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Sample records for aina leeben ilmar

  1. Malama I Ka `Aina: Fostering the Culture-Science connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B.; Chinn, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Malama I Ka `Aina Project (Caring for the land, or sustainability) aims to improve and expand the education of Hawai`i's children by developing and disseminating standards-based, culturally relevant science curricular materials based on an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which traditional Hawaiians interacted with their environment for sustainability. Key concepts include the role of water and the ahupua`a (traditional Hawaiian system of land management), and a culture-based sense of place that includes knowledge of and connection to the land. Elementary, middle, high school and University of Hawai`i teachers work together to develop and implement curricula that are especially relevant to a particular school's science program and issues, e.g., invasive species, students, community and/or geographical location. Participants (typically a mix of teachers, education majors and science majors) enroll in Malama I Ka `Aina, a three-credit course offered through the University of Hawai`i`s Dept. of Curriculum Studies and applicable toward a Bachelor's or Master's degree. This course (team taught by scientists, cultural experts and educational professionals) enables participants to: (1) Study Hawai`i`s unique geology, geography and environmental issues in the context of Hawaiian culture and post Western contact; (2) Use course knowledge to develop, teach and assess Hawaii-oriented, project-based, inquiry activities that address the Hawaii Science Content Standards; (3) Gain an appreciation for the scientific method, and the curiosity that drives science (4) Use educational technology such as PowerPoint, graphing packages and web authoring software to develop electronic resources for educational activities. A sample of the lessons developed by course participants can be found on http://malama.hawaii.edu/schools/index2.html. This project is based at the University of Hawai`i College of Education and funded by an award to P. Chinn by the US Department of

  2. Low oxygen tension induces positive inotropy and decreases a(i)Na in isolated guinea-pig cardiac ventricular papillary muscles.

    PubMed

    Jao, M J; Yang, J M

    1998-06-30

    Effects of low oxygen on contractile force, intracellular Na+ activity (aiNa), and action potential were simultaneously measured in isolated guinea-pig ventricular papillary muscles. Reduction of oxygen from control 488 to 150 mmHg biphasically increased and decreased the twitch tension, and decreased aiNa in muscles driven at 60 beats/min. The action potential duration (APD) was decreased but the maximum rate of upstroke (Vmax) was increased. In control, 1 microM epinephrine significantly increased the the action potential amplitude and twitch tension with decreases in the time to twitch peak (TTP), time for 50% relaxation (RT50), and aiNa. After exposure to low oxygen for 10 min, with twitch tension elevated and TTP and RT90 increased, 1 microM epinephrine significantly increased the twitch tension and Vmax, and decreased the APD and aiNa. Pretreatment with reserpine inhibited the twitch tension, both at control and in the presence of epinephrine. But changes of action potential and aiNa in response to low oxygen and epinephrine were similar to those in control. Our results indicate that the isolated guinea-pig ventricular muscle needs a high oxygen tension to maintain a normal contractile function. Reduction of oxygen deteriorates the electrical and mechanical activities, most likely, by a coaxial graded hypoxia. The decreased aiNa, not associated with endogenous catecholamines, suggests that the activity of the Na(+)-K+ pump can be maintained in the superficial muscle cells despite of core-central hypoxia.

  3. "He Pu'a Kani 'Aina": Mapping Student Growth in Hawaiian-Focused Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen of the startup charter schools in the State of Hawai'i are Hawaiian-focused, providing an education grounded in culturally relevant content and context. This study centers on outcomes in these Hawaiian-focused charter schools, which have demonstrated their value to the community, serving the educational needs of an increasing number of…

  4. "Malama I Ka 'Aina, Sustainability": Learning from Hawai'i's Displaced Place and Culture-Based Science Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2011-01-01

    This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and…

  5. The Mathematical Sciences in Syriac: From Sergius of Resh-'Aina and Severus Sebokht to Barhebraeus and Patriarch Ni'matallah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    Syriac translations and Syriac scholars played an important role in the transmission of the sciences, including the mathematical sciences, from the Greek to the Arabic world. Relatively little, unfortunately, remains of the translations and original mathematical works of earlier Syriac scholars, but some materials have survived, and further…

  6. The Mathematical Sciences in Syriac: From Sergius of Resh-'Aina and Severus Sebokht to Barhebraeus and Patriarch Ni'matallah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    Syriac translations and Syriac scholars played an important role in the transmission of the sciences, including the mathematical sciences, from the Greek to the Arabic world. Relatively little, unfortunately, remains of the translations and original mathematical works of earlier Syriac scholars, but some materials have survived, and further…

  7. American Indians/Native Alaskans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Examining the Impairments of Traumatic Brain Injury, Disparities in Service Provision, and Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Harold Wayne; Lloyd, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    The researchers analyzed data from fiscal year 2006 and found that American Indians/Native Alaskans (AI/NA) with traumatic brain injury experienced similar functional limitations at application as did non-AI/NA. Fewer funds were expended on purchased services for AI/NA than for non-AI/NA. The wages of AI/NA were equitable to those of non-AI/NA at…

  8. American Indians/Native Alaskans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Examining the Impairments of Traumatic Brain Injury, Disparities in Service Provision, and Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Harold Wayne; Lloyd, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    The researchers analyzed data from fiscal year 2006 and found that American Indians/Native Alaskans (AI/NA) with traumatic brain injury experienced similar functional limitations at application as did non-AI/NA. Fewer funds were expended on purchased services for AI/NA than for non-AI/NA. The wages of AI/NA were equitable to those of non-AI/NA at…

  9. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention as Standard Practice: Working with the American Indian/Native Alaskan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074

  10. 24 CFR 1006.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native...

  12. 24 CFR 1006.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native...

  13. 24 CFR 1006.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native...

  14. 24 CFR 1007.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the area that currently constitutes the State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native Hawaiian family means a family with at least one member who is...

  15. 24 CFR 1007.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the area that currently constitutes the State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native Hawaiian family means a family with at least one member who is...

  16. 24 CFR 1007.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the area that currently constitutes the State of Hawaii, as evidenced by: (i) Genealogical records; (ii) Verification by kupuna (elders) or kama'aina (long-term community residents); or (iii) Birth records of the State of Hawaii. Native Hawaiian family means a family with at least one member who is...

  17. American Indian Studies as an Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2011-01-01

    When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…

  18. American Indian Studies as an Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2011-01-01

    When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…

  19. Influence of sodium-hydrogen exchange on intracellular pH, sodium and tension in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kaila, K; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1987-01-01

    1. The influence of sarcolemmal Na+-H+ exchange upon intracellular Na+ activity (aiNa), intracellular pH (pHi), extracellular surface pH (pHs) and tonic tension was investigated in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres. Intracellular ion activities were measured with liquid sensor ion-selective micro-electrodes. A two-micro-electrode voltage-clamp was also used to control membrane potential while simultaneously recording tonic tension. 2. Inhibition of the sarcolemmal Na+-K+ pump by strophanthidin (10 mumol/l) produced a rise in aiNa, an increase in [Ca2+]i as evidenced by a rise in tonic tension, and a fall in pHi of 0.1-0.3 units. The intracellular acidosis has been shown previously to be linked to the rise in [Ca2+]i (Vaughan-Jones, Lederer & Eisner, 1983). 3. Amiloride (1-2 mmol/l), an inhibitor of Na+-H+ exchange, produced a small reversible decrease in pHi and aiNa. Both effects became more pronounced in strophanthidin-exposed fibres. In addition, pHi decreased during application of strophanthidin and this decrease was reversibly inhibited by amiloride. It is concluded that sarcolemmal Na+-H+ exchange is stimulated following inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump. 4. In strophanthidin-exposed fibres, a rise in [Ca2+]i resulted in an intracellular acidosis which could still be observed in the presence of amiloride (1 mmol/l). This suggests that the fall in pHi was not caused by a modulatory effect of [Ca2+]i on sarcolemmal Na+-H+ exchange. 5. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) produced a small fall in aiNa (ca. 0.5 mmol/l) which was not augmented in the presence of strophanthidin. Furthermore, the effects on aiNa of TTX and amiloride were additive. Thus the influence of amiloride on aiNa does not involve blockade of voltage-gated Na+ channels. 6. The stoicheiometry of Na+-H+ exchange, estimated from the rates of change of pHi and aiNa in amiloride, appeared to be electroneutral (1:1). The stoicheiometry was unaffected by changes in pHi. 7. In strophanthidin-exposed fibres (i.e. aiNa is

  20. Intracellular ion activities in frog skin in relation to external sodium and effects of amiloride and/or ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Kernan, R P

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular activities of sodium, potassium and chloride ions, aiNa, aiK, and aiCl were measured with ion-selective single-, double- and triple-barrelled micro-electrodes in skin and isolated epithelia of Rana temporaria bathed on both sides with normal or modified physiological saline. Apical and basolateral membrane potentials, psi ac and psi cs and resistance Ra and Rb respectively were also measured and from the latter the fractional resistance of the apical membrane, F(Ra) and voltage divider ratio, delta psi ac/delta psi cs were measured as criteria of satisfactory membrane penetration by the micro-electrodes. Under control conditions, aiNa was 12.3 +/- 0.8 mM, aiK was 70.3 +/- 22 mM and aiCl was 20.3 +/- 1.6 mM with psi ac averaging -38.0 +/- 3.2 mV. When 10(-4) M-amiloride was added to the apical bathing fluid aiNa fell within 10 min to 1.18 +/- 0.1 mM and aiCl to 5.2 +/- 0.9 mM, while aiK increased to 86.2 +/- 3.8 mM as measured from the basolateral border of isolated epithelia. The sodium transport pool of the skin was measured from the fall in aiNa in the presence of amiloride and could be expressed as 33 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 of epithelium. The mean rate of fall of aiNa under these conditions corresponded to an efflux rate at the basolateral border of 30.1 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 min-1 (48 microA cm-2) giving a half-time for turnover of the sodium transport pool of 33 s. Reduction of sodium concentration in the apical fluid from the normal 79 mM-Na to 10, 1 and 0.1 mM caused aiNa to fall in stages to 2 mM. Because psi ac increased in negativity to -101 mV in the process, this driving force for passive sodium accumulation, more than offset the increased sodium gradient opposing sodium influx across the apical border. PMID:6610743

  1. Effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) on intracellular sodium and contractility in rat and guinea-pig myocardium.

    PubMed

    Hoey, A; Harrison, S M; Boyett, M R; Ravens, U

    1994-12-01

    The effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin ATX II on action potentials and contractility of isolated papillary muscles and single myocytes from rat and guinea-pig hearts have been studied. ATX II prolonged the action potential in both rat and guinea-pig papillary muscle. Although it produced a positive inotropic effect in guinea-pig papillary muscle, it failed to do so in rat papillary muscle. However, in single rat and guinea-pig ventricular cells, it both prolonged the action potential and had a positive inotropic effect. We suggest that ATX II does not cause a positive inotropic effect in rat papillary muscle, because it induces Ca2+ overload. In single cells the positive inotropic effect was reduced by approximately 50% when the contractions were triggered by voltage clamp pulses of constant duration rather than by action potentials. This suggests that the inotropic effect of ATX II is in part the result of the prolongation of the action potential. The intracellular Na+ activity (a(i)Na) in single ventricular cells was measured with the Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye SBFI. After exposure of the cells to ATX II, a(i)Na was increased by a maximum of 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 mM in rat and guinea-pig cells, respectively. It is suggested that the positive inotropic effect of ATX II is also in part the result of the rise in a(i)Na.

  2. High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    3 3. Model Geometry and Flowfield Conditions 4 3.1 Model Geometry ... Geometry Modifications................................................................................................19 4.2.1 Aerodynamic and Static...would like to thank the following personnel: • Ilmars Celmins, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), for creating the geometries in SolidWorks

  3. Apical membrane permeability and kinetic properties of the sodium pump in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S A; Wills, N K

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that aldosterone stimulates the rate of Na+ transport across the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium by increasing the apical membrane permeability to Na+. Paradoxically, ion-sensitive and conventional micro-electrode measurements demonstrated that intracellular Na+ activity aiNa+ was essentially unchanged by aldosterone, i.e. aiNa+ was constant regardless of the rate of Na+ transport. The present study was designed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The effects of elevated, endogenous aldosterone levels produced by low-Na+ diet (Lewis & Diamond, 1976) on urinary bladder Na+ transport were investigated in vitro using Ussing-type chambers and intracellular conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Apical membrane selectivity and kinetics of the Na+ pump were assessed as a function of hormone stimulation. The aldosterone-stimulated increase in Na+ transport was accounted for by increases in both the relative selective permeability of the apical membrane to Na+ and an increase in its absolute Na+ permeability. The kinetics of the Na+ pump were evaluated electrically by loading the cells with Na+ (monitored with Na+-sensitive micro-electrodes) or alternatively by manipulating serosal solution K+ concentration and measuring changes in the basolateral membrane electromotive forces and resistance. From these measurements the current generated by the pump was calculated as a function of intracellular Na+ or extracellular K+. The kinetics of the pump were not altered by aldosterone. A model of highly co-operative binding estimated Km for Na+ as 14.2 mM and 2.3 mM for K+. Hill coefficients for these ions were 2.8 and 1.8, respectively, consistent with a pump stoichiometry of 3 Na+ to 2 K+. The kinetic properties of the Na-K pump indicate that physiological levels of aiNa+ are poised at the foot of a step kinetic curve which energetically favours Na+ extrusion. PMID:6312027

  4. The negative inotropic effect of raised extracellular potassium and caesium ions on isolated frog atrial trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R A; Rodrigo, G C

    1987-10-01

    The exposure of frog atrial trabeculae to Ringer solution containing an elevated K+ concentration, produces a depolarization of the membrane and a reduction of both the duration of the action potential and the strength of the heart beat. In voltage-clamped preparations, the effect of perfusion with K+-rich Ringer solution is threefold. First, a sustained inward current develops at the holding potential (-80 mV). Secondly, the contractions evoked by depolarizing clamp pulses are reduced: this effect which is greater upon the tonic phase of the contraction than the early phasic tension, is also seen to follow the addition of Cs+ ions to the bathing fluid; at equal concentrations K+ ions are the more effective. Thirdly, when measured with an ion-sensitive micro-electrode in ventricular trabeculae, the intracellular Na+ ion activity (aiNa) declines with a time course similar to the development of the negative inotropic effect. This suggests that the actions of raised [K+]o or [Cs+]o upon tension may be secondary to an effect on the movement of Na+ ions across the cell membrane, which by reducing aiNa may affect tension by way of the Na-Ca exchange.

  5. Increased Prevalence of Moderate and Severe Peripheral Arterial Disease in the American Indian (AI)/Alaskan Native (AN) Population; a Study of 96,000 AI/AN.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Guo, Yu; Maldonado, Thomas; Adelman, Mark A; Berger, Jeffery S; Rockman, Caron B

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) disproportionally affects racial groups in the United States. Few studies have analyzed the rates of PAD in the American Indian (AI)/Alaskan Native (AN) population. In this article, we compare the prevalence of PAD in the AI/AN as compared with white and nonwhite Americans. The study data were provided by Life Line Screening (Independence, OH). The cohort consists of self-referred individuals who paid for vascular screening tests. Mild-to-moderate and severe PAD were defined as having an ankle-brachial index (ABI) in at least one extremity of < 0.9 and < 0.5, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the rates of PAD between AI/AN, Caucasians, and nonwhites. The original sample for which this study was obtained included 3,444,272 people. Of this group there was a predominance of females 64.5% (2,221,555) compared with 35.5% (1,222,716) males. The Native American/AN population was 2.8% of the sample (96,440). In our univariate analysis AI/AN had the highest rates of mild-moderate and severe PAD when compared with whites (odds ratio [OR] 1.78 and 2.14, respectively) and nonwhites (OR 1.52 and 1.82, respectively). We then controlled for atherosclerotic risk factors in our multivariate analysis, and the AI/NA cohort had persistently higher rates of both moderate and severe PAD compared with whites (OR 1.32 and 1.40) but not compared with nonwhites (OR 0.95 and 0.92). Here we present the largest epidemiology study of PAD in AI/AN to date. AI/NA people have disproportionately high rates of both mild to-moderate and severe PAD when compared with whites and nonwhite Americans. After controlling for atherosclerotic risk factors the rates of PAD remain high for AI/NA when compared with whites but not when compared with nonwhites. While it is possible that a combination of diet and lifestyle choices are responsible for the high rates of PAD in this population, genetic factors may be involved as well

  6. Study of Ultra Short HFET Devices with InP Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-30

    0.2 min Gate Length AlInAs/GaInAs/InP MODFETs", L.F. Palmateer, P.1., Tasker, W.J. Schaff , L.D. Nguyen, and L.F. Eastman, Appi. Phys. Lett., 54 2 139...Epitaxy", J.B. Kuang, P.J. Tasker, S. Ratanaphanyarat, W.I. Schaff , L.F. Eastman, G. W. Wang, Y.K. Chien, O.A.Aina, 1-1. 1 lier, and A. Faliimulla, J...Feb. 14, 1990) "Self-aligned RTO Finger Structure for High Cut-off Frequency and Device Integration", X.J. Song, J.B. Kuang, W.J. Schaff , P.J

  7. Naval Outgoing Message Processing, A Study of Message Generation and Message Preparation for Transmission and the Impact of Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    daring ism case Yen INA INA INA 41. Traesmassion IggtdesAvailable RS -232 C EIA RS -232C; PAIL STDO168100 MIL ST0 88 100 INA MIL STO 188; up tn 3...8 x 𔃻 % IN INA INA 1 , 0 4 k INA ’s r %A INA INA INA I8 NA NA INA INA INA INA 32 INA NA INA NA IS et rlR NA RS . NA41 PM nA bt 5 pe 6 3,p INA Ip to A...INA Ye,"" ock NA NA NA INA INA INA" Stock NA NA NA NA INA INA INA INA INA INA INA RS 232, parallel or wenal data ASCII 8 bit parallel IRS-232 INA RS

  8. A Na+-activated K+ current (IK,Na) is present in guinea-pig but not rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C; Rodrigo, G C

    1999-05-01

    The effects of removing extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the membrane potential, membrane current and intracellular Na+ activity (aiNa) were investigated in guinea-pig and rat ventricular myocytes. Membrane potential was recorded with a patch pipette and whole-cell membrane currents using a single-electrode voltage clamp. Both guinea-pig and rat cells depolarize when the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+ are removed and the steady-state aiNa increases rapidly from a resting value of 6.4+/- 0.6 mM to 33+/-3.8 mM in guinea-pig (n=9) and from 8.9+/-0.8 mM to 29.3+/-3.0 mM (n=5) in rat ventricular myocytes. Guinea-pig myocytes partially repolarized when, in addition to removal of the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+, K+ was also removed, however rat cells remained depolarized. A large diltiazem-sensitive inward current was recorded in guinea-pig and rat myocytes, voltage-clamped at -20 mV, when the bathing divalent cations were removed. When the bathing K+ was removed after Ca2+ and Mg2+ depletion, a large outward K+ current developed in guinea-pig, but not in rat myocytes. This current had a reversal potential of -80+/-0.7 mV and was not inhibited by high Mg2+ or glybenclamide indicating that it is not due to activation of non-selective cation or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K channels. The current was not activated when Li+ replaced the bathing Na+ and was blocked by R-56865, suggesting that it was due to the activation of KNa channels.

  9. Interaction between Na+ and H+ ions on Na-H exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1997-04-01

    The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions upon Na-H exchange (NHE) was examined in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Acid equivalent fluxes through NHE were examined using recordings of intracellular pH and Na+ in isolated preparations measured with ion selective microelectrodes. The extent of acid-extrusion by NHE was estimated from pH(i) recovery-rate, multiplied by beta(i) (intracellular buffering power) in response to an internal acid load induced by 20 mm NH4Cl removal (nominally HCO3- free media). A mixed inhibitory effect was found of extracellular H+ on external Na+-activation of NHE (i.e. an increase, at low pH(o), in the apparent Michaelis constant for external Na+ ions [K(Nao)(0.5)] and a decrease in the maximum transport rate [V(Nao)(max)]). In addition, we confirmed that the stoichiometry of Na(o) binding is unaffected by the pH(o) (between 7.5 and 6.5), showing a Hill coefficient close to one. The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions at the internal face of the cardiac NHE was also studied. Our evidence suggests that an increase in the intracellular Na+ ion concentration ([Na+]i) inhibits acid efflux and that this inhibition can be approximated by the decrease in thermodynamic driving force caused by reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient. It appears, however, that small variations in [Na+]i from the normal resting level (intracellular sodium activity, a(i)Na = 7 to 13 mm) have little or no effect on acid efflux, suggesting that variation of a(i)Na is not a physiologically important controller of NHE activity in heart.

  10. Ion-selective micro-electrode studies of the electrochemical potentials in trout urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Lahlou, B

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular micro-electrode techniques were used to measure the electrical resistances of the cell membranes and the shunt pathway and intracellular ionic activities in trout urinary bladder when the tissue was incubated in Ringer solution and in the presence of the polyene antibiotic ionophore amphotericin B. In control conditions the transepithelial potential was zero and the intracellular potential was -56 mV. The intracellular ionic activities measured with single- and double-barrel ion-sensitive micro-electrodes for the first time in a fish bladder (aiNa = 16 mM, aiK = 87 mM, and aiCl = 21 mM) indicate an active accumulation of K and Cl ions and an active extrusion of Na ions by the cell. The maintenance of intracellular Cl activity above its equilibrium value depended on the presence of Na ions in the mucosal medium, but was independent of the presence of K ions. Flat cable analysis yielded values for transepithelial, apical, basolateral and shunt resistances of 197, 2790, 1986 and 205 omega cm-2 respectively. Equivalent circuit analysis using amphotericin B yielded similar values for shunt resistance. The paracellular pathway accounts for 96% of transepithelial current flow and this epithelium may be classified as 'leaky'. The cells are electrically coupled with a space constant of 354 micron. Amphotericin B when added to the mucosal solution induced an immediate serosa positive transepithelial potential of about 9 mV and a short-circuit current of 64 microA cm-2. The Vt was ouabain sensitive and dependent on mucosal Na concentration. The origin of the antibiotic induced transepithelial potential was an increase in the sum of the cell membrane electromotive forces. The apical membrane potential depolarized to -7 mV and its resistance fell to 433 omega cm-2. During the first 10 min of exposure aiNa increased to 80 mM and aiK decreased to 7 mM with only a small change in aiCl. The changes in cellular Na+ and K+ activities were in accordance with their

  11. Problems in Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and Acoustic Noise Distribution when Designing Wind Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of 10 to 60 m in the area in the Baltic Sea coast in Ventspils and Ainaži. The velocity observations since 2007 have been gathered by measurements complex of the LOGGER 9200 Symphonie type. The results are presented in the form of tables, bar charts and graphs. Extrapolation results of wind velocity and density mean values on heights up to 150 m for the two areas with different terrain types were shown. The distribution of acoustic noise in the vicinity of the WPP was studied and an assessment of its impact on the environment in accordance with the Latvian government requirements was conducted.

  12. Polar Voices: Relaying the Science and Story of Polar Climate Change through Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloney, M.; Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000's spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. Now entering its third season of production, PoLAR Voices has facilitated the communication of scientific knowledge regarding the impact of climate change on the Arctic and Antarctic from the perspectives of both scientific researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. We present a holistic program detailing both data and research related to climate change in addition to personal stories from those people and communities most affected. An evaluation of the program has been conducted by the Goodman Research Group to assess the effectiveness of the program for relaying the whole story of climate change to the public. The results of this assessment will be used to further develop the program to effectively reach larger and more diverse audiences. The series is currently available on thepolarhub.org and iTunes, and we are exploring opportunities to air the program on radio to reach as many people as possible.

  13. Changes of contractile responses due to simulated weightlessness in rat soleus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhammari, A.; Noireaud, J.; Léoty, C.

    1994-08-01

    Some contractile and electrophysiological properties of muscle fibers isolated from the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats were compared with those measured in SOL muscles from suspended rats. In suspendede SOL (21 days of tail-suspension) membrane potential (Em), intracellular sodium activity (aiNa) and the slope of the relationship between Em and log [K]o were typical of fast-twitch muscles. The relation between the maximal amplitude of K-contractures vs Em was steeper for control SOL than for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. After suspension, in SOL muscles the contractile threshold and the inactivation curves for K-contractures were shifted to more positive Em. Repriming of K-contractures was unaffected by suspencion. The exposure of isolated fibers to perchlorate (ClO4-)-containing (6-40 mM) solutions resulted ina similar concentration-dependent shift to more negative Em of activation curves for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. On exposure to a Na-free TEA solution, SOL from control and suspended rats, in contrast to EDL muscles, generated slow contractile responses. Suspended SOL showed a reduced sensitivity to the contracture-producing effect of caffeine compared to control muscles. These results suggested that the modification observed due to suspension could be encounted by changes in the characteristics of muscle fibers from slow to fast-twitch type.

  14. Predicted Realization of Cubic Dirac Fermion in Quasi-One-Dimensional Transition-Metal Monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qihang; Zunger, Alex

    2017-04-01

    We show that the previously predicted "cubic Dirac fermion," composed of six conventional Weyl fermions including three with left-handed and three with right-handed chirality, is realized in a specific, stable solid state system that has been made years ago, but was not appreciated as a "cubically dispersed Dirac semimetal" (CDSM). We identify the crystal symmetry constraints and find the space group P 63/m as one of the two that can support a CDSM, of which the characteristic band crossing has linear dispersion along the principle axis but cubic dispersion in the plane perpendicular to it. We then conduct a material search using density functional theory, identifying a group of quasi-one-dimensional molybdenum monochalcogenide compounds AI(MoXVI)3 (AI=Na , K, Rb, In, Tl; XVI=S , Se, Te) as ideal CDSM candidates. Studying the stability of the A (MoX) 3 family reveals a few candidates such as Rb (MoTe) 3 and Tl (MoTe) 3 that are predicted to be resilient to Peierls distortion, thus retaining the metallic character. Furthermore, the combination of one dimensionality and metallic nature in this family provides a platform for unusual optical signature—polarization-dependent metallic vs insulating response.

  15. Science in Hawaii/Haawina Hoopapau: A Culturally Responsive Curriculum Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, L. M.; Roberts, K.; Leake, D. W.; Stodden, R. S.; Crabbe, V.

    2005-12-01

    The marvels of modern science often fail to engage indigenous students, as the content and instructional style are usually rooted in the Western experience. This 3 year project, funded by the US Dept. of Education for the Education of Native Hawaiians, offers a curriculum that teaches science through (rather than just about) Native Hawaiian culture. The curriculum focuses on the interdependence of natural resources in our ahupuaa, or watersheds, and helps students strengthen their sense of place and self to malama i ka aina, to care for the land. Further, the curriculum is designed to: engage students in scientific study with relevant, interesting content and activities; improve student achievement of state department of education standards; increase student knowledge and skills in science, math and language arts; respond to the learning needs of Native Hawaiian and/or at-risk students. The project will be presented by a curriculum writer who created and adapted more than a year's worth of materials by teaming with kupuna (respected elders), local cultural experts and role models, educators (new, veteran, Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian, mainland, general and special education teachers), and professionals at the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii and ALU LIKE, Inc, a non-profit organization to assist Native Hawaiians. The materials created thus far are available for viewing at: www.scihi.hawaii.edu The curriculum, designed for grades 8-11 science classes, can be used to teach a year-long course, a unit, or single lesson related to astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, geology, oceanography, physical and environmental sciences. This project is in its final year of field testing, polishing and dissemination, and therefore this session will encourage idea sharing, as does our copyright free Web site.

  16. Wastewater contamination in Antarctic melt-water streams evidenced by virological and organic molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Tort, L F L; Iglesias, K; Bueno, C; Lizasoain, A; Salvo, M; Cristina, J; Kandratavicius, N; Pérez, L; Figueira, R; Bícego, M C; Taniguchi, S; Venturini, N; Brugnoli, E; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2017-12-31

    Human activities in the Antarctica including tourism and scientific research have been raised substantially in the last century with the concomitant impact on the Antarctic ecosystems through the release of wastewater mainly from different scientific stations activities. The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater contamination of surface waters and sediments of three melt-water streams (11 sites) by leaking septic tanks located in the vicinity of the Uruguayan Scientific Station in the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, during summer 2015. For this purpose, we combined the analysis of fecal steroids in sediments by using gas chromatography and six enteric viruses in surface waters by quantitative and qualitative PCR. Coprostanol concentrations (from 0.03 to 3.31μgg(-1)) and fecal steroids diagnostic ratios indicated that stations C7 and C8 located in the kitchen stream presented sewage contamination. Rotavirus was the only enteric virus detected in five sites with concentration ranging from 1.2×10(5)gcL(-)(1) to 5.1×10(5)gcL(-)(1) being three of them located downstream from the leaking AINA and Kitchen septic tanks. This study shows for the first time the presence of both virological and molecular biomarkers of wastewater pollution in surface waters and sediments of three melt-water streams in the vicinity of a scientific station in the Antarctica. These results highlight the importance of the complementation of these biomarkers in two different matrices (surface waters and sediments) to assess wastewater pollution in an Antarctic environment related to anthropogenic activities in the area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Teaching change to local youth: Plant phenology, climate change and citizen science at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litton, C. M.; Laursen, S. C.; Phifer, C.; Giardina, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Plant phenology is a powerful indicator of how climate change affects native ecosystems, and also provides an experiential outdoor learning opportunity for promoting youth conservation education and awareness. We developed a youth conservation education curriculum, including both classroom and field components, for local middle and high school students from Hawaii. The curriculum is focused on linking plant phenology and climate change, with emphasis on ecologically and culturally important native trees and birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), on the Island of Hawaii. In this curriculum, students: (i) visit Hakalau Forest NWR to learn about the ecology of native ecosystems, including natural disturbance regimes and the general concept of change in forest ecosystems; (ii) learn about human-induced climate change and its potential impact on native species; and (iii) collect plant phenology measurements and publish these data on the USA National Phenology Network website. This youth conservation education curriculum represents a close collaboration between Hakalau Forest NWR; the Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR; the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; the USDA Forest Service; and Imi Pono no Ka Aina, an environmental education and outreach program for the Three Mountain Alliance Watershed Partnership. In the Winter and Spring of 2011-2012, we developed classroom and field portions of the curriculum. In the Spring and Summer of 2012, we recruited four groups of participants, with a total of ~40 students, who visited the refuge to participate in the curriculum. Preliminary phenology observations based upon ~4 months of measurements show low to medium levels of flowering, fruiting and leaf flush. However, the real science value of this program will come over years to decades of accumulated student activity. From this, we anticipate the emergence of a unique tropical montane forest dataset on plant

  18. Intracellular pH regulation in the renal proximal tubule of the salamander. Basolateral HCO3- transport

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have used pH-, Na-, and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes to study basolateral HCO3- transport in isolated, perfused proximal tubules of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In one series of experiments, we lowered basolateral pH (pHb) from 7.5 to 6.8 by reducing [HCO3-]b from 10 to 2 mM at a constant pCO2. This reduction of pHb and [HCO3-]b causes a large (approximately 0.35), rapid fall in pHi as well as a transient depolarization of the basolateral membrane. Returning pHb and [HCO3-]b to normal has the opposite effects. Similar reductions of luminal pH (pHl) and [HCO3-]l have only minor effects. The reduction of [HCO3-]b and pHb also produces a reversible fall in aiNa. In a second series of experiments, we reduced [Na+]b at constant [HCO3-]b and pHb, and also observed a rapid fall in pHi and a transient basolateral depolarization. These changes are reversed by returning [Na+]b to normal. The effects of altering [Na+]l in the presence of HCO3-, or of altering [Na+]b in the nominal absence of HCO3-, are substantially less. Although the effects on pHi and basolateral membrane potential of altering either [HCO3-]b or [Na+]b are largely blocked by 4-acetamido-4- isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS), they are not affected by removal of Cl-, nor are there accompanying changes in aiCl consistent with a tight linkage between Cl- fluxes and those of Na+ and HCO3-. The aforementioned changes are apparently mediated by a single transport system, not involving Cl-. We conclude that HCO3- transport is restricted to the basolateral membrane, and that HCO3- fluxes are linked to those of Na+. The data are compatible with an electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporter that carries Na+, HCO3-, and net negative charge in the same direction. PMID:6833997

  19. Culture and Cancer in Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) Abstract.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To consider the role of culture in the persistently high cancer rates of Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) in their homeland. METHODS: Historical and recent cancer and other health and socio­economic data and not readily accessible information on Kanaka Maoli and other major ethnicities were analyzed. FINDINGS: In the 1990s, the 205,078 Kanaka Maoli, who comprise 18.8% of the total Ka Pae'aina (Hawaiian Archipelago) population of 1,108,229, continue to have the highest and still rising cancer mortality rates compared to other ethnicities. Rates are higher for piha (pure) Kanaka Maoli than for hapa (mixed) and greater for Kanaka Maoli men over women. The leading cancer sites are lung, breast, stomach, uterus, liver and rectum. Overall five year cancer survival rates for Kanaka Maoli remain shorter than for the other ethnic groups. Kanaka Maoli rank highest for cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use, alcohol use, and obesity; diets high in calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, processed foods, foods low in fiber, vitamin C, calcium, and folate. Kanaka Maoli continue to have the most unfavorable rates for other leading causes of death, chronic morbidity, suicide, accidents, and other social and economic indicators such as family income, home ownership, schooling, crime and imprisonment. Kanaka Maoli tend to live in rural communities where they comprise 40­90% of the population and where Western health care services are meager and distant. Kanaka Maoli under­utilize Western health care, health promotion and disease prevention services. Kanaka Maoli score poorly in cancer knowledge and tend to have a fatalistic attitude toward cancer. CONCLUSIONS: An interplay of underlying historical, societal and cultural factors, not specific for cancer, nor for ill health, appear to account for the worsening broad plight of Kanaka Maoli. These include: (1) Kanaka Maoli

  20. The Kinetic Study of The Hydrothermal Growth of Zno Nanorod Array Films / Zno Nanostieņu Kopu Pārklājuma Hidrotermālās Augšanas Kinētikas Izpēte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbreders, V.; Sarajevs, P.; Mihailova, I.; Tamanis, E.

    2015-10-01

    The simple analysis method has been introduced for the kinetic analysis of the hydrothermal growth. The zinc oxide nanorod arrays have been synthesized via a hydrothermal process. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O) has been used as the precursor in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4) for the formation of ZnO nanostructures. Long-term isothermal growth kinetics of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. The effect of the solution temperature (70-90 ℃) on the kinetics of the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods has been examined. An extensive analysis by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction has revealed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanorod arrays are well-crystalline and possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. These ZnO films have promising potential advantages in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Tiek piedāvāta vienkārša analīzes metode kristālu hidrotennālās augšanas kinētikasizpētei. Labi sakārtotu ZnO nanostieņu kopa tika sintezēta pielieto­jot hidrotennālās augšanas metodi, cinka nitrāta heksahidrāta (Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O) un heksametilēntetramīna (C6H12N4) šķīdumā. Plānās kārtiņas biezuma izmaiņas tika novērotas reālā laikā, pielietojot interferometrijas tehniku. Tika mērīts no sistēmas plānā kārtiņa - pamatne atstarotais lāzerstars; iegūtā interferences aina tika izman­tota plānās kārtiņas biezuma aprēķiniem. ZnO nanostieņu izotermiskās kristalizācijas procesa kinētika tika aprakstīta ar parabolisku likumu. Tika aprēķināts, ka ZnO nanostieņu kopu hidrotennālās augšanas aktivācijas enerģija ir 123kJ/mol. Šī metode ir piemērota viendimensionālas augšanas procesu analīzei un paver jaunas iespējas turpmākiem pētījumiem.

  1. PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis

    2011-06-01

    Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.

  2. Stochastic Parametrisations and Regime Behaviour of Atmospheric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim

    2013-04-01

    -18, Shinfield Park, Reading, 1996. ECMWF. E. N. Lorenz. Regimes in simple systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 63(8):2056-2073, 2006. T. N Palmer. A nonlinear dynamical perspective on model error: A proposal for non-local stochastic-dynamic parametrisation in weather and climate prediction models. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127(572):279-304, 2001. T. N. Palmer, R. Buizza, F. Doblas-Reyes, T. Jung, M. Leutbecher, G. J. Shutts, M. Steinheimer, and A. Weisheimer. Stochastic parametrization and model uncertainty. Technical Report 598, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 2009. J. Rougier, D. M. H. Sexton, J. M. Murphy, and D. Stainforth. Analyzing the climate sensitivity of the HadSM3 climate model using ensembles from different but related experiments. J. Climate, 22:3540-3557, 2009. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, Tignor M., and H. L. Miller. Climate models and their evaluation. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. Cambridge University Press. D. A Stainforth, T. Aina, C. Christensen, M. Collins, N. Faull, D. J. Frame, J. A. Kettleborough, S. Knight, A. Martin, J. M. Murphy, C. Piani, D. Sexton, L. A. Smith, R. A Spicer, A. J. Thorpe, and M. R Allen. Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Nature, 433(7024):403-406, 2005.

  3. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga

    2012-08-01

    , Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 9. Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 10. Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University, Latvia Local Committee Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Maris Kundzins, Anastasija Jozepa, Anna Muratova, Raitis Siatkovskis, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Sniedze Abele, Mikus Voss, Andris Sivars, Peteris Lesnicenoks, Virginija Liepina. In Memoriam Dr. habil. phys. Inta Muzikante (08.01.1951-15.02.2012) Inta Muzikante Inta was born in Valmiera, a town in the northern part of Latvia. She attended school in Sigulda and high school in Riga. While at the high-school, Inta decided to study natural sciences. After graduating from high-school in 1969 she entered the physics section of the Physics and Mathematics department of University of Latvia and obtained her university degree in 1974. In parallel with University studies, Inta started to work at the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab at the University of Latvia. After graduating she was offered a position at the Physical Energetics institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, in the laboratory of Professor Edgars Silinsh, one of the most internationally well known Latvian physicists. Inta started researching electronic and photoelectric processes in organic crystals and thin films. This was a novel field, pioneered both internationally and in Latvia by Profesors E Silinsh, O Neilands and J Freimanis. It could be said that Inta stood at the cradle of this research field and stayed faithful to it all of her life. Her work was very successful and within a few years she advanced from research assistant to researcher and then leading research scientist. Her first scientific topic was studies of the mechanism of charge carrier photogeneration and separation in organic molecular crystals. In 1983 for a work