Bruno, B.; Chinn, P.
The Malama I Ka `Aina Project (Caring for the land, or sustainability) aims to improve and expand the education of Hawai`i's children by developing and disseminating standards-based, culturally relevant science curricular materials based on an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which traditional Hawaiians interacted with their environment for sustainability. Key concepts include the role of water and the ahupua`a (traditional Hawaiian system of land management), and a culture-based sense of place that includes knowledge of and connection to the land. Elementary, middle, high school and University of Hawai`i teachers work together to develop and implement curricula that are especially relevant to a particular school's science program and issues, e.g., invasive species, students, community and/or geographical location. Participants (typically a mix of teachers, education majors and science majors) enroll in Malama I Ka `Aina, a three-credit course offered through the University of Hawai`i`s Dept. of Curriculum Studies and applicable toward a Bachelor's or Master's degree. This course (team taught by scientists, cultural experts and educational professionals) enables participants to: (1) Study Hawai`i`s unique geology, geography and environmental issues in the context of Hawaiian culture and post Western contact; (2) Use course knowledge to develop, teach and assess Hawaii-oriented, project-based, inquiry activities that address the Hawaii Science Content Standards; (3) Gain an appreciation for the scientific method, and the curiosity that drives science (4) Use educational technology such as PowerPoint, graphing packages and web authoring software to develop electronic resources for educational activities. A sample of the lessons developed by course participants can be found on http://malama.hawaii.edu/schools/index2.html. This project is based at the University of Hawai`i College of Education and funded by an award to P. Chinn by the US Department of
Socialization patterns from a Hawaiian-American community are described in terms of the strategies and tactics utilized by Hawaiian-American children in dealing with the contingencies set for them first by their parents and later by teachers in the public school. Despite poor scholastic performance from the standpoint of educators, the viewpoint…
Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia
Fourteen of the startup charter schools in the State of Hawai'i are Hawaiian-focused, providing an education grounded in culturally relevant content and context. This study centers on outcomes in these Hawaiian-focused charter schools, which have demonstrated their value to the community, serving the educational needs of an increasing number of…
Chinn, Pauline W. U.
This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and the definition of crisis as…
Whitfield, Harold Wayne; Lloyd, Rosalind
The researchers analyzed data from fiscal year 2006 and found that American Indians/Native Alaskans (AI/NA) with traumatic brain injury experienced similar functional limitations at application as did non-AI/NA. Fewer funds were expended on purchased services for AI/NA than for non-AI/NA. The wages of AI/NA were equitable to those of non-AI/NA at…
Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.
Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074
Kidwell, Clara Sue
When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…
Lewis, S A; Wills, N K
Previous studies have shown that aldosterone stimulates the rate of Na+ transport across the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium by increasing the apical membrane permeability to Na+. Paradoxically, ion-sensitive and conventional micro-electrode measurements demonstrated that intracellular Na+ activity aiNa+ was essentially unchanged by aldosterone, i.e. aiNa+ was constant regardless of the rate of Na+ transport. The present study was designed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The effects of elevated, endogenous aldosterone levels produced by low-Na+ diet (Lewis & Diamond, 1976) on urinary bladder Na+ transport were investigated in vitro using Ussing-type chambers and intracellular conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Apical membrane selectivity and kinetics of the Na+ pump were assessed as a function of hormone stimulation. The aldosterone-stimulated increase in Na+ transport was accounted for by increases in both the relative selective permeability of the apical membrane to Na+ and an increase in its absolute Na+ permeability. The kinetics of the Na+ pump were evaluated electrically by loading the cells with Na+ (monitored with Na+-sensitive micro-electrodes) or alternatively by manipulating serosal solution K+ concentration and measuring changes in the basolateral membrane electromotive forces and resistance. From these measurements the current generated by the pump was calculated as a function of intracellular Na+ or extracellular K+. The kinetics of the pump were not altered by aldosterone. A model of highly co-operative binding estimated Km for Na+ as 14.2 mM and 2.3 mM for K+. Hill coefficients for these ions were 2.8 and 1.8, respectively, consistent with a pump stoichiometry of 3 Na+ to 2 K+. The kinetic properties of the Na-K pump indicate that physiological levels of aiNa+ are poised at the foot of a step kinetic curve which energetically favours Na+ extrusion. PMID:6312027
Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni
PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To summarize the current health status of Kanaka Maoli (indigenous Hawaiians) with historical background, underlying factors responsible for the Kanaka Maoli health plight and recommendations. METHODS: The author reviewed the available literature and some not readily available, unpublished information. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kanaka Maoli continue to have the worst health and socioeconomic indicators of the various ethnic groups in their home islands of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). Cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, maternal and infant health and mental distress are the prominent maladies. Tobacco smoking, highfat diet, alcohol drinking, hyperlipidemia and obesity are the major lifestyle risk factors. Societal factors, such as depopulation, foreign transmigration, colonial exploitation, coercive assimilation, cultural conflict and racism persist. Since 1990, Kanaka Maoli communities have established five islandwide Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems to improve availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health services to their people, but with inadequate resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under present conditions, while the future may bring some amelioration of Kanaka Maoli ill health, the price will be progressive acculturation and loss of Kanaka Maoli identity. Accordingly, recommendations include augmented revitalization of the traditional culture, effective recontrol by the Kanaka Maoli of their lives and natural resources and thus, improved total health. KEY WORDS: Pacific Islander Americans, Kanaka Maoli, Hawaiians, Indigenous Health, Culture, Ethnicity, Racism, Colonialism, Sovereignty
Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs
Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of
Elkhammari, A.; Noireaud, J.; Léoty, C.
Some contractile and electrophysiological properties of muscle fibers isolated from the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats were compared with those measured in SOL muscles from suspended rats. In suspendede SOL (21 days of tail-suspension) membrane potential (Em), intracellular sodium activity (aiNa) and the slope of the relationship between Em and log [K]o were typical of fast-twitch muscles. The relation between the maximal amplitude of K-contractures vs Em was steeper for control SOL than for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. After suspension, in SOL muscles the contractile threshold and the inactivation curves for K-contractures were shifted to more positive Em. Repriming of K-contractures was unaffected by suspencion. The exposure of isolated fibers to perchlorate (ClO4-)-containing (6-40 mM) solutions resulted ina similar concentration-dependent shift to more negative Em of activation curves for EDL and suspended SOL muscles. On exposure to a Na-free TEA solution, SOL from control and suspended rats, in contrast to EDL muscles, generated slow contractile responses. Suspended SOL showed a reduced sensitivity to the contracture-producing effect of caffeine compared to control muscles. These results suggested that the modification observed due to suspension could be encounted by changes in the characteristics of muscle fibers from slow to fast-twitch type.
Oneha, M F
Ka Mauli O Ka 'Aina A He Mauli Kanaka: The Life of the Land is the Life of the People. A sense of place has been directly linked to spiritual well being for all indigenous peoples. Yet, there is minimal evidence that demonstrates understanding and awareness of indigenous health issues from this perspective. Health, or the lack of it, appears to be related to place or the loss of it. Issues of Hawaiian health are inseparable from issues of land, water, and atmosphere. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experience of a sense of place and its relationship to health as perceived and experienced by Hawaiian participants living in Wai'anae, Hawai'i. Thirteen adult men and women, ranging in age from 36 to 80 years, participated in this ethnographic study. Two interviews conducted with each participant addressed the research question, "What is the experience of the relationship between a sense of place and health for Hawaiians?" Participants were also asked to photograph how they experienced this relationship. The qualitative data analysis computer software, Atlas.ti, was used to assist in data analysis. The findings suggest that the relationship between sense of place and health embodies four categories: (1) relationship to akua (god, spirit), (2) relationship to natural elements, (3) relationship to self and others, and (4) belonging to a particular place. Three major traditional Hawaiian concepts, which defined how the relationship between sense of place and health are experienced, were pono, mana, and kuleana. The relationship between these concepts revealed five cultural themes. Health for Hawaiians: I. is having a spiritual connection to their ancestral place; II. relates to the past, present, and future; III. is experienced with intention and understanding; IV. means an openness to the flow and use of energy; and V. is experienced as a pu'uhonua or safe place. These themes suggest implications for Hawaiian health education, practice, and further
Galloway, L. M.; Roberts, K.; Leake, D. W.; Stodden, R. S.; Crabbe, V.
The marvels of modern science often fail to engage indigenous students, as the content and instructional style are usually rooted in the Western experience. This 3 year project, funded by the US Dept. of Education for the Education of Native Hawaiians, offers a curriculum that teaches science through (rather than just about) Native Hawaiian culture. The curriculum focuses on the interdependence of natural resources in our ahupuaa, or watersheds, and helps students strengthen their sense of place and self to malama i ka aina, to care for the land. Further, the curriculum is designed to: engage students in scientific study with relevant, interesting content and activities; improve student achievement of state department of education standards; increase student knowledge and skills in science, math and language arts; respond to the learning needs of Native Hawaiian and/or at-risk students. The project will be presented by a curriculum writer who created and adapted more than a year's worth of materials by teaming with kupuna (respected elders), local cultural experts and role models, educators (new, veteran, Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian, mainland, general and special education teachers), and professionals at the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii and ALU LIKE, Inc, a non-profit organization to assist Native Hawaiians. The materials created thus far are available for viewing at: www.scihi.hawaii.edu The curriculum, designed for grades 8-11 science classes, can be used to teach a year-long course, a unit, or single lesson related to astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, geology, oceanography, physical and environmental sciences. This project is in its final year of field testing, polishing and dissemination, and therefore this session will encourage idea sharing, as does our copyright free Web site.
Morozova, O V; Grishechkin, A E; Bakhvalova, V N; Isaeva, E I; Podcherniaeva, R Ia
The currently used tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines are based on the inactivation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of Far Eastern or West European genetic types from the primary cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since the WHO recommends that vaccines should be designed using continuous cell cultures rather than chick embryos as a substrate, this investigation has compared the infection of continuous monolayer SPEV, Vero E6, and vaccine line Vero (B) cell cultures with TBEV strains of the Siberian and Far Eastern genetic types dominating in the endemic regions of Russia. After cell infection with Far Eastern (Sofyin and 205 strains) or Siberian (Aina, 2530, 2689, and 2703 strains) TBEV genetic types, the viable TBEV titers reached 2.8 Ig CPD50 for Vero (B) cells, 5.5 Ig CPD50 for Vero E6 cells, and up to 9 Ig CPD50 for SPEV cells. The quantitative scores of TBEV E antigen in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and genome equivalents by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by real-time PCR, permitted one to estimate as high as 108 virions in 1 ml of culture fluid, which corresponded to those of the microscopic observations of CPD for SPEV cells and substantially exceeded the values for Vero E6 cells, and for Vero (B) cells in particular. The data of TBEV strain titration, EIA, and realtime reverse-transcription PCR suggest that the Russian vaccine Vero (B) cell line defined as meeting the WHO requirements, as well as Vero E6 cells may be used to design tick-borne encephalitis vaccine.
Litton, C. M.; Laursen, S. C.; Phifer, C.; Giardina, C. P.
Plant phenology is a powerful indicator of how climate change affects native ecosystems, and also provides an experiential outdoor learning opportunity for promoting youth conservation education and awareness. We developed a youth conservation education curriculum, including both classroom and field components, for local middle and high school students from Hawaii. The curriculum is focused on linking plant phenology and climate change, with emphasis on ecologically and culturally important native trees and birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), on the Island of Hawaii. In this curriculum, students: (i) visit Hakalau Forest NWR to learn about the ecology of native ecosystems, including natural disturbance regimes and the general concept of change in forest ecosystems; (ii) learn about human-induced climate change and its potential impact on native species; and (iii) collect plant phenology measurements and publish these data on the USA National Phenology Network website. This youth conservation education curriculum represents a close collaboration between Hakalau Forest NWR; the Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR; the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; the USDA Forest Service; and Imi Pono no Ka Aina, an environmental education and outreach program for the Three Mountain Alliance Watershed Partnership. In the Winter and Spring of 2011-2012, we developed classroom and field portions of the curriculum. In the Spring and Summer of 2012, we recruited four groups of participants, with a total of ~40 students, who visited the refuge to participate in the curriculum. Preliminary phenology observations based upon ~4 months of measurements show low to medium levels of flowering, fruiting and leaf flush. However, the real science value of this program will come over years to decades of accumulated student activity. From this, we anticipate the emergence of a unique tropical montane forest dataset on plant
Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni
PURPOSE: To consider the role of culture in the persistently high cancer rates of Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) in their homeland. METHODS: Historical and recent cancer and other health and socioeconomic data and not readily accessible information on Kanaka Maoli and other major ethnicities were analyzed. FINDINGS: In the 1990s, the 205,078 Kanaka Maoli, who comprise 18.8% of the total Ka Pae'aina (Hawaiian Archipelago) population of 1,108,229, continue to have the highest and still rising cancer mortality rates compared to other ethnicities. Rates are higher for piha (pure) Kanaka Maoli than for hapa (mixed) and greater for Kanaka Maoli men over women. The leading cancer sites are lung, breast, stomach, uterus, liver and rectum. Overall five year cancer survival rates for Kanaka Maoli remain shorter than for the other ethnic groups. Kanaka Maoli rank highest for cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use, alcohol use, and obesity; diets high in calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, processed foods, foods low in fiber, vitamin C, calcium, and folate. Kanaka Maoli continue to have the most unfavorable rates for other leading causes of death, chronic morbidity, suicide, accidents, and other social and economic indicators such as family income, home ownership, schooling, crime and imprisonment. Kanaka Maoli tend to live in rural communities where they comprise 4090% of the population and where Western health care services are meager and distant. Kanaka Maoli underutilize Western health care, health promotion and disease prevention services. Kanaka Maoli score poorly in cancer knowledge and tend to have a fatalistic attitude toward cancer. CONCLUSIONS: An interplay of underlying historical, societal and cultural factors, not specific for cancer, nor for ill health, appear to account for the worsening broad plight of Kanaka Maoli. These include: (1) Kanaka Maoli depopulation in
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis
Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.
Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim
-18, Shinfield Park, Reading, 1996. ECMWF. E. N. Lorenz. Regimes in simple systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 63(8):2056-2073, 2006. T. N Palmer. A nonlinear dynamical perspective on model error: A proposal for non-local stochastic-dynamic parametrisation in weather and climate prediction models. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127(572):279-304, 2001. T. N. Palmer, R. Buizza, F. Doblas-Reyes, T. Jung, M. Leutbecher, G. J. Shutts, M. Steinheimer, and A. Weisheimer. Stochastic parametrization and model uncertainty. Technical Report 598, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 2009. J. Rougier, D. M. H. Sexton, J. M. Murphy, and D. Stainforth. Analyzing the climate sensitivity of the HadSM3 climate model using ensembles from different but related experiments. J. Climate, 22:3540-3557, 2009. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, Tignor M., and H. L. Miller. Climate models and their evaluation. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. Cambridge University Press. D. A Stainforth, T. Aina, C. Christensen, M. Collins, N. Faull, D. J. Frame, J. A. Kettleborough, S. Knight, A. Martin, J. M. Murphy, C. Piani, D. Sexton, L. A. Smith, R. A Spicer, A. J. Thorpe, and M. R Allen. Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Nature, 433(7024):403-406, 2005.
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga
, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 8. Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 9. Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 10. Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University, Latvia Local Committee Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Maris Kundzins, Anastasija Jozepa, Anna Muratova, Raitis Siatkovskis, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Sniedze Abele, Mikus Voss, Andris Sivars, Peteris Lesnicenoks, Virginija Liepina. In Memoriam Dr. habil. phys. Inta Muzikante (08.01.1951-15.02.2012) Inta Muzikante Inta was born in Valmiera, a town in the northern part of Latvia. She attended school in Sigulda and high school in Riga. While at the high-school, Inta decided to study natural sciences. After graduating from high-school in 1969 she entered the physics section of the Physics and Mathematics department of University of Latvia and obtained her university degree in 1974. In parallel with University studies, Inta started to work at the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab at the University of Latvia. After graduating she was offered a position at the Physical Energetics institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, in the laboratory of Professor Edgars Silinsh, one of the most internationally well known Latvian physicists. Inta started researching electronic and photoelectric processes in organic crystals and thin films. This was a novel field, pioneered both internationally and in Latvia by Profesors E Silinsh, O Neilands and J Freimanis. It could be said that Inta stood at the cradle of this research field and stayed faithful to it all of her life. Her work was very successful and within a few years she advanced from research assistant to researcher and then leading research scientist. Her first scientific topic was studies of the mechanism of charge carrier photogeneration and separation in organic molecular crystals. In 1983 for a work