combined with treadmill training improves balance in children with ataxic cerebral palsy.

  2. A long-lasting improvement of tactile extinction after galvanic vestibular stimulation: two Sham-stimulation controlled case studies.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Georg; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Reinhart, Stefan; Kardinal, Mareike; Dimova, Violeta; Utz, Kathrin S

    2011-01-01

    Sensory extinction is frequent and often persistent after brain damage. Previous studies have shown the transient influence of sensory stimulation on tactile extinction. In the present two case studies we investigated whether subliminal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) modulates tactile extinction. GVS induces polarity-specific changes in cerebral excitability in the vestibular cortices and adjacent cortical areas in the temporo-parietal cortex via polarization of the vestibular nerves. Two patients (DL, CJ) with left-sided tactile extinction due to chronic (5 vs. 6 (1/2) years lesion age) right-hemisphere lesions (right fronto-parietal in DL, right frontal and discrete parietal in CJ) were examined. Both showed normal tactile sensitivity to light touch and yielded 90-100% correct identifications in unilateral tactile stimulations for both hands. In Baseline investigations without GVS and Sham-GVS both showed stable left-sided tactile extinction rates of 40-55% (DL) and 49-72% (CJ). In contrast, one session of right-cathodal GVS (intensity: 0.6 mA, duration: 20 min) permanently improved tactile identification of identical stimuli, while a second session with left-cathodal GVS significantly reduced left-sided extinction rates for different stimuli in DL. Patient CJ's left-sided tactile extinction was significantly improved by left-cathodal GVS (0.5 mA, 20 min) for different stimuli, while right-cathodal GVS induced a significant reduction for identical materials. In contrast, Sham-stimulation was ineffective. Improvements remained stable for at least 1 year (DL) resp. 3 weeks (CJ). Control experiments ruled out improvements in tactile extinction merely by retesting. In conclusion, chronic tactile extinction may be permanently improved by GVS in a polarity-specific way.

  3. A Novel Magnetic Stimulator Increases Experimental Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers - A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; van Wijhe, Marten; Aleman, André; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘complex neural pulse’TM (CNP) is a neuromodulation protocol employing weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). A pioneering paper reported an analgesic effect in healthy humans after 30 minutes of CNP-stimulation using three nested whole head coils. We aimed to devise and validate a stimulator with a novel design entailing a multitude of small coils at known anatomical positions on a head cap, to improve applicability. The main hypothesis was that CNP delivery with this novel device would also increase heat pain thresholds. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study. Thirty minutes of PEMF (CNP) or sham was applied to the head. After one week the other treatment was given. Before and after each treatment, primary and secondary outcomes were measured. Primary outcome was heat pain threshold (HPT) measured with thermal quantitative sensory testing. Other outcomes were warmth detection threshold, and aspects of cognition, emotion and motor performance. As hypothesized heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the PEMF stimulation. All other outcomes were unaltered by the PEMF but there was a trend level reduction of cognitive performance after PEMF stimulation as measured by the digit-symbol substitution task. Results from this pilot study suggest that our device is able to stimulate the brain and to modulate its function. This is in agreement with previous studies that used similar magnetic field strengths to stimulate the brain. Specifically, pain control may be achieved with PEMF and for this analgesic effect, coil design does not appear to play a dominant role. In addition, the flexible configuration with small coils on a head cap improves clinical applicability. Trial Registration Dutch Cochrane Centre NTR1093 PMID:23620795

  4. Resistive Exercise for Arthritic Cartilage Health (REACH): A randomized double-blind, sham-exercise controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Angela K; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Foroughi, Nasim; Baker, Michael K; Shnier, Ronald; Smith, Richard M; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    Background This article provides the rationale and methodology, of the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge designed to assess the efficacy of progressive resistance training on cartilage morphology in women with knee osteoarthritis. Development and progression of osteoarthritis is multifactorial, with obesity, quadriceps weakness, joint malalignment, and abnormal mechanical joint forces particularly relevant to this study. Progressive resistance training has been reported to improve pain and disability in osteoarthritic cohorts. However, the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for the articular cartilage degeneration characteristic of osteoarthritis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of high intensity progressive resistance training on articular cartilage degeneration in women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Our cohort consisted of women over 40 years of age with primary knee osteoarthritis, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Primary outcome was blinded measurement of cartilage morphology via magnetic resonance imaging scan of the tibiofemoral joint. Secondary outcomes included walking endurance, balance, muscle strength, endurance, power, and velocity, body composition, pain, disability, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Participants were randomized into a supervised progressive resistance training or sham-exercise group. The progressive resistance training group trained muscles around the hip and knee at 80% of their peak strength and progressed 3% per session, 3 days per week for 6 months. The sham-exercise group completed all exercises except hip adduction, but without added resistance or progression. Outcomes were repeated at 3 and 6 months, except for the magnetic resonance imaging scan, which was only repeated at 6 months. Discussion Our results will provide an evaluation of the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for osteoarthritis

  5. Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the ACute Treatment of Cluster Headache: Findings From the Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled ACT1 Study.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; Kudrow, David B; Calhoun, Anne H; McClure, Candace; Saper, Joel R; Liebler, Eric J; Rubenstein Engel, Emily; Tepper, Stewart J

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) as an acute cluster headache (CH) treatment. Many patients with CH experience excruciating attacks at a frequency that is not sufficiently addressed by current symptomatic treatments. One hundred fifty subjects were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to receive nVNS or sham treatment for ≤1 month during a double-blind phase; completers could enter a 3-month nVNS open-label phase. The primary end point was response rate, defined as the proportion of subjects who achieved pain relief (pain intensity of 0 or 1) at 15 minutes after treatment initiation for the first CH attack without rescue medication use through 60 minutes. Secondary end points included the sustained response rate (15-60 minutes). Subanalyses of episodic cluster headache (eCH) and chronic cluster headache (cCH) cohorts were prespecified. The intent-to-treat population comprised 133 subjects: 60 nVNS-treated (eCH, n = 38; cCH, n = 22) and 73 sham-treated (eCH, n = 47; cCH, n = 26). A response was achieved in 26.7% of nVNS-treated subjects and 15.1% of sham-treated subjects (P = .1). Response rates were significantly higher with nVNS than with sham for the eCH cohort (nVNS, 34.2%; sham, 10.6%; P = .008) but not the cCH cohort (nVNS, 13.6%; sham, 23.1%; P = .48). Sustained response rates were significantly higher with nVNS for the eCH cohort (P = .008) and total population (P = .04). Adverse device effects (ADEs) were reported by 35/150 (nVNS, 11; sham, 24) subjects in the double-blind phase and 18/128 subjects in the open-label phase. No serious ADEs occurred. In one of the largest randomized sham-controlled studies for acute CH treatment, the response rate was not significantly different (vs sham) for the total population; nVNS provided significant, clinically meaningful, rapid, and sustained benefits for eCH but not for cCH, which affected results in the total population. This safe and well-tolerated treatment

  6. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  7. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  8. Reading The Blues: The Individual and Community In Selected Poems of Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor’s Novel The Women of Brewster Place, and Bebe Moore Campbell’s Novel Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor, and Bebe Moore Campbell use the blues in their poetry and fiction to highlight the relationship between the...songs is a prerequisite for a valid analysis of Langston Hughes’s Selected Poetry of Langston Hughes, Gloria Naylor’s The Women of Brewster Place, and Bebe Moore Campbell’s Your Blues Ain’t Like Mine.

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improved Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders but Not Executive Functions: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial with Crossover Design and Sham Condition.

    PubMed

    Shayganfard, Mehran; Jahangard, Leila; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Whereas there is growing evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) favorably impacts on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), less is known regarding the influence of rTMS on cognitive performance of patients with OCD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and executive functions in such patients. We assessed 10 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 33.5 years) and treated with a standard medication; they were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition. Symptom severity (experts' ratings) and executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) were assessed by independent raters unaware of the patients' group assignments at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks. After 2 weeks, treatment switched to sham condition, and sham condition switched to treatment condition. Under treatment but not under sham conditions, symptom severity decreased. Performance on the executive function test increased continuously with every new assessment and was unrelated to rTMS treatment. Whereas the present study confirmed previous research suggesting that rTMS improved symptoms of OCD, rTMS did not improve executive functions to a greater degree than sham treatment. More research is needed to investigate the effect of rTMS on executive functions in patients with OCD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. An fMRI study of neuronal specificity of an acupoint: electroacupuncture stimulation of Yanglingquan (GB34) and its sham point.

    PubMed

    Na, Byung-jo; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Seong-uk; Jung, Woo-sang; Moon, Sang-kwan; Park, Jung-mi; Bae, Hyung-sup

    2009-10-16

    The neuronal specificity of acupoints has not been entirely supported by the results of fMRI studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuronal specificity of an acupoint with electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional MR imaging of the entire brain was performed in 12 normal healthy subjects during EAS of GB34 (Yanglingquan) and its sham point over the left leg in counter-balanced order. Anatomically, both GB34 and its sham point belong to the L5 spinal segment. EAS at the left GB34 specifically activated the right putamen, caudate body, claustrum, thalamus, cerebellum, as well as the left caudate body, ventral lateral thalamus, and cerebellum, all related to motor function. EAS at the sham point of the left GB34 specifically activated the right BA6, BA8, BA40, BA44, thalamus, as well as the left thalamus and cerebellum. Taken together, these findings suggest that EAS at an acupoint and its sham point, in the same spinal segment, induced specific cerebral response patterns. These findings support neuronal specificity of the acupoint studied. EAS at GB34 appears to be more related to motor function than EAS at its sham point, suggesting specificity of the GB34 acupoint. The results of this study provide neurobiological evidence for the existence of acupoint specificity, although further studies are necessary to better understand this phenomenon.

  11. Reduced Need for Rescue Antiemetics and Improved Capacity to Eat in Patients Receiving Acupuncture Compared to Patients Receiving Sham Acupuncture or Standard Care during Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Steineck, Gunnar; Börjeson, Sussanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if consumption of emesis-related care and eating capacity differed between patients receiving verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or standard care only during radiotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomized to verum (n = 100) or sham (n = 100) acupuncture (telescopic blunt sham needle) (median 12 sessions) and registered daily their consumption of antiemetics and eating capacity. A standard care group (n = 62) received standard care only and delivered these data once. Results. More patients in the verum (n = 73 of 89 patients still undergoing radiotherapy; 82%, Relative Risk (RR) 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01–1.50) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 79 of 95; 83%, RR 1.24, CI 1.03–1.52) did not need any antiemetic medications, as compared to the standard care group (n = 42 out of 63; 67%) after receiving 27 Gray dose of radiotherapy. More patients in the verum (n = 50 of 89; 56%, RR 1.78, CI 1.31–2.42) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 58 of 94 answering patients; 62%, RR 1.83, CI 1.20–2.80) were capable of eating as usual, compared to the standard care group (n = 20 of 63; 39%). Conclusion. Patients receiving acupuncture had lower consumption of antiemetics and better eating capacity than patients receiving standard antiemetic care, plausible by nonspecific effects of the extra care during acupuncture. PMID:28270851

  12. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Jan; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; Oostendorp, Rob A; Crul, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal research TENS has been found to decrease hyperalgesia, which contradicts this assumption. The aim of this study is to use quantitative sensory testing to explore changes in pain processing during sham versus real TENS in patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain (N = 20) were randomly allocated to real TENS or sham TENS application. Electrical pain thresholds (EPTs) were determined inside and outside the segment stimulated, before and after the first 20 minutes of the intervention, and after a period of 10 days of daily real/sham TENS application. Pain relief did not differ significantly for real versus sham TENS. However, by comparing time courses of EPTs, it was found that EPT values outside the segment of stimulation increased for sham TENS, whereas for real TENS these values decreased. There were, however, no differences for EPT measurements inside the segment stimulated. These results illustrate the importance of including mechanism-reflecting parameters in addition to symptoms when conducting pain research.

  13. Assessment of dam impacts on sediment dynamics and channel geometry in complex anthropogenic systems: feedbacks from comparative study of the Sacramento and the Ain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, A. J.; Piégay, H.; Michalkova, M.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity of river adjustments downstream dams (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Brandt, 2000; Petts and Gurnell, 2005), depending on many parameters such catchment geology context (Grant et al., 2003), land use, pre-dam sediment supply and transport regime, degree of hydrologic alteration (Church, 1995; Schmidt and Wilcock, 2008), and dam characteristics and operation (Brewer and Lewin, 1998). Dam impact is particularly difficult to evaluate in river systems where human pressures are old and manifold, and where dam-induced impacts can be compounded by other human influences, such as in-channel aggregate mining (Kondolf 1997). In such cases, it may be challenging to sort out the causal links between dam-induced disruptions and resulting channel adjustment. To illustrate these problems, we introduce two complex case studies, the Ain (France) and Sacramento (California) Rivers, both freely meandering rivers regulated since mid-20th century, whose sedimentary and morphologic dynamic have been modified in different ways since the end of the 19th century. Dam impacts can be distinguished from the effects of other factors such as floodplain disconnection by flood-control infrastructure, land-use changes, and artificial meander-bend cutoff. The Ain River evinces a significant sediment deficit, which results in bed degradation, decrease in area of gravel bars , and reduced lateral channel migration. As a result, sediment supply is reduced not only from trapping by upstream reservoirs but also by reduced bank erosion. In the case of the Sacramento, the impact of the dam is not as clear as on the Ain due to major effects of prior pressures on the channel. Using aerial imagery and field measurements (grain-size measurements…), we led a spatiotemporal study of several morphologic parameters (active channel narrowing, gravel bar areas …) to underline the relative contribution of dams to the contemporary channel evolution. These analyses are

  14. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  15. Reaction of Dimethylethylamine Alane and Ammonia on Si(100) during the Atomic Layer Growth of AIN: Static SIMS, TPSIMS, and TPD

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, JW Bill W. )

    2000-01-01

    Dimethylethylamine alane (DMEAA; AIH3: N(CH3)2(CH2CH3)) has been used as an Al source in the chemical vapor deposition of AIN. In the Atomic Layer Growth (ALG) mode, ammonia and DMEAA interact selectively by nucleophilic displacement. In the first part of this study, the surface adsorption and reaction processes are characterized with static secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and temperature-programmed secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TPSIMS). The secondary ion emission from DMEAA-covered Si surface shares similar general characteristics with the gas phase cracking pattern. The secondary ion emission spectrum is interpreted according to a unimolecular ion decomposition mechanism and is used as the fingerprint for the presence of molecular DMEAA. During the surface reaction between DMEAA and ammonia, the intensity of the fingerprint peaks diminishes, representing the departure of the amine ligand. The thermal stability of DMEAA and its decomposition behavior on Si are also examined.

  16. A multicenter randomized double-blind study: comparison of the Epley, Semont, and sham maneuvers for the treatment of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Dae; Shim, Dae Bo; Park, Hong Ju; Song, Chan Il; Kim, Min-Beom; Kim, Chang-Hee; Byun, Jae Yong; Hong, Sung Kwang; Kim, Tae Su; Park, Kye Hoon; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Byoung Soo; Lee, Joon Han; Lim, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Eun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term efficacy of Epley, Semont, and sham maneuvers for resolving posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in a prospective multicenter randomized double-blind controlled study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: Epley (36 patients), Semont (32 patients), and sham (Epley maneuver for the unaffected side, 31 patients). Out of 14 institutes which participated in this study, 5 institutes had previous experience of the Epley but not the Semont maneuver and the other 9 had previous experience of both maneuvers. Each maneuver was repeated twice if there was still positional vertigo or nystagmus on day 0, and the presence of nystagmus and vertigo on positional testing were evaluated immediately, 1 day, and 1 week after treatment. After the first maneuver, the Epley group showed a significantly higher resolution rate of positional nystagmus than the Semont or sham groups (63.9, 37.5, and 38.7%, respectively). After the second maneuver, the resolution rate (83.3%) of the Epley group was significantly higher than that (51.6%) of the sham group. At 1 day and 1 week after treatment, the resolution rate of the Epley group was significantly higher than those of the other groups. Similar results were seen for the resolution of positional vertigo. The Epley maneuver showed persistent resolution rates of positional vertigo and nystagmus without a fatigue phenomenon. The Epley maneuver was significantly more effective per maneuver than Semont or sham maneuvers for the short-term treatment of posterior canal BPPV. The Semont maneuver showed a higher success rate than the sham maneuver, but it was not significantly different.

  17. A single-center, prospective, double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized study of the effect of a vibrating capsule on colonic transit in patients with chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A D; Camilleri, M; Acosta, A; Boldingh, A; Busciglio, I; Burton, D; Ryks, M; Zinsmeister, A R

    2017-07-01

    In an open-label study of 26 patients with IBS-C and chronic constipation, treatment with a vibrating (VIBRANT) capsule twice a week for 7.5 weeks resulted in 88.5% responders. Effects on colonic transit are unclear. We aimed to compare effects of VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit in patients with functional constipation. Patients with functional constipation (Rome III criteria) were randomized to VIBRANT or sham capsule treatment for 8 weeks and underwent scintigraphic colonic transit measurements during week 8. We estimated the overall rate of colonic transit from the slope of progression of colonic geometric center over 48 hours. The capsule was activated 8 hours after ingestion, and the vibration sequence included 240 cycles. There were no significant group differences in overall colonic transit [GC48, 2.76 (IQR 2.42-4.03) for sham group and 3.46 (2.55-4.61) for active treatment group (P=.13)]. Additionally, the progression of the isotope through the colon was numerically faster, though not significantly different (slope, P=.14) in the VIBRANT capsule group compared to the sham group. Three participants in the VIBRANT capsule group had accelerated colonic transit at 32 hours and faster colonic transit slope compared to the 95th percentile of the sham group. Although there were no group differences between VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit, at least one (and possibly three) of 12 patients receiving the VIBRANT capsule had faster colonic transit. The vibration parameters to accelerate colonic transit in patients with functional constipation require further optimization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mineralogy and fluid inclusions study of carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit, Northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, R.; Slim-Shimi, N.; Somarin, A.; Henchiri, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit is located in the flysch zone on the Eastern edge of the Triassic diapir of Jebel Hamra. It is part of the extrusive Triassic evaporate formation along the Ghardimaou-Cape Serrat faults. The ore body consists of argilic-dolomite breccias surrounded by argilo-gypsum Triassic formation, which forms the hanging wall of the deposit, and rimmed by the Paleocene marls. The ore minerals show a cap-rock type mineralization with different styles particularly impregnation in dolomite, cement of breccias, replacement ore and open space filling in the dissolution cavities and fractures. Ore minerals include sphalerite, galena, marcasite and pyrite. Principal gangue minerals are composed of barite, celestite, calcite, dolomite and quartz. The ore minerals are hosted by the Triassic carbonate rocks which show hydrothermal alteration, dissolution and brecciation. X-ray - crystallographic study of barite-celestite mineral series shows that pure barite and celestite are the abundant species, whereas strontianiferous barite (85-96.5% BaSO 4) and barian-celestite (95% SrSO 4) are minor. Primary and secondary mono-phase (liquid only) fluid inclusions are common in celestite. Microthermometric analyses in two-phases (liquid and vapour) fluid inclusions suggest that gangue and ore minerals were precipitated by a low-temperature (180 °C) saline (16.37 wt.% NaCl equivalent) solution originated possibly from a basinal brine with some input from magmatic or metamorphic fluid. Based on geology, mineralogy, texture and fluid characteristics, the Ain Allega deposit is classified as a carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type deposit.

  19. Penile Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment is Able to Shift PDE5i Nonresponders to Responders: A Double-Blind, Sham Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kitrey, Noam D; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Shechter, Arik; Massarwa, Omar; Vardi, Yoram

    2016-05-01

    We performed sham controlled evaluation of penile low intensity shock wave treatment effect in patients unable to achieve sexual intercourse using PDE5i (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham controlled study was done in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction who stopped using PDE5i due to no efficacy. All patients had an erection hardness score of 2 or less with PDE5i. A total of 58 patients were randomized, including 37 treated with low intensity shock waves (12 sessions of 1,500 pulses of 0.09 mJ/mm(2) at 120 shock waves per minute) and 18 treated with a sham probe. In the sham group 16 patients underwent low intensity shock wave treatment 1 month after sham treatment. All patients were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the end of treatment using validated erectile dysfunction questionnaires and the flow mediated dilatation technique for penile endothelial function. Erectile function was evaluated while patients were receiving PDE5i. In the low intensity shock wave treatment group and the sham group 54.1% and 0% of patients, respectively, achieved erection hard enough for vaginal penetration, that is an EHS (Erection Hardness Score) of 3 (p <0.0001). According to changes in the IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function) score treatment was effective in 40.5% of men who received low intensity shock wave treatment but in none in the sham group (p = 0.001). Of patients treated with shock waves after sham treatment 56.3% achieved erection hard enough for penetration (p <0.005). Low intensity shock wave treatment is effective even in patients with severe erectile dysfunction who are PDE5i nonresponders. After treatment about half of them were able to achieve erection hard enough for penetration with PDE5i. Longer followup is needed to establish the place of low intensity shock wave treatment in these challenging cases. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education

  20. Pallidal deep brain stimulation improves quality of life in segmental and generalized dystonia: results from a prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Joerg; Skogseid, Inger M; Benecke, Reiner; Kupsch, Andreas; Trottenberg, Thomas; Poewe, Werner; Schneider, Gerd H; Eisner, Wilhelm; Wolters, Alexander; Müller, J U; Deuschl, Günther; Pinsker, Marcus O; Roeste, Geir K; Vollmer-Haase, Juliane; Brentrup, Angela; Krause, Martin; Tronnier, Volker; Schnitzler, Alfons; Voges, Jüergen; Nikkhah, Guido; Vesper, Jan; Naumann, Markus; Volkmann, Jens

    2008-01-01

    As part of the first randomized, sham-stimulation controlled trial on deep brain stimulation (DBS) in primary segmental or generalized dystonia, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by SF-36. After the 3-month sham-controlled phase, significant HRQoL improvement occurred only in the active-stimulation group. The open-label extension phase resulted in a significant improvement in all SF-36 domains following 6 months of neurostimulation. These results demonstrate a favorable impact of DBS on HRQoL in primary dystonia. 2007 Movement Disorder Society

  1. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term

  2. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  3. Excitation Energies from Real-Time Propagation of the Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Equation.

    PubMed

    Repisky, Michal; Konecny, Lukas; Kadek, Marius; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Olga L; Malkin, Vladimir G; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-03-10

    We report the first implementation of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) at the relativistic four-component level of theory. In contrast to the perturbative linear-response TDDFT approach (LR-TDDFT), the RT-TDDFT approach performs an explicit time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix, offering the possibility to simulate molecular spectroscopies involving strong electromagnetic fields while, at the same time, treating relativistic scalar and spin-orbit corrections variationally. The implementation is based on the matrix representation of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian in the basis of restricted kinetically balanced Gaussian-type functions, exploiting the noncollinear Kramers unrestricted formalism implemented in the program ReSpect. We also present an analytic form for the delta-type impulse commonly used in RT-TDDFT calculations, as well as a dipole-weighted transition matrix analysis, facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions in terms of ground-state molecular orbitals. The possibilities offered by the methodology are illustrated by investigating vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths for ground-state to excited-state transitions in the Group 12 atoms and in heavy-element hydrides. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing the excitation energies obtained with earlier relativistic linear response TDDFT results and available experimental data.

  4. Nature of the Ru−NO Coordination Bond: Kohn–Sham Molecular Orbital and Energy Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orenha, Renato P.; Rocha, Marcus V. J.; Poater, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We have analyzed structure, stability, and Ru−NO bonding of the trans‐[RuCl(NO)(NH3)4]2+ complex by using relativistic density functional theory. First, we focus on the bond dissociation energies associated with the three canonical dissociation modes leading to [RuCl(NH3)4]++NO+, [RuCl(NH3)4]2++NO, and [RuCl(NH3)4]3++NO−. The main objective is to understand the Ru−NO+ bonding mechanism in the conceptual framework of Kohn–Sham molecular orbital theory in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis. In our analyses, we have addressed the importance of the synergism between Ru−NO+ σ‐donation and π‐backdonation as well as the so‐called negative trans influence of the Cl− ligand on the Ru−NO bond. For completeness, the Ru−NO+ bonding mechanism is compared with that of the corresponding Ru−CO bond. PMID:28638774

  5. Efficient Parallel All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program Using a Distributed Matrix Approach II.

    PubMed

    Storchi, Loriano; Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Quiney, Harry M

    2013-12-10

    We propose a new complete memory-distributed algorithm, which significantly improves the parallel implementation of the all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of BERTHA (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 384). We devised an original procedure for mapping the DKS matrix between an efficient integral-driven distribution, guided by the structure of specific G-spinor basis sets and by density fitting algorithms, and the two-dimensional block-cyclic distribution scheme required by the ScaLAPACK library employed for the linear algebra operations. This implementation, because of the efficiency in the memory distribution, represents a leap forward in the applicability of the DKS procedure to arbitrarily large molecular systems and its porting on last-generation massively parallel systems. The performance of the code is illustrated by some test calculations on several gold clusters of increasing size. The DKS self-consistent procedure has been explicitly converged for two representative clusters, namely Au20 and Au34, for which the density of electronic states is reported and discussed. The largest gold cluster uses more than 39k basis functions and DKS matrices of the order of 23 GB.

  6. Efficacy of acupuncture for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomised sham acupuncture-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Jiani; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Likun; Liu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is a major public health problem and the primary reason why older adults seek lumbar spine surgery. Acupuncture may be effective for DLSS, but the evidence supporting this possibility is still limited. Methods and analysis A total of 80 participants with DLSS will be randomly allocated to either an acupuncture group or a sham acupuncture (SA) group at a ratio of 1:1. 24 treatments will be provided over 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the score change of the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) responses from baseline to week 8. The secondary outcomes include the assessment of lower back pain and leg pain using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the change in the number of steps per month, and the assessment of the specific quality of life using the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire (SSSQ). We will follow-up with the participants until week 32. All of the participants who received allocation will be included in the statistical analysis. Ethics/dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Research Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital (Permission number: 2015EC114) and Fengtai Hospital of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (Permission number: 16KE0409). The full data set will be made available when this trial is completed and published. Applications for the release of data should be made to ZL (principal investigator). Trial registration number NCT02644746. PMID:27852717

  7. The effects of a single session of upper alpha neurofeedback for cognitive enhancement: a sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    The minimization of the non-specific factors of neurofeedback (NF) is an important aspect to further advance in the understanding of the effects of these types of procedures. This paper investigates the NF effects of a single session (25 min) of individual upper alpha enhancement following a sham-controlled experimental design (19 healthy participants). We measured immediate effects after the training and 1-day lasting EEG effects (eyes closed resting state and task-related activity), as well as the event-locked EEG effects during the execution of a mental rotation task. These metrics were computed in trained (upper alpha) and non-trained EEG parameters (lower alpha and lower beta). Several cognitive functions were assessed such as working memory and mental rotation abilities. The NF group showed increased upper alpha power after training in task-related activity (not significantly sustained 1 day after) and higher pre-stimulus power during the mental rotation task. Both groups improved cognitive performance, with a more prominent improvement for the NF group, however a single session seems to be insufficient to yield significant differences between groups. A higher number of training sessions seems necessary to achieve long-lasting effects on the electrophysiology and to enhance the behavioral effects.

  8. Stimulating somatosensory psychophysics: a double-blind, sham-controlled study of the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Claire J.; Tommerdahl, Mark; McGonigle, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to produce its effects on behavior by altering cortical excitability. Although the mechanisms underlying the observed effects are thought to rely on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, the physiological principles of the technique are not completely understood. In this study, we examine the influence of tDCS on vibrotactile adaptation, using a simple amplitude discrimination paradigm that has been shown to exhibit modifications in performance due to changes in inhibitory neurotransmission. Double-blind tDCS (Anodal/Sham) of 1 mA was delivered for 600 s to electrodes positioned in a somatosensory/contralateral orbit montage. Stimulation was applied as part of a pre/post design, between blocks of the behavioral tasks. In accordance with previous work, results obtained before the application of tDCS indicated that amplitude discrimination thresholds were significantly worsened during adaptation trials, compared to those achieved at baseline. However, tDCS failed to modify amplitude discrimination performance. Using a Bayesian approach, this finding was revealed to constitute substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. The failure of DC stimulation to alter vibrotactile adaptation thresholds is discussed in the context of several factors that may have confounded the induction of changes in cortical plasticity. PMID:26500499

  9. Configuration interaction singles based on the real-space numerical grid method: Kohn-Sham versus Hartree-Fock orbitals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewook; Hong, Kwangwoo; Choi, Sunghwan; Hwang, Sang-Yeon; Youn Kim, Woo

    2015-12-21

    We developed a program code of configuration interaction singles (CIS) based on a numerical grid method. We used Kohn-Sham (KS) as well as Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals as a reference configuration and Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set. Our calculations show that KS-CIS is more cost-effective and more accurate than HF-CIS. The former is due to the fact that the non-local HF exchange potential greatly reduces the sparsity of the Hamiltonian matrix in grid-based methods. The latter is because the energy gaps between KS occupied and virtual orbitals are already closer to vertical excitation energies and thus KS-CIS needs small corrections, whereas HF results in much larger energy gaps and more diffuse virtual orbitals. KS-CIS using the Lagrange-sinc basis set also shows a better or a similar accuracy to smaller orbital space compared to the standard HF-CIS using Gaussian basis sets. In particular, KS orbitals from an exact exchange potential by the Krieger-Li-Iafrate approximation lead to more accurate excitation energies than those from conventional (semi-) local exchange-correlation potentials.

  10. Kohn-Sham Band Structure Benchmark Including Spin-Orbit Coupling for 2D and 3D Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Blum, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Accurate electronic band structures serve as a primary indicator of the suitability of a material for a given application, e.g., as electronic or catalytic materials. Computed band structures, however, are subject to a host of approximations, some of which are more obvious (e.g., the treatment of the exchange-correlation of self-energy) and others less obvious (e.g., the treatment of core, semicore, or valence electrons, handling of relativistic effects, or the accuracy of the underlying basis set used). We here provide a set of accurate Kohn-Sham band structure benchmarks, using the numeric atom-centered all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims combined with the ``traditional'' PBE functional and the hybrid HSE functional, to calculate core, valence, and low-lying conduction bands of a set of 2D and 3D materials. Benchmarks are provided with and without effects of spin-orbit coupling, using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory to predict spin-orbit splittings. This work is funded by Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback training increases specific motor imagery related cortical activation compared to sham feedback.

    PubMed

    Kober, S E; Wood, G; Kurzmann, J; Friedrich, E V C; Stangl, M; Wippel, T; Väljamäe, A; Neuper, C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we implemented a real-time feedback system based on multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Prior studies indicated that NIRS-based neurofeedback can enhance motor imagery related cortical activation. To specify these prior results and to confirm the efficacy of NIRS-based neurofeedback, we examined changes in blood oxygenation level collected in eight training sessions. One group got real feedback about their own brain activity (N=9) and one group saw a playback of another person's feedback recording (N=8). All participants performed motor imagery of a right hand movement. Real neurofeedback induced specific and focused brain activation over left motor areas. This focal brain activation became even more specific over the eight training sessions. In contrast, sham feedback led to diffuse brain activation patterns over the whole cortex. These findings can be useful when training patients with focal brain lesions to increase activity of specific brain areas for rehabilitation purpose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Auricular acupuncture in the treatment of cocaine/crack abuse: a review of the efficacy, the use of the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and the selection of sham points.

    PubMed

    D'Alberto, Attilio

    2004-12-01

    The United Kingdom has had a significant increase in addiction to and use of cocaine among 16-29-year olds from 6% in 1998 to 10% in 2000. In 2000, the United Kingdom had the highest recorded consumption of "recent use" cocaine in Europe, with 3.3% of young adults. Acupuncture is quick, inexpensive, and relatively safe, and may establish itself as an important addiction service in the future. To select investigations that meet the inclusion criteria and critically appraise them in order to answer the question: "Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of cocaine addiction?" The focus shall then be directed toward the use of the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol as the intervention and the selection of sham points for the control group. The ARRC database was accessed from Trina Ward (M. Phil. student) at Thames Valley University. AMED, MEDLINE and Embase were also accessed along with "hand" searching methods at the British Library. People addicted to either cocaine or crack cocaine as their main addiction, needle-acupuncture, single-double-blinded process, randomized subjects, a reference group incorporating a form of sham points. use of moxibustion, laser acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) electroacupuncture or conditions that did not meet the inclusion criteria. The criteria set by ter Riet, Kleijnen and Knipschild (in 1990); Hammerschlag and Morris (in 1990); Koes, Bouter and van der Heijden (in 1995), were modified into one set of criteria consisting of 27 different values. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. All studies scored over 60 points indicating a relatively adequate methodology quality. The mean was 75 and the standard deviation was 6.80. A linear regression analysis did not yield a statistically significant association (n = 6, p = 0.11). This review could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for cocaine abuse

  13. Does anodyne light therapy improve peripheral neuropathy in diabetes? A double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized trial to evaluate monochromatic infrared photoenergy.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Lawrence A; Murdoch, Douglas P; Williams, Jayme; Lavery, David C

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of anodyne monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE) in-home treatments over a 90-day period to improve peripheral sensation and self-reported quality of life in individuals with diabetes. This was a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trail. We randomly assigned 69 individuals with diabetes and a vibration perception threshold (VPT) between 20 and 45 V to two treatment groups: active or sham treatment. Sixty patients (120 limbs) completed the study. Anodyne units were used at home every day for 40 min for 90 days. We evaluated nerve conduction velocities, VPT, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (SWM) (4-, 10-, 26-, and 60-g monofilaments), the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), a 10-cm visual analog pain scale, and a neuropathy-specific quality of life instrument. We used a nested repeated-measures multiple ANOVA design. Two sites (great toe and fifth metatarsal) were tested on both the left and right feet of each patient, so two feet were nested within each patient and two sites were nested within each foot. To analyze the ordinal SWM scores, we used a nonparametric factorial analysis for longitudinal data. There were no significant differences in measures for quality of life, MNSI, VPT, SWM, or nerve conduction velocities in active or sham treatment groups (P > 0.05). Anodyne MIRE therapy was no more effective than sham therapy in the treatment of sensory neuropathy in individuals with diabetes.

  14. Effects of the SARM ACP-105 on rotorod performance and cued fear conditioning in sham-irradiated and irradiated female mice.

    PubMed

    Dayger, Catherine; Villasana, Laura; Pfankuch, Timothy; Davis, Matthew; Raber, Jacob

    2011-03-24

    Female mice are more susceptible to radiation-induced cognitive changes than male mice. Previously, we showed that, in female mice, androgens antagonize age-related cognitive decline in aged wild-type mice and androgens and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) antagonize cognitive changes induced by human apolipoprotein E4, a risk factor for developing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, the potential effects of the SARM ACP-105 were assessed in female mice that were either sham-irradiated or irradiated with ¹³⁷Cesium at a dose of 10Gy. Behavioral testing started 2 weeks following irradiation. Irradiation impaired sensorimotor function in vehicle-treated mice but not in ACP-105-treated mice. Irradiation impaired cued fear conditioning and ACP-105 enhanced fear conditioning in sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. When immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 was assessed in the cortex of sham-irradiated mice, there was a brain area × ACP-105 interaction. While ACP-105 reduced MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the sensorimotor cortex, there was a trend towards increased MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the enthorhinal cortex. No effect on MAP-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the irradiated cortex or sham-irradiated or irradiated hippocampus. Thus, there are relatively early radiation-induced behavioral changes in female mice and reduced MAP-2 levels in the sensorimotor cortex following ACP-105 treatment might contribute to enhanced rotorod performance.

  15. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Muscle Strength Training in Healthy Individuals: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm on extension and from 78.0 to 85.6 Nm on flexion in the sham tDCS group. In both groups, peak torques of knee extension and flexion significantly increased after the intervention, with no significant difference between the anodal tDCS and sham tDCS groups. In conclusion, although the administration of eccentric training increased knee extensor and flexor peak torques, anodal tDCS did not enhance the effects of lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals. The present null results have crucial implications for selecting optimal stimulation parameters for clinical trials.

  17. Paraspinal stimulation combined with trigger point needling and needle rotation for the treatment of myofascial pain: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Couto, Cláudio; de Souza, Izabel Cristina C; Torres, Iraci L S; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2014-03-01

    There are different types and parameters of dry needling (DN) that can affect its efficacy in the treatment of pain that have not been assessed properly. To test the hypothesis that either multiple deep intramuscular stimulation therapy multiple deep intramuscular stimulation therapy (MDIMST) or TrP lidocaine injection (LTrP-I) is more effective than a placebo-sham for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and that MDIMST is more effective than LTrP-I for improving pain relief, sleep quality, and the physical and mental state of the patient. Seventy-eight females aged 20 to 40 who were limited in their ability to perform active and routine activities due to MPS in the previous 3 months were recruited. The participants were randomized into 1 of the 3 groups as follows: placebo-sham, LTrP-I, or MDIMST. The treatments were provided twice weekly over 4 weeks using standardized MDIMST and LTrP-I protocols. There was a significant interaction (time vs. group) for the main outcomes. Compared with the sham-treated group, MDIMST and LTrP-I administration improved pain scores based on a visual analog scale, the pain pressure threshold (P<0.001 for all analyses), and analgesic use (P<0.01 for all analyses). In addition, when comparing the active groups for these outcomes, MDIMST resulted in better improvement than LTrP-I (P<0.01 for all analyses). In addition, both active treatments had a clinical effect, as assessed by a sleep diary and by the SF-12 physical and mental health scores. This study highlighted the greater efficacy of MDIMST over the placebo-sham and LTrP-I and indicated that both active treatments are more effective than placebo-sham for MPS associated with limitations in active and routine activities.

  18. Evaluating a sham-controlled sensory testing protocol for non-verbal adults with neurodevelopmental disorders: Self-injury and gender effects

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki; Shinde, Satomi K.; Clary, Jamie; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous or blunted responses to sensory and painful stimuli among individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and co-morbid communicative impairments put them at risk for having their experience of pain discounted and their expression of pain misinterpreted. Valid measurement procedures of behavioral expression are critical for this vulnerable group of individuals. We investigated a sham-controlled sensory testing protocol as an approach to guard against observer bias during non-verbal behavioral recording for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 44 (52% male) adults (mean age = 46, sd = 10) with moderate (14%) and severe to profound (86%) intellectual impairment. The facial behavior of the participants before, during, and after five sensory stimulation modalities (pin prick, light touch, deep pressure, cool, warm) was coded by three raters using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). For each participant, their 5 active sensory trials were randomized with sham trials during which no stimulation was applied. Observers were blinded to active vs. sham stimulation status. FACS scores increased significantly during active sensory trials (p < 0.05) compared with sham trials. There were significant effects for gender with females more expressive than males (p < 0.05). There were also significant effects for the presence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) with individuals with SIB more expressive than individuals without SIB (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the procedure was valid (i.e., distinguished between active vs. sham sensory stimulation) and provides additional evidence that individuals with significant intellectual impairments are sensitive to tactile stimulation consistent with quantitative sensory testing protocols. PMID:20418171

  19. Treatment of Bipolar Depression with Deep TMS: Results from a Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group, Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Diego F; Myczkowski, Martin L; Alberto, Rodrigo L; Valiengo, Leandro; Rios, Rosa M; Gordon, Pedro; de Sampaio-Junior, Bernardo; Klein, Izio; Mansur, Carlos G; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Lafer, Beny; Moreno, Ricardo A; Gattaz, Wagner; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Brunoni, André R

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar depression (BD) is a highly prevalent condition with limited therapeutic options. Deep (H1-coil) transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a novel TMS modality with established efficacy for unipolar depression. We conducted a randomized sham-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dTMS in treatment-resistant BD patients. Patients received 20 sessions of active or sham dTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (H1-coil, 55 18 Hz 2 s 120% MT trains). The primary outcome was changes in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) from baseline to endpoint (week 4). Secondary outcomes were changes from baseline to the end of the follow-up phase (week 8), and response and remission rates. Safety was assessed using a dTMS adverse effects questionnaire and the Young Mania Rating Scale to assess treatment-emergent mania switch (TEMS). Out of 50 patients, 43 finished the trial. There were 2 and 5 dropouts in the sham and active groups, respectively. Active dTMS was superior to sham at end point (difference favoring dTMS=4.88; 95% CI 0.43 to 9.32, p=0.03) but not at follow-up. There was also a trend for greater response rates in the active (48%) vs sham (24%) groups (OR=2.92; 95% CI=0.87 to 9.78, p=0.08). Remission rates were not statistically different. No TEMS episodes were observed. Deep TMS is a potentially effective and well-tolerated add-on therapy in resistant bipolar depressed patients receiving adequate pharmacotherapy.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 31 May 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.26.

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Muscle Strength Training in Healthy Individuals: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm on extension and from 78.0 to 85.6 Nm on flexion in the sham tDCS group. In both groups, peak torques of knee extension and flexion significantly increased after the intervention, with no significant difference between the anodal tDCS and sham tDCS groups. In conclusion, although the administration of eccentric training increased knee extensor and flexor peak torques, anodal tDCS did not enhance the effects of lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals. The present null results have crucial implications for selecting optimal stimulation parameters for clinical trials. PMID:28420959

  1. Do mobile phone base stations affect sleep of residents? Results from an experimental double-blind sham-controlled field study.

    PubMed

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bornkessel, Christian; Sauter, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, sham-controlled, balanced randomized cross-over study was to disentangle effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and non-EMF effects of mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. In total 397 residents aged 18-81 years (50.9% female) from 10 German sites, where no mobile phone service was available, were exposed to sham and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) base station signals by an experimental base station while their sleep was monitored at their homes during 12 nights. Participants were randomly exposed to real (GSM) or sham exposure for five nights each. Individual measurement of EMF exposure, questionnaires on sleep disorders, overall sleep quality, attitude towards mobile communication, and on subjective sleep quality (morning and evening protocols) as well as objective sleep data (frontal EEG and EOG recordings) were gathered. Analysis of the subjective and objective sleep data did not reveal any significant differences between the real and sham condition. During sham exposure nights, objective and subjective sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and subjective sleep latency were significantly worse in participants with concerns about possible health risks resulting from base stations than in participants who were not concerned. The study did not provide any evidence for short-term physiological effects of EMF emitted by mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. However, the results indicate that mobile phone base stations as such (not the electromagnetic fields) may have a significant negative impact on sleep quality. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. To what extent are surgery and invasive procedures effective beyond a placebo response? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised, sham controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Wayne B; Crawford, Cindy; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Moseley, Bruce; Miller, Franklin G; Kriston, Levente; Linde, Klaus; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quantity and quality of randomised, sham-controlled studies of surgery and invasive procedures and estimate the treatment-specific and non-specific effects of those procedures. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library), PILOTS, PsycInfo, DoD Biomedical Research, clinicaltrials.gov, NLM catalog and NIH Grantee Publications Database from their inception through January 2015. Study selection We included randomised controlled trials of surgery and invasive procedures that penetrated the skin or an orifice and had a parallel sham procedure for comparison. Data extraction and analysis Three authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies reporting continuous outcomes were pooled and the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs was calculated using a random effects model for difference between true and sham groups. Results 55 studies (3574 patients) were identified meeting inclusion criteria; 39 provided sufficient data for inclusion in the main analysis (2902 patients). The overall SMD of the continuous primary outcome between treatment/sham-control groups was 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.49; p<0.00001; I2=67%). The SMD for surgery versus sham surgery was non-significant for pain-related conditions (n=15, SMD=0.13, p=0.08), marginally significant for studies on weight loss (n=10, SMD=0.52, p=0.05) and significant for gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) studies (n=5, SMD=0.65, p<0.001) and for other conditions (n=8, SMD=0.44, p=0.004). Mean improvement in sham groups relative to active treatment was larger in pain-related conditions (78%) and obesity (71%) than in GERD (57%) and other conditions (57%), and was smaller in classical-surgery trials (21%) than in endoscopic trials (73%) and those using percutaneous procedures (64%). Conclusions The non-specific effects of surgery and other invasive procedures are generally large. Particularly in

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment for non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a prospective, randomized and sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Yong; Liang, Chen; Ye, Zhang-Qun

    2012-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by pain in the perineum, pelvis, suprapubic area, or external genitalia and variable degrees of voiding and ejaculatory disturbance. The analgesic effect of extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) was an interesting phenomenon with an unclear mechanism discovered by chance in the applications for urolithiasis, on which ESWT has become an increasingly popular therapeutic approach as an alternative option for the treatment of a number of soft tissue complaints. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of ESWT in non-inflammatory (IIIB) CP/CPPS. Men diagnosed with IIIB CP/CPPS were randomized to either ESWT (group 1, n = 40) or the control (group 2, n = 40). Group 1 received 20 000 shock wave impulses in 10 sessions over a two-week period, whereas group 2 received only a sham procedure. The total scores and sub-domain scores of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) for both groups were assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, end-point, and 4-week and 12-week follow-up visits. The mean total NIH-CPSI score of group 1 was significantly decreased from baseline at all post-treatment time points (P < 0.01 for all). Decreases in pain domain and quality of life (QOL) scores were also significant. In group 2, no significant decreases of total NIH-CPSI score and pain domain score were found at all post-treatment time points. At the end-point of treatment, 71.1% of group 1 exhibited perceptible improvement in total NIH-CPSI compared with 27.0% of group 2 (P < 0.001); additionally, 28.9% of group 1 exhibited clinically significant improvement compared with 10.8% of group 2 (P < 0.01). Moreover, a greater number of patients in group 1 at 4-week and 12-week follow-up were rated as responders (perceptible and clinically significant response) compared with group 2. ESWT exhibits a potentially therapeutic role in the

  4. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shen; Wang, Hongwei; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  5. Validation and application of auxiliary density perturbation theory and non-iterative approximation to coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham approach for calculation of dipole-quadrupole polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedge, Sapana V.; Pal, Sourav; Köster, Andreas M.

    2011-07-01

    Recently, two non-iterative approaches have been proposed to calculate response properties within density functional theory (DFT). These approaches are auxiliary density perturbation theory (ADPT) and the non-iterative approach to the coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (NIA-CPKS) method. Though both methods are non-iterative, they use different techniques to obtain the perturbed Kohn-Sham matrix. In this Letter, for the first time, both of these two independent methods have been used for the calculation of dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities. To validate these methods, three tetrahedral molecules viz., P4,CH4 and adamantane (C10H16) have been used as examples. The comparison with MP2 and CCSD proves the reliability of the methodology.

  6. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-15

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  7. Randomized sham-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a high-intensity focused ultrasound device for noninvasive body sculpting.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Mark L; Baxter, Richard A; Cox, Sue Ellen; Donofrio, Lisa M; Dover, Jeffrey S; Glogau, Richard G; Kane, Michael A; Weiss, Robert A; Martin, Patrick; Schlessinger, Joel

    2011-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound presents a noninvasive approach to body sculpting for nonobese patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a high-intensity focused ultrasound device for sculpting of the abdomen and flanks. Adults (aged 18 to 65 years) with subcutaneous abdominal fat greater than or equal to 2.5 cm thick who met screening criteria were randomized to receive high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of the anterior abdomen and flanks at energy levels (a total of three passes each) of 47 J/cm (141 J/cm total), 59 J/cm (177 J/cm), or 0 J/cm (no energy applied, sham control). The primary endpoint was change from baseline waist circumference at the iliac crest level at posttreatment week 12. Subjective aesthetic assessments included the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Safety assessments included adverse events, laboratory values, and physical examinations. For the primary endpoint, in the intent-to-treat population, statistical significance versus sham was achieved for the 59-J/cm (-2.44; p = 0.01) but not the 47-J/cm treatment group (-2.06 cm; p = 0.13). In a per-protocol population, statistical significance versus sham was achieved for both the 59-J/cm (-2.52 cm; p = 0.002) and the 47-J/cm treatment groups (-2.10 cm; p = 0.04). Investigator subjective measures of global aesthetic improvement and patient satisfaction also favored each active treatment versus sham. Adverse events included mild to moderate discomfort, bruising, and edema. Laboratory values and physical examinations were unremarkable. Treatment with this high-intensity focused ultrasound device reduced waist circumference and was generally well tolerated for noninvasive body sculpting. Reduction in waist circumference was statistically significant with both active treatments (per protocol). Therapeutic, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  8. Efficacy of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Kalmady, Sunil V; Shenoy, Sonia; Sreeraj, Vanteemar S; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2017-08-30

    Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) that are refractory to antipsychotic medications are reported in about 20-30% of schizophrenia patients. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive and safe neuromodulatory technique, has attracted significant interest as an add-on treatment for refractory AVH in schizophrenia. Studies examining the efficacy of tDCS for refractory AVH in schizophrenia have reported inconsistent findings. In this study, using a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design (RCT), we sought to examine the effect of add-on tDCS [anode corresponding to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to left temporo-parietal junction; 2-mA, twice-daily sessions for 5-days] to treat refractory AVH in schizophrenia patients (N=25); following this RCT phase, patients that had <30% reduction in AVH severity were offered an open-label extension (OLE) active stimulation to evaluate the effect of cross-over to verum tDCS. In the RCT phase, repeated measures ANOVA with tDCS type [verum (N=12) vs. sham (N=13)] as between subjects factor demonstrated a significant tDCS-type X time-point interaction [F=21.5, p<0.001, partial-η2=0.48] with significantly greater reduction of AVH score in verum tDCS group as compared to sham group. In the OLE phase, sham-to-verum crossed over patients (N=13) showed significantly greater reduction in AVH severity than their corresponding change during RCT phase (t=2.9; p=0.01). Together, these observations add further support to the beneficial effects of add-on tDCS to treat refractory AVH schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture for reduction of symptom burden in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Giralt, Sergio; Chung, David J; Landau, Heather; Siman, Jonathan; Search, Benjamin; Coleton, Marci; Vertosick, Emily; Shapiro, Nathan; Chien, Christine; Wang, Xin S; Cassileth, Barrie; Mao, Jun J

    2017-09-17

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is potentially curative for a number of hematologic malignancies, but is associated with high symptom burden. We conducted a randomized sham-controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate efficacy and safety of acupuncture as an integrative treatment for managing common symptoms during HCT. Adult patients with multiple myeloma undergoing high-dose melphalan followed by autologous HCT (AHCT) were randomized to receive either true or sham acupuncture once daily for 5 days starting the day after chemotherapy. Patients and clinical evaluators, but not acupuncturists, were blinded to group assignment. Symptom burden, the primary outcome was assessed with the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) at baseline, during transplantation, and at 15 and 30 days post transplantation. Among 60 participants, true acupuncture produced nonsignificant reductions in overall MDASI core symptom scores and symptom interference scores during transplantation (P = .4 and .3, respectively), at 15 days (P = .10 and .3), and at 30 days posttransplantation (P = .2 and .4) relative to sham. However, true acupuncture was significantly more efficacious in reducing nausea, lack of appetite, and drowsiness at 15 days (P = .042, .025, and .010, respectively). Patients receiving sham acupuncture were more likely to increase pain medication use posttransplantation (odds ratio 5.31, P = .017). Acupuncture was well tolerated with few attributable adverse events. True acupuncture may prevent escalation of symptoms including nausea, lack of appetite, and drowsiness experienced by patients undergoing AHCT, and reduce the use of pain medications. These findings need to be confirmed in a future definitive study. NCT01811862.

  10. Differential effects of primary motor cortex and cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: A randomized double-blind sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, F; Bakhtiary, A H; Jaberzadeh, S; Talimkhani, A; Hajihasani, A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of study was to compare the effect of primary motor cortex (M1) and cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in healthy individuals. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups (n=20 in two experimental groups and n=19 in sham-control group). One experimental group received M1a-tDCSand another received cerebellar a-tDCS. The main outcome measure were response time (RT) and number of errors during serial response time test (SRTT) which were assessed prior, 35min and 48h after the interventions. Reduction of response time (RT) and error numbers at last block of the test compared to the first block was considered online learning. Comparison of assessments during retention tests was considered as short-term and long-term offline learning. Online RT reduction was not different among groups (P>0.05), while online error reduction was significantly greater in cerebellar a-tDCS than sham-control group (P<0.017). Moreover, a-tDCS on both M1 and cerebellar regions produced more long-term offline learning as compared to sham tDCS (P<0.01), while short-term offline RT reduction was significantly greater in M1a-tDCS than sham-control group (P<0.05). The findings indicated that although cerebellar a-tDCS enhances online learning and M1a-tDCS has more effect on short-term offline learning, both M1 and cerebellar a-tDCS can be used as a boosting technique for improvement of offline motor learning in healthy individuals.

  11. Effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation on upper-limb spasticity and impairment in patients with spastic hemiparesis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Krewer, Carmen; Hartl, Sandra; Müller, Friedemann; Koenig, Eberhard

    2014-06-01

    To investigate short-term and long-term effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rpMS) on spasticity and motor function. Monocentric, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Neurologic rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=66) with severe hemiparesis and mild to moderate spasticity resulting from a stroke or a traumatic brain injury. The average time ± SD since injury for the intervention groups was 26 ± 71 weeks or 37 ± 82 weeks. rpMS for 20 minutes or sham stimulation with subsequent occupational therapy for 20 minutes, 2 times a day, over a 2-week period. Modified Tardieu Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (arm score), assessed before therapy, at the end of the 2-week treatment period, and 2 weeks after study treatment. Additionally, the Tardieu Scale was assessed after the first and before the third therapy session to determine any short-term effects. Spasticity (Tardieu >0) was present in 83% of wrist flexors, 62% of elbow flexors, 44% of elbow extensors, and 10% of wrist extensors. Compared with the sham stimulation group, the rpMS group showed short-term effects on spasticity for wrist flexors (P=.048), and long-term effects for elbow extensors (P<.045). Arm motor function (rpMS group: median 5 [4-27]; sham group: median 4 [4-9]) did not significantly change over the study period in either group, whereas rpMS had a positive effect on sensory function. Therapy with rpMS increases sensory function in patients with severe limb paresis. The magnetic stimulation, however, has limited effect on spasticity and no effect on motor function. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  13. Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham time-dependent response theory in a second-quantization atomic-orbital formalism suitable for linear scaling.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Thomas; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Coriani, Sonia; Helgaker, Trygve

    2008-08-07

    We present a second-quantization based atomic-orbital method for the computation of time-dependent response functions within Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density-functional theories. The method is suited for linear scaling. Illustrative results are presented for excitation energies, one- and two-photon transition moments, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities for hexagonal BN sheets with up to 180 atoms.

  14. Cardiopoietic cell therapy for advanced ischaemic heart failure: results at 39 weeks of the prospective, randomized, double blind, sham-controlled CHART-1 clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Beth A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Radovanovic, Slavica; Beleslin, Branko; Merkely, Bela; Musialek, Piotr; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Andreka, Peter; Horvath, Ivan G.; Katz, Amos; Dolatabadi, Dariouch; El Nakadi, Badih; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Edes, Istvan; Seferovic, Petar M.; Obradovic, Slobodan; Vanderheyden, Marc; Jagic, Nikola; Petrov, Ivo; Atar, Shaul; Halabi, Majdi; Gelev, Valeri L.; Shochat, Michael K.; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw D.; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Heyndrickx, Guy R.; Nyolczas, Noémi; Legrand, Victor; Guédès, Antoine; Heyse, Alex; Moccetti, Tiziano; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Hernandez-Garcia, Jose Maria; Ribichini, Flavio; Gruchala, Marcin; Waldman, Scott A.; Teerlink, John R.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Henry, Timothy D.; Metra, Marco; Hajjar, Roger J.; Tendera, Michal; Behfar, Atta; Alexandre, Bertrand; Seron, Aymeric; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Sherman, Warren; Cotter, Gad; Wijns, William

    2017-01-01

    Aims Cardiopoietic cells, produced through cardiogenic conditioning of patients’ mesenchymal stem cells, have shown preliminary efficacy. The Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial aimed to validate cardiopoiesis-based biotherapy in a larger heart failure cohort. Methods and results This multinational, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study was conducted in 39 hospitals. Patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart failure on guideline-directed therapy (n = 484) were screened; n = 348 underwent bone marrow harvest and mesenchymal stem cell expansion. Those achieving > 24 million mesenchymal stem cells (n = 315) were randomized to cardiopoietic cells delivered endomyocardially with a retention-enhanced catheter (n = 157) or sham procedure (n = 158). Procedures were performed as randomized in 271 patients (n = 120 cardiopoietic cells, n = 151 sham). The primary efficacy endpoint was a Finkelstein–Schoenfeld hierarchical composite (all-cause mortality, worsening heart failure, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6-min walk distance, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction) at 39 weeks. The primary outcome was neutral (Mann–Whitney estimator 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.61 [value > 0.5 favours cell treatment], P = 0.27). Exploratory analyses suggested a benefit of cell treatment on the primary composite in patients with baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume 200–370 mL (60% of patients) (Mann–Whitney estimator 0.61, 95% CI 0.52–0.70, P = 0.015). No difference was observed in serious adverse events. One (0.9%) cardiopoietic cell patient and 9 (5.4%) sham patients experienced aborted or sudden cardiac death. Conclusion The primary endpoint was neutral, with safety demonstrated across the cohort. Further evaluation of cardiopoietic cell therapy in patients with elevated end-diastolic volume is warranted. PMID:28025189

  15. Two Versus One High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Session per Day for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Theleritis, Christos; Sakkas, Pavlos; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas; Vitoratou, Silia; Tzavara, Chara; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Politis, Antonios; Soldatos, Constantin R; Psarros, Costantin

    2017-09-01

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has proven antidepressant effects, but the optimal frequency of sessions remains unclear. We conducted a 3-week, sham-controlled trial to assess the antidepressant efficacy of 1 active HF-rTMS session per day (A1 group) compared with 2 per day (A2 group) and equivalent sham sessions (once a day, S1 group; twice a day, S2 group) in patients with treatment-resistant major depression with a subsequent 2-week follow-up period. One hundred seventy-seven patients were screened, of whom 105 met eligibility criteria and 98 consented and were randomized. The HF-rTMS (20 Hz) was targeted to the left prefrontal cortex in sessions of approximately 40 trains (2 seconds each) at 100% resting motor threshold with an intertrain interval of 1 minute. Treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score and/or Clinician Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score of 3 or less. Remission was defined as HDRS score less than 8 and/or CGI-S score of 2 or less. Practically none of the subjects in either sham groups achieved remission. Increased odds of remission were present for CGI-S by stimulating twice rather than once per day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.018), whereas there was a marginal result for HDRS (OR = 3.9, P = 0.066). Patients who had lower baseline HDRS (OR = 0.75, P = 0.014) and CGI-S scores (OR = 0.18, P = 0.001) were more likely to achieve remission. Twice per day active HF-rTMS might be more effective than once per day active HF-rTMS or sham stimulation.

  16. Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Junqi; Zhang, Shaoqun; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiarong; Ouyang, Huailiang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function. PMID:24963329

  17. Investigation of standard care versus sham Reiki placebo versus actual Reiki therapy to enhance comfort and well-being in a chemotherapy infusion center.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Anita; Taylor-Ford, Rebecca L

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether provision of Reiki therapy during outpatient chemotherapy is associated with increased comfort and well-being. Double-blind, randomized clinical controlled trial. Outpatient chemotherapy center. 189 participants were randomized to actual Reiki, sham Reiki placebo, or standard care. Patients receiving chemotherapy were randomly placed into one of three groups. Patients received either standard care, a placebo, or an actual Reiki therapy treatment. A demographic tool and pre- and post-tests were given before and after chemotherapy infusion. Reiki therapy, sham Reiki placebo therapy, standard care, and self-reported levels of comfort and well-being pre- and postintervention. Although Reiki therapy was statistically significant in raising the comfort and well-being of patients post-therapy, the sham Reiki placebo also was statistically significant. Patients in the standard care group did not experience changes in comfort and well-being during their infusion session. The findings indicate that the presence of an RN providing one-on-one support during chemotherapy was influential in raising comfort and well-being levels, with or without an attempted healing energy field. An attempt by clinic nurses to provide more designated one-to-one presence and support for patients while receiving their chemotherapy infusions could increase patient comfort and well-being.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Acupuncture as Treatment for Complications of Cerebrovascular Accidents: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Subject- and Assessor-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Chun-Chung; Chang, Chia-chi; Chen, Liang-Yu; Lee, De-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The effect of acupuncture as treatment for poststroke complications is questionable. We performed a randomized, sham-controlled double-blind study to investigate it. Methods. Patients with first-time acute stroke were randomized to receive 24 sessions of either real or sham acupuncture during an eight-week period. The primary outcome measure was change in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Secondary outcome measures included changes in Barthel Index (BI), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain scores. Results. Of the 52 patients who were randomized to receive acupuncture (n = 28) or placebo (n = 24), 10 patients in the acupuncture group and 9 patients in the placebo group failed to complete the treatment. In total, 18 patients in the acupuncture group and 15 patients in the control group completed the treatment course. Reduction in pain was significantly greater in the acupuncture group than in the control group (p value = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the other measures between the two groups. Conclusions. Acupuncture provided more effective poststroke pain relief than sham acupuncture treatment. However, acupuncture had no better effect on neurological, functional, and psychological improvement. PMID:28408941

  19. Neural correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest; DiFrancesco, Mark; Wu, Steve; Giovanetti, Cathy; Nash, Tiffany; Mantovani, Antonio; Ammerman, Robert; Harris, Elana

    2015-09-30

    Treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be enhanced if the physiological changes engendered by treatment were known. This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. After baseline (Time 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a provocation task, subjects received one session of either fMRI-guided sham (SG; n=8) or active (AG; n=10) 1-Hz rTMS over the rDLPFC for 30min. During rTMS, subjects were presented with personalized images that evoked OCD-related anxiety. Following stimulation, fMRI and the provocation task were repeated (Time 2). Contrary to our prediction for the provocation task, the AG was associated with no changes in BOLD response from Times 1 to 2. In contrast, the SG had a significant increase at Time 2 in BOLD response in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen, which persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and time to scanner as covariates. This study provides an initial framework for TMS interrogation of the CST circuit in pediatric OCD.

  20. Sham Surgery and Inter-Individual Heterogeneity Are Major Determinants of Monocyte Subset Kinetics in a Mouse Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Ospelt, Manuel; Troidl, Christian; Voss, Sandra; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kim, Won-Keun; Rolf, Andreas; Wietelmann, Astrid; Braun, Thomas; Troidl, Kerstin; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Barefield, David; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger; Möllmann, Helge

    2014-01-01

    Aims Mouse models of myocardial infarction (MI) are commonly used to explore the pathophysiological role of the monocytic response in myocardial injury and to develop translational strategies. However, no study thus far has examined the potential impact of inter-individual variability and sham surgical procedures on monocyte subset kinetics after experimental MI in mice. Our goal was to investigate determinants of systemic myeloid cell subset shifts in C57BL/6 mice following MI by developing a protocol for sequential extensive flow cytometry (FCM). Methods and Results Following cross-sectional multiplex FCM analysis we provide for the first time a detailed description of absolute quantities, relative subset composition, and biological variability of circulating classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice. By using intra-individual longitudinal measurements after MI induction, a time course of classical and non-classical monocytosis was recorded. This approach disclosed a significant reduction of monocyte subset dispersion across all investigated time points following MI. We found that in the current invasive model of chronic MI the global pattern of systemic monocyte kinetics is mainly determined by a nonspecific inflammatory response to sham surgery and not by the extent of myocardial injury. Conclusions Application of sequential multiplexed FCM may help to reduce the impact of biological variability in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the confounding influence of sham surgical procedures should always be considered when measuring monocyte subset kinetics in a murine model of MI. PMID:24893162

  1. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  2. The efficacy of cerebellar vermal deep high frequency (theta range) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia: A randomized rater blind-sham controlled study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shobit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Mishra, Preeti; Goyal, Nishant

    2016-09-30

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising therapeutic for schizophrenia. Treatment effects of rTMS have been variable across different symptom clusters, with negative symptoms showing better response, followed by auditory hallucinations. Cerebellum, especially vermis and its abnormalities (both structural and functional) have been implicated in cognitive, affective and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. rTMS to this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder. Hypothesizing cerebellar vermal magnetic stimulation as an adjunct to treat schizophrenia psychopathology, we conducted a double blind randomized sham controlled rTMS study. In this study, forty patients were randomly allocated (using block randomization method) to active high frequency (theta patterned) rTMS (n=20) and sham (n=20) groups. They received 10 sessions over 2 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were assessed at baseline, after last session and at 4 weeks (2 weeks post-rTMS). We found a significantly greater improvement in the group receiving active rTMS sessions, compared to the sham group on negative symptoms, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that cerebellar stimulation can be used as an effective adjunct to treat negative and affective symptoms.

  3. Immediate Effects of Mobilization With Movement vs Sham Technique on Range of Motion, Strength, and Function in Patients With Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Flávio; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Siqueira, Aristides Leite; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of mobilization with movement (MWM) with sham technique on range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A randomized clinical study was performed. Participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 31 ± 8 years; 56% women) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 14), which received the MWM technique in the first 4 sessions and the sham technique in the last 4 sessions; and group 2 (n = 13), which was treated with the opposite order of treatment conditions described for group 1. Shoulder ROM, isometric peak force assessed with a handheld dynamometer, and function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaires were collected at preintervention, interchange, and postintervention moments. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant group-by-time interaction for any outcome but did reveal a main time effect for shoulder external rotation (P = .04) and abduction (P = .01) ROM, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (P < .01), SPADI Pain (P < .01), SPADI Function (P < .01), and SPADI Total (P < .01). Only abduction movement and SPADI Pain overcame the clinical relevance threshold. The isometric peak force tests revealed no effects. The MWM technique was no more effective than a sham intervention in improving shoulder ROM during external rotation and abduction, pain, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of acupuncture for radioactive-iodine-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients: a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Jeungwon; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Jung, In-Chul; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for radioactive iodine (RAI)-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients. Fourteen thyroid cancer patients with RAI-induced anorexia were randomized to a true acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both groups were given 6 true or sham acupuncture treatments in 2 weeks. Outcome measures included the change of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia and Cachexia Treatment (FAACT; Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale [ACS], Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), weight, body mass index (BMI), ACTH, and cortisol levels. The mean FAACT ACS scores of the true and sham acupuncture groups increased from baseline to exit in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses; the true acupuncture group showed higher increase but with no statistical significance. Between groups, from baseline to the last treatment, statistically significant differences were found in ITT analysis of the Table of Index (TOI) score (P = .034) and in PP analysis of the TOI (P = .016), FACT-G (P = .045), FAACT (P = .037) scores. There was no significant difference in VAS, weight, BMI, ACTH, and cortisol level changes between groups. Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, our findings support the safety and potential use of acupuncture for RAI-induced anorexia and quality of life in thyroid cancer patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Universal Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Sarah; Leventhal, Laura

    Universal usability of World Wide Web (Web) environments—that is, having 90% of households as successful users—requires universal access, usability, and universal design. Factors such as Web technology and user-centered design contribute to universal access and usability, but key to universal usability is a universal design methodology. Universal design principles for the Web follow from universal design principles for the built environment, and emphasize perceptibility, self-explanation, and tailorability for the user. Universally usable Web environments offer the benefit of expanded participation, as well as the unanticipated benefits that generally follow from innovative design initiatives. However, to achieve Web universal usability, Web designers need tools that facilitate the design of intuitive interfaces without sacrificing universal access.

  6. Your tooth it ain't so purty but it's gen-u-ine: Cole Porter's comic song "Snagtooth Gertie".

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Cole Porter (1891-1964), an American musical icon, has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most cosmopolitan, sophisticated, elegant and influential composer-lyricists of the 20th century. Born in Indiana and raised in wealth and privilege, he attended both Yale and Harvard universities where he honed his song-writing skills. In his 800 tunes, many of which became smash hits, he blended fresh, witty, urbane and colloquial lyrics with catchy, singable melodies. He composed musical scores for both Broadway stage and Hollywood movies, but focused on the former. While Porter enjoyed penning comic songs, he rarely had them published. In 1946, Cole wrote the music and lyrics for a Broadway show entitled Around the World in Eighty Days. Deemed a failure, it closed after only 75 performances. One light-hearted ditty, "Snagtooth Gertie", which he composed for the show, was never used. The lyrics are presented for the first time in this paper.

  7. How Different kinds of Communication and the Mass Media Affect Tourism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Forces B.S., Ain Shams University , 1975 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT from the...youth tourism movement. Suitable pro- grams and reasonable prices are designed for youth. An adequate number of youth hostels , camps, enter- tainment and...ASTA), the Universal Federation of Travel Agencies Associations (UFTAA) and the Co.federation of Tourist Organizations of Latin America (COTAL

  8. Structure of the Pauli and Correlation-Kinetic Components of the Kohn-Sham Exchange Potential at a Metal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatin, Alexander; Sahni, Viraht

    1998-09-01

    According to the rigorous physical interpretation of Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory in terms of the components of the true wavefunction, the KS exchange potentialνKSx(r)=δEKSx[ρ]/δρ(r), whereEKSx[ρ] is the exchange energy functional, is the work done to move an electron in a conservative fieldR(r). This field comprises a component EKSx(r) representative of Pauli correlations and anotherZ(1)tc(r) that constitutespartof the correlation contribution to the kinetic energy. The field EKSx(r) is derived via Coulomb's law from the KS Fermi hole charge, and the fieldZ(1)tc(r) from the kinetic-energy-density tensor involving the first-order correction to the KS single-particle density matrix. For systems in which the curls of these component fields separately vanish, the potentialvKSx(r) is the sum of the work doneWKSx(r) andW(1)tc(r) in the fields EKSx(r) andZ(1)tc(r), respectively. In this paper we study the structure of the workWKSx(r) andW(1)tc(r) at a simple-metal surface as represented by the jellium and structureless-pseudopotential models for which the workWKSx(r) andW(1)tc(r) are separately path-independent. A general expression for the field EKSx(r) is derived in terms of momentum-space integrals of the electron orbitals. This enables its easy determination, and thereby determination of the potentialWKSx(r). The field expression further allows for the derivation of theexact analyticalasymptotic structure of the potentialWKSx(r) in the vacuum region, a result valid for thefully self-consistentlydetermined orbitals of both models. With the exact analytical asymptotic structure ofvKSx(r) in the vacuum known, that of the potentialW(1)tc(r) in this region is then determinedanalytically. As is the case forvKSx(r) which decays asymptotically in the vacuum as -αKS/x, the potentialsWKSx(r) andW(1)tc(r) also decay as -αW/xandα(1)tc/x, respectively, the decay coefficients depending upon the metal Fermi energy and barrier height. It is further shown that

  9. A blinded randomised trial of acupuncture (manual and electroacupuncture) compared with a non-penetrating sham for the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Ronald W; Tukmachi, Emad S; Jones, Peter W; Dempsey, Emma; Waterhouse, Lynn; Brailsford, Sue

    2008-06-01

    To compare the effect of acupuncture (manual and electroacupuncture) with that of a non-penetrating sham ('placebo' needle) in patients with osteoarthritic knee pain and disability who are blind to the treatment allocation. Acupuncture naïve patients with symptomatic and radiological evidence of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly allocated to a course of either acupuncture or non-penetrating sham acupuncture using a sheathed 'placebo' needle system. Acupuncture points for pain and stiffness were selected according to acupuncture theory for treating Bi syndrome. Both manual and electrical stimulation were used. Response was assessed using the WOMAC index for osteoarthritis of the knee, self reported pain scale, the EuroQol score and plasma beta-endorphin. The effectiveness of blinding was assessed. There were 34 patients in each group. The primary end point was the change in WOMAC pain score after the course of treatment. Comparison between the two treatment groups found a significantly greater improvement with acupuncture (mean difference 60, 95% CI 5 to 116, P= 0.035) than with sham. Within the acupuncture group there was a significant improvement in pain (baseline 294, mean change 95, 95% CI 60 to 130, P<0.001) which was not seen by those who had sham acupuncture (baseline 261, mean change 35, 95% CI -10 to 80, P=0.12). Similar effects within group, but not between groups, were seen with the secondary end points of WOMAC stiffness, WOMAC function, and self reported pain. One month after treatment the between group pain difference had been lost (mean difference 46; 95% CI -9 to 100, P=0.10) although the acupuncture group was still benefiting compared to baseline (mean difference 59; 95% CI 16 to 102, P=0.009). The EuroQol score, a generic measure of health related quality of life, was not altered by the treatments. A minority of patients correctly guessed their treatment group (41% in the acupuncture group and 44% in the control group). Plasma beta

  10. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  11. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France).

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  12. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  13. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G.; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  14. Baseline 'state anxiety' influences HPA-axis sensitivity to one sham-controlled HF-rTMS session applied to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Baeken, C; Vanderhasselt, M A; De Raedt, R

    2011-01-01

    Although negative results have been reported, an important aspect of the physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could be related to the endocrinological response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, such as cortisol secretion. Because endocrinological responses are influenced by anxiety states, this could influence the effect of rTMS in healthy individuals. In this sham-controlled, "single blind" crossover study, we examined whether one session of HF-rTMS could affect the HPA-system, when taking into account individual state anxiety scores based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Twenty-four healthy rTMS naïve females received one sham-controlled high frequency (HF)-rTMS session delivered on the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire, together with salivary cortisol samples, was collected before, just after and 30 min post HF-rTMS. To examine whether state anxiety could influence endocrinological outcome measurements, we administered the STAI-state just before each HF-rTMS experiment started. Based on the POMS questionnaire, no mood changes were observed. Without taking individual state anxiety scores into account, one sham-controlled right-sided HF-rTMS session did not influence the HPA-system. When taking into account individual STAI-state scores, we found that healthy women scoring higher on the STAI-state displayed a significantly more sensitive HPA-system, resulting in salivary cortisol concentration increases after real HF-rTMS, compared to those scoring lower on this anxiety scale. Our results indicate that healthy women scoring high on state anxiety display a more sensitive HPA-system when receiving one right-sided HF-rTMS session. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of individual anxiety states in experimental rTMS research could add further information about its neurobiological influences on the HPA-system.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study of static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current for active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinnichi; Mori, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kouji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Tomaru, Masakazu; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Yuji; Karita, Masakazu; Hiwatashi, Tomoaki; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current (EF-HVAC) is a traditional complementary Japanese medicine used for headache, shoulder stiffness, chronic constipation and insomnia. Open-label studies and clinical experience in Japan have suggested that this electric field therapy is safe and effective in treating chronic arthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of EF-HVAC therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in community-based general physician centers. Thirty patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA were treated with EF-HVAC therapy with the LEGACIS PLUS System (COCOROCA Corp., Tokyo, Japan) or sham therapy for 12 weeks and followed for 4 weeks without treatment. The disease activity score 28 (DAS28-CRP), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ), and inflammatory parameters were used as the outcome variable. Twenty four patients (n = 12 in each group) were analyzed by a per protocol analysis. Although a significant reduction in DAS28-CRP was observed in EF-HVAC group at 8 and 12 weeks compared to before treatment, there were no significant differences in DAS28-CRP scores during treatment between two groups. The scale of VAS was also significantly decreased by the treatment with EF-HVAC compared to before treatment, in addition, the scale of VAS in EF-HVAC group was significantly lower than sham group at 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in another parameters including MHAQ were not significant between before and after treatment, or by all comparative study between two groups. There were no adverse events related the treatment. In conclusion, the EF-HVAC therapy has a beneficial effect on the improvement to subjective pain of RA.

  16. Left prefrontal high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms: a sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Wobrock, Thomas; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-06-01

    Investigators are urgently searching for options to treat negative symptoms in schizophrenia because these symptoms are disabling and do not respond adequately to antipsychotic or psychosocial treatment. Meta-analyses based on small proof-of-principle trials suggest efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of negative symptoms and call for adequately powered multicenter trials. This study evaluated the efficacy of 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A multicenter randomized, sham-controlled, rater-blinded and patient-blinded trial was conducted from 2007-2011. Investigators randomly assigned 175 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms and a high-degree of illness severity into two treatment groups. After a 2-week pretreatment phase, 76 patients were treated with 10-Hz rTMS applied 5 days per week for 3 weeks to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (added to the ongoing treatment), and 81 patients were subjected to sham rTMS applied similarly. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in negative symptoms between the two groups at day 21 (p = .53, effect size = .09) or subsequently through day 105. Also, symptoms of depression and cognitive function showed no differences in change between groups. There was a small, but statistically significant, improvement in positive symptoms in the active rTMS group (p = .047, effect size = .30), limited to day 21. Application of active 10-Hz rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was well tolerated but was not superior compared with sham rTMS in improving negative symptoms; this is in contrast to findings from three meta-analyses. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study of static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current for active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinnichi; Mori, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kouji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Tomaru, Masakazu; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Yuji; Karita, Masakazu; Hiwatashi, Tomoaki; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current (EF-HVAC) is a traditional complementary Japanese medicine used for headache, shoulder stiffness, chronic constipation and insomnia. Open-label studies and clinical experience in Japan have suggested that this electric field therapy is safe and effective in treating chronic arthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of EF-HVAC therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in community-based general physician centers. Thirty patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA were treated with EF-HVAC therapy with the LEGACIS PLUS System (COCOROCA Corp., Tokyo, Japan) or sham therapy for 12 weeks and followed for 4 weeks without treatment. The disease activity score 28 (DAS28-CRP), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ), and inflammatory parameters were used as the outcome variable. Twenty four patients (n = 12 in each group) were analyzed by a per protocol analysis. Although a significant reduction in DAS28-CRP was observed in EF-HVAC group at 8 and 12 weeks compared to before treatment, there were no significant differences in DAS28-CRP scores during treatment between two groups. The scale of VAS was also significantly decreased by the treatment with EF-HVAC compared to before treatment, in addition, the scale of VAS in EF-HVAC group was significantly lower than sham group at 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in another parameters including MHAQ were not significant between before and after treatment, or by all comparative study between two groups. There were no adverse events related the treatment. In conclusion, the EF-HVAC therapy has a beneficial effect on the improvement to subjective pain of RA. PMID:23874073

  19. Longitudinal Use of Micro-computed Tomography Does Not Alter Microarchitecture of the Proximal Tibia in Sham or Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amanda B; Sacco, Sandra M; Salmon, Phil L; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-06-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) provides the ability to measure longitudinal changes to tibia microarchitecture, but the effect of this radiation is not well understood. The right proximal tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/group) randomized to Sham-control (Sham) or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery at 12 weeks of age was scanned using μCT at 13, 17, 21, and 25 weeks of age, at a resolution of 18 μm and a radiation dose of 603 mGy. The left proximal tibia was scanned only at 25 weeks of age to serve as an internal non-irradiated control. Repeated irradiation did not affect tibia microarchitecture in Sham or OVX groups, although there was an increase in cortical eccentricity (P < 0.05). All trabecular outcomes and cortical BMD were different (P < 0.05) between groups after only 1 week post-surgery and differences persisted to study endpoint. Characteristic changes to trabecular bone were observed in OVX rats over time. Interactions of time and hormone status were found for cortical BMD (P < 0.001), Ps. Pm., and Ec. Pm. (P < 0.05). Repeated irradiation of the tibia at 13, 17, 21, and 25 weeks does not cause adverse effects to microarchitecture, regardless of hormone status. This radiation dose can be applied over a typical 3-month study period to comprehensively understand how an intervention alters tibia microarchitecture without confounding effects of radiation.

  20. The effects of sham and full spinalization on the systemic potency of mu- and kappa-opioids on spinal nociceptive reflexes in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, J. F.; Headley, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    1. Flexor withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical pinch stimuli were recorded as single motor unit activity in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats, by means of tungsten bipolar electrodes inserted percutaneously into hindlimb flexor muscles. The relative spinal and supraspinal contributions to mu- and kappa-opioid agonists in inhibiting these spinal reflexes, together with possible potency changes elicited by surgical trauma, were examined by comparing their relative potencies in spinally unoperated, sham spinalized and spinalized rats. 2. The noxious stimuli, which were of comparable intensity in the three groups, elicited similar mean firing rates of the motor units in all groups. This indicates that the excitability levels in the reflex pathway were not greatly affected by either sham or actual spinalization. 3. The mu-agonists morphine and fentanyl, and the kappa-agonist U-50,488H, inhibited the reflexes in a dose-dependent manner, when administered intravenously in a log2 cumulative dose regime. 4. The surgery of sham spinalization had little effect on the potency of morphine and fentanyl, whereas it doubled the potency of U-50,488. 5. Spinalization did not affect the potency of morphine. In contrast it decreased the potency of fentanyl 2-4 fold and that of U-50,488 approximately 6 fold. 6. The effects of all agonists were antagonized by naloxone. Dose-dependence studies indicating that antagonism of U-50,488H required about 5 times the dose of naloxone that antagonized morphine. 7. The data suggest that surgical trauma to the spinal column and/or dura mater triggers supraspinal mechanisms that significantly enhance the potency of kappa- but not mu-agonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1664760

  1. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham

  2. Brown University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The computing at Brown University was formalized in 1960. Computing history, current university computing, and a description of the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship are discussed. The installation of a broadband communications network (BRUNET) was recently completed. (MLW)

  3. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation.

  4. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p < 0.0001). Consistent with this evidence for primary effectiveness, significant improvements in overall hair regrowth were demonstrated in terms of patients' subjective assessment (p < 0.015) at 26 weeks over baseline. The HairMax LaserComb was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported and no statistical difference in

  5. Virial theorem in the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory formalism: accurate calculation of the atomic quantum theory of atoms in molecules energies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L

    2009-07-14

    A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol.

  6. Ab initio analytical Raman intensities for periodic systems through a coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham method in an atomic orbital basis. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Lorenzo; Kirtman, Bernard; Rérat, Michel; Orlando, Roberto; Dovesi, Roberto

    2013-10-28

    We present a fully analytical formulation for calculating Raman intensities of crystalline periodic systems using a local basis set. Numerical differentiation with respect to atomic coordinates and with respect to wavevectors is entirely avoided as is the determination of crystal orbital coefficient derivatives with respect to nuclear displacements. Instead, our method utilizes the orbital energy-weighted density matrix and is based on the self-consistent solution of first- and second-order Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham equations for the electronic response to external electric fields at the equilibrium geometry. This method has also been implemented in the Crystal program, which uses a Gaussian type basis set.

  7. Monitoring Cortical Excitability during Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children with ADHD: A Single-Blind, Sham-Controlled TMS-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Christian; Pierau, Simone S.; Freitag, Christine M.; Roeper, Jochen; Ziemann, Ulf; Bender, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) allows non-invasive stimulation of the human brain. However, no suitable marker has yet been established to monitor the immediate rTMS effects on cortical areas in children. Objective TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) could present a well-suited marker for real-time monitoring. Monitoring is particularly important in children where only few data about rTMS effects and safety are currently available. Methods In a single-blind sham-controlled study, twenty-five school-aged children with ADHD received subthreshold 1 Hz-rTMS to the primary motor cortex. The TMS-evoked N100 was measured by 64-channel-EEG pre, during and post rTMS, and compared to sham stimulation as an intraindividual control condition. Results TMS-evoked N100 amplitude decreased during 1 Hz-rTMS and, at the group level, reached a stable plateau after approximately 500 pulses. N100 amplitude to supra-threshold single pulses post rTMS confirmed the amplitude reduction in comparison to the pre-rTMS level while sham stimulation had no influence. EEG source analysis indicated that the TMS-evoked N100 change reflected rTMS effects in the stimulated motor cortex. Amplitude changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEPs (pre versus post 1 Hz-rTMS) correlated significantly, but this correlation was also found for pre versus post sham stimulation. Conclusion The TMS-evoked N100 represents a promising candidate marker to monitor rTMS effects on cortical excitability in children with ADHD. TMS-evoked N100 can be employed to monitor real-time effects of TMS for subthreshold intensities. Though TMS-evoked N100 was a more sensitive parameter for rTMS-specific changes than MEPs in our sample, further studies are necessary to demonstrate whether clinical rTMS effects can be predicted from rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 amplitude and to clarify the relationship between rTMS-induced changes in TMS-evoked N100 and MEP amplitudes. The TMS-evoked N100 amplitude

  8. Scotland's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the Scottish university tradition and the origins and particulars of Scottish-Anglo differences in higher education. Discusses the 19th-century growth of Scottish universities, which lacked formal entrance requirements; students' rights and power in the university; academic degrees awarded; relationship with the state; and student…

  9. Comparison of the auxiliary density perturbation theory and the noniterative approximation to the coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham method: case study of the polarizabilities of disubstituted azoarene molecules.

    PubMed

    Shedge, Sapana V; Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Pal, Sourav; Köster, Andreas M

    2010-02-18

    We present a theoretical study of the polarizabilities of free and disubstituted azoarenes employing auxiliary density perturbation theory (ADPT) and the noniterative approximation to the coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham (NIA-CPKS) method. Both methods are noniterative but use different approaches to obtain the perturbed density matrix. NIA-CPKS is different from the conventional CPKS approach in that the perturbed Kohn-Sham matrix is obtained numerically, thereby yielding a single-step solution to CPKS. ADPT is an alternative approach to the analytical CPKS method in the framework of the auxiliary density functional theory. It is shown that the polarizabilities obtained using these two methods are in good agreement with each other. Comparisons are made for disubstituted azoarenes, which give support to the push-pull mechanism. Both methods reproduce the same trend for polarizabilities because of the substitution pattern of the azoarene moiety. Our results are consistent with the standard organic chemistry "activating/deactivating" sequence. We present the polarizabilities of the above molecules calculated with three different exchange-correlation functionals and two different auxiliary function sets. The computational advantages of both methods are also discussed.

  10. Safety and tolerability of high-intensity focused ultrasonography for noninvasive body sculpting: 24-week data from a randomized, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Mark L; Weiss, Robert A; Baxter, Richard A; Cox, Sue Ellen; Dover, Jeffrey S; Donofrio, Lisa M; Glogau, Richard G; Kane, Michael C; Martin, Patrick; Lawrence, Ira D; Schlessinger, Joel

    2012-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) is a nonsurgical, noninvasive method for body sculpting in nonobese patients. The technique ablates subcutaneous adipose tissue by causing molecular vibrations that increase tissue temperature and induce rapid cell necrosis. The authors evaluate the long-term safety of a HIFU device for sculpting the abdomen and flanks. Adults with subcutaneous abdominal fat ≥2.5 cm in thickness who met screening criteria were randomized to receive HIFU treatment of the anterior abdomen and flanks at 1 of 3 energy levels (3 passes per patient): 47 J/cm(2) (141 J/cm(2) total), 59 J/cm(2) (177 J/cm(2) total), or 0 J/cm(2) (no energy applied; sham control). Safety was assessed for 24 weeks and included laboratory testing, physical examinations, and documentation of adverse events. Adverse events (AE) included mild to moderate discomfort, ecchymosis, and edema, all of which were transient. There were no reports of scarring or burns and no clinically meaningful changes in lipid panel findings, inflammatory markers, or renal or hepatic function. Physical examination results were unremarkable. This HIFU device exhibited an AE profile similar to that of sham treatment. There were no significant changes from baseline in laboratory values, including lipid levels.

  11. Modulating arithmetic fact retrieval: a single-blind, sham-controlled tDCS study with repeated fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique which has been used to modulate various cognitive functions in healthy participants as well as stroke patients. Despite the increasing number of tDCS studies, it still remains questionable whether tDCS is suitable for modulating performance in arithmetic tasks and whether a single tDCS session may cause brain activity changes that can be detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We asked healthy participants to repeatedly solve simple multiplication tasks in three conditions: STIMULATION (anodal tDCS over the right angular gyrus, AG), SHAM (identical electrode set-up without stimulation), and CONTROL (no electrodes attached). Before and after tDCS, we used fMRI to examine changes in brain activity. Behavioural results indicate that a single session of tDCS did not modulate task performance significantly. However, fMRI measurements revealed that the neural correlates of multiplication were modified following a single session of anodal tDCS. In the bilateral AG, activity was significantly higher for multiplication problems rehearsed during active tDCS, as compared to multiplication problems rehearsed without tDCS or during sham tDCS. In sum, we present first neuro-functional evidence that tDCS modulates arithmetic processing. Implications of these findings for future tDCS studies and for the rehabilitation of acalculic patients with deficits in arithmetic fact retrieval are discussed.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the opercular somatosensory region does not influence experimentally induced pain: a triple blind, sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Soichiro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the opercular somatosensory region (OP), which includes the secondary somatosensory cortex and the insular cortex, suppresses pain sensation. However, whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP has a similar effect on pain sensation remains unknown. We examined whether pain sensation would be suppressed by tDCS over the OP. Our experiment with a triple-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design involved 12 healthy participants. Participants were asked to rate their subjective pain intensity during and after three types of bihemispheric tDCS: right anodal/left cathodal OP tDCS, left anodal/right cathodal OP tDCS (2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (15 s). Pain stimuli were alternately applied to the dorsum of each index finger using intraepidermal electrical stimulation. We observed no significant effect of tDCS over the OP on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Subjective pain intensity did not differ significantly between the three tDCS conditions. The present null results have crucial implications for the selection of optimal stimulation regions and parameters for clinical pain treatment. PMID:27984542

  13. Randomised sham-controlled study of high-frequency bilateral deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to treat adult attention hyperactive disorder (ADHD): Negative results.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yaniv; Friedwald, Keren; Levkovitz, Yeheal; Zangen, Abraham; Alyagon, Uri; Nitzan, Uri; Segev, Aviv; Maoz, Hagai; Koubi, May; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-31

    Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomised blindly to sham or actual deep TMS (dTMS). Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 dTMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency. For assessment, Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale questionnaire and a computerised continuous performance test, Test of Variables of Attention, were used. No differences in clinical outcomes were detected between the actual dTMS and sham groups. The presented evidence does not support the utility of bilateral prefrontal stimulation to treat adult ADHD. Due to the small sample size, caution must be exercised in interpreting our preliminary findings.

  14. Decreased low back pain intensity and differential gene expression following Calmare®: results from a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, Angela R; Coyne, Patrick; Lyon, Debra E; Elswick, R K; An, Kyungeh; Sturgill, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial we evaluated the effects of Calmare®, a non-invasive neurocutaneous electrical pain intervention, on lower back pain intensity as measured by the "worst" pain score and on pain interference using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, on measures of pain sensitivity assessed by quantitative sensory testing, and on mRNA expression of pain sensitivity genes. Thirty participants were randomized to receive up to 10 sessions of Calmare® treatment (n = 15) or a sham treatment (n = 15) using the same device at a non-therapeutic threshold. At 3 weeks after conclusion of treatment, compared with the sham group, the Calmare® group reported a significant decrease in the "worst" pain and interference scores. There were also significant differences in pain sensitivity and differential mRNA expression of 17 pain genes, suggesting that Calmare® can be effective in reducing pain intensity and interference in individuals with persistent low back pain by altering the mechanisms of enhanced pain sensitivity. Further study of long-term pain outcomes, particularly functional status, analgesic use and health care utilization, is warranted.

  15. Reflexology for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C M; Smyth, S; Lowe-Strong, A S

    2009-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in pain and other symptoms which may be modified by conventional treatment, however, MS is still not curable. Several studies have reported positive effects of reflexology in the treatment of pain, however, no randomised controlled clinical trials for the treatment of pain have been conducted within this population. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reflexology on pain in and MS population. We randomly allocated 73 participants to receive either precision or sham reflexology weekly for 10 weeks. Outcome measures were taken pre-and post-treatment with follow-up at 6 and 12 weeks by a researcher blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome measure recorded pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A significant (p < 0.0001) and clinically important decrease in pain intensity was observed in both groups compared with baseline. Median VAS scores were reduced by 50% following treatment, and maintained for up to 12 weeks. Significant decreases were also observed for fatigue, depression, disability, spasm and quality of life. In conclusion, precision reflexology was not superior to sham, however, both treatments offer clinically significant improvements for MS symptoms via a possible placebo effect or stimulation of reflex points in the feet using non-specific massage.

  16. Alterations in sucrose sham-feeding intake as a function of diet-exposure in rats maintained on calorically dense diets.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Liang, Nu-Chu; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that rats increase meal size upon initial presentation of a calorically dense diet. The increase may be attributed to increased orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to post-ingestive inhibitory signals. During feeding both types of signals are simultaneously in play; thus here, we compare responses in rats presented a high-energy diet (HE) or 45% high-fat diet (HF) with those of chow-fed controls (CHOW) in a sham-feeding procedure in which post-ingestive feedback is minimized. Measures of sham-feeding to sucrose were taken before diet manipulation (baseline), ~5 days (dynamic phase) and ~6 weeks (static phase) following introduction of the palatable diet, as well as after animals were switched back to standard chow (recovery phase). Some but not all the hypotheses based on our previous findings were confirmed by the outcomes here. Consistent with our hypothesis that enhanced orosensory stimulation during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase would generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli, HE rats showed higher sucrose intake during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase. Contrary to what we hypothesized, HE and HF rats did not increase responses to sucrose compared to CHOW rats. In fact, HE rats showed decreased responses compared to CHOW controls. Thus changes in orosensory stimulation do not necessarily generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli.

  17. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Uthra; babu, S. Karthik; Kumar, K. Vijay; Suresh, B. V.; Misri, Z. K.; Chakrapani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA), Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11) and control group (N = 11). Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02). Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility. PMID:24339596

  18. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Uthra; Babu, S Karthik; Kumar, K Vijay; Suresh, B V; Misri, Z K; Chakrapani, M

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA), Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11) and control group (N = 11). Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02). Significance was set at P < 0.05. Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility.

  19. Effectiveness and Safety of Electroacupuncture on Poststroke Urinary Incontinence: Study Protocol of a Pilot Multicentered, Randomized, Parallel, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This pilot multicentered, randomized, parallel, sham-controlled trial is intended to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture therapy for poststroke patients with urinary incontinence. Forty stroke survivors aged >19 years will be recruited in 2 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. Patients who experienced stroke within 2 years and satisfy criteria of urinary frequencies ≥2 with either 3 to 4 points on the Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale or 13 points or more on the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Scale (K-IPSS) will be identified, along with other eligibility criteria. Patients will be randomly allocated to either a treatment or control group to receive 10 sessions of electroacupuncture or sham therapies, respectively. Patients and outcome assessors will be blinded. The primary outcome is the change of Total Urgency and Frequency Score between the baseline and the trial endpoint. The K-IPSS, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Short Form, and the Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Outcome Score will be evaluated for effectiveness assessment. Adverse events will be reported after every session. The Blinding Index will also be calculated. Data will be statistically analyzed with 0.05 significance levels by 2-sided testing. PMID:28042304

  20. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  1. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): an exploratory meta-analysis of randomized and sham-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Neufeld, Nicholas H; Van den Eynde, Frederique

    2013-08-01

    Randomized and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results that may be due to limited statistical power among individual studies. We pursued the present systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of rTMS for OCD and to generate hypotheses for more robustly powered RCTs. We searched the literature for RCTs on rTMS for OCD from 1995 through December 2012 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and SCOPUS. We then performed an exploratory random-effects meta-analysis with the main outcome measures as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores, response to treatment and overall dropout rates at study end. Data were obtained from 10 RCTs, totaling 282 subjects with OCD. The pooled Hedges' g for pre-post Y-BOCS scores was 0.59 (z = 2.73, p = 0.006), indicating a significant and medium-sized difference in outcome favoring active rTMS. Furthermore, response rates were 35% and 13% for patients receiving active and sham rTMS, respectively (OR = 3.4, p = 0.002). Sub-group analyses indicated that LF-rTMS and rTMS protocols targeting non-DLPFC regions (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex or supplementary motor area) seem to be the most promising for reducing OCD-related symptoms. No differences on baseline depression scores or dropout rates at study end were observed between active and sham rTMS groups, although OCD severity at baseline was higher in the active group. Our exploratory analyses show that active rTMS seems to be efficacious for treating OCD. Moreover, LF-rTMS and protocols targeting the orbitofrontal cortex or the supplementary motor area seem to be the most promising. Nevertheless, future RCTs on rTMS for OCD should include larger sample sizes and be more homogeneous in terms of demographic/clinical variables as well as stimulation parameters and brain

  3. A randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial on the efficacy of arthroscopic tennis elbow release for the management of chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Matache, Bogdan A; Berdusco, Randa; Momoli, Franco; Lapner, Peter L C; Pollock, J W

    2016-06-01

    Tennis elbow is a common elbow pathology typically affecting middle-aged individuals that can lead to significant disability. Most cases resolve within 2 years of symptom onset, but a subset of patients will develop persistent symptoms despite appropriate conservative management. There are several surgical approaches used to treat chronic tennis elbow, with arthroscopic surgery becoming an increasingly popular approach to address this pathology in North America. This procedure involves the arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon (ECRB) origin at the elbow. The potential benefit of arthroscopic treatment of this condition is improved patient outcomes and shorter recovery time following surgery. The results of this technique have been reported only in the context of case series, which have shown positive results. However, in order to justify its widespread use and growing popularity, a high level of evidence study is required. The purpose of this prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial is to determine whether arthroscopic tennis elbow release is effective at treating chronic lateral epicondylitis. We will conduct a prospective single center, double-blind, randomized sham-controlled parallel arm trial evaluating the efficacy of arthroscopic tennis elbow release in adult patients with symptoms for at least 6 months. Patients will undergo intraoperative randomization after diagnostic arthroscopy of the elbow to receive either ECRB release (through the creation of a lateral portal) or a sham lateral portal and no ECRB release. The primary outcome will be the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) at 1 year follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be the abbreviated Disability of the Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow (ASES-e) score and grip strength at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months as well as return-to-work time, ability to return to full duty and adverse outcomes. Results of this study will provide empirical

  4. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  5. Bee venom acupuncture for the treatment of chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic non-specific low back pain is the most common medical problem for which patients seek complementary and alternative medical treatment, including bee venom acupuncture. However, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments have not been fully established by randomized clinical trials. The aim of this study is to determine whether bee venom acupuncture is effective for improving pain intensity, functional status and quality of life of patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Methods/design This study is a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled clinical trial with two parallel arms. Fifty-four patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-radicular chronic low back pain experiencing low back pain lasting for at least the previous three months and ≥4 points on a 10-cm visual analog scale for bothersomeness at the time of screening will be included in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated into the real or sham bee venom acupuncture groups and treated by the same protocol to minimize non-specific and placebo effects. Patients, assessors, acupuncturists and researchers who prepare the real or sham bee venom acupuncture experiments will be blinded to group allocation. All procedures, including the bee venom acupuncture increment protocol administered into predefined acupoints, are designed by a process of consensus with experts and previous researchers according to the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture. Bothersomeness measured using a visual analogue scale will be the primary outcome. Back pain-related dysfunction, pain, quality of life, depressive symptoms and adverse experiences will be measured using the visual analogue scale for pain intensity, the Oswestry Disability Index, the EuroQol 5-Dimension, and the Beck’s Depression Inventory. These measures will be recorded at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Discussion The results from this study will provide clinical

  6. Bipedal stance exercise enhances antiresorption effects of estrogen and counteracts its inhibitory effect on bone formation in sham and ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J L; Yao, W; Frost, H M; Li, C Y; Setterberg, R B; Jee, W S

    2001-08-01

    In this study we employed a raised cage model in combination with estrogen to observe their effects on the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) and tibial shaft (TX) in sham-operated or ovariectomized rats. A total of 105 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Bilateral sham ovariectomy or ovariectomy was performed at day 0 and the rats were housed in normal height or raised cages (RCs) and injected subcutaneously twice per week with 10 microg/kg of 17beta-estradiol (E2) or vehicle for 4 and 8 weeks. Because the time course of bone loss or bone gain distribution was not uniform in the metaphyses of the tibia, we subdivided the PTM into three zones (medial, central, and lateral) to observe the different bone loss or bone gain patterns after ovariectomy and/or raised cages. We found that: (1) E2 alone did not alter bone area or architecture in sham rats, whereas RC alone increased trabecular thickness and area of PTM, but had no effects on TX; (2) Ovx induced most bone loss from the central zone of the PTM and endocortical surface of TX, accompanied by decreased trabecular number and increased bone resorption; (3) E2 alone prevented ovx-induced bone loss by preserving trabecular number and depressing bone resorption; (4) RC alone partially compensated for bone loss following ovx by thickening the surviving trabeculae in lateral and medial zones, and tended to stimulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption; and (5) RC plus E2 increased trabecular bone area by having an additive effect on bone resorption and bone turnover. RCs helped to prevent the depressive effect of estrogen on periosteal bone formation. In conclusion, early and rapid bone loss occurred in the central zone of the metaphysis and endocortical surface after ovx. Estrogen replacement therapy prevented this loss. Raised cages partially compensated for bone loss following ovx by thickening the trabeculae in the lateral area of the metaphysis and decreased endocortical erosion

  7. It Ain’t New

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Their  Military  Usefulness The  introduction  of  the  aircraft   to  the  US military  did not proceed smoothly. Many po­ litical  and  military ...similarities among various historical events and our technological,  organizational,  and  leadership  challenges  in  the military  today. Particularly...in the joint and coalition arenas, we Ain’t can profit from the beneficial insight that historical analysis pro­ vides. As  the preeminent  military

  8. It Ain't CETA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Suggests ways that the Job Training Partnership Act can serve as a local labor force development tool. Besides assisting "hardcore unemployed," education can take a proactive role, keeping up with the technology and needs of business and industry. In return, business and industry must support education with state-of-the-art machinery and…

  9. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  10. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  11. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  12. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  13. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  14. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  15. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore;…

  16. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  17. Coupled-cluster reaction barriers of HO2+H2O+O3: An application of the coupled-cluster//Kohn-Sham density functional theory model chemistry.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Luís P; Varandas, António J C

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we report a theoretical investigation concerning the use of the popular coupled-cluster//Kohn-Sham density functional theory (CC//KS-DFT) model chemistry, here applied to study the entrance channel of the HO2+H2O+O3 reaction, namely by comparing CC//KS-DFT calculations with KS-DFT, MRPT2//CASSCF, and CC//CASSCF results from our previous investigations. This was done by performing single point energy calculations employing several coupled cluster methods and using KS-DFT geometries optimized with six different functionals, while conducting a detailed analysis of the barrier heights and topological features of the curves and surfaces here obtained. The quality of this model chemistry is critically discussed in the context of the title reaction and also in a wider context. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expectations of the Kohn-Sham operator in a natural-orbital functional environment: An adiabatic response theory with single and double excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    A combined adiabatic approach is proposed in which orbital expectations of the Kohn-Sham operator (KSEs) are embedded into the matrix environment of time-dependent phase-including natural-orbital functional theory (TDPINOFT). Analytical diagonalization of a model molecular matrix eigenvalue problem shows that the resultant TDNOFT-KSE combines strong sides of both adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and TDPINOFT. Around the equilibrium, like in TDDFT, the energy of a single excitation of the model is evaluated with the KSEs. In its turn, the TDPINOFT environment provides an effective Hartree-exchange-correlation (Hxc) kernel, which properly diverges in the bond dissociation limit. This environment also generates a double excitation, the energy of which is related to the ratio of fractional occupation numbers of the natural orbitals.

  19. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  20. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on unrestricted Kohn-Sham orbitals for high-spin open-shell van der Waals complexes.

    PubMed

    Hapka, Michał; Żuchowski, Piotr S; Szczęśniak, Małgorzata M; Chałasiński, Grzegorz

    2012-10-28

    Two open-shell formulations of the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory are presented. They are based on the spin-unrestricted Kohn-Sham (SAPT(UKS)) and unrestricted Hartree-Fock (SAPT(UHF)) descriptions of the monomers, respectively. The key reason behind development of SAPT(UKS) is that it is more compatible with density functional theory (DFT) compared to the previous formulation of open-shell SAPT based on spin-restricted Kohn-Sham method of Żuchowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084101 (2008)]. The performance of SAPT(UKS) and SAPT(UHF) is tested for the following open-shell van der Waals complexes: He···NH, H(2)O···HO(2), He···OH, Ar···OH, Ar···NO. The results show an excellent agreement between SAPT(UKS) and SAPT(ROKS). Furthermore, for the first time SAPT based on DFT is shown to be suitable for the treatment of interactions involving Π-state radicals (He···OH, Ar···OH, Ar···NO). In the interactions of transition metal dimers ((3)Σ(u)(+))Au(2) and ((13)Σ(g)(+))Cr(2) we show that SAPT is incompatible with the use of effective core potentials. The interaction energies of both systems expressed instead as supermolecular UHF interaction plus dispersion from SAPT(UKS) result in reasonably accurate potential curves.

  1. Physics of transformation from Schrödinger theory to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory: Application to an exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhixin; Sahni, Viraht

    1998-04-01

    According to Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT), and its constrained search formulation, the Schrödinger ground-state wave function Ψ is a functional of the ground-state electronic density ρ(r). But the explicit functional dependence of Ψ on ρ is unknown. It is, however, possible to describe Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT and its electron-interaction energy functional and functional derivative rigorously in terms of the wave function Ψ. This description involves a conservative field which is a sum of two fields, the first representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion, and the second of correlation-kinetic effects. The sources of these fields are expectations of Hermitian operators with respect to Ψ. The energy functional is expressed in integral virial form in terms of these fields, whereas the functional derivative is the work done to move an electron in the conservative field of their sum. In this paper we illustrate the physics of transformation from Schrödinger to KS theory by application of this description to a ground state of the exactly solvable Hooke's atom. As such we determine properties such as the pair-correlation density, the Fermi and Coulomb holes, the Schrödinger and KS kinetic-energy-density tensors and kinetic fields, and the electron-interaction and correlation-kinetic fields, potentials, and energies, the majority of these constituent properties of the transformation being obtained analytically. In this manner we demonstrate the separate contributions and significance of each type of electron correlation to the KS electron-interaction energy and its functional derivative. Based on this study and previous work, it is proposed that in the construction of approximate energy functionals and their derivatives for application to more complex systems, it is the fields that be directly approximated.

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18–35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition–M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant’s body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS’ growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control. PMID:28099522

  3. A sham case-control study of effectiveness of DTP-Hib-hepatitis B vaccine against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Khagayi, Sammy; Tate, Jacqueline E; Onkoba, Reuben; Parashar, Umesh; Odhiambo, Frank; Burton, Deron; Laserson, Kayla; Feikin, Daniel R

    2014-02-11

    In many GAVI-eligible countries, effectiveness of new vaccines will be evaluated by case-control methodology. To inform the design and assess selection bias of a future case-control study of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in western Kenya, we performed a sham case-control study evaluating VE of pentavalent vaccine (DTP-Hib-HepB) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE). From ongoing rotavirus surveillance, we defined cases as children 12 weeks to 23 months old with EIA-confirmed rotavirus AGE. We enrolled one community-based and two hospital-based control groups. We collected vaccination status from cards at enrollment, or later in homes, and evaluated VE by logistic regression. We enrolled 91 cases (64 inpatient, 27 outpatient), 252 non-rotavirus AGE facility-based controls (unmatched), 203 non-AGE facility-based controls (age-matched) and 271 community controls (age-matched). Documented receipt of 3 pentavalent doses was 77% among cases and ranged from 81-86% among controls. One percent of cases and 0-2% of controls had no pentavalent doses. The adjusted odds ratio of three versus zero doses for being a case was 3.27 (95% CI 0.01-1010) for community controls and 0.69 (95% CI 0.06-7.75) for non-rotavirus hospital-based AGE controls, translating to VE of -227% and 31%, respectively, with wide confidence intervals. (No facility-based non-AGE controls were unvaccinated.) Similar results were found for ≥2 pentavalent doses and for severe rotavirus AGE. The study showed that it is feasible to carry out a real case control in the study area, but this needs to be done as soon as the vaccine is introduced to capture the real impact. Sham case-control or pilot studies before vaccine introduction can be useful in designing case-control VE studies.

  4. Detecting early bone changes using in vivo micro-CT in ovariectomized, zoledronic acid-treated, and sham-operated rats.

    PubMed

    Perilli, E; Le, V; Ma, B; Salmon, P; Reynolds, K; Fazzalari, N L

    2010-08-01

    This study monitored in vivo the effect on bone microarchitecture of initiating antiresorptive treatment with zoledronic acid in rats at 2 weeks following ovariectomy, an early phase at which major degenerative bone changes have been found to occur. The treatment still facilitated the full reversal of cancellous bone loss in rat tibia, highlighting the importance of the time point of initiation of antiresorptive treatment. Injection of zoledronic acid in rats at time of ovariectomy has been found to fully preserve tibial bone microarchitecture over time, whereas injection at 8 weeks after ovariectomy has shown partial bone recovery. This study investigated the effect on microarchitecture of initiating antiresorptive treatment in the early phase following ovariectomy, at 2 weeks, a time point at which major degenerative changes in the bone have been found to occur. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ovariectomized group, ovariectomized group treated with zoledronic acid, and sham-operated group. In vivo micro-CT scanning of rat tibiae and morphometric analysis were performed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ovariectomy, with zoledronic acid treatment beginning 2 weeks after ovariectomy. Data were first analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (longitudinal study design) and then without repeated measures (cross-sectional study design). The ovariectomized group demonstrated dramatic bone loss, first detected at week 2. Conversely, at week 4, the zoledronic acid-treated group returned microstructural parameters to baseline values. Remarkable increases in bone parameters were found after 6 weeks of treatment and maintained similar to sham group until the end. The longitudinal study design provided earlier detection of bone changes compared to the cross-sectional study design. Treatment with zoledronic acid as late as 2 weeks after ovariectomy still facilitates the full reversal of cancellous bone loss in the rat tibia.

  5. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Weakness: Protocol and Methodological Implications for a Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Alexander D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Fan, Eddy; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Feldman, Dorianne R.; Korupolu, Radha; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the population ages and critical care advances, a growing number of survivors of critical illness will be at risk for intensive care unit (ICU)–acquired weakness. Bed rest, which is common in the ICU, causes adverse effects, including muscle weakness. Consequently, patients need ICU-based interventions focused on the muscular system. Although emerging evidence supports the benefits of early rehabilitation during mechanical ventilation, additional therapies may be beneficial. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which can provide some muscular activity even very early during critical illness, is a promising modality for patients in the ICU. Objective The objectives of this article are to discuss the implications of bed rest for patients with critical illness, summarize recent studies of early rehabilitation and NMES in the ICU, and describe a protocol for a randomized, phase II pilot study of NMES in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Design The study was a randomized, sham-controlled, concealed, phase II pilot study with caregivers and outcome assessors blinded to the treatment allocation. Setting The study setting will be a medical ICU. Participants The study participants will be patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for 1 day or more, who are expected to stay in the ICU for an additional 2 days or more, and who meet no exclusion criteria. Intervention The intervention will be NMES (versus a sham [control] intervention) applied to the quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles for 60 minutes per day. Measurements Lower-extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge will be the primary outcome measure. Limitations Muscle strength is a surrogate measure, not a patient-centered outcome. The assessments will not include laboratory, genetic, or histological measures aimed at a mechanistic understanding of NMES. The optimal duration or dose of NMES is unclear. Conclusions If NMES is beneficial, the results of

  6. Does a single session of electroconvulsive therapy alter the neural response to emotional faces in depression? A randomised sham-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars V; Ott, Caroline V; Macoveanu, Julian; Harmer, Catherine J; Jørgensen, Anders; Revsbech, Rasmus; Jensen, Hans M; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jørgensen, Martin B

    2017-09-01

    Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of major depressive disorder that is reversed by pharmacological and psychological treatments. This double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated for the first time whether electroconvulsive therapy modulates negative neurocognitive bias in major depressive disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder were randomised to one active ( n=15) or sham electroconvulsive therapy ( n=12). The following day they underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while viewing emotional faces and performed facial expression recognition and dot-probe tasks. A single electroconvulsive therapy session had no effect on amygdala response to emotional faces. Whole-brain analysis revealed no effects of electroconvulsive therapy versus sham therapy after family-wise error correction at the cluster level, using a cluster-forming threshold of Z>3.1 ( p<0.001) to secure family-wise error <5%. Groups showed no differences in behavioural measures, mood and medication. Exploratory cluster-corrected whole-brain analysis ( Z>2.3; p<0.01) revealed electroconvulsive therapy-induced changes in parahippocampal and superior frontal responses to fearful versus happy faces as well as in fear-specific functional connectivity between amygdala and occipito-temporal regions. Across all patients, greater fear-specific amygdala - occipital coupling correlated with lower fear vigilance. Despite no statistically significant shift in neural response to faces after a single electroconvulsive therapy session, the observed trend changes after a single electroconvulsive therapy session point to an early shift in emotional processing that may contribute to antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy.

  7. Randomized sham-controlled pilot trial of weekly electro-acupuncture for the prevention of taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy in women with early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D; Capodice, Jillian; Awad, Danielle; Buono, Donna; Shi, Zaixing; Jeffres, Anne; Wyse, Sharon; Whitman, Wendy; Trivedi, Meghna S; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) as a non-pharmacological intervention to prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy of taxane. Women with stage I-III breast cancer scheduled to receive taxane therapy were randomized to receive a standardized protocol of 12 true or sham EA (SEA) weekly treatments concurrent with taxane treatment. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Taxane neurotoxicity subscale (FACT-NTX), and other assessments at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 16. A total of 180 subjects were screened, 63 enrolled and 48 completed week 16 assessments. Mean age was 50 with 25 % white, 25 % black, and 43 % Hispanic; 52 % had no prior chemotherapy. At week 12, both groups reported an increase in mean BPI-SF worst pain score, but no mean differences were found between groups (SEA 2.8 vs. EA 2.6, P = .86). By week 16, the SEA group returned to baseline, while the EA group continued to worsen (SEA 1.7 vs. EA 3.4, P = .03). The increase in BPI-SF worst pain score was 1.62 points higher in the EA group than in the SEA group at week 16 (P = .04). In a randomized, sham-controlled trial of EA for prevention of taxane-induced CIPN, there were no differences in pain or neuropathy between groups at week 12. Of concern, subjects on EA had a slower recovery than SEA subjects. Future studies should focus on EA for treatment as opposed to prevention of CIPN.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen for patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after pelvic radiotherapy (HOT2): a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Mark; Smerdon, Gary R; Andreyev, H Jervoise; Benton, Barbara E; Bothma, Pieter; Firth, Oliver; Gothard, Lone; Harrison, John; Ignatescu, Mihaela; Laden, Gerard; Martin, Sue; Maynard, Lauren; McCann, Des; Penny, Christine E L; Phillips, Spencer; Sharp, Grace; Yarnold, John

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a therapy for patients experiencing chronic intestinal syndromes after pelvic radiotherapy for decades, yet the evidence to support the use of this therapy is based almost exclusively on non-randomised studies. We aimed to provide conclusive results for the clinical benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Methods HOT2 was a double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 randomised study of patients (≥18 years) with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms for 12 months or more after radiotherapy and which persisted despite at least 3 months of optimal medical therapy and no evidence of cancer recurrence. Participants were stratified by participating hyperbaric centre and randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated list (block size nine or 12) to receive treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy or sham. Participants in the active treatment group breathed 100% oxygen at 2·4 atmospheres of absolute pressure (ATA) and the control group breathed 21% oxygen at 1·3 ATA; both treatment groups received 90-min air pressure exposures once daily for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks (total of 40 exposures). Staff at the participating hyperbaric medicine facilities knew the allocated treatment, but patients, clinicians, nurse practitioners, and other health-care professionals associated with patients' care were masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were changes in the bowel component of the modified Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) score and the IBDQ rectal bleeding score 12 months after start of treatment relative to baseline. The primary outcome was analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, excluding patients who did not provide IBDQ scores within a predetermined time-frame. All patients have completed 12 months of follow-up and the final analysis is complete. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen for patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after pelvic radiotherapy (HOT2): a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Glover, Mark; Smerdon, Gary R; Andreyev, H Jervoise; Benton, Barbara E; Bothma, Pieter; Firth, Oliver; Gothard, Lone; Harrison, John; Ignatescu, Mihaela; Laden, Gerard; Martin, Sue; Maynard, Lauren; McCann, Des; Penny, Christine E L; Phillips, Spencer; Sharp, Grace; Yarnold, John

    2016-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a therapy for patients experiencing chronic intestinal syndromes after pelvic radiotherapy for decades, yet the evidence to support the use of this therapy is based almost exclusively on non-randomised studies. We aimed to provide conclusive results for the clinical benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. HOT2 was a double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 randomised study of patients (≥18 years) with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms for 12 months or more after radiotherapy and which persisted despite at least 3 months of optimal medical therapy and no evidence of cancer recurrence. Participants were stratified by participating hyperbaric centre and randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated list (block size nine or 12) to receive treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy or sham. Participants in the active treatment group breathed 100% oxygen at 2·4 atmospheres of absolute pressure (ATA) and the control group breathed 21% oxygen at 1·3 ATA; both treatment groups received 90-min air pressure exposures once daily for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks (total of 40 exposures). Staff at the participating hyperbaric medicine facilities knew the allocated treatment, but patients, clinicians, nurse practitioners, and other health-care professionals associated with patients' care were masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were changes in the bowel component of the modified Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) score and the IBDQ rectal bleeding score 12 months after start of treatment relative to baseline. The primary outcome was analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, excluding patients who did not provide IBDQ scores within a predetermined time-frame. All patients have completed 12 months of follow-up and the final analysis is complete. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN86894066

  10. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) improves symptoms and reduces clinical illness in patients suffering from OCD--Results from a single-blind, randomized clinical trial with sham cross-over condition.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Shayganfard, Mehran; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Pirdehghan, Azar; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-09-01

    Both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological methods are used in the treatment of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and both with encouraging but also mixed results. Here, we tested the hypothesis that repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) improves symptoms and reduces illness severity in patients suffering from treatment-resistant OCD. A total of 21 patients (57% females; mean age: M = 35.8 years) suffering from treatment-resistant OCD were randomly assigned either to an rTMS-first-sham-second, or a sham-first-rTMS-second condition. Treatment sessions lasted for 4 weeks with five sessions per week, each of about 50 min duration. Symptoms were assessed via both self- and expert-ratings. Both self- and expert-reported symptom severity reduced in the rTMS condition as compared to the sham condition. Full- and partial responses were observed in the rTMS-condition, but not in the sham-condition. The pattern of results from this single-blind, sham- and cross-over design suggests that rTMS is a successful intervention for patients suffering from treatment-resistant OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Pharmacopsychometric Triangle to Illustrate the Effectiveness of T-PEMF Concomitant with Antidepressants in Treatment Resistant Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial Revisited with Focus on the Patient-Reported Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bech, P.; Gefke, M.; Lunde, M.; Lauritzen, L.; Martiny, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Our T-PEMF trial has been revisited with focus on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which effect size is used when comparing wanted versus unwanted clinical effects and quality of life as outcomes. In this analysis, we have especially focused on the self-reported HAM-D6. Methods. The antidepressive medication which the patients were resistant to was kept unchanged during the five weeks of active versus sham T-PEMF. Results. In total 21, patients received active T-PEMF, and 19 patients received sham T-PEMF. The effect size was 1.02 and 0.90, respectively, on HAM-D6 and HAM-D6-S. Concerning side effects, the active T-PEMF reduced the baseline score on concentration problems with an effect size of 0.44 while inducing more autonomic symptoms than sham T-PEMF with an effect size of −0.41. The advantage of active over sham T-PEMF obtained an effect size of 0.48. Conclusion. Active T-PEMF was found superior to sham T-PEMF within the pharmacopsychometric triangle with a clinically significant effect size level above 0.40. PMID:21738869

  13. The Pharmacopsychometric Triangle to Illustrate the Effectiveness of T-PEMF Concomitant with Antidepressants in Treatment Resistant Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial Revisited with Focus on the Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bech, P; Gefke, M; Lunde, M; Lauritzen, L; Martiny, K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Our T-PEMF trial has been revisited with focus on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which effect size is used when comparing wanted versus unwanted clinical effects and quality of life as outcomes. In this analysis, we have especially focused on the self-reported HAM-D(6). Methods. The antidepressive medication which the patients were resistant to was kept unchanged during the five weeks of active versus sham T-PEMF. Results. In total 21, patients received active T-PEMF, and 19 patients received sham T-PEMF. The effect size was 1.02 and 0.90, respectively, on HAM-D(6) and HAM-D(6)-S. Concerning side effects, the active T-PEMF reduced the baseline score on concentration problems with an effect size of 0.44 while inducing more autonomic symptoms than sham T-PEMF with an effect size of -0.41. The advantage of active over sham T-PEMF obtained an effect size of 0.48. Conclusion. Active T-PEMF was found superior to sham T-PEMF within the pharmacopsychometric triangle with a clinically significant effect size level above 0.40.

  14. Contribution of electromagnetic and tomographic technique to the study of the impact of salinity in soils of the experimental station of Al Ain Atti (Errachidia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamara, A.; El Harnafi, M.; Ammar, A.

    2017-03-01

    is closely related to the concentration of mineral particles. Characterization studies at the La Ronde tailings mine (Agnico-Eagle Ltd, in Abitibi), showed quite encouraging results (Campos, 2004; Anterrieu, 2006). Since it is a salt-bearing areas (highly conductive) and given that the induced polarization is very sensitive to the ground conductivity; by measurement of residual potential, so we took measures chargeability tomography, the result is compared to the resistivity measured at different soils (control and irrigated), which will better clarify the impact of salinity on the quality of the disturbed soil. Indeed, the chargeability response it possible to characterize the different irrigated soils and its variation is attributed not only to the effect of saline irrigation but also the existence of an heterogeneity of the original ground. Prospecting in electrical tomography has displayed vertically and horizontally anomalies existing within the experimental site of the station of Ain Al Atti, it showed that: - accumulation of salinity becomes wider going from the control ground to that of Acacias. - surveyed the ground at least appear more homogeneous in surface, but their conductivity varies in depth. - salinity origin and the concretion formed on the surface greatly influenced chargeability and resistivity measured on the different experimental soils.

  15. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  16. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  17. Undulant Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  18. Majestic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge; Dunlop, Storm

    1999-10-01

    Foreword; 1. The history of cosmology; 2. The galaxy, an island in space; 3. A thousand generations of stars; 4. The next supernova; 5. Planets by the billion?; 6. The enigma at the heart of the Milky Way; 7. A sea of galaxies; 8. The architecture of the universe; 9. The Big Bang, and the history of the universe; 10. Gravitational lenses; 11. The mystery of the missing mass; 12. Searching for the ultimate; 13. Towards the cosmological horizon; Appendices; Glossary; Index; Bibliography.

  19. "That Ain't Going to Get You a Professorship": Discourses of Writing and the Positioning of Academics' Work with Student Writers in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of academic literacies research has enhanced our understanding of university writing as contested, institutionally situated practice with important consequences, particularly for students as they learn to negotiate the writing demands of university study. Less empirical attention has been paid to the practices of subject academics…

  20. The painfulness of active, but not sham, transcranial magnetic stimulation decreases rapidly over time: results from the double-blind phase of the OPT-TMS Trial.

    PubMed

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Nahas, Ziad H; Teal, John; Lisanby, Sarah H; McDonald, William M; Avery, David; Durkalski, Valerie; Pavlicova, Martina; Long, James M; Sackeim, Harold A; George, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over several weeks is an FDA approved treatment for major depression. Although rTMS is generally safe when administered using the FDA guidelines, there are a number of side effects that can make it difficult for patients to complete a course of rTMS. Many patients report that rTMS is painful, although patients appear to accommodate to the initial painfulness. The reduction in pain is hypothesized to be due to prefrontal stimulation and is not solely explained by accommodation to the stimulation. In a recent 4 site randomized controlled trial (using an active electrical sham stimulation system) investigating the antidepressant effects of daily left dorsolateral prefrontal rTMS (Optimization of TMS, or OPT-TMS), the procedural painfulness of TMS was assessed before and after each treatment session. Computerized visual analog scale ratings were gathered before and after each TMS session in the OPT-TMS trial. Stimulation was delivered with an iron core figure-8 coil (Neuronetics) with the following parameters: 10 Hz, 120% MT (EMG-defined), 4 s pulse train, 26 s inter-train interval, 3000 pulses per session, one 37.5 min session per day. After each session, procedural pain (pain at the beginning of the TMS session, pain toward the middle, and pain toward then end of the session) ratings were collected at all 4 sites. From the 199 patients randomized, we had usable data from 142 subjects for the initial 15 TMS sessions (double-blind phase) delivered over 3 weeks (142 × 2 × 15 = 4260 rating sessions). The painfulness of real TMS was initially higher than that of the active sham condition. Over the 15 treatment sessions, subjective reports of the painfulness of rTMS (during the beginning, middle and end of the session) decreased significantly 37% from baseline in those receiving active TMS, with no change in painfulness in those receiving sham. This reduction, although greatest in the

  1. Eternal Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-08-01

    We discuss cosmological models for an eternal Universe. Physical observables show no singularity from the infinite past to the infinite future. While the Universe is evolving, there is no beginning and no end—the Universe exists forever. The early state of inflation is described in two different, but equivalent pictures. In the freeze frame the Universe emerges from an almost static state with flat geometry. After entropy production it shrinks and "thaws" slowly from a "freeze state" with extremely low temperature. The field transformation to the second "big bang picture" (Einstein frame) is singular. This "field singularity" is responsible for an apparent singularity of the big bang. Furthermore, we argue that past-incomplete geodesics do not necessarily indicate a singularity or beginning of the Universe. Proper time ceases to be a useful concept for physical time if particles become massless. We propose to define physical time by counting the number of zeros of a component of the wave function. This counting is independent of the choice of coordinates and frames, and applies to massive and massless particles alike.

  2. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  3. CNS BOLD fMRI effects of sham-controlled transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the left outer auditory canal - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Thomas; Kiess, Olga; Hösl, Katharina; Terekhin, Pavel; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2013-09-01

    It has recently been shown that electrical stimulation of sensory afferents within the outer auditory canal may facilitate a transcutaneous form of central nervous system stimulation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effects in limbic and temporal structures have been detected in two independent studies. In the present study, we investigated BOLD fMRI effects in response to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of two different zones in the left outer auditory canal. It is hypothesized that different central nervous system (CNS) activation patterns might help to localize and specifically stimulate auricular cutaneous vagal afferents. 16 healthy subjects aged between 20 and 37 years were divided into two groups. 8 subjects were stimulated in the anterior wall, the other 8 persons received transcutaneous vagus nervous stimulation (tVNS) at the posterior side of their left outer auditory canal. For sham control, both groups were also stimulated in an alternating manner on their corresponding ear lobe, which is generally known to be free of cutaneous vagal innervation. Functional MR data from the cortex and brain stem level were collected and a group analysis was performed. In most cortical areas, BOLD changes were in the opposite direction when comparing anterior vs. posterior stimulation of the left auditory canal. The only exception was in the insular cortex, where both stimulation types evoked positive BOLD changes. Prominent decreases of the BOLD signals were detected in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and right thalamus (pulvinar) following anterior stimulation. In subcortical areas at brain stem level, a stronger BOLD decrease as compared with sham stimulation was found in the locus coeruleus and the solitary tract only during stimulation of the anterior part of the auditory canal. The results of the study are in line with previous fMRI studies showing robust BOLD signal decreases in

  4. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  5. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obese females with binge eating disorder: a protocol for a double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Mara Fernandes; Estella, Nara Mendes; Cury, Maria Elisa Gisbert; Amigo, Veruska Lastoria; Picasso, Clarissa Mollinero; Berberian, Arthur; Campbell, Iain; Schmidt, Ulrike; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2015-08-12

    Binge eating disorder is a new category in DSM-5 and highly associated with higher body mass index. The neural mechanisms that underlie binge eating are of great interest in order to improve treatment interventions. Brain mechanisms underlying drug and food craving are suggested to be similar: for example, both are reported to be associated with increased neural activity in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, and a diminished regulatory influence from lateral prefrontal circuits. Several studies have begun to assess the potential benefits of brain stimulation in reducing craving and addictive behaviors. Data from a study of a one-off session of transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy women identified as strong cravers and of individuals with bulimic-type eating disorders, reported a reduction in food craving and binge eating episodes. This provides support for a more extensive investigation of the potential therapeutic benefits of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lastly, brain imaging studies and a dimensional approach, will improve understanding of the neural correlates of the disorders and of the mode of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sixty eligible obese females, with binge eating disorder, will be randomly allocated to receive 20 sessions of transcranial magnetic stimulation intervention (n = 30) or the sham transcranial magnetic stimulation intervention (n = 30) scattered 3 days/week. Thirty eligible controls will complete the baseline assessment. The primary outcome (number of binge eating episodes) will be assed at each treatment sessions, and 8 weeks after intervention completion (follow-up). It is hypothesized that mean weekly binge-eating episodes will be reduced in the intervention group, compared to the sham group, and that the effect will be maintained at follow-up. Despite the severity associated with Binge Eating Disorder, there are limited treatment options. This study is an important step in the development of more

  6. Predicting the structure and vibrational frequencies of ethylene using harmonic and anharmonic approaches at the Kohn-Sham complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Aneta; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A; Żyła, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, regular convergence patterns of the structural, harmonic, and VPT2-calculated anharmonic vibrational parameters of ethylene towards the Kohn-Sham complete basis set (KS CBS) limit are demonstrated for the first time. The performance of the VPT2 scheme implemented using density functional theory (DFT-BLYP and DFT-B3LYP) in combination with two Pople basis sets (6-311++G** and 6-311++G(3df,2pd)), the polarization-consistent basis sets pc-n, aug-pc-n, and pcseg-n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), and the correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, 6) was tested.The BLYP-calculated harmonic frequencies were found to be markedly closer than the B3LYP-calculated harmonic frequencies to the experimentally derived values, while the calculated anharmonic frequencies consistently underestimated the observed wavenumbers. The different basis set families gave very similar estimated values for the CBS parameters. The anharmonic frequencies calculated with B3LYP/aug-pc-3 were consistently significantly higher than those obtained with the pc-3 basis set; applying the aug-pcseg-n basis set family alleviated this problem. Utilization of B3LYP/aug-pcseg-n basis sets instead of B3LYP/aug-cc-pVXZ, which is computationally less expensive, is suggested for medium-sized molecules. Harmonic BLYP/pc-2 calculations produced fairly accurate ethylene frequencies. Graphical Abstract In this study, the performance of the VPT2 scheme implemented using density functional theory (DFT-BLYP and DFT-B3LYP) in combination with the polarization-consistent basis sets pc-n, aug-pc-n, and pcseg-n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), and the correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, and 6) was tested. For the first time, we demonstrated regular convergence patterns of the structural, harmonic, and VPT2-calculated anharmonic vibrational parameters of ethylene towards the Kohn-Sham complete basis set (KS CBS) limit.

  7. Kohn-Sham calculations with self-interaction-corrected local-spin-density exchange-correlation energy functional for atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiqiang; Krieger, J. B.; Li, Yan; Iafrate, G. J.

    1996-11-01

    We have investigated the accuracy of the local-spin-density approximation with orbital-density-dependent self-interaction correction (LSDSIC) as proposed by Perdew and Zunger within a Kohn-Sham approach in which electrons with a given spin projection all move in a single optimized effective potential (OEP). We have also studied the accuracy of the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation to the OEP for the same energy functional in order to assess its applicability to systems in which the integral equation for the OEP cannot be reduced to a one-dimensional problem, e.g., molecules. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham LSDSIC calculations have been performed for atoms with atomic number Z=1-20 in the exchange-only case for the total energy, the highest-occupied orbital energy ɛm, and the expectation value of r2. In addition, the structure of the resulting exchange potential is examined and compared with the exact exchange-only density-functional theory (OEP method with Hartree-Fock exchange-energy functional) results. Furthermore, we display ɛm, the ionization potential I, and the electron affinity A when both exchange and correlation energy effects are included. Finally, we also consider the results of evaluating the LSDSIC energy functional by employing the exact (in the central-field approximation) single particle orbitals as proposed by Harrison. We find that the LSDSIC energy functional generally leads to calculated values that are superior to those provided by the LSD approximation and that the KLI approximation yields results in excellent agreement with the corresponding exact OEP results for this energy functional. In particular, quantities strongly related to the behavior of the valence electrons are nearly identical in both the OEP and KLI calculations, i.e., the difference between the and ɛm is less than 0.2% on average, while the difference between the calculated I is less than 0.2 millihartree on average with the corresponding difference of only 0

  8. Quantum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhanov, V. F.

    2016-10-01

    In March 2013, following an accurate processing of available measurement data, the Planck Scientific Collaboration published the highest-resolution photograph ever of the early Universe when it was only a few hundred thousand years old. The photograph showed galactic seeds in sufficient detail to test some nontrivial theoretical predictions made more than thirty years ago. Most amazing was that all predictions were confirmed to be remarkably accurate. With no exaggeration, we may consider it established experimentally that quantum physics, which is normally assumed to be relevant on the atomic and subatomic scale, also works on the scale of the entire Universe, determining its structure with all its galaxies, stars, and planets.

  9. A density matrix-based quasienergy formulation of the Kohn-Sham density functional response theory using perturbation- and time-dependent basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Kristensen, Kasper; Jørgensen, Poul; Coriani, Sonia

    2008-12-01

    A general method is presented for the calculation of molecular properties to arbitrary order at the Kohn-Sham density functional level of theory. The quasienergy and Lagrangian formalisms are combined to derive response functions and their residues by straightforward differentiation of the quasienergy derivative Lagrangian using the elements of the density matrix in the atomic orbital representation as variational parameters. Response functions and response equations are expressed in the atomic orbital basis, allowing recent advances in the field of linear-scaling methodology to be used. Time-dependent and static perturbations are treated on an equal footing, and atomic basis sets that depend on the applied frequency-dependent perturbations may be used, e.g., frequency-dependent London atomic orbitals. The 2n+1 rule may be applied if computationally favorable, but alternative formulations using higher-order perturbed density matrices are also derived. These may be advantageous in order to minimize the number of response equations that needs to be solved, for instance, when one of the perturbations has many components, as is the case for the first-order geometrical derivative of the hyperpolarizability.

  10. Role of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals in the basis set superposition error for systems linked by hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Garza, Jorge; Ramírez, José-Zeferino; Vargas, Rubicelia

    2005-02-03

    In this work the effect of the basis set superposition error (BSSE) is explored with the counterpoise method on the occupied and unoccupied Hartree-Fock (HF) and Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals. Three different systems linked by hydrogen bonds, H(2)O...FH, H(2)O...H(2)O, and H(2)O...CFH(3), were studied by using the basis set families cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q). The basis sets were tested with the HF method and two approximations for the exchange-correlation functional of KS: a generalized gradient approximation and a hybrid approach. In addition to these methods, the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, MP2, was considered. It was found that the presence of the "ghost" basis set affects the orbitals in two ways: (1) The occupied KS orbitals are more sensitive to the presence of this "ghost" basis set than the occupied HF orbitals. For this reason the BSSE observed in HF is less than that obtained with KS. (2) The unoccupied HF orbitals are more sensitive to the presence of the "ghost" basis set than their corresponding occupied orbitals. Because the MP2 method uses both, occupied and unoccupied HF orbitals, to compute the total energy, the contribution of the BSSE is bigger than that obtained with HF or KS methodologies.

  11. Outstanding performance of configuration interaction singles and doubles using exact exchange Kohn-Sham orbitals in real-space numerical grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaechang; Choi, Sunghwan; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2016-12-01

    To assess the performance of multi-configuration methods using exact exchange Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals, we implemented configuration interaction singles and doubles (CISD) in a real-space numerical grid code. We obtained KS orbitals with the exchange-only optimized effective potential under the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation. Thanks to the distinctive features of KLI orbitals against Hartree-Fock (HF), such as bound virtual orbitals with compact shapes and orbital energy gaps similar to excitation energies; KLI-CISD for small molecules shows much faster convergence as a function of simulation box size and active space (i.e., the number of virtual orbitals) than HF-CISD. The former also gives more accurate excitation energies with a few dominant configurations than the latter, even with many more configurations. The systematic control of basis set errors is straightforward in grid bases. Therefore, grid-based multi-configuration methods using exact exchange KS orbitals provide a promising new way to make accurate electronic structure calculations.

  12. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  13. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in early rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke non-fluent aphasia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Polanowska, Katarzyna Ewa; Leśniak, Marcin Maciej; Seniów, Joanna Barbara; Czepiel, Wojciech; Członkowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in patients with chronic aphasia shows an association between excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) of the stroke-affected left hemisphere coupled with speech and language therapy (SLT) and better language performance. The present study aimed to investigate this association during the early post-stroke rehabilitation period, when adaptive changes are most possible on neurophysiological and behavioral levels. We randomized 24 patients with non-fluent aphasia to receive 15 consecutive sessions (5 days/week for 3 weeks) of A-tDCS (1 mA, 10 min; n = 14) or sham tDCS (S-tDCS: 1 mA, 25 sec; n = 10) over Broca's area followed by 45-min SLT. Naming ability was assessed before the rehabilitation, after its completion, and three months later. Both groups significantly improved after the therapy. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the short-term or long-term tDCS effects on naming accuracy and naming time. The A-tDCS group obtained higher effect sizes in naming time, both post-treatment and at the 3-month follow-up, suggesting potential benefits of the stimulation. The findings provide only weak evidence for A-tDCS-related language gains during early neurorehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of this kind of neuromodulation.

  14. Outstanding performance of configuration interaction singles and doubles using exact exchange Kohn-Sham orbitals in real-space numerical grid method.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaechang; Choi, Sunghwan; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2016-12-14

    To assess the performance of multi-configuration methods using exact exchange Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals, we implemented configuration interaction singles and doubles (CISD) in a real-space numerical grid code. We obtained KS orbitals with the exchange-only optimized effective potential under the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation. Thanks to the distinctive features of KLI orbitals against Hartree-Fock (HF), such as bound virtual orbitals with compact shapes and orbital energy gaps similar to excitation energies; KLI-CISD for small molecules shows much faster convergence as a function of simulation box size and active space (i.e., the number of virtual orbitals) than HF-CISD. The former also gives more accurate excitation energies with a few dominant configurations than the latter, even with many more configurations. The systematic control of basis set errors is straightforward in grid bases. Therefore, grid-based multi-configuration methods using exact exchange KS orbitals provide a promising new way to make accurate electronic structure calculations.

  15. Kohn-Sham Decomposition in Real-Time Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory: An Efficient Tool for Analyzing Plasmonic Excitations.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Kuisma, Mikael; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M; Erhart, Paul

    2017-10-10

    Electronic excitations can be efficiently analyzed in terms of the underlying Kohn-Sham (KS) electron-hole transitions. While such a decomposition is readily available in the linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) approaches based on the Casida equations, a comparable analysis is less commonly conducted within the real-time-propagation TDDFT (RT-TDDFT). To improve this situation, we present here an implementation of a KS decomposition tool within the local-basis-set RT-TDDFT code in the free GPAW package. Our implementation is based on postprocessing of data that is readily available during time propagation, which is important for retaining the efficiency of the underlying RT-TDDFT to large systems. After benchmarking our implementation on small benzene derivatives by explicitly reconstructing the Casida eigenvectors from RT-TDDFT, we demonstrate the performance of the method by analyzing the plasmon resonances of icosahedral silver nanoparticles up to Ag561. The method provides a clear description of the splitting of the plasmon in small nanoparticles due to individual single-electron transitions as well as the formation of a distinct d-electron-screened plasmon resonance in larger nanoparticles.

  16. Impact of physical activity on patient self-reported outcomes of lifelong premature ejaculation patients: Results of a prospective, randomised, sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, M F; Aydogmus, Y; Yildiz, Y; Doluoglu, O G

    2017-03-06

    Previous studies have investigated whether physical activity increases serotonin hormone levels. Serotonin receptor dysfunction is one of the frequently accused factors of premature ejaculation (PE). Nevertheless, no studies up to date have demonstrated that the association between physical activity and premature ejaculation. We aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity and PE and determine whether moderate physical activity might delay ejaculation time or be an alternative treatment for PE. A total of 105 patients diagnosed with PE were enrolled in this study. Of the patients, 35 were treated with dapoxetine, (30 mg) on demand (Group 1), 35 performed moderate physical activities (Group 2), and 35 performed minimal physical activity (Group 3-sham). Demographic characteristics, metabolic equivalents (MET), premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) were recorded. There were no significant differences among three groups in terms of age, BMI, MET, PEDT or IELT before treatment. At the end of the study, there was significant decrease in PEDT scores, and increase in IELT in groups 1 and 2 as compared to Group 3. In conclusion, a moderate physical activity longer than 30 min at least 5 times a week leads to ejaculation delay, and appears as an alternative to dapoxetine on demand for the treatment of PE.

  17. Exploratory study on the efficacy of reflexology for pain threshold and tolerance using an ice-pain experiment and sham TENS control.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Carol A; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-05-01

    To explore the efficacy of reflexology on acute pain induced in healthy human subjects using a sham TENS control. An ice-pain experiment was undertaken in which the volunteers (n = 15; 11 female and 4 male with a mean ± SEM age of 37.7 ± 2.6 years) were required to immerse their non-dominant hand in a container of ice-slurry whilst two indices of pain, i.e. threshold, (the time taken for subjects to experience the first pain sensation) and tolerance, (the time when the subject is unable to tolerate any further pain), were measured. Compared to control data, reflexology increased acute pain threshold (F(1,14) = 4.5958, p < 0.05) and tolerance (F(1,14) = 5.1095, p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that reflexology produces antinociceptive effects in a controlled experiment and suggest the possibility that reflexology may be useful on its own or as an adjunct to medication in the treatment of pain conditions in man. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with Kohn-Sham orbitals using non-empirically tuned, long-range-corrected density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals is evaluated against benchmark results for intermolecular interactions. Unlike previous studies of this "SAPT(KS)" methodology, the present study uses non-empirically tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals for the monomers. The proper {v{}_xc}(r)rArr 0 asymptotic limit is achieved by tuning the range separation parameter in order to satisfy the condition that the highest occupied KS energy level equals minus the molecule's ionization energy, for each monomer unit. Tests for He2, Ne2, and the S22 and S66 data sets reveal that this condition is important for accurate prediction of the non-dispersion components of the energy, although errors in SAPT(KS) dispersion energies remain unacceptably large. In conjunction with an empirical dispersion potential, however, the SAPT(KS) method affords good results for S22 and S66, and also accurately predicts the whole potential energy curve for the sandwich isomer of the benzene dimer. Tuned LRC functionals represent an attractive alternative to other asymptotic corrections that have been employed in density-functional-based SAPT calculations, and we recommend the use of tuned LRC functionals in both coupled-perturbed SAPT(DFT) calculations and dispersion-corrected SAPT(KS) calculations.

  19. The Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial (BETTER): Design, Rationale, and Objectives of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial and Data from the Pilot Study Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio; Nunes, Paula; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bipolar depression (BD) is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER). Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups) in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. PMID:25878904

  20. Electronic π-to-π* Excitations of Rhodamine Dyes Exhibit a Time-Dependent Kohn-Sham Theory “Cyanine Problem”

    DOE PAGES

    Moore, II, Barry; Schrader, Robert L.; Kowalski, Karol; ...

    2017-05-02

    The longest-wavelength π-to-π* electronic excitations of rhodamine-like dyes (RDs) with different group16 heteroatoms (O, S, Se, Te) have been investigated. Time-dependent Kohn–Sham theory (TDKST) calculations were compared with coupled-cluster (CC) and equations-of-motion (EOM) CC results for π-to-π* singlet and triplet excitations. The RDs exhibit characteristics in the TDKST calculations that are very similar to previously investigated cyanine dyes, in the sense that the singlet energies obtained with nonhybrid functionals are too high compared with the CC results at the SD(T) level. The errors became increasingly larger for functionals with increasing amounts of exact exchange. TDKST with all tested functionals ledmore » to severe underestimations of the corresponding triplet excitations and overestimations of the singlet--triplet gaps. Long-range-corrected range-separated exchange and "optimal tuning" of the range separation parameter did not significantly improve the TDKST results. A detailed analysis suggests that the problem is differential electron correlation between the ground and excited states, which is not treated sufficiently by the relatively small integrals over the exchange-correlation response kernel that enters the excitation energy expression. As a result, numerical criteria are suggested that may help identify "cyanine-like" problems in TDKST calculations of excitation spectra.« less

  1. In Vivo Effect of a 5-HT7 Receptor Agonist on 5-HT Neurons and GABA Interneurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Sham and PD Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jie; Guo, Yufang; Wang, Xiang; Huo, Jian; Wei, Ping; Cao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) neurotransmission is severely affected by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report the effects of the systemic administration of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19. In sham rats, the mean response of the 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to systemic AS-19 was excitatory and the mean response of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons was inhibitory. In Parkinson disease (PD) rats, the same dose did not affect the 5-HT neurons and only high doses (640 μg/kg intravenous) were able to the increase GABA interneuron activity. These results indicate that DRN 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons are regulated by the activation of 5-HT7 receptors and that the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to decreased responses of these neurons to AS-19, which in turn suggests that the 5-HT7 receptors on 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons in PD rats are dysfunctional and downregulated.

  2. Band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids using accurate Kohn-Sham potentials with self-interaction correction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Krieger, J.B. ); Norman, M.R. ); Iafrate, G.J. )

    1991-11-15

    The optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method and a method developed recently by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) are applied to the band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids employing the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The resulting band gaps from both calculations are found to be in fair agreement with the experimental values. The discrepancies are typically within a few percent with results that are nearly the same as those of previously published orbital-dependent multipotential SIC calculations, whereas the LSD results underestimate the band gaps by as much as 40%. As in the LSD---and it is believed to be the case even for the exact Kohn-Sham potential---both the OEP and KLI predict valence-band widths which are narrower than those of experiment. In all cases, the KLI method yields essentially the same results as the OEP.

  3. A simple scheme for magnetic balance in four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants in a Gaussian basis.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond; Pecul, Magdalena

    2012-01-07

    We report the implementation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors within the four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham density functional theory including non-collinear spin magnetization and employing London atomic orbitals to ensure gauge origin independent results, together with a new and efficient scheme for assuring correct balance between the large and small components of a molecular four-component spinor in the presence of an external magnetic field (simple magnetic balance). To test our formalism we have carried out calculations of NMR shielding tensors for the HX series (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At), the Xe atom, and the Xe dimer. The advantage of simple magnetic balance scheme combined with the use of London atomic orbitals is the fast convergence of results (when compared with restricted kinetic balance) and elimination of linear dependencies in the basis set (when compared to unrestricted kinetic balance). The effect of including spin magnetization in the description of NMR shielding tensor has been found important for hydrogen atoms in heavy HX molecules, causing an increase of isotropic values of 10%, but negligible for heavy atoms.