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Sample records for aip conf proc

  1. AIP appoints New CEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) has announced the appointment of a new chief executive officer, Kenneth W. Ford, who is to succeed H. William Koch when Koch retires on March 28, 1987. Koch has held the position since 1966.AIP is a not-for-profit scientific organization made up of 10 member societies, including AGU, that represent more than 90,000 scientists. Its main activities include scientific publishing and marketing of 76 primary physics journals, including translations of foreign journals, books, conference proceedings, and the magazine Physics Today. AIP also is involved with electronic abstracting and other scientific communications and has active programs in education, public information, manpower statistics, and the history of physics.

  2. AIP Career Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchak, Amanda

    2012-02-01

    American Institute of Physics (AIP) Career Pathways is a new project funded by the National Science Foundation. One of the goals of AIP Career Pathways is to prepare students to compete for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers with a bachelor's degree in physics. In order to do so, I reviewed and compiled useful resources on finding a STEM career with a bachelor's degree in physics. These resources not only supply the job seeker with job postings in STEM careers but also provide them with information on resumes, interviewing skills, and networking. Recently at the 2011 Industrial Physics Forum, I interviewed companies in the private sector to obtain a unique perspective on what types of skills potential employers expect an applicant to posses with a bachelor's degree in physics. Ultimately, these components will be used as supplements at student career workshops held at annual Society of Physics Students Zone Meetings.

  3. AIP salary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    “1987 Salaries Society Membership Survey,” the fifth in a series of salary reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics Division of the American Institute of Physics has recently been released. The data are based on a random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP Membership Societies, which include AGU, American Physical Society, Optical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, Society of Rheology, American Association of Physics Teachers, American Crystallographic Association, American Astronomical Society, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and the American Vacuum Society.

  4. AIP's Career Pathways Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Jose

    2014-03-01

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) Career Pathways Project, funded by the National Science Foundation, aims to increase the number of undergraduates going into STEM careers. The main purposes of this project are to show students the professional opportunities for a STEM career, understand what departments can do to better prepare physics bachelor's degree recipients to enter the workforce, understand what students can do to better prepare themselves, and develop resources based on these findings. I was chosen by the Society of Physics Students (SPS) to be the 2013 summer intern of the AIP's Career Pathways Project. In this talk I will discuss several resources I worked on with the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics and SPS. These resources include how to write a resume and cover letter, how to perform an informational interview, common job titles for physics bachelors, how to find career information in physics and STEM, how to search and use job postings, and how to network.

  5. AIP Member Societies Entering the 1980's. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Beverly Fearn

    Information is presented on the composition of the 1979 membership of the American Institute of Physics (AIP). Questionnaires were administered to members of the nine independent societies of the AIP to determine demographic and employment information. Background characteristics of the membership include the following: more than half identify…

  6. AIP Congressional Fellowship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications are now being accepted for the American Institute of Physics' Congressional Science Fellowship Program for 1990-1991. The fellow will serve as a special legislative assistant on either a congressional committee or on the staff of a member of Congress. The Congressional Science Fellowship Program was organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and includes 15 sponsoring societies.Qualifications for the AlP-sponsored, 1-year fellowship are a demonstrated Ph.D.-level competence in physics or a related field, membership in an AIP member society, U.S. citizenship or permanent U.S. resident status, and an interest in applying scientific knowledge within the legislative process.

  7. Graedel named to AIP Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Thomas E. Graedel, an atmospheric scientist at AT&T Bell Laboratories (Murray Hill, N.J.), has been made an AGU representative to the Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics (AIP). The board oversees the operations of AIP, a nonprofit umbrella organization for 10 member societies, including AGU. Other AGU members currently on the governing board include Orson Anderson, a geophysicist at the University of California, Los Angeles; AGU General Secretary Peter M. Bell of the Norton Company, Worcester, Mass.; AGU Executive Director A. F. Spilhaus, Jr.; and Martin Walt, a geophysicist with the Lockheed Corporation in Palo Alto, Calif.All AGU members receive the benefits of membership in AIP, including the monthly magazine Physics Today. Other AIP services available to AGU members include access to an employment service, AIP's electronic network Pi-NET, and an insurance program. AGU members can also subscribe to journals published by the American Physical Society, another AIP member society, at discounted rates.—WWM

  8. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  9. Proc. Agent 2004 Conf. on Social Dynamics : Interaction, Reflexivity and Emergence

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Macal, D. Sallach, M. J. North, eds.

    2004-01-01

    I'd like to welcome you to the Agent 2004 conference. As most of you are aware, this conference is the fifth in a series of meetings that began in 1999. A conference followed the next year in 2000. The 2001 conference was skipped because of some conflicts with other conferences, and the conferences have proceeded annually since then. We have the proceedings of the previous conferences available here on CDs. One CD has the proceedings from 1999, 2000, and 2002; the other contains last year's proceedings. The purpose of these conferences is to advance the state of the computational social sciences and to integrate the social sciences with the decision sciences and something that is traditionally known as the management sciences. Those of you in the operations/research area are familiar with the traditional school of modeling simulation that emerged from that scientific area. This conference will bring together a different group of people to talk about the topic of agent-based theories and simulations. This fifth agent conference is one of a group of conferences held annually around the country. Most of you are probably aware of the CASOS Conference held at Carnegie Mellon University, usually in July. UCLA holds the Arrowhead Conference, generally around May. The University of Michigan is now holding a conference as well. Of course everyone is aware of SwarmFest, which has been held annually for about a decade. The Swarm seems to 'swarm' in different locations each year. As you're well aware, this conference is organized into a three-day program. This is the first time we've used three days for the full conference setting. Last year, we held simultaneous sessions, and that didn't work well for most of those who attended. We had complaints from people who missed sessions and papers because of scheduling, so we decided to extend this year's conference by one day. As a result, we now have a program designed to present the papers in a serial sequence rather than in a parallel manner. Today, we'll focus on toolkits. Tomorrow we'll look at computational social theory, and Saturday is application day. We'll talk about how we're taking some of the theories and toolkits to look at real-world problems in order to understand how our very complex world works and maybe even to predict how it might work in the future. In addition to the content of the papers themselves, one of the more important things about this conference is the discussion that is inspired by these papers. I invite you to ask penetrating questions, offer insightful comments, share your experiences with toolkits or your ideas on theories, and help to create an atmosphere that will help this field move along and grow. It's a fairly new science--it is just emerging--but it seems to have been gaining momentum in the last couple of years. This is a conference to get your energy going and perhaps foster your creativity. With that, I welcome you to Agent 2004; have a great time at the conference.

  10. ParselTongue: AIPS Talking Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettenis, M.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Reynolds, C.; Cotton, B.

    2006-07-01

    After more than 20 years of service, classic AIPS still is the data reduction package of choice for many radio-interferometry projects, especially for VLBI. Its age shows, most prominently in the limited scripting capabilities of its user interface: POPS. ParselTongue is an attempt to make the trusted AIPS algorithms and AIPS data structures available in a modern dynamic programming language: Python. It also provides an environment to do distributed computing to take advantage of modern computing clusters. This makes it suitable for use as a scripting interface for doing complicated data reduction on large data sets. It is also used as a coding platform for the new calibration algorithms that are being developed for the European VLBI Network as part of the ALBUS project. Here we hope to take advantage of Python's extensive support for web-based technologies to automate things like collecting calibration data.

  11. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Spring 2014 ConfChem Virtual Poster Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Robert E.; Stoltzfus, Matthew; Houseknecht, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes the virtual poster session of the Flipped Classroom online ConfChem conference that was hosted by the ACS CHED Committee on Computers in Chemical Education (CCCE) from May 9 to June 12, 2014. During the conference's online discussions, it became evident that multiple participants who were not presenting papers had been…

  12. ProC: Process Coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovest, Wolfgang; Knoche, Jörg; Hell, Reinhard; Doerl, Uwe; Riller, Thomas; Matthai, Frank; Ensslin, Torsten; Rachen, Jörg; Robbers, Georg; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Reinecke, Martin; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

  13. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  14. Resources for History of Geophysics at AIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The history programs of the American Institute of Physics -- the Center for History of Physics and the Niels Bohr Library & Archives -- maintain a wide variety of research resources for the history of physics generally, and for the history of geophysics in particular. AIP has over 20,000 photographs online, nearly 1000 oral history interview transcripts, and much more. The International Catalog of Sources provides an online union catalog of manuscript collections held worldwide. An important collection of IUGG records is available onsite, as also is the recently accessioned collection of AGU papers. As the 2019 centenary of AGU approaches, these resources will be of interest to both AGU members and historians of science.;

  15. AIP to Process AGU Renewals for 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilhaus, Fred

    2004-09-01

    AGU is collaborating with the American Institute of Physics (AIP) to provide improved online renewal of your membership and subscription starting with 2005 payments. The renewal process whether online or via mail will be easy for you. I would like to encourage each of you to renew early using the online form. You will be saving the Union money by cutting down on the cost of paper renewals. As a thank-you, members who renew within the first weeks will receive 2005 access without charge to the AGU Member Library of online back issues of all journals. At the same time you can help assure that your information has been correctly transferred to the new database. Great care has been taken in the transition; however, a check by you will assure your information is current.

  16. Differences in ODS formatting for HTML with Proc Print and Proc Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While proc print is a terrific tool for data checking and data summary, proc report is similar to, but more powerful because it can do some basic calculations or statistics and data can be broken more effectively into manageable fields. The ODS procedure can produce HTML files from either procedure...

  17. On AIPS++, a new astronomical information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croes, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The AIPS system that has served the needs of the radio astronomical community remarkably well during the last 15 years is showing signs of age and is being replaced by a more modern system, AIPS++. As the name implies, AIPS++ will be developed in a object oriented fashion and will use C++ as its main programming language. The work is being done by a consortium of seven organizations, with coordinated activities worldwide. After a review of the history of the project to this date from management, astronomical and technical viewpoints, and the current state of the project, the paper concentrates on the tradeoffs implied by the choice of implementation style and the lessons we have learned, good and bad.

  18. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  19. Some Comments on Marketing AIP Information Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.; Brown, A. M.

    This study was addressed to marketing considerations for the American Institute of Physics (AIP) information products and services. The general system and its operation in a marketing environment, including promotion, channels of distribution and pricing are covered. Particular emphasis is placed on the cost/demand/price relationship for four…

  20. PROC: a new Planetary Radars Operating Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.; Alberti, G.; Flamini, E.; Olivieri, A.; Orosei, R.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Actually three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are operating in the frame of an extended missions : MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the starting of the missions in order In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and

  1. Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP): A marker of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Niroumand, Shabnam; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Abrishami, Maryam; Juya, Mohammadreza; Khodaee, Gholamhasan; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the cause of one third of deaths worldwide and this will progress because of increasing CVD's risk factors. The most basic task of dealing with the epidemic of CVD is primary prevention of risk factors. As Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) is a strong marker to predict the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, we assessed the correlation between AIP and other important factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of national non-communicable risk factors surveillance system data that has been established since 2004 in Iran. This was done on 1000 people between 2008 and 2010. The study was approved by Ethics Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Science. Chi square, Mann-Whitney U, correlation tests were used in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11. In all calculations, p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. Results: The study population consisted of 500 men and 500 women with mean±SD age 41.9±14.2 years. According to the AIP category, 9.8% (98) were in low risk group, 12.7% (127) were in intermediate risk and 77.5% (775) were in increased risk of CVD. AIP was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r=0.35, p<0.001), BMI (r=0.33, p<0.001) and physical activity (r=-0.09, p<0.01). Conclusion: AIP can be used as a regular monitoring index of CVD in every day practice, especially in persons with other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26793631

  2. An analysis of six cases of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Chaudhury, Pranit KR.; Goswami, Hiranya K.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis describes the diagnosis and psychiatric treatment modalities of 6 patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age 28.5 years) of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), who presented to the Psychiatry OPD over a period of one year. The mean number of episodes was 2.83. Premorbid personality traits, clinical presentation, urine colour and urinary porphobilinogen titre were recorded. Among the 6 patients, 4 had abdominal pain, 5 had autonomic instability, all 6 had mental symptoms, 3 had depression, 2 came in delirium, and 3 had an episode of seizure. PMID:20844651

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum surface protein AipA mediates invasion of mammalian host cells

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, David; Ojogun, Nore; Walker, Naomi J.; Mastronunzio, Juliana; Kahlon, Amandeep; Hebert, Kathryn S.; Karandashova, Sophia; Miller, Daniel P.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Marconi, Richard T.; Fikrig, Erol; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals, is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that mediates its own uptake into neutrophils and non-phagocytic cells. Invasins of obligate intracellular pathogens are attractive targets for protecting against or curing infection because blocking the internalization step prevents survival of these organisms. The complement of A. phagocytophilum invasins is incompletely defined. Here, we report the significance of a novel A. phagocytophilum invasion protein, AipA. A. phagocytophilum induced aipA expression during transmission feeding of infected ticks on mice. The bacterium upregulated aipA transcription when it transitioned from its non-infectious reticulate cell morphotype to its infectious dense-cored morphotype during infection of HL-60 cells. AipA localized to the bacterial surface and was expressed during in vivo infection. Of the AipA regions predicted to be surface-exposed, only residues 1 to 87 (AipA1–87) were found to be essential for host cell invasion. Recombinant AipA1–87 protein bound to and competitively inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of mammalian cells. Antiserum specific for AipA1–87, but not other AipA regions, antagonized infection. Additional blocking experiments using peptide-specific antisera narrowed down the AipA invasion domain to residues 9 to 21. An antisera combination targeting AipA1–87 together with two other A. phagocytophilum invasins, OmpA and Asp14, nearly abolished infection of host cells. This study identifies AipA as an A. phagocytophilum surface protein that is critical for infection, demarcates its invasion domain, and establishes a rationale for targeting multiple invasins to protect against granulocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:24612118

  4. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property (75 FR 54946..., Safety Management System for Certificated Airports (75 FR 62008, October 7, 2010). However, the...

  5. Characterization of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) Mutations in Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma Families

    PubMed Central

    Igreja, Susana; Chahal, Harvinder S; King, Peter; Bolger, Graeme B; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Guasti, Leonardo; Chapple, J Paul; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Gueorguiev, Maria; Guegan, Katie; Stals, Karen; Khoo, Bernard; Kumar, Ajith V; Ellard, Sian; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2010-01-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is an autosomal dominant condition with variable genetic background and incomplete penetrance. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene have been reported in 15–40% of FIPA patients. Limited data are available on the functional consequences of the mutations or regarding the regulation of the AIP gene. We describe a large cohort of FIPA families and characterize missense and silent mutations using minigene constructs, luciferase and β-galactosidase assays, as well as in silico predictions. Patients with AIP mutations had a lower mean age at diagnosis (23.6±11.2 years) than AIP mutation-negative patients (40.4±14.5 years). A promoter mutation showed reduced in vitro activity corresponding to lower mRNA expression in patient samples. Stimulation of the protein kinase A-pathway positively regulates the AIP promoter. Silent mutations led to abnormal splicing resulting in truncated protein or reduced AIP expression. A two-hybrid assay of protein–protein interaction of all missense variants showed variable disruption of AIP-phosphodiesterase-4A5 binding. In summary, exonic, promoter, splice-site, and large deletion mutations in AIP are implicated in 31% of families in our FIPA cohort. Functional characterization of AIP changes is important to identify the functional impact of gene sequence variants. Hum Mutat 31:1–11, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20506337

  6. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. PMID:27621108

  7. Current Concepts and Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Pancreatitis (Type 1 AIP).

    PubMed

    Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    Although now considered to be a member of the systemic entity of immunoglobulin G4- (IgG4-) related disease, IgG4-related pancreatitis is generally referred to as type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Type 1 AIP was established based on a pathological background of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, high serum IgG4 concentration, and abundant IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration. The characteristic clinical features of type 1 AIP, such as elderly male preponderance, obstructive jaundice, and mass-forming lesions in the pancreas, often mimic those of pancreatic cancer. However, because AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid treatment, careful differentiation from pancreatic cancer is required. An AIP diagnosis is currently based on the 2011 International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for AIP, which are based on high sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy. Over the long term, AIP can progress to a chronic condition, with pancreatic stone formation and atrophy resembling that of chronic pancreatitis. Although AIP has been linked to the complication of malignancies, it remains controversial whether an association exists between the disease and tumor formation. PMID:27466795

  8. AIP1 expression in tumor niche suppresses tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Yonghao; He, Yun; Yin, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Boggon, Titus J.; Zhang, Haifeng; Min, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies from tumor cells suggest that tumor suppressor AIP1 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of AIP1 in the tumor microenvironment has not been examined. We show that a global or vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of the AIP1 gene in mice augments tumor growth and metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer models. AIP1-deficient vascular environment not only enhances tumor neovascularization and increases pre-metastatic niche formation, but also secrets tumor EMT-promoting factors. These effects from AIP1 loss are associated with increased VEGFR2 signaling in the vascular EC and could be abrogated by systemic administration of VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors. Mechanistically, AIP1 blocks VEGFR2-dependent signaling by directly binding to the phosphotyrosine residues within the activation loop of VEGFR2. Our data reveal that AIP1, by inhibiting VEGFR2-dependent signaling in tumor niche, suppresses tumor EMT switch, tumor angiogenesis and tumor pre-metastatic niche formation to limit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26139244

  9. Introduction to the Spring 2014 ConfChem on the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Chris; Muzyka, Jennifer; Belford, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Students' active engagement is one of the most critical challenges to any successful learning environment. The blending of active engagement along with rich, meaningful content is necessary for chemical educators to re-examine the purpose of the chemistry classroom. The Spring 2014 ConfChem conference, Flipped Classroom, was held from May 9 to…

  10. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Using a Blog to Flip a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, January D.

    2015-01-01

    This communication summarizes one of the invited papers to the Flipped Classroom ACS Division of Chemical Education Committee on Computers in Chemical Education online ConfChem held from May 18 to June 24, 2014. Just in Time Teaching is a technique in which students read the material before class and respond to a few questions. In a first-year…

  11. Sustainable Management of Seagrass Meadows: the GEOSS AIP-6 Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mattia; Pastres, Roberto; Zucchetta, Matteo; Venier, Chiara; Roncella, Roberto; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Mangin, Antoine; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Gonzalo Malvarez, Gonzalo; Nativi, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Seagrass meadows (marine angiosperm plants) occupy less than 0.2% of the global ocean surface, annually store about 10-18% of the so-called "Blue Carbon", i.e. the Carbon stored in coastal vegetated areas. Recent literature estimates that the flux to the long-term carbon sink in seagrasses represents 10-20% of seagrasses global average production. Such figures can be translated into economic benefits, taking into account that a ton of carbon dioxide in Europe is paid at around 15 € in the carbon market. This means that the organic carbon retained in seagrass sediments in the Mediterranean is worth 138 - 1128 billion €, which represents 6-23 € per square meter. This is 9-35 times more than one square meter of tropical forest soil (0.66 € per square meter), or 5-17 times when considering both the above and the belowground compartments in tropical forests. According the most conservative estimations, about 10% of the Mediterranean meadows have been lost during the last century. To estimate seagrass meadows distribution, a Species Distribution Model (SDM) can be used. SDM is a tool that is used to evaluate the potential distribution of a given species (e.g. Posidonia oceanica for seagrass) on the basis of the features (bio-chemical-physical parameters) of the studied environment. In the framework of the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) initiative, the FP7 project MEDINA developed a showcase as part of the GEOSS Architecture Interoperability Pilot - phase 6 (AIP-6). The showcase aims at providing a tool for the sustainable management of seagrass meadows along the Mediterranean coastline by integrating the SDM with available GEOSS resources. This way, the required input data can be searched, accessed and ingested into the model leveraging the brokering framework of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). This framework is comprised of a set of middle-ware components (Brokers) that are in charge of implementing the needed interoperability

  12. A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…

  13. Using SAS PROC MCMC for Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Allison J.; Samonte, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    Interest in using Bayesian methods for estimating item response theory models has grown at a remarkable rate in recent years. This attentiveness to Bayesian estimation has also inspired a growth in available software such as WinBUGS, R packages, BMIRT, MPLUS, and SAS PROC MCMC. This article intends to provide an accessible overview of Bayesian…

  14. ConfGen: a conformational search method for efficient generation of bioactive conformers.

    PubMed

    Watts, K Shawn; Dalal, Pranav; Murphy, Robert B; Sherman, Woody; Friesner, Rich A; Shelley, John C

    2010-04-26

    We describe the methodology, parametrization, and application of a conformational search method, called ConfGen, designed to efficiently generate bioactive conformers. We define efficiency as the ability to generate a bioactive conformation within a small total number of conformations using a reasonable amount of computer time. The method combines physics-based force field calculations with empirically derived heuristics designed to achieve efficient searching and prioritization of the ligand's conformational space. While many parameter settings are supported, four modes spanning a range of speed and quality trades-offs are defined and characterized. The validation set used to test the method is composed of ligands from 667 crystal structures covering a broad array of target and ligand classes. With the fastest mode, ConfGen uses an average of 0.5 s per ligand and generates only 14.3 conformers per ligand, at least one of which lies within 2.0 A root-mean-squared deviation of the crystal structure for 96% of the ligands. The most computationally intensive mode raises this recovery rate to 99%, while taking 8 s per ligand. Combining multiple search modes to "fill-in" holes in the conformation space or energy minimizing using an all-atom force field each lead to improvements in the recovery rates at higher resolutions. Overall, ConfGen is at least as good as competing programs at high resolution and demonstrates higher efficiency at resolutions sufficient for many downstream applications, such as pharmacophore modeling. PMID:20373803

  15. Paraptosis: mediation by MAP kinases and inhibition by AIP-1/Alix.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, S; Poksay, K; de Belle, I; Lafuente, M J; Liu, B; Nasir, J; Bredesen, D E

    2004-10-01

    Programmed cell death (pcd) may take the form of apoptotic or nonapoptotic pcd. Whereas cysteine aspartyl-specific proteases (caspases) mediate apoptosis, the mediators of nonapoptotic cell death programs are much less well characterized. Here, we report that paraptosis, an alternative, nonapoptotic cell death program that may be induced by the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (among other inducers), is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited by AIP-1/Alix. The inhibition by AIP-1/Alix is specific for paraptosis since apoptosis was not inhibited. Caspases were not activated in this paradigm, nor were caspase inhibitors effective in blocking cell death. However, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR)-induced paraptosis was inhibited by MEK-2-specific inhibitors and by antisense oligonucleotides directed against c-jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1). These results suggest that IGFIR-induced paraptosis is mediated by MAPKs, and inhibited by AIP-1/Alix. PMID:15195070

  16. Intracellular Trafficking of AIP56, an NF-κB-Cleaving Toxin from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Liliana M. G.; Pinto, Rute D.; Silva, Daniela S.; Moreira, Ana R.; Beitzinger, Christoph; Oliveira, Pedro; Sampaio, Paula; Benz, Roland; Azevedo, Jorge E.; dos Santos, Nuno M. S.

    2014-01-01

    AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a metalloprotease AB toxin secreted by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida that acts by cleaving NF-κB. During infection, AIP56 spreads systemically and depletes phagocytes by postapoptotic secondary necrosis, impairing the host phagocytic defense and contributing to the genesis of infection-associated necrotic lesions. Here we show that mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (mBMDM) intoxicated by AIP56 undergo NF-κB p65 depletion and apoptosis. Similarly to what was reported for sea bass phagocytes, intoxication of mBMDM involves interaction of AIP56 C-terminal region with cell surface components, suggesting the existence of a conserved receptor. Biochemical approaches and confocal microscopy revealed that AIP56 undergoes clathrin-dependent endocytosis, reaches early endosomes, and follows the recycling pathway. Translocation of AIP56 into the cytosol requires endosome acidification, and an acidic pulse triggers translocation of cell surface-bound AIP56 into the cytosol. Accordingly, at acidic pH, AIP56 becomes more hydrophobic, interacting with artificial lipid bilayer membranes. Altogether, these data indicate that AIP56 is a short-trip toxin that reaches the cytosol using an acidic-pH-dependent mechanism, probably from early endosomes. Usually, for short-trip AB toxins, a minor pool reaches the cytosol by translocating from endosomes, whereas the rest is routed to lysosomes for degradation. Here we demonstrate that part of endocytosed AIP56 is recycled back and released extracellularly through a mechanism requiring phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity but independent of endosome acidification. So far, we have been unable to detect biological activity of recycled AIP56, thereby bringing into question its biological relevance as well as the importance of the recycling pathway. PMID:25287919

  17. School Board Improvement Plans in Relation to the AIP Model of Educational Accountability: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Barneveld, Christina; Stienstra, Wendy; Stewart, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    For this study we analyzed the content of school board improvement plans in relation to the Achievement-Indicators-Policy (AIP) model of educational accountability (Nagy, Demeris, & van Barneveld, 2000). We identified areas of congruence and incongruence between the plans and the model. Results suggested that the content of the improvement plans,…

  18. 77 FR 30350 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... modifications to this assurance at 77 FR 22376. Specifically, paragraph (a)(3) of Sponsor Assurance 25 permits... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain... (FAA) to declare certain revenue derived from or generated by mineral extraction, production, lease,...

  19. BCL::Conf: small molecule conformational sampling using a knowledge based rotamer library.

    PubMed

    Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar; Mendenhall, Jeffrey L; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of a small molecule with a protein target depends on its ability to adopt a three-dimensional structure that is complementary. Therefore, complete and rapid prediction of the conformational space a small molecule can sample is critical for both structure- and ligand-based drug discovery algorithms such as small molecule docking or three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships. Here we have derived a database of small molecule fragments frequently sampled in experimental structures within the Cambridge Structure Database and the Protein Data Bank. Likely conformations of these fragments are stored as 'rotamers' in analogy to amino acid side chain rotamer libraries used for rapid sampling of protein conformational space. Explicit fragments take into account correlations between multiple torsion bonds and effect of substituents on torsional profiles. A conformational ensemble for small molecules can then be generated by recombining fragment rotamers with a Monte Carlo search strategy. BCL::Conf was benchmarked against other conformer generator methods including Confgen, Moe, Omega and RDKit in its ability to recover experimentally determined protein bound conformations of small molecules, diversity of conformational ensembles, and sampling rate. BCL::Conf recovers at least one conformation with a root mean square deviation of 2 Å or better to the experimental structure for 99 % of the small molecules in the Vernalis benchmark dataset. The 'rotamer' approach will allow integration of BCL::Conf into respective computational biology programs such as Rosetta.Graphical abstract:Conformation sampling is carried out using explicit fragment conformations derived from crystallographic structure databases. Molecules from the database are decomposed into fragments and most likely conformations/rotamers are used to sample correspondng sub-structure of a molecule of interest. PMID:26473018

  20. AIP mutations in young patients with acromegaly and the Tampico Giant: the Mexican experience.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Portocarrero-Ortiz, Lesly; Vargas, Guadalupe; Melgar, Virgilio; Espinosa, Etual; Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Sosa, Ernesto; González, Baldomero; Zúñiga, Sergio; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anne-Marie; Ellard, Sian; Dang, Mary; Iacovazzo, Donato; Kapur, Sonal; Gabrovska, Plamena; Radian, Serban; Roncaroli, Federico; Korbonits, Márta; Mercado, Moisés

    2016-08-01

    Although aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly, their prevalence among young patients is nonnegligible. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of AIP mutations in a cohort of Mexican patients with acromegaly with disease onset before the age of 30 and to search for molecular abnormalities in the AIP gene in teeth obtained from the "Tampico Giant". Peripheral blood DNA from 71 patients with acromegaly (51 females) with disease onset <30 years was analysed (median age of disease onset of 23 years) and correlated with clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics. Sequencing was also carried out in DNA extracted from teeth of the Tampico Giant. Five patients (7 %) harboured heterozygous, germline mutations of the AIP gene. In two of them (a 9-year-old girl with gigantism and a young man with symptoms of GH excess since age 14) the c.910C>T (p.Arg304Ter), well-known truncating mutation was identified; in one of these two cases and her identical twin sister, the mutation proved to be a de novo event, since neither of their parents were found to be carriers. In the remaining three patients, new mutations were identified: a frameshift mutation (c.976_977insC, p.Gly326AfsTer), an in-frame deletion (c.872_877del, p.Val291_Leu292del) and a nonsense mutation (c.868A > T, p.Lys290Ter), which are predicted to be pathogenic based on in silico analysis. Patients with AIP mutations tended to have an earlier onset of acromegaly and harboured larger and more invasive tumours. A previously described genetic variant of unknown significance (c.869C > T, p.Ala299Val) was identified in DNA from the Tampico Giant. The prevalence of AIP mutations in young Mexican patients with acromegaly is similar to that of European cohorts. Our results support the need for genetic evaluation of patients with early onset acromegaly. PMID:27033541

  1. Functional analyses of an E3 ligase gene AIP2 from wheat in Arabidopsis revealed its roles in seed germination and pre-harvest sprouting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong-Yao; Xu, Zhao-Shi; He, Yi; Sun, Yong-Wei; Ma, You-Zhi; Xia, Lan-Qin

    2014-05-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) seriously affects wheat yield and quality of the grain. ABI3 is a key factor in the activation of seed development and repression of germination in Arabidopsis. An ABI3-interacting protein (AIP2) could polyubiquitinate ABI3, impair seed dormancy and promote seed germination in Arabidopsis. In this study, two wheat AIP2 genes, TaAIP2A and TaAIP2B, were isolated. Subcellular localization assay and yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that TaAIP2A and TaAIP2B may function through interaction with wheat Viviporous-1 (TaVp1). The transcripts TaAIP2A and TaAIP2B were more abundant in wheat PHS susceptible cultivars than that of resistant ones, and decreased gradually following seed development. Expression of TaAIP2A and TaAIP2B in Arabidopsis aip2-1 mutant lines resulted in earlier flowering, promotion of seed germination, and reduced ABA sensitivity, respectively, somehow mimicking the phenotype of the wild type, with TaAIP2B having a stronger role in these aspects. Furthermore, the expression of upstream genes ABI1 and ABI2 were upregulated, whereas that of downstream genes ABI3 and ABI5 were downregulated in both TaAIP2A and TaAIP2B complemented lines upon ABA treatment. These results suggested that wheat AIP2s could negatively regulate the ABA signaling pathway and play important roles in seed germination, and thus wheat PHS resistance finally. PMID:24279988

  2. Mutations in the cofilin partner Aip1/Wdr1 cause autoinflammatory disease and macrothrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Panopoulos, Athanasia D.; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Hacking, Douglas F.; Tahtamouni, Lubna H.; Willson, Tracy A.; Mielke, Lisa A.; Henley, Katya J.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Wicks, Ian P.; Stevenson, William S.; Nurden, Paquita; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Justice, Monica J.

    2007-01-01

    A pivotal mediator of actin dynamics is the protein cofilin, which promotes filament severing and depolymerization, facilitating the breakdown of existing filaments, and the enhancement of filament growth from newly created barbed ends. It does so in concert with actin interacting protein 1 (Aip1), which serves to accelerate cofilin's activity. While progress has been made in understanding its biochemical functions, the physiologic processes the cofilin/Aip1 complex regulates, particularly in higher organisms, are yet to be determined. We have generated an allelic series for WD40 repeat protein 1 (Wdr1), the mammalian homolog of Aip1, and report that reductions in Wdr1 function produce a dramatic phenotype gradient. While severe loss of function at the Wdr1 locus causes embryonic lethality, macrothrombocytopenia and autoinflammatory disease develop in mice carrying hypomorphic alleles. Macrothrombocytopenia is the result of megakaryocyte maturation defects, which lead to a failure of normal platelet shedding. Autoinflammatory disease, which is bone marrow–derived yet nonlymphoid in origin, is characterized by a massive infiltration of neutrophils into inflammatory lesions. Cytoskeletal responses are impaired in Wdr1 mutant neutrophils. These studies establish an essential requirement for Wdr1 in megakaryocytes and neutrophils, indicating that cofilin-mediated actin dynamics are critically important to the development and function of both cell types. PMID:17515402

  3. TOR1AIP1 as a cause of cardiac failure and recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, Roula; Benavides, Tatiana; Lek, Monkol; Waddell, Leigh B; Kaur, Simranpreet; North, Kathryn N; MacArthur, Daniel G; Clarke, Nigel F; Cooper, Sandra T

    2016-08-01

    TorsinA-interacting protein 1 (TOR1AIP1) gene is a novel gene that has recently been described to cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a family with mutations in TOR1AIP1 where the striking clinical feature is severe cardiac failure requiring cardiac transplant in two siblings, in addition to musculoskeletal weakness and muscular dystrophy. We demonstrate an absence of TOR1AIP1 protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscles of affected siblings. We expand the phenotype of this gene to demonstrate the cardiac involvement and the importance of cardiac surveillance in patients with mutations in TOR1AIP1. PMID:27342937

  4. conF and conJ contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Sarikaya Bayram, Özlem; Bayram, Özgür; Braus, Gerhard H

    2013-07-01

    Light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. The formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. Expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. We have characterized the light-inducible conF and conJ genes of A. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of Neurospora crassa. con genes are expressed during conidia formation in asexual development. Five minutes light exposure are sufficient to induce conF or conJ expression in vegetative mycelia. Similar to N. crassa there were no significant phenotypes of single con mutations. A double conF and conJ deletion resulted in significantly increased cellular amounts of glycerol or erythritol. This leads to a delayed germination phenotype combined with increased resistance against desiccation. These defects were rescued by complementation of the double mutant strain with either conF or conJ. This suggests that fungal con genes exhibit redundant functions in controlling conidia germination and adjusting cellular levels of substances which protect conidia against dryness. PMID:23644150

  5. Rapid Proteasomal Degradation of Mutant Proteins Is the Primary Mechanism Leading to Tumorigenesis in Patients With Missense AIP Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C.; Martucci, Federico; Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Tilley, Daniel; Ramos-Guajardo, Nancy; Iacovazzo, Donato; D'Acquisto, Fulvio; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Context: The pathogenic effect of mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene (AIPmuts) in pituitary adenomas is incompletely understood. We have identified the primary mechanism of loss of function for missense AIPmuts. Objective: This study sought to analyze the mechanism/speed of protein turnover of wild-type and missense AIP variants, correlating protein half-life with clinical parameters. Design and Setting: Half-life and protein–protein interaction experiments and cross-sectional analysis of AIPmut positive patients' data were performed in a clinical academic research institution. Patients: Data were obtained from our cohort of pituitary adenoma patients and literature-reported cases. Interventions: Protein turnover of endogenous AIP in two cell lines and fifteen AIP variants overexpressed in HEK293 cells was analyzed via cycloheximide chase and proteasome inhibition. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down and quantitative mass spectrometry identified proteins involved in AIP degradation; results were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and gene knockdown. Relevant clinical data was collected. Main Outcome Measures: Half-life of wild-type and mutant AIP proteins and its correlation with clinical parameters. Results: Endogenous AIP half-life was similar in HEK293 and lymphoblastoid cells (43.5 and 32.7 h). AIP variants were divided into stable proteins (median, 77.7 h; interquartile range [IQR], 60.7–92.9 h), and those with short (median, 27 h; IQR, 21.6–28.7 h) or very short (median, 7.7 h; IQR, 5.6–10.5 h) half-life; proteasomal inhibition rescued the rapid degradation of mutant proteins. The experimental half-life significantly correlated with age at diagnosis of acromegaly/gigantism (r = 0.411; P = .002). The FBXO3-containing SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein complex was identified as the E3 ubiquitin-ligase recognizing AIP. Conclusions: AIP is a stable protein, driven to ubiquitination by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein complex

  6. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP)

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Sebastian J.; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2015-01-01

    The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand) has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013), and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP). To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP) in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1–13Hz, 13–30Hz, 30–60Hz, and 60–100Hz, respectively). Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach) information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses. PMID:26554592

  7. Landscape of Familial Isolated and Young-Onset Pituitary Adenomas: Prospective Diagnosis in AIP Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C.; Gabrovska, Plamena; Dénes, Judit; Stals, Karen; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Tilley, Daniel; Ferraù, Francesco; Evanson, Jane; Ellard, Sian; Grossman, Ashley B.; Roncaroli, Federico; Gadelha, Mônica R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIP mutation (AIPmut) carriers could identify previously unrecognized disease. Objective: To determine the AIP mutational status of FIPA and young pituitary adenoma patients, analyzing their clinical characteristics, and to perform clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIPmut carrier family members. Design: This was an observational, longitudinal study conducted over 7 years. Setting: International collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases. Participants: FIPA families (n = 216) and sporadic young-onset (≤30 y) pituitary adenoma patients (n = 404) participated in the study. Interventions: We performed genetic screening of patients for AIPmuts, clinical assessment of their family members, and genetic screening for somatic GNAS1 mutations and the germline FGFR4 p.G388R variant. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed clinical disease in mutation carriers, comparison of characteristics of AIPmut positive and negative patients, results of GNAS1, and FGFR4 analysis. Results: Thirty-seven FIPA families and 34 sporadic patients had AIPmuts. Patients with truncating AIPmuts had a younger age at disease onset and diagnosis, compared with patients with nontruncating AIPmuts. Somatic GNAS1 mutations were absent in tumors from AIPmut-positive patients, and the studied FGFR4 variant did not modify the disease behavior or penetrance in AIPmut-positive individuals. A total of 164 AIPmut-positive unaffected family members were identified; pituitary disease was detected in 18 of those who underwent clinical screening. Conclusions: A quarter of the AIPmut carriers screened were diagnosed with pituitary disease, justifying this screening and suggesting a variable clinical course for AIPmut-positive pituitary adenomas. PMID

  8. GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Santoro, M.

    2009-12-01

    Currently, one of the major challenges for scientific community is the study of climate change effects on life on Earth. To achieve this, it is crucial to understand how climate change will impact on biodiversity and, in this context, several application scenarios require modeling the impact of climate change on distribution of individual species. In the context of GEOSS AIP-2 (Global Earth Observation System of Systems, Architecture Implementation Pilot- Phase 2), the Climate Change & Biodiversity thematic Working Group developed three significant user scenarios. A couple of them make use of a GEOSS-based framework to study the impact of climate change factors on regional species distribution. The presentation introduces and discusses this framework which provides an interoperability infrastructures to loosely couple standard services and components to discover and access climate and biodiversity data, and run forecast and processing models. The framework is comprised of the following main components and services: a)GEO Portal: through this component end user is able to search, find and access the needed services for the scenario execution; b)Graphical User Interface (GUI): this component provides user interaction functionalities. It controls the workflow manager to perform the required operations for the scenario implementation; c)Use Scenario controller: this component acts as a workflow controller implementing the scenario business process -i.e. a typical climate change & biodiversity projection scenario; d)Service Broker implementing Mediation Services: this component realizes a distributed catalogue which federates several discovery and access components (exposing them through a unique CSW standard interface). Federated components publish climate, environmental and biodiversity datasets; e)Ecological Niche Model Server: this component is able to run one or more Ecological Niche Models (ENM) on selected biodiversity and climate datasets; f)Data Access

  9. GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    In the last years, scientific community is producing great efforts in order to study the effects of climate change on life on Earth. In this general framework, a key role is played by the impact of climate change on biodiversity. To assess this, several use scenarios require the modeling of climatological change impact on the regional distribution of biodiversity species. Designing and developing interoperability infrastructures which enable scientists to search, discover, access and use multi-disciplinary resources (i.e. datasets, services, models, etc.) is currently one of the main research fields for the Earth and Space Science Informatics. This presentation introduces and discusses an interoperability infrastructure which implements the discovery, access, and chaining of loosely-coupled resources in the climatology and biodiversity domains. This allows to set up and run forecast and processing models. The presented framework was successfully developed and experimented in the context of GEOSS AIP-2 (Global Earth Observation System of Systems, Architecture Implementation Pilot- Phase 2) Climate Change & Biodiversity thematic Working Group. This interoperability infrastructure is comprised of the following main components and services: a)GEO Portal: through this component end user is able to search, find and access the needed services for the scenario execution; b)Graphical User Interface (GUI): this component provides user interaction functionalities. It controls the workflow manager to perform the required operations for the scenario implementation; c)Use Scenario controller: this component acts as a workflow controller implementing the scenario business process -i.e. a typical climate change & biodiversity projection scenario; d)Service Broker implementing Mediation Services: this component realizes a distributed catalogue which federates several discovery and access components (exposing them through a unique CSW standard interface). Federated components

  10. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1990-01-01

    An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

  11. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

  12. EuroGEOSS/GENESIS ``e-Habitat'' AIP-3 Use Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Dubois, G.; Santoro, M.; Peedell, S.; de Longueville, B.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Natural ecosystems are in rapid decline. Major habitats are disappearing at a speed never observed before. The current rate of species extinction is several orders of magnitude higher than the background rate from the fossil record. Protected Areas (PAs) and Protected Area Systems are designed to conserve natural and cultural resources, to maintain biodiversity (ecosystems, species, genes) and ecosystem services. The scientific challenge of understanding how environmental and climatological factors impact on ecosystems and habitats requires the use of information from different scientific domains. Thus, multidisciplinary interoperability is a crucial requirement for a framework aiming to support scientists. The Group on Earth Observations (or GEO) is coordinating international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This emerging public infrastructure is interconnecting a diverse and growing array of instruments and systems for monitoring and forecasting changes in the global environment. This “system of systems” supports multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary scientific researches. The presented GEOSS-based interoperability framework facilitates the discovery and exploitation of datasets and models from heterogeneous scientific domains and Information Technology services (data sources). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) launched the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP) Initiative to develop and deploy new processes and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and the broader GEOSS architecture. The current AIP Phase 3 (AIP-3) aims to increase GEOSS capacity to support several strategic Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) including: Disaster Management, Health/Air Quality, Biodiversity, Energy, Health/Disease and Water. As to Biodiversity, the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (http://www.eurogeoss.eu) and GENESIS (http://www.genesis-fp7.eu) projects have developed a use scenario called

  13. Representation of continuous hand and arm movements in macaque areas M1, F5, and AIP: a comparative decoding study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menz, Veera Katharina; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2015-10-01

    Objective. In the last decade, multiple brain areas have been investigated with respect to their decoding capability of continuous arm or hand movements. So far, these studies have mainly focused on motor or premotor areas like M1 and F5. However, there is accumulating evidence that anterior intraparietal area (AIP) in the parietal cortex also contains information about continuous movement. Approach. In this study, we decoded 27 degrees of freedom representing complete hand and arm kinematics during a delayed grasping task from simultaneously recorded activity in areas M1, F5, and AIP of two macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Main results. We found that all three areas provided decoding performances that lay significantly above chance. In particular, M1 yielded highest decoding accuracy followed by F5 and AIP. Furthermore, we provide support for the notion that AIP does not only code categorical visual features of objects to be grasped, but also contains a substantial amount of temporal kinematic information. Significance. This fact could be utilized in future developments of neural interfaces restoring hand and arm movements.

  14. Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas (FIPA) and the Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition due to Mutations in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Daly, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses

  15. Determination of selenium using atomically imprinted polymer (AIP) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Grazielle Cabral; do Lago, Ayla Campos; Chaves, Arley Alves; Fadini, Pedro Sergio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2013-03-20

    This paper describes selenium determination based on Se(0) preconcentration in the imprinted polymer (synthesized with 2.25mmol SeO2, 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole) with subsequent detection on-line in HG-FAAS. During the synthesis, SeO2 is reduced to Se (0). Therefore, there are no MIP neither IIP in the present work, thus we denominated: AIP, i.e., atomically imprinted polymers. For the optimization of analytical parameters Doehlert design was used. The method presented limit of detection and limit of quantification of 53 and 177ngL(-1), respectively, and linear range from 0.17 up to 6μgL(-1) (r=0.9936). The preconcentration factor (PF), consumptive index (CI) and concentration efficiency (CE) were 232; 0.06mL and 58min(-1) respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine Se in Brazil nuts (0.33±0.03mgkg(-1)), apricot (0.46±0.02mgkg(-1)), white bean (0.47±0.03mgkg(-1)), rice flour (0.47±0.02mgkg(-1)) and milk powder (0.22±0.01mgkg(-1)) samples. It was possible to do 12 analyzes per hour. Accuracy was checked and confirmed by analyzing certified reference material (DORM-2, dogfish muscle), and samples precision was satisfactory with RSD lower than 10%. PMID:23473247

  16. Causative role of left aIPS in coding shared goals during human–avatar complementary joint actions

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Lucia M.; Candidi, Matteo; Era, Vanessa; Aglioti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Successful motor interactions require agents to anticipate what a partner is doing in order to predictively adjust their own movements. Although the neural underpinnings of the ability to predict others' action goals have been well explored during passive action observation, no study has yet clarified any critical neural substrate supporting interpersonal coordination during active, non-imitative (complementary) interactions. Here, we combine non-invasive inhibitory brain stimulation (continuous Theta Burst Stimulation) with a novel human–avatar interaction task to investigate a causal role for higher-order motor cortical regions in supporting the ability to predict and adapt to others' actions. We demonstrate that inhibition of left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), but not ventral premotor cortex, selectively impaired individuals' performance during complementary interactions. Thus, in addition to coding observed and executed action goals, aIPS is crucial in coding ‘shared goals', that is, integrating predictions about one's and others' complementary actions. PMID:26154706

  17. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  18. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal.

  19. AIP1-mediated actin disassembly is required for postnatal germ cell migration and spermatogonial stem cell niche establishment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Wan, P; Wang, M; Zhang, J; Gao, X; Hu, B; Han, J; Chen, L; Sun, K; Wu, J; Wu, X; Huang, X; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) arise from early germ cells called gonocytes, which are derived from primordial germ cells during embryogenesis and remain quiescent until birth. After birth, these germ cells migrate from the center of testicular cord, through Sertoli cells, and toward the basement membrane to form the SSC pool and establish the SSC niche architecture. However, molecular mechanisms underlying germ cell migration and niche establishment are largely unknown. Here, we show that the actin disassembly factor actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1) is required in both germ cells and Sertoli cells to regulate this process. Germ cell-specific or Sertoli cell-specific deletion of Aip1 gene each led to significant defects in germ cell migration after postnatal day 4 or 5, accompanied by elevated levels of actin filaments (F-actin) in the affected cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that interaction between germ cells and Sertoli cells, likely through E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, is critical for germ cells' migration toward the basement membrane. At last, Aip1 deletion in Sertoli cells decreased SSC self-renewal, increased spermatogonial differentiation, but did not affect the expression and secretion levels of growth factors, suggesting that the disruption of SSC function results from architectural changes in the postnatal niche. PMID:26181199

  20. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID:26510576

  1. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J; Chang, Philip K-Y; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W; McKinney, R Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically "trapping" low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID:26510576

  2. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  3. Sociocultural, Environmental, and Health Challenges Facing Women and Children Living Near the Borders Between Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (AIP Region)

    PubMed Central

    Poureslami, Iraj M; MacLean, David R; Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Annalee

    2004-01-01

    Background For hundred of years, people in the region encompassed by the Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan borders (AIP region) have been challenged by conflict and political and civil instability, mass displacement, human rights abuses, drought, and famine. It not surprising that health and quality of life of vulnerable groups in this region are among the worst in the world. In general, women and children, in particular girls, in the AIP region have had especially limited access to healthcare. Women and children have dramatically high rates of communicable and non-communicable disease, morbidity, and mortality and a general low life expectancy that is rapidly declining. In spite of national and international efforts to improve health status of vulnerable populations in this region, the key underlying sociocultural determinants of health and disparities (ie, gender, language, ethnicity, residential status, and socioeconomic status) have not been systematically studied, nor have their relationships to environmental challenges been examined. Objectives We set out to summarize existing information regarding the sociocultural, environmental, and traditional determinants of health disparities among different population groups in the AIP region; identify gaps in research regarding the communities' needs in the region; and highlight factors that must be considered in the design and implementation of future health intervention studies in the region. Methods We reviewed current health literature, official documents, and other information (eg, reports of UN agencies) related to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the health outcomes of subpopulations living in the AIP region. We also interviewed individuals who had recently worked in this region. Results Overall, the health problems faced by this underdeveloped region can be categorized into those resulting from lack of essential supplies and services and those stemming from the existing cultural

  4. 78 FR 63568 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35 AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2007-35...: Statistical Sampling for purposes of Section 199. OMB Number: 1545-2072. Revenue Procedure Number:...

  5. 75 FR 53738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35 AGENCY: Internal... 2007-35, Statistical Sampling for purposes of Section 199. DATES: Written comments should be received... 199. OMB Number: 1545-2072. Revenue Procedure Number: RP-2007-35. Abstract: This revenue...

  6. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Reclaiming Face Time--How an Organic Chemistry Flipped Classroom Provided Access to Increased Guided Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trogden, Bridget G.

    2015-01-01

    Students' active engagement is one of the most critical challenges to any successful learning environment. The blending of active engagement along with rich, meaningful content is necessary for chemical educators to re-examine the purpose of the chemistry classroom. The Spring 2014 ConfChem conference, Flipped Classroom, was held from May 9 to…

  7. PROcEED: Probabilistic reverse dosimetry approaches for estimating exposure distributions

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, Christopher M; Holm, Kathleen; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    As increasing amounts of biomonitoring survey data become available, a new discipline focused on converting such data into estimates of chemical exposures has developed. Reverse dosimetry uses a pharmacokinetic model along with measured biomarker concentrations to determine the plausible exposure concentrations-- a critical step to incorporate ground-truthing experimental data into a distribution of probable exposures that reduces model uncertainty and variability. At the population level, probabilistic reverse dosimetry can utilize a distribution of measured biomarker concentrations to identify the most likely exposure concentrations (or intake doses) experienced by the study participants. PROcEED is software that provides access to probabilistic reverse dosimetry approaches for estimating exposure distributions via a simple user interface. Availability PROcEED along with installation instructions is freely available for download from http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/proceed/proceed.html PMID:23930024

  8. Using SAS PROC TCALIS for multigroup structural equation modelling with mean structures.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Wu, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM) is a technique frequently used to evaluate measurement invariance in social and behavioural science research. Before version 9.2, SAS was incapable of handling multigroup SEM. However, this limitation is resolved in PROC TCALIS in SAS 9.2. For the purpose of illustration, this paper provides a step-by-step guide to programming the tests of measurement invariance and partial invariance using PROC TCALIS for multigroup SEM with mean structures. Fit indices and parameter estimates are validated, thus providing an alternative tool for researchers conducting both applied and simulated studies. Other new features (e.g., different types of modelling languages and estimation methods) and limitations (e.g., ordered-categorical SEM and multilevel SEM) of the TCALIS procedure are also briefly discussed. PMID:21973099

  9. The AIP Career Pathways Project: Learning the Effective Practices of Physics Departments Preparing Graduates with the Bachelor's Degree for STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Redmond, Kendra; Czujko, Roman

    2012-10-01

    Forty percent of students graduating with the bachelor's degree in physics seek employment immediately upon graduation. The AIP Career Pathways Project, funded by NSF, seeks to learn by site visits the effective practices of departments in preparing these students to successfully secure positions in STEM and to make these practices known by presentations, publications, and workshops. This talk will review AIP Statistical Resources data on the careers of physicists with the bachelor's degree, provide preliminary insights from the site visits, provide some advice for graduates seeking employment, and describe the upcoming workshops.

  10. Influence of Surface Free Energy on Adhesion of CrN Thin Film Deposited by AIP Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouda, Hikaru; Oda, Hiroatsu; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adhesion of CrN thin film and the surface free energy of substrate. CrN film was deposited on JIS SKH2 high speed tool steel by arc ion plating (AIP) method. The surface free energy of the substrate was measured with/without ion bombardment process using nitrogen and argon gas under various gas flow rate before CrN deposition. The surface free energy was measured by the sessile drop method using distilled water and methylene iodide. The adhesion was evaluated by scratch testing and the relationship between a critical load and the surface free energy in each ion bombardment condition was discussed. As a result, it was found that the adhesion increased with decreasing the surface free energy, in particular the polar component strongly affects the adhesion.

  11. Intra-nucleus accumbens administration of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor AIP induced antinociception in rats with mononeuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hui; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2015-07-10

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine- dependent protein kinase, which has been implicated in pain modulation at different levels of the central nervous system. The present study was performed in rats with mononeuropathy induced by left common sciatic nerve ligation. Unilateral sciatic nerve loose ligation produced decreases in the hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation. Intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) injection of 3 μg, 6 μg and 12 μg of myristoylated autocamtide-2-inhibitory peptide (AIP), the CaMKII inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the HWL to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation in rats with mononeuropathy. Furthermore, intra-NAc administration of morphine, the HWL to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation increased markedly, and there were no significant differences between morphine group and AIP group. Taken together, the results showed that intra-NAc injection of AIP induced significant antinociceptive effects in rats with mononeuropathy, indicating that CaMKII may play an important role in the transmission and/or modulation of nociceptive information in the NAc in rats with mononeuropathy. PMID:26022629

  12. Holographic classification of topological insulators and its eightfold periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeClair, André; Bernard, Denis

    2012-11-01

    Using generic properties of Clifford algebras in any spatial dimension, we explicitly classify Dirac Hamiltonians with zero modes protected by the discrete symmetries of time reversal, particle-hole symmetry and chirality. Assuming that the boundary states of topological insulators are Dirac fermions, we thereby holographically reproduce the periodic table of topological insulators found by Kitaev (2009 AIP Conf. Proc. 1134 22) and Ryu et al (2010 New J. Phys. 12 065010), without using topological invariants or K-theory. In addition, we find candidate {Z}_2 topological insulators in classes AI, AII of dimensions 0,4 mod 8 and in classes C, D of dimensions 2,6 mod 8.

  13. Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Panhematin ® is irritation of the vein used for infusion (phlebitis). This is avoided by slow infusion through a large caliber vein or central line. ... ensuring proper caloric intake, which can include intravenous infusion of sufficient nutrients (glucose and salt). Carbohydrate loading ...

  14. UAS-NAS Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment (LVC): LVC Gateway, Gateway Toolbox, Gateway Data Logger (GDL), SaaProc Software Design Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovic, Srboljub

    2015-01-01

    This document provides the software design description for the two core software components, the LVC Gateway, the LVC Gateway Toolbox, and two participants, the LVC Gateway Data Logger and the SAA Processor (SaaProc).

  15. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussonne, J. M.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J. P.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al2O3 composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m^2/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m^2/g. Mixed with Y203-CaO and sintered at 1720 °C in N2, we obtained AIN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'inspirant du “procédé Lanxide” permettant de réaliser des composites Al/Al2O3, nous avons mélangé de la poudre d'aluminium avec des sels de lithium, et synthétisé du nitrure d'aluminium pur en portant ce mélange dans l'azote à une température pouvant être comprise entre 800 et 1 200 °C. Utilisant des poudres d'aluminium possédant une surface spécifique comprise entre 0,3 et 4 m^2/g, nous avons obtenu une poudre de nitrure d'aluminium avec une surface sp

  16. A Price To Pay for Relaxed Substrate Specificity: A Comparative Kinetic Analysis of the Class II Lanthipeptide Synthetases ProcM and HalM2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs) that typically harbor multiple intramolecular thioether linkages. For class II lanthipeptides, these cross-links are installed in a multistep reaction pathway by a single enzyme (LanM). The multifunctional nature of LanMs and the manipulability of their genetically encoded peptide substrates (LanAs) make LanM/LanA systems promising targets for the engineering of new antibacterial compounds. Here, we report the development of a semiquantitative mass spectrometry-based assay for kinetic characterization of LanM-catalyzed reactions. The assay was used to conduct a comparative kinetic analysis of two LanM enzymes (HalM2 and ProcM) that exhibit drastically different substrate selectivity. Numerical simulation of the kinetic data was used to develop models for the multistep HalM2- and ProcM-catalyzed reactions. These models illustrate that HalM2 and ProcM have markedly different catalytic efficiencies for the various reactions they catalyze. HalM2, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a single compound (the Halβ subunit of the lantibiotic haloduracin), catalyzes reactions with higher catalytic efficiency than ProcM, which modifies 29 different ProcA precursor peptides during prochlorosin biosynthesis. In particular, the rates of thioether ring formation are drastically reduced in ProcM, likely because this enzyme is charged with installing a variety of lanthipeptide ring architectures in its prochlorosin products. Thus, ProcM appears to pay a kinetic price for its relaxed substrate specificity. In addition, our kinetic models suggest that conformational sampling of the LanM/LanA Michaelis complex could play an important role in the kinetics of LanA maturation. PMID:25409537

  17. Micromachined Silicon Cantilever Magnetometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparala, M. V.

    1998-03-01

    Magnetic torque measurements give us a simple and attractive method for characterizing the anisotropic properties of magnetic materials. Silicon torque and force magnetometers have many advantages over traditional torsion fiber torque magnetometers. We have fabricated micromachined silicon torque and force magnetometers employing both capacitive(``Capacitance platform magnetometer for thin film and small crystal superconductor studies'', M. Chaparala et al.), AIP Conf. Proc. (USA), AIP Conference Proceedings, no.273, p. 407 1993. and strain dependent FET detection(``Strain Dependent Characterstics of Silicon MOSFETs and their Applications'', M. Chaparala et al.), ISDRS Conf. Proc. 1997. schemes which realize some of these gains. We will present the pros and cons of each of the different detection schemes and the associated design constraints. We have developed a feedback scheme which enables null detection thus preserving the integrity of the sample orientation. We will present a method of separating out the torque and force terms in the measured signals and will discuss the errors associated with each of the designs. Finally, we present the static magnetic torque measurements on various materials with these devices, including equilibrium properties on sub microgram specimens of superconductors, and dHvA measurements near H_c2. We will also discuss their usefulness in pulsed magnetic fields(``Cantilever magnetometry in pulsed magnetic fields", M. J. Naughton et al.), Rev. of Sci. Instrum., vol.68, p. 4061 1997..

  18. The role of germline AIP, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2C mutations in causing pituitary adenomas in a large cohort of children, adolescents, and patients with genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, C A; Tichomirowa, M A; Boikos, S; Azevedo, M F; Lodish, M; Martari, M; Verma, S; Daly, A F; Raygada, M; Keil, M F; Papademetriou, J; Drori-Herishanu, L; Horvath, A; Tsang, K M; Nesterova, M; Franklin, S; Vanbellinghen, J-F; Bours, V; Salvatori, R; Beckers, A

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of germline mutations in MEN1, AIP, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2CI is unknown among pediatric patients with pituitary adenomas (PA). In this study, we screened children with PA for mutations in these genes; somatic GNAS mutations were also studied in a limited number of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL)-secreting PA. We studied 74 and 6 patients with either isolated Cushing disease (CD) or GH- or PRL-secreting PA, respectively. We also screened four pediatric patients with CD, and four with GH/PRL-secreting tumors who had some syndromic features. There was one AIP mutation (p.Lys103Arg) among 74 CD patients. Two MEN1 mutations that occurred in patients with recurrent or difficult-to-treat disease were found among patients with CD. There was one MEN1 and three AIP mutations (p.Gln307ProfsX104, p.Pro114fsX, p.Lys241X) among pediatric patients with isolated GH- or PRL-secreting PA and one additional MEN1 mutation in a patient with positive family history. There were no mutations in the PRKAR1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2C or GNAS genes. Thus, germline AIP or MEN1 gene mutations are frequent among pediatric patients with GH- or PRL-secreting PA but are significantly rarer in pediatric CD; PRKAR1A mutations are not present in PA outside of Carney complex. PMID:20507346

  19. Progress in Modeling Electron Cloud Effects in HIF Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Molvik, A. W.; Azevedo, A.; Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M. A.; Stoltz, P. H.

    2003-10-01

    Stray electrons can arise in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) from ionization of gas (ambient or released from walls), or via secondary emission. Their accumulation is affected by the beam potential and duration, and the accelerating and confining fields. We present electron orbit simulations which show the resultant e-cloud distribution; ion simulations with prescribed e-clouds which show the effect on ion beam quality; a gyro-averaged model for including electron dynamics in ion simulations, and its implementation status; and progress in merging the capabilities of WARP (3-D PIC code for HIF) (D.P. Grote, A. Friedman, I. Haber, Proc. 1996 Comp. Accel. Physics Conf., AIP Proc. 391), 51 (1996), with those of POSINST (e-clouds in high-energy accelerators) (M.A. Furman, LBNL-41482/CBP Note 247/LHC Project Report 180, May 20, 1998).

  20. Mutation in TOR1AIP1 encoding LAP1B in a form of muscular dystrophy: a novel gene related to nuclear envelopathies.

    PubMed

    Kayman-Kurekci, Gulsum; Talim, Beril; Korkusuz, Petek; Sayar, Nilufer; Sarioglu, Turkan; Oncel, Ibrahim; Sharafi, Parisa; Gundesli, Hulya; Balci-Hayta, Burcu; Purali, Nuhan; Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Piraye; Topaloglu, Haluk; Dincer, Pervin

    2014-07-01

    We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping and mapped a novel myopathic phenotype to chromosomal region 1q25 in a consanguineous family with three affected individuals manifesting proximal and distal weakness and atrophy, rigid spine and contractures of the proximal and distal interphalangeal hand joints. Additionally, cardiomyopathy and respiratory involvement were noted. DNA sequencing of torsinA-interacting protein 1 (TOR1AIP1) gene encoding lamina-associated polypeptide 1B (LAP1B), showed a homozygous c.186delG mutation that causes a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon (p.E62fsTer25). We observed that expression of LAP1B was absent in the patient skeletal muscle fibres. Ultrastructural examination showed intact sarcomeric organization but alterations of the nuclear envelope including nuclear fragmentation, chromatin bleb formation and naked chromatin. LAP1B is a type-2 integral membrane protein localized in the inner nuclear membrane that binds to both A- and B-type lamins, and is involved in the regulation of torsinA ATPase. Interestingly, luminal domain-like LAP1 (LULL1)-an endoplasmic reticulum-localized partner of torsinA-was overexpressed in the patient's muscle in the absence of LAP1B. Therefore, the findings suggest that LAP1 and LULL1 might have a compensatory effect on each other. This study expands the spectrum of genes associated with nuclear envelopathies and highlights the critical function for LAP1B in striated muscle. PMID:24856141

  1. DdAlix, an Alix/AIP1 homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, is required for multicellular development under low Ca2+ conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Susumu; El-Halawany, Medhat S; Aruga, Fumika; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) interacting protein X (Alix), also called AIP1, is a widely conserved protein in eukaryotes. Alix and its homologs are involved in various phenomena such as apoptosis, regulation of cell adhesion, protein sorting, adaptation to stress conditions, and budding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To investigate the role of Alix in development, we identified an Alix homolog in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and disrupted the gene by homologous recombination. The growth of DdAlix deletion mutant (alx-) cells was significantly impaired in the presence of 5 mM Li+. On an agar plate, alx- cells underwent normal development and formed fruiting bodies indistinguishable from those formed by wild-type cells. However, alx- cells could not form fruiting bodies in the presence of 5 mM Li+. Similar results were obtained when cells were developed in the presence of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester (TMB-8), which is an antagonist of intracellular Ca2+ store. Furthermore, when the extracellular free Ca2+ was reduced to 10 nM, the ability of alx- cells, but not that of wild-type cells, to form fruiting bodies was impaired. The results indicate that DdAlix is essential for development under low Ca2+ conditions and suggest that DdAlix is involved in Ca2+ signaling during development. PMID:15276209

  2. Quatrième conférence consensuelle sur le diagnostic et le traitement de la démence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ainsley; Patterson, Christopher; Lee, Linda; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    démence sont aussi présentées. Conclusion Plusieurs recommandations de la Quatrième conférence consensuelle sur le diagnostic et le traitement de la démence intéresseront les médecins de famille. Pour assurer l’utilité des lignes directrices, les médecins de famille devraient participer à toutes les étapes du processus de formulation continu, y compris à la sélection des sujets.

  3. Employment Survey 1980. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The employment status of 1980 degree recipients in physics and astronomy was surveyed. For physics degree recipients, the majority of bachelors and masters required two months or less to accept suitable employment, while the majority of doctoral graduates required three months or longer. Information is presented on changes in occupational status…

  4. Employment Survey 1978. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The types of positions that physicists accept to start their careers are evaluated through a survey conducted by the American Institute of Physics. It is suggested that the economic recession and declining job market has had an effect on the transition from a physics education to the start of a career. The amount of time spent by 1977-78 physics…

  5. Employment Survey 1979. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    Results of a followup employment survey of 1979 physics and astronomy graduates are summarized. The employment-oriented graduates were asked in the winter of 1979-80 to describe their positions and comment on the extent to which they were satisfied with the start of their careers. Data on how long it takes a graduate to secure initial and…

  6. Employment Survey 1984. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The employment status of 1984-1985 degree recipients in physics and astronomy was surveyed. Information is presented on changes in occupational status of physics and astronomy degree recipients between summer of 1984 and the following winter. The characteristics of graduates of both fields who were employed full-time or undertaking postdoctoral…

  7. Employment Survey 1977. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    Employment opportunities for physics and astronomy graduates were surveyed in December 1977. At that time the graduates of 1976-77 had explored the job market for at least six months or had held their positions long enough to evaluate them and offer advice to prospective graduates. The time required for new graduates to obtain the first…

  8. The AIP career pathways project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauncy, Toni; Redmond, Kendra; Czujko, Roman

    2015-12-01

    An average 40% of all physics baccalaureate degree recipients in the United States go directly into the work-force rather than entering graduate school. Departments aiming to build robust programs must prepare all students for a broad range of career paths, but the default focus is typically on preparing students for advanced physics degrees. Under-graduate physics programs, with effective recruitment, retention, and appropriate preparation of students, have the potential to add qualified individuals to the STEM workforce. We present results from an investigation to understand, compile, and disseminate effective practices for preparing undergraduate physics students to enter the STEM workforce upon graduation.

  9. Positron Creation Using the TITAN Short Pulse Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Wilks, S. C.; Liang, E.; Myatt, J.; Cone, K.; Elberson, L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Schneider, M.; Shepherd, R.; Stafford, D.; Tommasini, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2008-11-01

    Using ultra-intense lasers to generate positrons was theorized some time ago[1] and demonstrated in principle in two previous experiments[2] where small numbers of positrons were measured. Recently, new experiments were performed on the LLNL Titan laser to study positron creation, where the laser pulse length, pre-plasma condition, target material and thickness were varied. Using newly built positron spectrometers, copious positron production was observed with good signal-to-background ratio. Hot electron spectra (out to 100 MeV) and bremsstrahlung photons were measured simultaneously to further constrain models for the experiment. This talk will present detailed experimental results and their comparison with theory and previous experimental data. [1] Shearer et al, PRA,(1973);Liang, AIP Conf. Proc.(1994); Shkolnikov et al, APL,(1997), Liang, Wilks and Tabak, PRL(1998); Nakashima and Takabe, PoP,(2002); Myatt et al,PRE (2008).[2] Cowan et al, LPB(1999); Gahn et al, APL(1998)

  10. Semiclassical Planetology: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebonovic, V.

    1999-12-01

    Work on planetary internal structure has started in Yugoslavia in the early sixties.It was initiated by P.Savic and R.Kasanin,who have jointly developed a theory of the behaviour of materials under high pressure.By its physical basis,this theory is semiclassical,because it is based on classical physics combined with some quantum mechanical results.The calculations in the theory ( both laboratory and planetological) are baed on ths idea that high pressure leads to excitation and ionisation of atoms and/or molecules which make up the specimen. In this paper we shall briefly present the main ideas of this theory,and then discuss its planetological applications. References P.Savic and V.Celebonovic: 1994,AIP Conf.Proc.,vol.309,p.53. V.Celebonovic: 1999,preprint cond-mat/9906027

  11. Growing Growth curves using PROC MIXED and PROC NLMIXED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many contexts, including biology, epidemiology, and statistics. Various approaches are used varying from differential equations, deterministic modeling, and statistical approaches like regression. Often, with epidemiologic da...

  12. Développement d'outils de mesure pour l'amélioration du procédé d'impression offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumaïza, K.; Baudin, G.; Catusse, R.; Viallet, A.

    1999-03-01

    The offset printing process rests primarily on the balance between ink and damping solution. However, this balance remains difficult to realize. The corresponding wastes of time and into consumable (ink, paper and damping solution) are harmful for the industrialist, the consumer and the environment. The main feature of this work is to control and thus to optimize these flux. With this intention, two optical sensors functioning in reflection were developed. A laser with receiving photodiode for the control of damping solution film thickness, and an optical fiber related to a photoelectric sensor for control of ink film thickness. The current study aims at the calibration of these two sensors for respectively the control of water and ink flux in the offset press. Le procédé d'impression offset repose essentiellement sur l'équilibre entre la solution de mouillage et l'encre. Toutefois, cet équilibre reste une tâche difficile à réaliser. Les pertes en temps et en consommables (encre, papier, solution de mouillage) correspondantes sont nuisibles à la fois pour l'industriel, le consommateur et l'environnement. L'objectif de ce travail est de contrôler et donc d'optimiser ces flux pour un tirage donné. Pour ce faire, deux capteurs de type optique fonctionnant en réflexion ont été développés. Un laser avec photodiode réceptrice pour le contrôle du film de solution de mouillage, et une fibre optique liée à un capteur photoélectrique pour le contrôle du film d'encre. L'étude actuelle vise la mise en ouvre et l'étalonnage de ces deux capteurs pour la mesure et le contrôle des films respectifs d'eau et d'encre dans la presse offset.

  13. Distribution of Nanoflares as Spatially Resolved Current Sheets in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. S.; Lin, L.

    2014-05-01

    In a recent numerical study [Ng et al., Astrophys. J. 747, 109, 2012], based on a three-dimensional model of coronal heating using reduced magnetohydrodynamics, we have obtained scaling results of heating rate versus Lundquist number S based on a series of runs in which random photospheric motions are imposed for hundreds to thousands of Alfvén time in order to obtain converged statistical values. The heating rate found in these simulations saturates to a level that is independent of S in the high S limit and is consistent with the required level for coronal heating. In a previous study based on the total heating rate time series [Ng and Lin, AIP Conf. Proc. 1500, 38, 2012] in these simulations, we have also calculated heating events distributions, which are consistent with observations but do not support the nanoflares scenario [Parker, Astrophys. J. 330, 474, 1988]. This method has a limitation of not distinguishing individual heating events. We now extend this analysis to investigate the distribution of energy release events defined as spatially resolved current sheets [Lin et el., ASP Conf. Ser. 474, 159, 2013]. We report preliminary results and compare to results obtained using only time-series analysis.

  14. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  15. Ultralow Energy Electron Attachment at Sub-Millielectron Volt Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1999-10-01

    The technique of rare-gas photoionization(J. M. Ajello and A. Chutjian, J. Chem. Phys. 65), 5524 (1976). has been extended(A. Kortyna, M. Darrach and A. Chutjian, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 43), 1336 (1998). by use of direct laser ionization to electron energies ɛ in the range 0-100 meV, with a resolution Δɛ of 0.4-0.5 meV (FWHM). Tunable UV light at λ276 nm is produced using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and nonlinear mixing techniques. The beam is frequency tripled in a pulsed jet of xenon. The VUV radiation, tunable at λ92 nm, is then used to photoionize Xe at its ^2P_1/2 threshold (single-photon ionization). The photoelectrons produced interact with admixed target gas to generate negative ions through the s-wave capture process. Recent results in electron attachment to SF6 will be reported which show resonance structure at the opening of the ground-state vibrational channels.^3,(H. Hotop et al., AIP Conf. Proc. Ser. 360 (AIP, New York, 1995), and private communication.) This structure corresponds to the process of vibrational excitation + attachment, which is superimposed on the underlying s-wave (direct) capture process. It should be a general phenomenon, present in a wide variety of zero-energy electron attaching molecules.

  16. Noninvasive Online Measurement of Genome Lengths of Mammalian Tissues in Bulk by 14 MeV Neutron Atometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Radovic, Anna; Druey, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Genome length, L=, no. of DNA nucleotide base pairs in cell of bovine (b) and porcine (p) tissues, closest to human genome, were hitherto measured by genomic sequencing Lb=3, Lp=2.7 Giga base pairs [1,2] (Gbp) errors not given. - We report measurements of Lb/Lp and Lb, Lp without sequencing by atometry [3,4]. No. of O and C atoms, N, in nucleotide molecules, was obtained from prompt γ rate, G, emitted in inel. scatt. 14 MeV neutrons, with nuclei of C, O, in nucleotide molecule. Since G prop. N, Lb/Lp=Gb/Gp. p and b meat was irradiated for 30'. From msd G we obtained Lb /Lp=1.28±0.02 16% greater than [1,2]. We got absolute Lb=1.65/f, Lp=1.28/f Gbp, 0.3AIP Conf. Proc. 796,431(2005); http://link.aip.org/link/?APCPCS/796/431/1

  17. A comparison of pre and post FCI results for innovative and traditional introductory calculus-based physics classes *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Jeff; Redish, Edward F.

    1999-11-01

    As part of an evaluation of implementations of three research-based introductory physics curricula at the schools that developed them and at schools that adopted the curricula, pre/post Force Concept Inventory (FCI) [1] data was collected and analyzed from over 2000 matched students at eight undergraduate institutions. In particular, we looked at the Hake factor[2] (the fraction of the possible gain) for both the overall FCI and for questions explicitly addressing Newton's third law for each of the four curricula. We found that the average fractional gains for classes taught with Washington Tutorials [3] (35error), Minnesota Group Problem Solving [4] (34Workshop Physics [5] (41than those for traditional lecture classes (16Similar results were found for the Newton's third law cluster. 1 D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhammer, "Force Concept Inventory," Phys. Teach. 30 (3), 141-159 (1991). 2 R.R. Hake, "Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses," Am. J. Phys. 66 (1), 64-74 (1998). 3 L.C. McDermott and P. S. Shaffer, Tutorials in Introductory Physics (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ, 1997). 4 P. Heller, T. Foster, and K Heller, in AIP Conf. Proc. 399, 913-934 (AIP Press, Sunnyvale NY, 1997). 5 P. Laws, Workshop Physics Activity Guide (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997).

  18. Burstein-Moss shift of n-doped In0.53Ga0.47As/InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Martín; Pollak, Fred H.; Kahn, Mathias; Ritter, Dan; Kronik, Leeor; Cohen, Guy M.

    2001-06-01

    We have evaluated the Burstein-Moss (BM) shift at 300 K in seven samples of n-In0.53Ga0.47As (1.3×1016<=n<=3.9×1019 cm-3) lattice matched to InP using spectral ellipsometry in the range of 0.4-5.1 eV. The data have been fitted over the entire spectral range to a model reported by Holden et al. [in Thermphotovoltaic Generation of Electricity, edited by T. J. Coutts, J. P. Brenner, and C. S. Allman, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 460 (AIP, Woodbury, NY, 1999), p. 39], based on the electronic energy-band structure near critical points plus relevant discrete and continuum excitonic effects. A Fermi-level filling factor in the region of the fundamental gap has been used to account for the BM effect. While our data exhibit nonparabolic effects, with a blueshift of 415 meV for the most highly doped sample, we did not observe the Fermi-level saturation at 130 meV for n>=1019 cm-3 reported by Tsukernik et al. [Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Jerusalem, 1998, edited by D. Gershoni (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999)]. Our BM displacements are in agreement with a modified full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave calculation [G. W. Charache et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86, 452 (1999)] plus possible band-gap-reduction effects.

  19. Graduate Student Report, 1997. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.

    The 1990s have seen change in the populations of graduate students in physics departments across the country. The Graduate Student Survey captures demographic characteristics of approximately 10,600 physics and astronomy students who were enrolled in the 1996-97 academic year. It describes the students' sources of support, areas of specialization,…

  20. Enrollments and Degrees Report. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    In fall 2002, the American Institute of Physics asked the 735 physics departments, the 34 combined physics and astronomy departments, and the 37 separate astronomy departments in the United States to provide information on both their current student enrollments and the degrees they conferred in the previous academic year. Data were received from…

  1. Physics Academic Workforce Report, 2002. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Nies, Kimberley

    This report discusses trends in the physics academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. Data are from a survey of physics departments that was completed by 722 departments, a response rate of 94%. The number of physics faculty increased almost 5% since 2000, and much of this growth resulted from…

  2. Physics Academic Workforce Report, 2000. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Czujko, Roman

    This report discusses trends in the physics academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. In March 2000, a survey was sent to 766 U.S. physics departments that grant at least a bachelor's degree in physics, and 725 responses were received, a response rate of 95%. Degree-granting physics departments in…

  3. L’explosion intravésicale au cours des procédures de résection endoscopique: Un incident dangereux qui peut être évité

    PubMed Central

    Anzaoui, Jihad El; Abakka, Najib; El harrech, Younes; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; Lahkim, Mohammed; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Bakzaza, Walid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Les explosions survenant au cours des manœuvres endoscopiques urologiques sont rares et dangereuses. Elles sont dues à une production d’hydrogène par hydrolyse de l’eau lors des procédés de coagulation et de section. L’hydrogène devient très combustible une fois mélangé avec l’oxygène ambiant. Nous rapportons un cas d’explosion intravésicale au cours d’une résection transurethrale d’une tumeur de la vessie et nous exposons, par une revue de littérature, les différentes théories physiopathologiques et les moyens de prévention. PMID:23914274

  4. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc

  5. 78 FR 16540 - AIP Series Trust and Morgan Stanley AIP GP LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... waive fees otherwise payable to it by the Fund of Funds in an amount at least equal to any compensation.... \\7\\ Applicants acknowledge that receipt of any compensation by (a) an affiliated person of a Fund of... equal to any compensation (including fees received pursuant to any plan adopted by an...

  6. Magnetism in EuBCO and YBCO vortex states near and below Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R.; Browne, M. C.; Boekema, C.

    2012-02-01

    By means of MaxEnt-μSR [1] analysis, we investigate transverse field μSR data [2] of EuBa2Cu3O7-δgEuBCO; Tc = 93 K). Our focus is on a temperature interval near Tc to search for precursor effects, [3] and for predicted [4a] pseudogap loop currents above and below Tc, already observed [4b] above Tc for GdBCO. Further, we continue to study the field-direction dependence of the predicted [5a] and observed [5b] antiferromagnetism (AF) below 0.5Tc for the vortex states in c-axis-oriented YBCO. This AF in and near the vortex cores is likely three-dimensional. In sum, magnetic roots of cuprate superconductivity are well plausible. Research is supported by LANL-DOE, REU-NSF and AFC. [4pt] [1] C Boekema and MC Browne, AIP Conf Proc #1073 (2008) 260.[0pt] [2] DW Cooke et al, Phys Rev B 39 (1989) 2748.[0pt] [3] B Aguilar, C Boekema et al, Bull Am Phys Soc 37 (1992).[0pt] [4a] CM Varma, Phys Rev Lett 83 (1999) 3538.[0pt] [4b] T Songatikamas et al, J Supercond & Novel Magn 23 (2010) 793.[0pt] [5a] S-C Zhang, Science 275 (1997) 1089; H-D Chen et al, Phys Rev B70 (2004) 024516.[0pt] [5b] C. Boekema et al, J Phys Conf Series, 150 (2009) 052022. http://jpcs.iop.org/LT25

  7. Bubble dynamics and sonoluminescence from helium or xenon in mercury and water.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Kato, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    Numerical simulations of bubble pulsation and sonoluminescence (SL) have been performed for helium or xenon bubbles in mercury and water under the experimental conditions of Futakawa et al. [M. Futakawa, T. Naoe, and M. Kawai, in Nonlinear Acoustics-Fundamentals and Applications: 18th International Symposium on Nonlinear Acoustics (ISNA 18), AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1022, edited by B. O. Enflo, C. M. Hedberg, and L. Kari (AIP, New York, 2008), p. 197]. The results of the numerical simulations have revealed that the bubble expansion is much larger in water than in mercury mainly because the density of water is one order of magnitude smaller than that of mercury. The SL intensity is higher in water than that in mercury although the maximum bubble temperature is lower. This is caused by the much larger amount of vapor inside a bubble as the saturated vapor pressure of water is four orders of magnitude larger than that of mercury at room temperature. The SL intensity from xenon is much larger than that from helium due both to lower ionization potential and higher bubble temperature due to lower thermal conductivity. The instantaneous SL power may be as large as 200 W from xenon in water. The maximum temperature inside a xenon bubble in mercury may be as high as about 80 000 K. It is suggested that the maximum pressure in mercury due to shock waves emitted from bubbles increases as the SL intensity increases, although they are not simply correlated in water because the amount of water vapor trapped inside a bubble influences the SL intensity in a complex way. PMID:23031026

  8. RF Voltage Measurements on ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, G. L.; Goulding, R. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Zhang, H. M.; Ryan, P. M.; Syed, G. M. S.; Kaye, A. S.

    1996-11-01

    Particle and heat flux on the plasma facing surfaces of high-power RF antennas used in fusion devices can result in damage to the antenna structures. High impedance capacitive probe measurements of the RF voltages on Faraday shields of several loop antennas indicate that voltages as high as 30% of the drive voltage can exist for 0/0 phasing (D.J. Hoffman, et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 355), 368 (Palm Spgs., CA, 1995).. These voltages can contribute to increased energy deposition on the antenna owing to increased RF sheath voltages. We report on continued efforts to understand the source and to control these RF voltages. E and B field distributions have been measured on the mock-up of the JET A2 antenna using standard B-dot probes and novel E-field probes positioned with a new automated scanning system. These data are compared with calculated fields from 3-D antenna models. The measurements demonstrate the dependency of the surface E-fields on the phasing of the strap currents and show the charge accumulation at the antenna top and bottom predicted by the models.

  9. Optimal computation of guided wave propagation and scattering in pipeworks comprising elbows: Numerical and experimental validations and parametric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakkali, M.; Lhémery, A.; Chapuis, B.; Berthelot, F.; Grondel, S.

    2015-03-01

    Simulation tools of guided wave (GW) examination are developed at CEA to help inspection design and results interpretation. In a previous paper [M. El Bakkali, A. Lhémery, V. Baronian and F. Berthelot, (AIP Conf. Proc. 1581), pp. 332-9 (2014)], a model was developed to deal with GW propagation in elbows, GW scattering at the junction of a straight and a curved guides and GW multiple-scattering by an elbow joined to two straight pipes. The method is computationally optimal: many results are obtained by fast post-processing. Modes in the straight and curved guides are computed once by the semi-analytic finite element method; this implies solving two systems of equations over their shared cross-section meshed by FE. Scattering at a junction of straight and curved pipes requires computing surface integrals over the same section for applying the mode-matching method. For varying elbow angle, computing scattering coefficients of the straight-curved-straight double junction requires multiplying scattering matrices local to one junction with analytic propagation matrices in the curved guide that are angle-dependent. The aim here is twofold. First, the model is validated by comparison of its predictions with results computed by the finite element method and with measurements. Second, the model is used for parametric studies made easy by its computing efficiency.

  10. Proof-of-principle demonstration of a virtual flow meter-based transducer for gaseous helium monitoring in particle accelerator cryogenics.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, P; Blanco, E; Girone, M; Inglese, V; Pezzetti, M; Piccinelli, F; Serio, L

    2015-07-01

    A transducer based on a virtual flow meter is proposed for monitoring helium distribution and consumption in cryogenic systems for particle accelerators. The virtual flow meter allows technical and economical constraints, preventing installation of physical instruments in all the needed measurement points, to be overcome. Virtual flow meter performance for the alternative models of Samson [ http://www.samson.de (2015)] and Sereg-Schlumberger [ http://www.slb.com/ (2015)] is compared with the standard IEC 60534-2-1 [Industrial-process control valves-Part 2-1: Flow capacity-sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions (2011), https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/2461], for a large temperature range, for both gaseous and liquid helium phases, and for different pressure drops. Then, the calibration function of the transducer is derived. Finally, the experimental validation for the helium gaseous state on the test station for superconducting magnets in the laboratory SM18 [Pirotte et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 1573, 187 (2014)] at CERN is reported. PMID:26233405

  11. Proof-of-principle demonstration of a virtual flow meter-based transducer for gaseous helium monitoring in particle accelerator cryogenics

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaia, P.; Blanco, E.; Inglese, V.; Pezzetti, M.; Serio, L.; Girone, M.; Piccinelli, F.

    2015-07-15

    A transducer based on a virtual flow meter is proposed for monitoring helium distribution and consumption in cryogenic systems for particle accelerators. The virtual flow meter allows technical and economical constraints, preventing installation of physical instruments in all the needed measurement points, to be overcome. Virtual flow meter performance for the alternative models of Samson [ http://www.samson.de (2015)] and Sereg-Schlumberger [ http://www.slb.com/ (2015)] is compared with the standard IEC 60534-2-1 [Industrial-process control valves—Part 2-1: Flow capacity—sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions (2011), https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/2461], for a large temperature range, for both gaseous and liquid helium phases, and for different pressure drops. Then, the calibration function of the transducer is derived. Finally, the experimental validation for the helium gaseous state on the test station for superconducting magnets in the laboratory SM18 [Pirotte et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 1573, 187 (2014)] at CERN is reported.

  12. Investigation of Near Critical Point States of Molybdenum by Pulse Heating under Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Dmitriy

    2005-07-01

    The near critical point states (NCPS) of the liquid-vapour phase transition of molybdenum were investigated. The heating of molybdenum foil samples in 1-D geometry was carried out by multiple-shocked He from the back side of the sample under dynamically created isobaric conditions [1]. The temperature of sample was measured by fast 4-channel optical pyrometer. The pressure was obtained from shock velosity in He, measured by streak camera on the step on transparent window. Two sets of experiments with various hystory of heating were carryed out, allowed us to evaluate spinode and binode lines, and the position of critical point on P-T plane: Tc=12500±1000 K, Pc=1±0.1 GPa. Work was supported by ISTC grant 2107, RFBR grant 04-02-16790. [1] V.Ya.Ternovoi, V.E.Fortov et.al. High Temp.-High Pres. 2002, v.34, pp.73-79[2] D.N.Nikolaev, A.N.Emelyanov et.al. in: SCCM-2003, AIP conf. proc. 706, ed.by M.D.Furnish, Y.M.Gupta et.al, pp.1231-1234

  13. Gas Phase Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Dmso, PART.I: when a Synchrotron Source Reveals AN Unusual Rotational Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Many of us have enjoyed the spectacle of a spinning top influenced by friction: rotating rapidly about a stable stationary axis, the top loses slowly its angular momentum j (and energy), slows down gradually, and then, suddenly, its axis becomes unstable, the top wobbles, and an abrupt change of the top's position follows. In other words, the system undergoes a bifurcation. In the case of the tippe top, rotation about its lower point is stable at low values of angular momentum J and becomes unstable at large J. Something quite similar occurs in a freely rotating dimethylsulfoxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) molecule. For the first time in such large polyatomic molecule a quantum bifurcation induced by a gyroscopic destabilization was observed. This unusual phenomenon in rotational dynamics was discovered in the rovibrational states of the bending fundamental ν_{23} band of DMSO whose high-resolution gas phase absorption spectrum was observed along with that of ν_{11} by Cuisset et al. using the exceptional properties of the AILES beamline in the Far-Infrared domain. A. Cuisset, O. Pirali, D. Sadovskii,Phys. Rev. Lett., 109,(094101), 2012. A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii,Chem. Phys. Lett., 492,(30),2010 J. B. Brubach et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1214, (81), 2010.

  14. Gas Phase Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Dmso, Part II: Towards the Terahertz Observation of 4-FOLD Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.

    2013-06-01

    Benefiting of the exceptional properties of the AILES synchrotron beamline, the gas phase Far-IR spectrum of DMSO has been recorded and resolved. The rovibrational analysis allowed to discover a new rotational behaviour for a polyatomic molecule: the gyroscopic destabilization. In order to explain this phenomenon, we looked for four-fold energy clusters in the high resolution ground state THz spectrum of DMSO recorded with a sub-THz spectrometer based on a frequency multiplication chain. Pure rotational lines in the 5 lowest vibrationnally excited levels have been recorded below 700 GHz. With near 1000 rotational transitions assigned, high quantum numbers have been reached allowing to discover sequence of four-fold clusters in the out of plane bending mode of DMSO and to study the vibrational dependence of an unusual rotational dynamics. J. B. Brubach et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1214, (81), 2010. A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii,Chem. Phys. Lett., 492,(30),2010 A. Cuisset, O. Pirali, D. Sadovskii,Phys. Rev. Lett., 109,(094101), 2012. G. Mouret, M. Guinet, A. Cuisset, L. Croizet, S. Eliet, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 1, 2013.

  15. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  16. Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Marconi, M. C.

    1996-11-01

    There is significant interest in the demonstration of compact soft x-ray amplifiers capable of generating pulses of substantial energy for applications. This motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft x-ray laser lines in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.(B. J. MacGowan et al.), Phys. Fluids B 4, 2326 (1992); A. Carillon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 68, 2917 (1992);B. Rus et al., in AIP Conf. Proc. 332, X-ray lasers 1994, p. 152; S. Wang et al., ibid., p. 293. Previosly we reported large amplification at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192 (1994). Herein we report the generation of laser pulse energies up to 30 μJ at 46.9 nm in such discharge and the first clear evidence of gain saturation of a table-top soft x-ray amplifier. Single pass amplification experiments yielded laser pulse energies up to 6 μJ and double pass amplification using an iridium mirror yielded 30 μJ. The observed saturation of the gain and laser pulse energy are in good agreement with the results of radiation transport calculations. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Modeling and simulation research on automobile ABS bench detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ruru; Zhao, Xiangmo; Hao, Dingkun; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Modeling and simulation research on automobile ABS bench detection is conducted in this paper. First, the vehicle model, wheel model, braking force model, and tire-road model on the bench are established according to the ABS bench detection scheme. Then, the Matlab/Simulink simulation model of a single wheel vehicle is built through combining the sub-models described above. Finally, simulation experiments on a variety of simulated road conditions are carried out. And the comparative analysis between the ABS bench detection and ABS road experiments is accomplished. The contrast results show that the simulation curves of bench detection and those of road experiment have high similarity, which verified the correctness and feasibility of the proposed bench detection scheme. At the request of the authors this article is being retracted. It was inadvertently published in AIP Conf. Proc. 1618: The authors intended to publish a different article, but the wrong one was submitted for publication. The article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 8 July 2015.

  18. Numerical studies of multipactor in dielectric-loaded accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, Oleksandr; Nusinovich, Gregory; Antonsen, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Multipactor (MP) is known as the avalanche growth of the number of secondary electrons emitted from a solid surface exposed to an rf electric field under vacuum conditions. MP may occur in various microwave and rf systems such as microwave tubes, rf windows and launchers, accelerating structures, and rf satellite payloads. In this work we present results of MP analysis in dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) structures. The starting point of our work was experimental and theoretical studies of DLA structures jointly done by Argonne National Laboratory and Naval Research Laboratory (J. G. Power et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 164801 (2004); J. G. Power et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 877, 362 (2006)). In the theoretical model developed during those studies the space-charge field due to the total number of particles is taken into account as a parameter. We perform our studies using a self-consistent approach with the help of time-dependent two-dimensional code developed at the University of Maryland (O. V. Sinitsyn et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 073102 (2009)). Results include analysis of MP evolution at an early stage, detailed studies of individual electron trajectories, analysis of MP onset time under various conditions and comparison of some results with the experimental data.

  19. Proof-of-principle demonstration of a virtual flow meter-based transducer for gaseous helium monitoring in particle accelerator cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, P.; Blanco, E.; Girone, M.; Inglese, V.; Pezzetti, M.; Piccinelli, F.; Serio, L.

    2015-07-01

    A transducer based on a virtual flow meter is proposed for monitoring helium distribution and consumption in cryogenic systems for particle accelerators. The virtual flow meter allows technical and economical constraints, preventing installation of physical instruments in all the needed measurement points, to be overcome. Virtual flow meter performance for the alternative models of Samson [http://www.samson.de (2015)] and Sereg-Schlumberger [http://www.slb.com/ (2015)] is compared with the standard IEC 60534-2-1 [Industrial-process control valves—Part 2-1: Flow capacity—sizing equations for fluid flow under installed conditions (2011), https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/2461], for a large temperature range, for both gaseous and liquid helium phases, and for different pressure drops. Then, the calibration function of the transducer is derived. Finally, the experimental validation for the helium gaseous state on the test station for superconducting magnets in the laboratory SM18 [Pirotte et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 1573, 187 (2014)] at CERN is reported.

  20. Influence des paramètres de dépôt sur la morphologie de films minces de tétraborate de lithium obtenus par le procédé ``PYROSOL"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornand, V.; El Bouchikhi, A.; Papet, Ph.; Philippot, E.

    1997-04-01

    Li2B4O7 piezo-electric thin films were prepared by “PYROSOL" process which is a useful method for the elaboration of thin films. Morphological development and crystallization of thin films are very dependent on the experimental parameters like the substrate temperature, the concentration and the relative proportion of the precursors in methyl alcohol. The effect of these various parameters were studied in order to obtain homogeneous, crystallized and oriented thin films. La réalisation de couches minces de matériaux piézo-électriques de Li2B4O7 par le procédé “PYROSOL" révèle une grande diversité de conditions de dépôt. La température du substrat, la composition des solutions de précurseurs et leur concentration conditionnent la morphologie et l'état de cristallisation des films. En particulier, l'obtention de couches minces denses, homogènes et présentant une orientation préférentielle nécessite des températures de substrat supérieures à 620 ^{circ}C. L'influence de ces divers paramètres expérimentaux a été étudiée dans le but d'obtenir des dépôts homogènes, cristallisés et orientés.

  1. Collaborative Research: Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouleas, Thomas; Decyk, Viktor

    2009-10-14

    National Lab later implemented a similar basic quasistatic scheme including pipelining in the code WARP [9] and found good to very good quantitative agreement between the two codes in modeling e-clouds. References [1] C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, C. Ren, M. Zhou, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, J. H. Cooley, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and T. Katsouleas, "QUICKPIC: A highly efficient particle-in-cell code for modeling wakefield acceleration in plasmas," J. Computational Phys. 217, 658 (2006). [2] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, W. B. Mori, P. Muggli, and T. Katsouleas, "Enhancing parallel quasi-static particle-in-cell simulations with a pipelining algorithm," J. Computational Phys, 228, 5430 (2009). [3] C. Huang, V. K. Decyk, M. Zhou, W. Lu, W. B. Mori, J. H. Cooley, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and B. Feng, T. Katsouleas, J. Vieira, and L. O. Silva, "QUICKPIC: A highly efficient fully parallelized PIC code for plasma-based acceleration," Proc. of the SciDAC 2006 Conf., Denver, Colorado, June, 2006 [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, W. M. Tang, Editor, vol. 46, Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia, 2006], p. 190. [4] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. Decyk, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, P. Muggli, "Enhancing Plasma Wakefield and E-cloud Simulation Performance Using a Pipelining Algorithm," Proc. 12th Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, Lake Geneva, WI, July, 2006, p. 201 [AIP Conf. Proceedings, vol. 877, Melville, NY, 2006]. [5] B. Feng, P. Muggli, T. Katsouleas, V. Decyk, C. Huang, and W. Mori, "Long Time Electron Cloud Instability Simulation Using QuickPIC with Pipelining Algorithm," Proc. of the 2007 Particle Accelerator Conference, Albuquerque, NM, June, 2007, p. 3615. [6] B. Feng, C. Huang, V. Decyk, W. B. Mori, G. H. Hoffstaetter, P. Muggli, T. Katsouleas, "Simulation of Electron Cloud Effects on Electron Beam at ERL with Pipelined QuickPIC," Proc. 13th Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, Santa Cruz, CA, July-August, 2008, p. 340 [AIP Conf. Proceedings, vol. 1086, Melville, NY, 2008

  2. Physics Careers, Employment and Education. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Martin L., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings of a Conference on Changing Career Opportunities for Physicists, held at the Pennsylvania State University, August 1-3, 1977. The purpose of the conference was to study present and future manpower problems in the physics profession. The breadth and depth of the conference is demonstrated by these…

  3. Initial Employment Report: 1992 Physics Degree Recipients. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; Mulvey, Patrick

    Results of the 1991-92 annual survey for 1991-92 on initial employment rates for recipients of doctoral, masters, and bachelors degrees in physics and astronomy are reported. Overall, responses indicated that the job market for recent physics degree recipients remains tight. Other findings include the following: (1) among new bachelors degree…

  4. Women Physicists Speak Again. AIP Report, Number R-441

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Across the world, women in physics have much in common. In almost all countries, women are largely under represented in physics. In the majority of countries for which data was obtainable for this report from reliable statistical agencies, women earned no more than one-fifth of the PhDs in physics. Many women physicists across the world also…

  5. Society Membership Profile: Employment Mobility and Career Change. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Kellman, Dawn

    Information on the influence of employment mobility and career change on the flexibility of the physics labor force is provided, noting the past several decades have brought a dramatic roller coaster of changes to the physics community. Five sections are as follows: membership composition (demographics, professional self-identification, and…

  6. 77 FR 22376 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Grant Assurances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...), were published on February 3, 1988, at 53 FR 3104 and amended on September 6, 1988, at 53 FR 34361; on August 29, 1989, at 54 FR 35748; on June 10, 1994 at 59 FR 30076; on January 4, 1995, at 60 FR 521; on June 2, 1997, at 62 FR 29761; on August 18, 1999, at 64 FR 45008; on March 29, 2005 at 70 FR 15980;...

  7. Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas

    conference. However, whatever the list the issue of cooperation and binding collaboration remains. As observers of Moon and other space enterprises, we all know that a room full of 60 scientists will not agree on much of anything and there will probably be 60! pleas for more funding. People have special interests and little common sense (e.g., conflict between NSF- and NASA-funding roadmaps). Scientists are no exception. Nevertheless, CERN has done it on Earth! Can we do the same on the Moon? Some of the present generation of proposals for science from and on the Moon, plus new ones, will witness a place in space exploration's future. It is clear, however, that the world has not thought this through adequately, except for talk about an international space federation - whatever that is. An outpost on the Moon with humans permanently living there much like Antarctica on Earth may be in our future. However, such planning is our collective international responsibility and not that of special-interest investigators from individual nations - unless they intend to pay for it. [1] Mendell W. W. (1985) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston. [2] Potter A. E. and Wilson T. L. (1990) Physics and Astrophysics from a Lunar Base, AIP Conf. Proc. 202, American Institute of Physics, New York. [3] Mumma M. J. and Smith H. J. (1990) Astrophysics from the Moon, AIP Conf. Proc. 207, American Institute of Physics, New York.

  8. Plasmas as the Drivers for Science with Antimatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surko, Clifford M.

    2010-11-01

    Progress and future challenges in physics and technology with antimatter (positrons and antiprotons) will be described illustrating the important role played by plasma science [1]. Topics include the creation and study of antihydrogen (stable, neutral antimatter) [2,3] and the positronium molecule (e^+e^-e^+e^-) [4]; plans to study electron-positron plasmas [5]; the quest for a BEC gas of positronium atoms; positron binding to atoms and molecules [6]; the development of new types of positron beams for materials studies; and prospects for commercial positron traps and beams. Much of this progress has been driven by the development of new plasma techniques. Efficient positron accumulation is obtained using specially designed Penning-Malmberg traps with trapping and cooling provided by molecular gases. Plasmas are compressed radially using rotating electric fields. Long-term storage and cooling to cryogenic temperatures are obtained using traps in UHV environments in several-tesla magnetic fields [2,3]. A method to increase trap capacity by orders of magnitude will be described [7]. Prospects for portable antimatter traps and other exceedingly challenging projects such as a Ps-atom interferometer and an annihilation gamma ray laser will be discussed. Efforts to understand the behavior of antimatter in astrophysical settings will also be discussed. A sampling of references (by 1st author): [1] C. M. Surko, Phys. Pl. 11, 2333 ('04); [2] G. Gabrielse, Physics Today, Mar. ('10), 68; [3] G. B. Andresen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013003 ('10); [4] D. B. Cassidy, Nature 449, 195 ('07); [5] T. S. Pedersen, Fus. Sci. Tech., 50, 372 ('06); [6] G. F. Gribakin, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press ('10); [7] J. R. Danielson, AIP Conf. Proc. 1114 ('09), 199.

  9. Abstract: Spin dynamics of trivalent and intermediate-valent TmSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, A.; Buhrer, W.; Wachter, P.

    1982-03-01

    By means of inelastic neutron scattering we have measured the dynamical susceptibility of the same TmcSe (c = 0.87, 0.99) single crystals which have previously been used for studying various thermal, magnetic, and transport properties.1,2 The experiments have been performed above and below TN˜3 K. From the excitation spectra observed for trivalent Tm0.87Se we have determined the molecular-field and the crystal-field parameters; the latter drastically deviate from the parameters known for the thulium monopnictides.3 The energy spectra observed for intermediate-valent Tm0.99Se are partly in contrast to the results obtained for polycrystalline material,4 and to recent single-crystal data.5 Below TN there is a single dispersionless excitation at around 1 meV. Above TN the energy spectra can be characterized by a superposition of two quasielastic lines corresponding to slow and fast magnetic relaxation rates which differ almost by an order of magnitude, in agreement with theoretical predictions.6 A detailed description of this work has been published elsewhere.7 1B. Batlogg, H. R. Ott, E. Kaldis, W. Thoni, and P. Wachter, Phys. Rev. B 19, 247 (1979). 2H. Boppart, A. Treindl, P. Wachter, and S. Roth, Solid State Commun. 35, 483 (1980). 3H. L. Davis and H. A. Mook, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials - 1973, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 18, p. 1068. 4M. Loewenhaupt and E. Holland-Moritz, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 9, 50 (1978). 5B. H. Grier and S. M. Shapiro, Valence Fluctuation in Solids (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), p. 325. 6E. Muller-Hartmann, Electron Correlation and Magnetism in Narrow Band Systems (Springer, Berlin, 1981), p. 128. 7 A. Furrer, W. Buhrer, and P. Wachter, Solid State Commun. (1981).

  10. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, "native-roughness" modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D. E.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications ("native roughness") used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ˜3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ˜15%-20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ˜3-4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have prompted

  11. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-21

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (∼5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker. PMID:27208935

  12. The Stored Energy of Gravitational Collapse Powers Gamma Ray Bursts, Active Galactic Nuclei and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, Howard

    2004-05-01

    The recent discovery of almost 100% polarization of the prompt gamma ray emission from GRB021206 (1) confirms my ````Strong'' Magnetic Field'' model (SMF). In SMF, Storage Ring (SR) particles were accelerated during the gravitational collapse of the pregalactic/prequasar plasma that is permeated by a large-scale primordial magnetic field (2.3). The enormous, intense, slender, relativistic, stable, coherent Astrophysical Storage Ring stores a small fraction of the gravitational collapse energy in an almost radiationless state, unless disturbed. Galactic morphology varies as the ratio of magnetic energy to rotational energy in each object. GRB are due to a ``rock'' i.e. white dwarf,ordinary star,neutron star,planet,etc. falling through the SR and being rapidly vaporized into a hot plasma fireball. The fireball speeds on into the huge organized magnetic field surrounding the current ring, thus generating very highly polarized prompt gamma ray emission from the synchrotron radiation process. The timing fits the GRB observations. A ``rock'' racing at 1000 km/sec across a 20,000 km path in the beam produces a twenty second burst. Tracking across a short chord yields a short burst. Typical currents in space are sometimes made of many slender filaments. Thus the puzzling less than one millisecond spikes observed in some GRB are simply describing the structure of that particular SR at that time. 1. W. Coburn & S. E. Boggs, Nature 423, 425 (2003) 2. H. D. Greyber in After the Dark Ages:When Galaxies Were Young, AIP Conf. Proc. 470, eds. S. Holt & E. Smith, (1998) 3. H. D. Greyber in a Space Telescope Science Institute Report from their 2001 Spring Symposium, ``The Dark Universe: Matter, Energy and Gravity'', ed. Mario Livio, published March 2003.

  13. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.

  14. Using spectral slopes to characterize the origin of ENAs in the IBEX sky maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.; Dayeh, M. A.; Funsten, H. O.; Janzen, P. H.; McComas, D. J.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The solar wind exists in stationary states out of equilibrium and can be successfully described by kappa distributions [1]. The kappa index that governs these distributions lies between k~1.5 and infinity and characterizes how far the stationary state is from thermal equilibrium [2,3]. Equilibrium corresponds to kappa→infinity, while the specific index k→1.5 corresponds to the furthest stationary state from equilibrium. The special interval of kappa indices between k~1.5 and k~2.5, the far-equilibrium region, is found to be present in many space plasmas including solar wind [2]. Spontaneous processes that can increase entropy, drive the system away from that region and toward thermal equilibrium, while external factors that can decrease the entropy of the system, move it back into far-equilibrium stationary states. In the case of solar wind, newly formed pick-up ions can play just such a critical role because their motion is highly ordered, resulting that the inner heliosheath has to be characterized by stationary states with kappa indices in the far-equilibrium region [4]. Analysis of the IBEX-Hi Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) spectra show that the emissions are indeed characterized by kappa indices in the far-equilibrium region; these kappa indices directly indicate the source temperature and thus reveal the source locations of the ENAs. 1.Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D.J., 2009, JGR 114, A11105 (and reference therein). 2.Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D.J., 2010, ApJ 714, 971. 3.Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D.J., 2010, Phys. Scr. 82, 035003. 4.Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D.J., 2010, CSPAR 2010, AIP Conf. Proc. (In print).

  15. BOLD response analysis by iterated local multigrid priors.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Amaral, Selene; Rabbani, Said R; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-06-01

    We present a non parametric Bayesian multiscale method to characterize the Hemodynamic Response HR as function of time. This is done by extending and adapting the Multigrid Priors (MGP) method proposed in (S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, N. Caticha, Multigrid prior for a Bayesian approach to fMRI, NeuroImage 23 (2004) 654-662; N. Caticha, S.D.R. Amaral, S.R. Rabbani, Multigrid Priors for fMRI time series analysis, AIP Conf. Proc. 735 (2004) 27-34). We choose an initial HR model and apply the MGP method to assign a posterior probability of activity for every pixel. This can be used to construct the map of activity. But it can also be used to construct the posterior averaged time series activity for different regions. This permits defining a new model which is only data-dependent. Now in turn it can be used as the model behind a new application of the MGP method to obtain another posterior probability of activity. The method converges in just a few iterations and is quite independent of the original HR model, as long as it contains some information of the activity/rest state of the patient. We apply this method of HR inference both to simulated and real data of blocks and event-related experiments. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to measure the number of errors with respect to a few hyperparameters. We also study the deterioration of the results for real data, under information loss. This is done by decreasing the signal to noise ratio and also by decreasing the number of images available for analysis and compare the robustness to other methods. PMID:17258909

  16. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional, “native-roughness” modulations in x-ray driven, spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-07-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15%–20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3–4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have

  17. Non-Equilibrium Transitions of Heliospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in Space Physics theory have established the connection between non-extensive Statistical Mechanics and space plasmas by providing a theoretical basis for the empirically derived kappa distributions commonly used to describe the phase space distribution functions of these systems [1]. The non-equilibrium temperature and the kappa index that govern these distributions are the two independent controlling parameters of non-equilibrium systems [1-3]. The significance of the kappa index is primarily given by its role in identifying the non-equilibrium stationary states, and measuring their "thermodynamic distance" from thermal equilibrium [4], while its physical meaning is connected to the correlation between the system's particles [5]. For example, analysis of the IBEX high Energetic Neutral Atom spectra [6] showed that the vast majority of measured kappa indices are between ~1.5 and ~2.5, consistent with the far-equilibrium "cavity" of minimum entropy discovered by Livadiotis & McComas [2]. Spontaneous procedures that can increase the entropy, move the system gradually toward equilibrium, that is the state with the maximum (infinite) kappa index. Other external factors that may decrease the entropy, move the system back to states further from equilibrium where the kappa indices are smaller. Newly formed pick-up ions can play this critical role in the solar wind and other space plasmas. We have analytically shown that their highly ordered motion can reduce the average entropy in the plasma beyond the termination shock, inside the inner heliosheath [7]. Non-equilibrium transitions have a key role in understanding the governing thermodynamical processes of space plasmas. References 1. Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D. J. 2009, JGR, 114, 11105. 2. Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D. J. 2010a, ApJ, 714, 971. 3. Livadiotis, G., & McComas, D. J. 2010c, in AIP Conf. Proc. 9, Pickup Ions Throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond, ed. J. LeRoux, V. Florinski, G. P. Zank, & A

  18. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  19. Monitoring contamination due to materials outgassing by QCM-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirri, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    ), large operative temperature range (from -80°C to 130°C), temperature stability within 0.5°C and good frequency resolution of 0.1 Hz. The instruments concept and the performance evaluation, based on tests performed on the QCM based sensors (i.e. simulating an outgassing source in space conditions), are presented in this work. References : [1] Soares et al. 2003, Proc. SPIE, 09/2000; [2] Miller 1982, Report NASA TM- 82457; [3] Tighe et al. 2009, AIP Conf. Proc. 1087, 195; [4] Wood et al. 1997, AIAA 97-0841

  20. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  1. Evaluating local indirect addressing in SIMD proc essors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Tomboulian, Sherryl

    1989-01-01

    In the design of parallel computers, there exists a tradeoff between the number and power of individual processors. The single instruction stream, multiple data stream (SIMD) model of parallel computers lies at one extreme of the resulting spectrum. The available hardware resources are devoted to creating the largest possible number of processors, and consequently each individual processor must use the fewest possible resources. Disagreement exists as to whether SIMD processors should be able to generate addresses individually into their local data memory, or all processors should access the same address. The tradeoff is examined between the increased capability and the reduced number of processors that occurs in this single instruction stream, multiple, locally addressed, data (SIMLAD) model. Factors are assembled that affect this design choice, and the SIMLAD model is compared with the bare SIMD and the MIMD models.

  2. Erratum: ``Semiempirical Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the Solar Corona and Interplanetary Medium'' (ApJ, 523, 812 [1999])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Guhathakurta, Madhulika

    2002-01-01

    following expressions for Teff and qeff, respectively: δTeff=(2(Told-Tnew))/ (Told+Tnew), δqeff= (2(qnew-qold))/(qnew+qold). If one compares Figure 1 in this paper with Figure 9a in our original paper, one can see that the enhanced temperatures reported in our original paper at the boundary of the polar coronal hole and equatorial regions can be largely explained by the errors displayed in Figure 1. A similar comparison can be made between Figure 2 in this paper and Figure 10a in our original paper, except here the error caused an underestimate of qeff. In Figures 3 and 4 we show revised two-dimensional maps of Teff and qeff, respectively; they should be viewed as the replacement for the corresponding figures, Figure 9a and Figure 10a, respectively, in our original paper. As can be seen from these figures, there is a lack of enhanced temperatures at the boundary of the polar coronal hole and equatorial regions and a lack of suppressed values of the heat flux at corresponding regions. The contours now vary smoothly across the boundary of the polar coronal hole, and none of the anomalies mentioned in our original paper exist now. The absence of the anomalies in the revised calculations reinforces the correctness of the model calculations and the magnetic field model used. The integrations are performed along the magnetic field, which is highly divergent at the polar coronal hole boundary (i.e., octupole term dominates near the Sun), and by properly taking into account latitudinal gradients, we obtain solutions which are free of anomalies. For completeness, we show in Figure 5 the revised two-dimensional map of the plasma beta reported in our original paper (Fig. 11a). In the original paper the plasma beta was overestimated by more than a factor of 2 in the equatorial regions near the Sun. Finally, the error reported here is also present in the papers by E. C. Sittler, Jr., & M. Guhathakurta (in AIP Conf. Proc. 471, Solar Wind 9, ed. S. Habbal [New York: AIP, 1999], 401

  3. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Flipping at an Open-Enrollment College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzler, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is a blended, constructivist learning environment that reverses where students gain and apply knowledge. Instructors from K-12 to the college level are interested in the prospect of flipping their classes, but are unsure how and with which students to implement this learning environment. There has been little discussion…

  4. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  5. Turbulence in inhomogeneous flows: Applications to the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunana, Peter

    This work is devoted to the dynamics of fluids in a regime that can be described as being in a state of near incompressibility. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for analytical and sometimes computational studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics" is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory developed by Zank and Matthaeus found excellent applicability to the solar wind flow, which typically possesses density fluctuations that are of the order of 10% from mean density values. However, the theory was derived only for homogeneous flows, and large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature and magnetic field are very common in the solar wind. So far it has been unclear how large-scale inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. The work presented here addresses these deficiencies of nearly incompressible theory and generalizes it to include a large-scale inhomogeneous background which is time-stationary and spherically symmetric. The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 1 introduces the solar wind concept and discusses the theoretical development of theories traditionally used to describe solar wind turbulence. Chapter 2 elaborates the nearly incompressible theory of hydrodynamics in the presence of a large-scale inhomogeneous background and is based on the work of Hunana et al. 2006 (Phys. Rev. E 74, 026302). Chapter 3 presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the lowest-order inhomogeneous system derived in Chapter 2 and focuses on the evolution of solar wind density fluctuations. Preliminary results were published by Hunana et al. 2007 (AIP Conf. Proc. 932, 45) and the most recent results by

  6. Langmuir Turbulence in the Solar Wind : Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2014-12-01

    inhomogeneous plasma. AIP Conf. Proc. 1539, 78 (2013). C. Krafft, A. Volokitin, V. V. Krasnoselskikh, Interaction of energetic particles with waves in strongly inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas, Astrophys. J., 778, 111 (2013).

  7. Energetic Atomic Oxygen in the Region of the Terrestrial Exobase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, B.; Sospedra-Alfonso, R.

    2012-12-01

    nonthermal and thermal oxygen with distribution functions, f, and F, respectively. The Boltzmann equation for f includes the source term from dissociative recombination as well as self-collisions requiring the nonlinear Boltzmann collision operator [3]. We also include cross collisions between the two species and thus anticipate a departure from Maxwellian for F, quantified with a Boltzmann equation. With this model, we are able to investigate the influence that the nonthermal oxygen may have on the thermal population of atomic oxygen. This research is supported by the Canadian Space Agency. REFERENCES [1] V. I. Shematovich, V. V. Bisikalo and J. C. Gerard, textit{J. Geophys. Res.} textbf{99}, 217-228 (1994) [2] B. Shizgal, R. Sospedra-Alfonso and A. Yau, Geophys. Res. Abstracts 14 EGU2012-6128-2, (2012). [3] R. Sospedra-Alfonso and B. Shizgal, AIP Conf. Proc. (in press).

  8. Importance of the Compton-Getting Factor in Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Compton-Getting factor (CGF) enters into energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging as a consequence of the generation of ENAs by a population of singly-charged energetic ions having a non-zero bulk plasma velocity with respect to the imager. There is an additional effect if the cold neutral atoms that produce the charge exchange also have their own relative bulk motion, but that will not be discussed here. The CGF follows from the general invariance of the ion phase-space density under a Lorentz transformation (Gallilean at non-relativistic energies), and it takes its simplest form under the approximation that the energetic ion distribution is isotropic in the plasma frame. Then one can write approximately j(v)=CGF*j0(v), where j(v) is the intensity in the frame of the imager for an ion with velocity (v), while j0(v), is the (assumedly isotropic) intensity in the plasma frame (evaluated at the same velocity v) and (k) is the local power-law index of the intensity energy spectrum (also in the plasma frame). For ENA imaging of the heliosheath, to good approximation CGF=R-2(k+1), where R=1+Vr/v involves the radial component of the plasma velocity V. The extraction of k requires further analysis, because the ENA spectrum is affected by the CGF. Plasma velocities Vr~100 km/s are measured within the heliosheath by both the Voyager spacecraft, and approximate values 1.5AIP Conf. Proc., 1436, 239-244, 2012], wherein these formulas are derived, calculate that including the CGF in the comparison of INCA ENA intensities (530 keV) increases the estimate of the thickness of the heliosheath in the VGR2 pixel by 32%. Additional examples of how the CGF plays

  9. Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanović, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle

    2014-04-01

    The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are

  10. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  11. State of Georgia quarterly AIP Implementation Report: October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-19

    The objective of this report is to ensure the citizens of Georgia that health, safety and the environment are being protected through existing DOE programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS), through a vigorous program of independent monitoring and oversight by Georgia officials. SRS emergency plans will be annually reviewed and updated. Environmental monitoring will be conducted of surface water and related media, ground water, air, crops, milk, drinking water, soils and vegetation.

  12. State of Georgia AIP implementation report. Progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hardeman, J.

    1996-06-01

    To ensure the citizens of the State of Georgia that health, safety and the environment are being protected through existing DOE programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS), through a vigorous program of independent monitoring and oversight by Georgia officials. This report summarizes implementation of this program from January to March 1996.

  13. 1999 Initial Employment Report: Follow-Up of 1998 Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Langer, Casey

    This report is based on an annual survey of physics degree recipients conducted approximately 6 months after the end of the academic year in which they received their degrees. During the 1997-1998 academic year, there were 1,323 physics Ph.D.s conferred at the 183 departments granting physics doctorates in the United States. Departments reported…

  14. Women in Physics and Astronomy, 2005. AIP Report, Number R-430.02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Ray, Kim Nies

    2005-01-01

    Despite years of continued growth, women's participation in physics remains among the lowest of any scientific field. The issue is of great concern to many in the scientific community, spawning talks at conferences, data collection efforts, and speculation about the causes of women's low participation in physics. Although women's participation in…

  15. Multiphoton Processes: ICOMP VIII: 8th International Conference, AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 525 [APCPCS

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L.F.; Freeman, R.R.; Kulander, K.C.

    2000-12-31

    Topics include: atoms in strong fields; stabilization; double ionization and multi-electron calculations; high-order harmonics; molecules in strong fields; multiphoton processes in clusters; coherent control; light sources; and relativistic effects.

  16. 78 FR 42419 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...This action adopts a Policy Statement, based on Federal law, concerning through-the-fence access to a federally-obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a residence. This Policy Statement replaces FAA's previously published Interim Policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) with regard to commercial service airports, and establishes how FAA will implement......

  17. 2004 Physics & Astronomy Academic Workforce. AIP Report, Number R-392.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy; Carr, Arnell

    2005-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the Statistical Research Center (SRC) of the American Institute of Physics sent a questionnaire to all 797 degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US. The purpose of this questionnaire, "The Academic Workforce Survey," was to determine the number of faculty positions in physics and astronomy, the number…

  18. Enrollments and Degrees Report, 2006. AIP Report Number R-151.43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2008-01-01

    This document reports on academic enrollments (including Fall 2006) and degrees conferred at the bachelor's, master's, and doctorate levels (including academic year 2005-2006) at colleges and universities with physics or astronomy degree-granting programs. The findings presented in this report are based on an annual survey of all the physics and…

  19. Physics Students from Abroad: Monitoring the Continuing Impact of Visa Problems. AIP Report, Number R-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the US government set in motion a broad set of measures whose aim was to screen foreign applicants for entrance into the US, to try to identify those who it was felt might attempt to carry out further attacks. Since the 2001-02 academic year had already begun in most schools, and since it took time for…

  20. 77 FR 51948 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... 14, 2012. DATES: The comment period for the proposed policy document published July 30, 2012 (77 FR... Proposed Policy in the Federal Register at 77 FR 44515 proposing an FAA policy, based on Federal law... previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) to commercial service airports...

  1. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... limits application of the FAA's previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) to... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Availability of Documents... for public comment in September 2010 (75 FR 54946; September 9, 2010). In March 2011, the...

  2. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... the airport in local politics. Response: Owners of residential lots with through-the-fence...

  3. 75 FR 57829 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54946). DATES: Effective September 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Administration published a Notice of Proposed Policy in the Federal Register at 75 FR 54946 proposing to amend.... Correction In the Notice published on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54946) FR Doc. 2010-22095, on page 54947...

  4. Untapped Talent: The African American Presence in Physics and the Geosciences. AIP Report. Number R-444

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czujko, Roman; Ivie, Rachel; Stith, James H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents data covering the representation of African Americans among physics and geoscience degree recipients at each stage of the educational system. The data were collected by several statistical agencies and are here provided in far more detail than has ever been available before. By placing all the data in one place, this paper…

  5. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    SciTech Connect

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Samary, Dine Ousmane

    2008-11-18

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956(2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653(2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Intranight optical variability of AGN (Goyal+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, A.; Gopal-Krishna; Wiita, P. J.; Stalin, C. S.; Sagar, R.

    2014-09-01

    Our sample of TeV blazars consists of two sets. Set 1 is derived from the list of TeV-detected extragalactic AGNs, published by Weekes (2008, AIP Conf. Ser. Vol. 1085, p. 3, table 2 of his paper). Our set 2 of TeV blazars was derived from table 1 of Abdo et al. (2010ApJ...715..429A, Cat. J/ApJ/715/429), consisting of 709 TeV-detected AGNs, which is based on 11 months of monitoring with Fermi LAT. (2 data files).

  7. Presentations from the LARP Mini-Workshop on Beam-Beam Compensation 2007 (eConf C0707027)

    SciTech Connect

    Valine, J.

    2007-12-05

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) hosted a mini-workshop on beam-beam compensation at SLAC. The workshop reviewed the experience with beam-beam compensation tests, both long-range and head-on, in existing machines (DCI, SPS, Tevatron, DAFNE, KEKB, RHIC), and outlined milestones for the implementation of beam-beam compensation schemes in the LHC. It was also intended to be a platform for young scientists to present their work.

  8. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Time-Saving Resources Aligned with Cognitive Science to Help Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Dahm, Donald J.; Nelson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in cognitive science have verified that working memory (where the brain solves problems) can manipulate nearly all elements of knowledge that can be recalled automatically from long-term memory, but only a few elements that have not previously been well memorized. Research in reading comprehension has found that "lecture notes with…

  9. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Improving Student Engagement in Organic Chemistry Using the Inverted Classroom Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student engagement in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses generally, and organic chemistry specifically, has long been a goal for educators. Recently educators at all academic levels have been exploring the "inverted classroom" or "flipped classroom" pedagogical model for improving student…

  10. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Just-in-Time Teaching in Chemistry Courses with Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzyka, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    In the Just-in-Time Teaching approach, a faculty member assigns readings to students before every class. After the students have done the daily reading, they access a short reading quiz using a course management system (e.g., Moodle). The faculty member uses student responses to the quiz in the preparation of the day's class material and is able…

  11. Influence of various land uses on windbreak selection by nesting Mississippi kites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Diane; Grzybowski, Joseph A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Contemporary land-use practices have dramatically altered breeding habitats of birds of prey (Cramp, pp. 9-11 in World Conf. Birds of Prey, R. D. Chancellor, ed., ICPB, London, England, 1977). Some land uses appear to influence strongly both the nesting activity (White, Trans. North Am. Wild. Nat. Resour. Conf. 39:301-312, 1974) and abundance (Olendorff and Stoddart, pp. 44-48 in Management of Raptors, F. N. Jamerstrom, B. E. Harrel, and R. R. Olendorff, eds., Proc. Conf. Raptor Conserv. Tech., Raptor Rep. 2, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1974) of raptors. The Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis) is a locally common raptor of the south-central plains of North America. In the prairie grasslands of western Oklahoma and south-western Kansas, kites commonly nest in tree plantings designed as windbreaks, irrespective of windbreak width, age, or tree species compositions (Parker, Ph.D. Diss., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 1974; Love and Knopf, Proc. Ann. Meet. For. Comm. Great Plains Agric. Counc. 30:69-77, 1978). Much of the potential nesting habitat within this region, however, is not used by kits (Parker and Ogden, Am. Birds 33:119-129, 1979). In this paper, we assess the potential influence of various land-use practices on windbreak selection by nesting Mississippi Kites.

  12. Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

  13. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS).

    PubMed

    Steffen, Matthias; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2008-06-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007). PMID:18544830

  14. EXPERIENCES WITH STRIP CROPPING SOYBEANS INTO SMALL GRAINS IN NEBRASKA. PROC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn is a high value crop and so yield is very important to producers. Input costs for nutrients and water are small relative to the return, especially when compared to commercial corn production. It doesn’t help that inbred plants used to produce hybrid seed are less vigorous than hybrids and ...

  15. Proc. of the workshop on pushing the limits of RF superconductivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K-J., Eyberger, C., editors

    2005-04-13

    For three days in late September last year, some sixty experts in RF superconductivity from around the world came together at Argonne to discuss how to push the limits of RF superconductivity for particle accelerators. It was an intense workshop with in-depth presentations and ample discussions. There was added excitement due to the fact that, a few days before the workshop, the International Technology Recommendation Panel had decided in favor of superconducting technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC), the next major high-energy physics accelerator project. Superconducting RF technology is also important for other large accelerator projects that are either imminent or under active discussion at this time, such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) for nuclear physics, energy recovery linacs (ERLs), and x-ray free-electron lasers. For these accelerators, the capability in maximum accelerating gradient and/or the Q value is essential to limit the length and/or operating cost of the accelerators. The technological progress of superconducting accelerators during the past two decades has been truly remarkable, both in low-frequency structures for acceleration of protons and ions as well as in high-frequency structures for electrons. The requirements of future accelerators demand an even higher level of performance. The topics of this workshop are therefore highly relevant and timely. The presentations given at the workshop contained authoritative reviews of the current state of the art as well as some original materials that previously had not been widely circulated. We therefore felt strongly that these materials should be put together in the form of a workshop proceeding. The outcome is this report, which consists of two parts: first, a collection of the scholarly papers prepared by some of the participants and second, copies of the viewgraphs of all presentations. The presentation viewgraphs, in full color, are also available from the Workshop Presentations link on the workshop's web page at http://www.aps.anl.gov/conferences/RFSCLimits/. I would like to thank all of the participants for their lively contributions to the workshop and to these proceedings, and Helen Edwards and Hasan Padamsee for their help in developing the workshop program. I also thank Cathy Eyberger, Kelly Jaje, and Renee Lanham for working very hard to take care of the administrative details, in particular Cathy for editing this report.

  16. PROcEED: Probabilistic reverse dosimetry approaches for estimating exposure distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    As increasing amounts of biomonitoring survey data become available, a new discipline focused on converting such data into estimates of chemical exposures has developed. Reverse dosimetry uses a pharmacokinetic model along with measured biomarker concentrations to determine the p...

  17. Proc. of the sixteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences, May 13-15, 1998, Argonne, IL.

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-13

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Sixteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 13--15, 1998, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was structured into eight technical sessions, which included 30 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. A list of participants is appended to this volume. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term, mission-oriented research in the Department. The Office has prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation's future energy options will be identified, developed, and built. BES is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary to solve present and future problems regarding energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, while maintaining respect for the environment. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, prolonging the useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing. The program emphasis is on reducing costs through improved industrial production and performance and expanding the nation's store of fundamental knowledge for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in energy technologies. To achieve these goals, the Engineering Research Program supports approximately 130 research projects covering a broad spectrum of topics that cut across traditional engineering disciplines. The program focuses on three areas: (1) mechanical sciences, (2) control systems and instrumentation, and (3) engineering data and analysis. The Sixteenth Symposium involved approximately one-fourth of the research projects currently sponsored by the DOE/BES Engineering Research Program.

  18. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR METHANE PRODUCTION FROM LANDFILL BIOREACTOR - A DISCUSSION PAPER HTTP://OIPS.AIP.ORG/EEO/

    EPA Science Inventory

    This discussion explains the experimental results of a landfill bioreactor (LFBR) from a microbiological perspective and provides a feasible strategy to evaluate methane production performance, since suitable models are complicated and not sufficiently reliable for anaerobic-syst...

  20. 78 FR 20167 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... years. After Friday, July 26, 2013, the FAA will carry over all remaining entitlement funds, and the... Offices) their intent to submit a grant application no later than close of business Friday, July 26, 2013... including those unused from prior years. By Friday, June 28, 2013, airport sponsors that have not...

  1. High-current, high-brightness, and high-duty factor ion injectors. AIP conference proceedings No. 139

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, G.H.; Kuo, Yu-Yun; Keefe, D. Wangler, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the important frontier areas in accelerator physics today is the search for ever better ways of simultaneously achieving higher beam currents with very low emittance, and preserving both properties throughout the acceleration process. This workshop focused on the basic and applied physics encountered with intense ion beams in the low velocity end of a linac. a primary objective of this workshop was to review in depth the different approaches to intense ion injectors, and the phenomena associated with high-current and high-brightness beams. A second objective was to provide a forum for discussion for those people active in this specialized field, and thereby stimulate suggestions and recommendations regarding future work in these areas. The subject material was grouped under five main headings: diagnostics, theory (including simulation), high-current beam transport, cw radio frequency quadrupole accelerators, and multiple beams (including funneling). Following introductory reviews by experts in each of these areas, participants divided themselves among five corresponding working groups. The review papers and the working group summaries and conclusions form the main body of this Proceedings. In addition, four contributed reports on new work presented at the workshop are also included. The workshop papers were cataloged separately.

  2. First results from the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The first period of physics operation of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (Proc. 12th Intl. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Cont. Fusion, I.A.E.A., 1988) has produced information on sawtooth oscillations, edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations, and equilibrium parameters at large plasma size. Sawtooth oscillations are prevalent at all values of pinch parameter, and might constitute discrete dynamo events. Both electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations are of sufficient magnitude to be relevant to transport in the RFP. In the plasmas studied to date (up to a plasma current of 0.5 MA) the poloidal beta value is about 10%, or greater.

  3. Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard J.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Derkacs, Derek; Peterson, Charles G.

    2002-07-01

    We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) (Bennett C H and Brassard G 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) p 175) over a 10 km, 1-airmass atmospheric range during daylight and at night. Secret random bit sequences of the quality required for the cryptographic keys used to initialize secure communications devices were transferred at practical rates with realistic security. By identifying the physical parameters that determine the system's secrecy efficiency, we infer that free-space QKD will be practical over much longer ranges under these and other atmospheric and instrumental conditions.

  4. Understanding thermal equilibrium through activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra

    2015-03-01

    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education pp 169-72) we found that students in India have a rather unsatisfactory understanding of thermal equilibrium. We have designed and developed a module of five activities, which are presented in succession to the students. These activities address the students’ alternative conceptions that underlie their lack of understanding of thermal equilibrium and aim at enhancing their understanding of the concept.

  5. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    PubMed

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  6. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  7. Mirage effect spectrometry and light profile microscopy: Two views of an optical depth profile (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. F.; Fu, S. W.; Nepotchatykh, O. V.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal depth profiling techniques are well adapted for the inspection of optically absorbing features on the length scale of 1-100 μm in a variety of media. However, the depth profiling mechanism intrinsic to thermal wave imaging is inherently ill posed [J. F. Power, AIP Conf. Proc. 463, 3 (1999)], and suffers obvious disadvantages such as sensitivity to experimental errors (requiring regularization) and subsurface broadening of the regularized depth profiles. Recently, through the introduction of light profile microscopy (LPM) an alternate method of optical inspection was made available for depth profiling optically absorbing, scattering, and luminescent structures on this length scale [J. F. Power and S. W. Fu, Appl. Spectros. 53, 1507 (1999); J. F. Power and S. W. Fu, U.S. Patent Pending]. LPM inspects a thin film under test by directing a laser beam through the material along the depth axis, parallel to a polished cross-sectional viewing surface. Luminescence and elastic scatter excited in the beam volume is imaged by a microscope aligned orthogonal to the beam axis. The images obtained by this method showed striking depth contrast in a variety of materials with subsurface interfaces and depth variations of luminescence yield. When implemented in dual beam mode [J. F. Power and S. W. Fu, U.S. Patent Pending; J. F. Power and S. W. Fu, (unpublished)] with an associated mathematical method, LPM may be used to quantitatively resolve depth variable optical absorption from light scattering and luminescence efficiency. In contrast to photothermal methods, the LPM technique is well posed. LPM was evaluated in tandem with mirage effect spectrometry (in normal deflection mode with bicell detection) [J. F. Power, S. W. Fu, and M. A. Schweitzer, Appl. Spectros. 54, 110 (2000)], to determine the effective use of each technique in analysis problems on complex materials. This study used samples with known depth variations of optical properties including homogeneous

  8. A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer for quantitative in situ chemical composition investigation of lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Grimaudo, Valentine; Mezger, Klaus; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    surface processes on a planetary surface. Analyses of Pb isotopes show that the statistical uncertainty for the age determination by LMS is about ±100 Myrs, if abundance of 206Pb and 207Pb is 20ppm and 2ppm respectively [Riedo,2013]. These Pb isotopes have abundances of tens to hundreds of ppm in lunar KREEP [Nemchin,2008]. We demonstrate the measurement capabilities of LMS for petrographic and mineralogical analyses, for isotopic studies and dating analyses, which are key topics for future missions to the Moon. Having the LMS instrument installed on a lunar rover would allow measuring the chemical composition of many rock and soil samples, distributed over a certain area, inside the South Pole Aitken Basin for example. LMS measurements would yield valuable conclusions about age and mineralogy. References: [Wurz,2009]Wurz,P. et al. 2009, AIP Conf.Proc., CP1144:70-75. [Grimaudo,2015]Grimaudo, V. et al. 2015, Anal.Chem. 87: 2037-2041. [Neuland,2014]Neuland, M.B. et al. 2014, Planet.Space Sci.101:196-209. [Neuland,2016]Neuland M.B. et al. 2016, Meas. Sci. Technol.,submitted. [Riedo,2013]Riedo A. et al., 2013 Planet. Space Sci. 87: 1-13. [Nemchin,2008]Nemchin et al., 2008 Geochim. Cosmochim.Acta 72:668-689.

  9. Exploring Jupiter's icy moons with old techniques and big facilities - new insights on sulfuric acid hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Avdeev, M.; Brand, H.; Wallwork, K.

    2013-12-01

    ., AIP Conf Proc, 2007. 879: p. 879-882. [5] Liss, K.D., et al., Phys B-Cond Mat, 2006. 385-86: p. 1010-1012. [6] Maynard-Casely, H.E., K.S. Wallwork, and M. Avdeev, (In review). [7] Maynard-Casely, H.E., H.E.A. Brand, and K.S. Wallwork, J.of App.Cryst, 2012. 45: p.1198-1207. [8] Maynard-Casely, H.E., K.S. Wallwork, and H.E.A. Brand, (In Preparation). Stages of the crystal structure determination of sulfruic acid octahydrate a) the oxygen and sulfur postions were determined from the synchrotron x-ray data b) Once neutron diffraction data was collected Fourier difference methods were used to locate hydrogen positions to determine c) the full structure of sulfuric acid octahydrate.

  10. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of planetary rocks using a laser ablation mass spectrometer for in situ space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    . With the current spatial resolution, grain-sized inclusions embedded in the surface (e.g. CAIs, dark inclusions, metal grains) could be identified. Detailed investigations, e.g. differentiation of chondrule components from rims of chondrules can be derived from LMS data. LMS has capabilities for highly sensitive chemical composition measurements of grain sized inclusions and sub-micrometre sized surface layers. The latter information is of considerable interest in the context of space weathering. References [1] P. Wurz, et al., 2009, AIP Conf.Proc. , CP1144:70-75. [2] P. Wurz et al.,2012, Sol. Sys. Res. 46 408-422. [3] U. Rohner, J. Whitby, and P. Wurz, 2003, Meas. Sci. Technol., 14 2159-2164. [4] A. Riedo et al.,2013, J.Anal.Atom.Spectrom. 28(8):1133-1356. [5] A. Riedo, et al., 2013, J. Mass Spectrom.48, 1-15. [6] M.B. Neuland et al.,2014, Planet. Space. Sci. 101, 196-209. [7] V. Grimaudoet al.,2014, Anal. Chem., submitted.

  11. GEMS and New Pre-Accretionally Irradiated RELICT Grains in Interplanetary Dust - The Plot Thickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J.

    1995-09-01

    microscopic studies of the local petrographic environment of GEMS in IDPs are continuing. There is evidence of a population of relict grains associated with GEMS. Some of these relict grains have distinctive compositions and they appear to have functioned as (pre-existing) depositional substrates while GEMS were being formed. Thus, it may be possible to begin to assign a chronology to the seemingly complex admixture of grains that make up the ultrafine-grained matrices of anhydrous chondritic IDPs. References: [1] Bradley J. P. (1994) Science, 265, 925-929. [2] Flynn G. J. (1994) Nature, 371, 287-288. [3] Martin P. G. (1995) Astrophys. J., 445, L63-L66. [4] Mathis J. S. (1986) Astrophys. J., 308, 281-287. [5] Mathis J. S. (1993) Rept. Prog. Phys., 56, 605-652. [6] Walker R. M. (1994) in Analysis of Interplanetary Dust (M. E. Zolensky et al., eds.), pp. 203-209, AIP Conf. Proc. 310.

  12. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  13. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  14. Physics and Society: A sub-discipline of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David

    2012-03-01

    The Forum on Physics and Society was born in the tumultuous 1960's and 70's and has a long record of accomplishments over the past 40 years. *303 APS session in 40 years, an average of 7.7/year. *10 Books (3 Forum Studies, 7 AIP Conf. Proceedings, 4 booklets). *Physics and Society has published results that have been widely referenced. *2 Forum Board Members became U.S. Congressmen [V. Ehlers (R-MI), R. Holt (D-NJ)], others have had notable public service careers. *Szilard and Burton-Forum Awards recognize positive contributions of physicists in society. *The Forum helped establish the Congressional Science Fellowships. This talk will update the 1999 Forum History (http://www.aps.org/units/fps/history.cfm) and provide anecdotal humor. Lastly, back-of-the-envelope calculations from my text, Physics of Society Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007), will be provided.

  15. Analysis of Chemical Bioactivity through In Vitro Profiling using ToxCast and Tox21 High-Throughput Screening (China tox. conf. TATT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safety assessment of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing. However, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation drive the development of alternative approaches. The EPA’s ToxCast and the multiagency Tox21 ...

  16. Proceedings of the 34th International Conference in High Energy Physics (ICHEP08), Philadelphia, PA, 2008, eConf C080730, [hep-ph/0809.xxx

    SciTech Connect

    Lockyer, Nigel S.; Smith, AJ Stewart,; et. al.

    2008-09-01

    In 2004 a team from the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and the Institute for Advanced Study proposed to host the 2008 International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. The proposal was approved later that year by the C-11 committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. The Co-Chairs were Nigel S. Lockyer (U. Penn/TRIUMF) and A.J. Stewart Smith (Princeton); Joe Kroll of U. Penn served as Deputy Chair from 2007 on. Highlights of the proposal included 1. greatly increased participation of young scientists, women scientists, and graduate students 2. new emphasis on formal theory 3. increased focus on astrophysics and cosmology 4. large informal poster session (170 posters) in prime time 5. convenient, contiguous venues for all sessions and lodging 6. landmark locations for the reception and banquet. The conference program consisted of three days of parallel sessions and three days of plenary talks.

  17. Angioplastie coronaire percutanée chez la femme: particularités cliniques, procédurales et pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Leila; Hadrich, Morched; Sahnoun, Mohamed; Kammoun, Samir

    2011-01-01

    AbstractX Les résultats de l′angioplastie transluminale (ATL) des coronaires chez la femme ont été pendant de nombreuses années controversés et longtemps considérés comme moins favorable que chez l′homme. Le but de notre travail était d’évaluer les caractéristiques de l'angioplastie coronaire chez la femme, ainsi que les résultats immédiats et à moyen terme et de les comparer à ceux chez l'homme. Nous avons comparé 200 patients dont 100 femmes, ayant bénéficié d'une angioplastie coronaire, colligés au service de cardiologie de l'hôpital Hédi Chaker de Sfax entre 2002 et 2007. Les femmes étaient significativement plus âgées que les hommes. La comparaison de la fréquence des facteurs de risque d'athérosclérose chez les deux sexes, a permis de noter une co-morbidité franchement plus importante chez la femme, avec une différence statiquement significative. L'ATL a été plus motivée chez la femme devant un angor stable sévère (p<0,05) et un SCA ST- (p=NS). Les femmes avaient plus d'atteinte polytronculaire (p<0,05), d'atteintes des segments moyens et distaux (p<0,05) et plus des lésions serrées (p=NS), longues et calcifiées (p<0,05). 259 stents ont été déployés, un stenting direct était plus fréquent dans la population féminine (p<0,05). Le diamètre des artères féminines, assimilé à celui du stent et/ou ballon utilisé, a été significativement moins important que celui des hommes. La longueur des stents et/ou ballon utilisés, ainsi que les pressions de larguage des stents ont été plus importantes chez la population féminine (p<0,05). Le succès angiographique global a été obtenu chez 94% de la population générale, sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. Les évènements cardiaques majeurs (MACE) hospitaliers ont été plus fréquents chez la femme (p=0,05). Après un suivi moyen de 31 mois, le taux de MACE global a été significativement plus important chez la femme (39% vs. 28%, p<0,05), portant surtout sur la mortalité globale (13% vs. 3%, p<0,05). Le taux de resténose a été comparable chez les deux sexes. L'angioplastie coronaire constitue actuellement un moyen thérapeutique efficace et sur chez la femme, au prix de complications plus fréquentes. PMID:22145070

  18. Using PROC GLIMMIX to Analyze the Animal Watch, a Web-Based Tutoring System for Algebra Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbu, Otilia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated how proficiently seventh-grade students enrolled in two Southwestern schools solve algebra word problems. I analyzed various factors that could affect this proficiency and explored the differences between English Learners (ELs) and native English Primary students (EPs). I collected the data as part of the Animal Watch…

  19. Resonance Ionization of Heavy Noble Gases: The Potential of KR and Xe Measurements from Single Pre-Solar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonnard, N.

    1995-09-01

    routine noble gas measurements from terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. The present system, data illustrating current capabilities, and improvements that should reduce the detection limit significantly below 100 atoms for both Kr and Xe will be described. An early application will be simultaneous Kr and Xe isotopic measurements from single microscopic interstellar SiC grains. References: [1]Reynolds J. H. (1960) Phys. Rev. Lett., 4, 351-354. [2] Reynolds J. H. and Turner G. (1964) J. Geo. Phys. Res., 69, 3263-3281. [3] Lee T. (1988) (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 1063-1089, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson. [4] Anders A. and Zinner E. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 490-514. [5] Burbidge E. M. et al. (1957) Rev. Mod. Phys., 29, 547-650. [6] Lewis R. S. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 471-494. [7] Zinner E. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 730-732. [8] Amari S. et al. (1992) Astrophys. J. Lett., 394, L43-L46. [9] Hohenberg C. M. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2133-2140. [10] Nichols R. H. Jr. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26. [11] Nichols R. H. Jr. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 410-411. [12] Nittler L. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 1057-1058. [13]Hohenberg C. M. (1994) personal communication. [14]Payne M. G. et al. (1994) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65, 2433-2459. [15] Thonnard N. et al. (1992) Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 128, 27-30. [16] Gilmour J. D. et al. (1994) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65, 617-625. [17] Thonnard N. and Lehmann B. L. (1995) AIP Conf. Proc., 329, 335-338.

  20. Reaching the Critical Mass: The Twenty Year Surge in High School Physics. Findings from the 2005 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. AIP Report. Number R-442

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…

  1. What Are Masters Doing? Master's Degree Recipients with Physics Training in the Workforce: The Impact of Highest Degree Field and Employment Sector on Career Outcomes. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosdil, Donald

    This is the first in a series of reports that explore the career experiences of workers with physics training. A survey conducted in 1994 examined the education and employment experiences of a large sample of members of an academic honors society for undergraduate physics students. The analysis focused on 328 holders of bachelor's degrees in…

  2. TIMP-1 expression in human colorectal cancer is associated with TGF-B1, LOXL2, INHBA1, TNF-AIP6 and TIMP-2 transcript profiles.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, Hanne; Brünner, Nils; Mansilla, Francisco; Orntoft Torben, F; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin

    2008-10-01

    The balance of activity between the endogenous enzyme inhibitors known as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and their targets, the matrix metalloproteinases, in the extracellular matrix is thought to play an important role in tumour cell invasion. Supporting this notion, we have shown that colorectal cancer patients have increased plasma levels of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and that high plasma TIMP-1 levels are associated with short colorectal cancer patient survival. However, although TIMP-1 has been extensively studied in cancer, very little is known about how it is regulated. To further elucidate potential mechanisms of regulation of this protein, we did a number of experiments to look at associations between the transcript profile of TIMP-1 with known matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as with expression profiles of other genes differentially regulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the other TIMPs 2-4, which have also been associated with the progression of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide expression profiling of 172 CRC and normal mucosa samples was used to identify transcript changes for the genes under investigation. We found that TIMP-1 was up-regulated in CRC samples compared with normal tissue, while TIMP-2 was down-regulated. Eight MMPs were up-regulated in CRC compared with normal tissue. Correlating up-regulated genes with the TIMP-1 transcript, we identified 13 that were also up-regulated in cancerous tissue. Among these were genes associated with the synthesis of extracellullar matrix, genes involved in the TGF-beta signalling pathway, and genes that are likely transcribed by the tumour cells. These insights add to the complex picture emerging about the regulation of TIMPs in colorectal cancer. PMID:19383344

  3. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    difficult to understand for any standard supernova models. This situation is puzzling. Searches for 60Fe gamma rays have also produced only upper limits, corresponding to a limit of 1.7 M(sub)solar mass in the present interstellar medium. Given the usual assumption of steady state between production and decay, the current rate of synthesis of 60Fe is less than 1.7 M(sub)solar mass/2.2 m.y. It has been suggested that a neutron-rich NSE occurs in small regions in both Type Ia supernovae supernovae and in core-collapse supernovae [7]. Either type might eject significant quantities of 60Fe. If we know the frequency of a particular type of 60Fe-producing event in the past few million years, then we can limit the mean 60Fe mass ejected per event. We have M(sub)ej (60Fe) <= 8 x 10^-5/R(SN) M(sub)solar mass where R(sub)SN is the frequency of the supernovae that eject 60Fe, in number per century. Type Ia supernovae might eject roughly 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 60Fe [8], which is very close to this limit. References: [1] Leising M. D. and Share G. H. (1990) Astrophys. J., 357, 638. [2] Kurfess J. D. et al. (1992) Astrophys. J. Lett., 399, L137. [3] Clayton D. D. et al. (1993) Astrophys. J. Lett., submitted. [4] Nomoto K. et al. (1984) Astrophys. J., 286, 644. [5] Woosley S. E. (1988) Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust., 7, 355. [6] Leising M. D. and Share G. H. (1993) Astrophys. J., submitted. [7] Hartmann D. H. et al. (1985) Astrophys. J., 297, 837. [8] Woosley S. E. (1991) In Gamma-Ray Line Astrophysics (P. Durouchoux and N. Prantzos, eds.), 270-290, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 232, New York.

  4. Experimental studies of zonal flow and field in compact helical system plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Iguchi, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Ida, K.; Toi, K.; Takahashi, C.; Kojima, M.; Nishimura, S.; Isobe, M.; Suzuki, C.; Akiyama, T.; Ido, T.

    2008-05-15

    The experimental studies on zonal flows and turbulence have been carried out in Compact Helical System [K. Matsuoka, S. Kubo, M. Hosokawa et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Proc. 12th Int. Conf., Nice, 1988 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 411] using twin heavy ion beam probes. The paper presents the experimental observations of stationary zonal flow, nonlinear couplings between zonal flow and turbulence, and the role of zonal flow in the improved confinement, together with the recent discovery of zonal magnetic field. The presented experimental results strongly support the new paradigm that the plasma transport should be considered as a system of drift wave and zonal flows, and provides the first direct evidence for turbulence dynamo that the structured magnetic field can be really generated by turbulence.

  5. Interplay between low-energy optical phonon modes and structural transition in PrT2Zn20 (T=Ru and Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiya, K.; Onimaru, T.; Tsutsui, S.; Matsumoto, K. T.; Nagasawa, N.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Hasegawa, T.; Ogita, N.; Udagawa, M.; Takabatake, T.

    2015-03-01

    Atomic dynamics of PrT2Zn20 for T=Ru with a structural transition at Ts=138 K and T=Ir without such a transition have been studied by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements. The IXS spectra for T=Ru reveal an optical phonon excitation at 3 meV. We assign it to low-energy vibration of the Zn atom at the 16c site by taking account of the first principles calculation [Hasegawa et al. 2012 J. Phys.: Conf. Proc. 391 012016]. For T=Ir, on the other hand, the optical excitation at 3 meV was not observed. The contrasting results indicate that the low-energy optical phonon mode has a role in the structural transition in PrRu2Zn20 and isostructural La counterparts.

  6. An exploration of advanced X-divertor scenarios on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covele, B.; Valanju, P.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.

    2014-07-01

    It is found that the X-divertor (XD) configuration (Kotschenreuther et al 2004 Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Vilamoura, Portugal, 2004) (Vienna: IAEA) CD-ROM file [IC/P6-43] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/fec/fec2004/datasets/index.html, Kotschenreuther et al 2006 Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy 2006 (Chengdu, China, 2006) (Vienna: IAEA), CD-ROM file [IC/P7-12] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/FEC/FEC2006/html/index.htm, Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072502) can be made with the conventional poloidal field (PF) coil set on ITER (Tomabechi et al and Team 1991 Nucl. Fusion 31 1135), where all PF coils are outside the TF coils. Starting from the standard divertor, a sequence of desirable XD configurations are possible where the PF currents are below the present maximum design limits on ITER, and where the baseline divertor cassette is used. This opens the possibility that the XD could be tested and used to assist in high-power operation on ITER, but some further issues need examination. Note that the increased major radius of the super-X-divertor (Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 53 11, Valanju et al 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 5, Kotschenreuther et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 035003, Valanju et al 2010 Fusion Eng. Des. 85 46) is not a feature of the XD geometry. In addition, we present an XD configuration for K-DEMO (Kim et al 2013 Fusion Eng. Des. 88 123) to demonstrate that it is also possible to attain the XD configuration in advanced tokamak reactors with all PF coils outside the TF coils. The results given here for the XD are far more encouraging than recent calculations by Lackner and Zohm (2012 Fusion Sci. Technol. 63 43) for the Snowflake (Ryutov 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 064502, Ryutov et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 092501), where the required high PF currents represent a major technological challenge. The magnetic field structure in the outboard divertor SOL (Kotschenreuther 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102507) in the recently created

  7. A Half Century of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Using NASA's "OMNI" dataset, this work presents observations of the net magnetic helicity and the normalized helicity spectrum at 1 AU over the period 1965 - 2014. Past studies (1,2) reported that the helicity at large scales has a definite dominant sign organized with respect to the heliospheric current sheet, with negative helicities occurring north of the current sheet, and positive helicities south. The present study confirms this pattern and extends it by more than two solar cycles and past the most recent solar maximum. Particle scattering by turbulence with finite magnetic helicity is one of only two known particle transport mechanisms that are sensitive to particle charge sign and magnetic field polarity. Implications to cosmic ray transport will be discussed. References: (1) Bieber, Evenson, and Matthaeus, Geophys. Res. Lett. , Vol 14, p 864, 1987. (2) Smith and Bieber, Proc. 23rd Internat. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Calgary), Vol 3, p 493, 1993.

  8. Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX): First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Gagnard, Sam; Gathright, David; Gruen, Eberhard; James, David; Kempf, Sascha; Lankton, Mark; Srama, Ralf; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Szalay, Jamey

    2014-05-01

    The lunar dust environment is expected to be dominated by submicron-sized dust particles released from the Moon due to the continual bombardment by micrometeoroids, and possibly due to UV radiation and plasma-induced near-surface intense electric fields. The Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) instrument is designed to map the spatial and temporal variability of the dust size and density distributions in the lunar environment onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission [1, 2] orbiting the Moon since 10/6/2013. LDEX is an impact detector, capable of reliably detecting and measuring the mass of submicron and micron sized dust grains. LDEX also measures the collective currents from low-energy ions and from the impacts of dust grains that are below the detection threshold for single dust impacts; hence it can search for the putative population of grains with radii ~ 0.1 μm lofted over the terminator regions by plasma effects. This talk will summarize the preliminary analysis of the observations to date: 1) LDEX identified the dust ejecta cloud that is maintained by micrometeoroid bombardment. As predicted, the density of the dust ejecta cloud rapidly increases toward the surface, and it also shows strong temporal variability, most likely related to the stochastic nature of the meteoroid impacts. 2) LDEX, as of yet, has not confirmed the existence of levitated dust clouds. This puts strict new upper limits on the density of small lofted grains, especially during periods of low ion fluxes entering the instrument. [1] Elphic et al., Proc. Lunar. Sci. Conf. 44th, 1719 (2013) [2] Horanyi et al., Proc. Lunar. Sci. Conf. 43th, 1659 (2012).

  9. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2008-02-01

    Ongoing experimental efforts to detect cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos are guided by the expectation that astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray protons would also generate neutrinos through interactions with ambient matter and/or photons. However, there will be a reduction in the predicted neutrino flux if cosmic ray sources accelerate not only protons but also significant numbers of heavier nuclei, as is indicated by recent air shower data. We consider plausible extragalactic sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts and starburst galaxies and demand consistency with the observed cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum at Earth after allowing for propagation through intergalactic radiation fields. This allows us to calculate the expected neutrino fluxes from the sources, normalized to the observed cosmic ray spectrum. We find that the likely signals are still within reach of next generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.PACS95.85.Ry98.70.Rz98.54.Cm98.54.EpReferencesFor a review, see:F.HalzenD.HooperRep. Prog. Phys.6520021025A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.972006221101A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationAstropart. Phys.262006282arXiv:astro-ph/0611063arXiv:astro-ph/0702265V.NiessANTARES CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8672006217I.KravchenkoPhys. Rev. D732006082002S.W.BarwickANITA CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.962006171101V.Van ElewyckPierre Auger CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8092006187For a survey of possible sources and event rates in km3 detectors see e.g.,W.BednarekG.F.BurgioT.MontaruliNew Astron. Rev.4920051M.D.KistlerJ.F.BeacomPhys. Rev. D742006063007A. Kappes, J. Hinton, C. Stegmann, F.A. Aharonian, arXiv:astro-ph/0607286.A.LevinsonE.WaxmanPhys. Rev. Lett.872001171101C.DistefanoD.GuettaE.WaxmanA.LevinsonAstrophys. J.5752002378F.A.AharonianL.A.AnchordoquiD.KhangulyanT.MontaruliJ. Phys. Conf. Ser.392006408J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenAstrophys. J.5762002L33F.VissaniAstropart. Phys.262006310F.W

  10. Enhanced affordable methods for assessing material characteristics and consolidation effects on stone and mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2013-12-01

    It is rather difficult to set up non-destructive or considerate in situ tests for assessing material characteristics and consolidation effects on historic stone and mortar. However, some simple methods have proved to be helpful when applied appropriately and this paper provides brief information about two such methods: peeling tests, also known as the ‘Scotch tape’ method, and surface water uptake measurements using a digitized microtube. Both methods have some history of development and use Mora and Torraca (1965 Bollettino Istituto Centrale del Restauro (Rome) pp 109-32), Giorgi et al (2000 Stud. Conserv. 45 154-61), Tiano et al (2006 J. Cult. Heritage 7 49-55), Lehmann (2004 Thesis, Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Dresden pp 33-34), Drdácký et al (2011 Proc. European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation pp 126-30) and Zíma (2011 Proc. 49th Int. Scientific Conf. on Experimental Stress Analysis pp 441-8) without any standardized support. This lack of a validated procedure can lead to some deficiencies and misinterpretations for applying the peeling test. Also, in the case of the digitized micro-tube, there can be some difficulties when the device is applied, which could prevent its wider adoption or even lead to rejection of the micro-tube technique. The paper summarizes basic principles for the application of both methods and reports illustrative results for laboratory and historic building investigations.

  11. Reliability of Calderbank Shor Steane codes and security of quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Mitsuru

    2004-08-01

    After Mayers (1996 Advances in Cryptography: Proc. Crypto'96 pp 343-57 2001 J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 48 351-406) gave a proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard (1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) pp 175-9) (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Shor and Preskill (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441-4) made a remarkable observation that a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code had been implicitly used in the BB84 protocol, and suggested its security could be proved by bounding the fidelity, say Fn, of the incorporated CSS code of length n in the form 1-F_n \\le \\exp[-n E \\ {+}\\ o(n)] for some positive number E. This work presents such a number E = E(R) as a function of the rate of codes R, and a threshold R0 such that E(R) > 0 whenever R < R0, which is larger than the achievable rate based on the Gilbert-Varshamov bound that is essentially given by Shor and Preskill. The codes in the present work are robust against fluctuations of channel parameters, which fact is needed to establish the security rigorously and was not proved for rates above the Gilbert-Varshamov rate before in the literature. As a byproduct, the security of a modified BB84 protocol against any joint (coherent) attacks is proved quantitatively.

  12. Baryon-Baryon Interactions ---Nijmegen Extended-Soft-Core Models---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, T. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    options for the ESC-model. In particularly in ESC08 with single-sets of parameters excellent fits were obtained for the NN- and YN-data. For example, in the case of ESC08a'' we have: (i) For the selected 4233 NN-data with energies 0 ≤ T_{lab} ≤ 350 MeV, excellent results were obtained having chi(2/N_{data}) = 1.094. (ii) For the usual set of 35 YN-data and 3 Sigma(+p) cross-sections from a recent KEK-experiment E289 [H. Kanda et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 842 (2006), 501; H. Kanda, Measurement of the cross sections of Sigma(=p) elastic scattering, Ph. D. thesis, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, March 2007] the fit has chi(2}/YN_{data) ≈ 0.83. (iii) For YY there is a weak LambdaLambda-interaction, which successfully matches with t he Nagara-event [H. Takahashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001), 212502]. (iv) The nuclear Sigma and Xi well-dephts satisfy U_Sigma > 0 and U_Xi < 0. The predictions for the S = -2 (LambdaLambda, Xi N, LambdaSigma, SigmaSigma)-channels are the occurrences of an S = -2 bound states in the Xi N((3S_1-^3D_1,) I = 0,1)-channels.

  13. Rôle de l'hydrogène dans le procédé de purification du silicium par plasma thermique inductif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, J.; Morvan, D.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-03-01

    The use of the thermal process for purification of silicon led to a material with the chemical purity required for phototovoltaic applications. In this paper, the various properties of ArH2 plasma mixtures are briefly reviewed and the effect of hydrogen percentage in an argon plasma used for melting and purifying silicon is pointed out. Physico-chemical analysis of the purified silicon showed that hydrogen diffused in the material and could passivate crystal defects by formation of stable chemical bonds such as Si-H. La technique de purification du silicium sous plasma thermique permet d'aboutir à un matériau de pureté chimique requise pour l'industrie photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous soulignerons le rôle de l'hydrogène intervenant dans les propriétés du plasma en rappelant les caractéristiques des plasmas Ar-H2 utilisés pour fondre et purifier le silicium. Les caractéristiques physico-chimiques du silicium purifié montrent que l'hydrogène diffuse dans le matériau et est en mesure de cicatriser les défauts cristallins par formation de liaisons chimiques stables de type Si-H.

  14. SOIL QUALITY: INDICES AND APPRAISAL. PP. 67-72. PROC. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL, WATER, AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY – ISSUES AND STRATEGIES. NEW DELHI, INDIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils perform a number of essential functions that affect production of food and fiber, water quality, and air quality. Assessment tools are needed to determine the direction and rate of change in soil functions due to management practices. The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) is a non-li...

  15. Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.

  16. MONTE-CARLO Simulations ``QUANTUM''-``NOISE'' POWER-SPECTRUM 0 =(F =ma) =0 Uniform-Velocity Pareto/Red/Beethoven-Law VS 0 ≠(F =ma) ≠0 Uniform-Acceleration/Deceleration/Bremsstrahlung Archimedes-(Euclid-Descartes)-Zipf/Pink/Flicker/Bach-Law UNIVERSALITY INEVITABILITY!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, T. T. L.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Smith, Adolph

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics vs usual by-rote kinematics treatment/lack of understanding, via Siegel[AIP Shock-Physics Confs. Chicago(2011); Seattle(2013)] simple classical-mechanics/dynamics simple-insights]-Panofsky-Phillips[E&M (1960s)],of Monte Carlo[Kaplan et.al.[PRL 107, 201601 (11)]:'''Noise', Sign-Problems & Statistics'']-simulations' {Hamersley-Handscombe, Monte Carlo Methods, Methuen(64-75)}``noises'' power-spectra{SEMINAL Montroll [(60s-80s)}-Boccara[ ``Modeling'' ``Complex''-Sys.(02)-ch.-8/p.-311]-West et.al.[Physics of Fractal-Operators, Springer(00)]-Shlesinger-Lindenberg-Handel-van Vliet-Jonscher-Ngai-...-Siegel[Schrodinger Symp., Imperial-College (1987);Copenhagen-Onterp. 50-Yrs. After Como-Lect.,Symp.Fdns.Mod.Phys., Joensu(87)]}, in the light of Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtgs. Boston: Symp. Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!; Symp. Scaling(90); Symp.Transport in Geometric-Constraints(90)] power-law decay algebraicity vs. white/flat/functionless [analogous to Fokker-Planck-eqn. two-terms Dichotomy, relatively: static/non-diffusive vs diffusive!!!] but dimensionality-dependence: first-odd-integer Z vs. first-even-integer Z: 2-D bulk-region -area - dominated constant

  17. Erratum: “Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point” [AIP Advances 5, 077132 (2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-12-30

    In the original manuscript, M. H. Lee’s affiliation number was incorrectly listed as 1. M. H. Lee’s correct affiliation number is 2 (Rare Metals R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840, South Korea). Furthermore, this change affects no other part of the paper.

  18. The physics of spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    2000-05-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to ˜80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye et al., Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono et al., "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke et al., Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris et al., Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev et al., European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current

  19. Physics of Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2000-01-01

    Broad and important progress in plasma tests, theory, new experiments, and future visions of the spherical torus (ST, or very low aspect ratio tokamaks) have recently emerged. These have substantially improved our understanding of the potential properties of the ST plasmas, since the preliminary calculation of the ST magnetohydrodynamic equilibria more than a decade ago. Exciting data have been obtained from concept exploration level ST experiments of modest capabilities (with major radii up to 35 cm), making important scientific contributions to toroidal confinement in general. The results have helped approval and construction of new and/or more powerful ST experiments, and stimulated an increasing number of theoretical calculations of interest to magnetic fusion energy. Utilizing the broad knowledge base from the successful tokamak and advanced tokamak research, a wide range of new ST physics features has been suggested. These properties of the ST plasma will be tested at the 1 MA level with major radius up to similar to 80 cm in the new proof of principle devices National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, U.S.) [M. Peng , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 451 (1998); S. M. Kaye , Fusion Technol. 36, 16 (1999); M. Ono , "Exploration of Spherical Torus Physics in the NSTX Device," 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., paper IAEA-CN-69/ICP/01 (R), Yokohama, Japan (1998)], Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, U.K.) [A. C. Darke , Fusion Technol. 1, 799 (1995); Q. W. Morris , Proc. Int. Workshop on ST (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 290], and Globus-M (R.F.) [V. K. Gusev , European Conf. Abst. 22C, 576 (1998)], which have just started full experimental operation. New concept exploration experiments, such as Pegasus (University of Wisconsin) [R. Fonck and the PEGASUS Team, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 267 (1999)], Helicity Injected Tokamak-II (HIT-II, University of Washington) [T. R. Jarboe , Phys. Plasmas 5, 1807 (1998)], and Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX

  20. Two-stage approach for detection and reduction of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic data.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Rajet; Natarajan, Balasubramaniam Bala; Warren, Steve

    2010-08-01

    Corruption of photopleythysmograms (PPGs) by motion artifacts has been a serious obstacle to the reliable use of pulse oximeters for real-time, continuous state-of-health monitoring. In this paper, we propose an automated, two-stage PPG data processing method to minimize the effects of motion artifacts. The technique is based on our prior work related to motion artifact detection (stage 1) [R. Krishnan, B. Natarajan, and S. Warren, "Analysis and detection of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic data using higher order statistics,'' in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. (ICASSP 2008), Las Vegas, Nevada, Apr. 2008, pp. 613-616] and motion artifact reduction (stage 2) [R. Krishnan, B. Natarajan, and S. Warren, "Motion artifact reduction in photoplethysmography using magnitude-based frequency domain independent component analysis,'' in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Comput. Commun. Network, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, Aug. 2008, pp. 1-5]. Regarding stage 1, we present novel and consistent techniques to detect the presence of motion artifact in PPGs given higher order statistical information present in the data. We analyze these data in the time and frequency domains (FDs) and identify metrics to distinguish between clean and motion-corrupted data. A Neyman-Pearson detection rule is formulated for each of the metrics. Furthermore, by treating each of the metrics as observations from independent sensors, we employ hard fusion and soft fusion techniques presented in [Z. Chair and P. Varshney, "Optimal data fusion in multiple sensor detection systems,'' IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98-101, Jan. 1986] and [C. C. Lee and J. J. Chao, "Optimum local decision space partitioning for distributed detection,'' IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 536-544, Jul. 1989], respectively, in order to fuse individual decisions into a global system decision. For stage two, we propose a motion artifact reduction method

  1. Searching for Indigenous Noble Gases in the Moon: Vacuum Crushing of Vesicular Basalt 15016 and Stepwise Heating of Anorthosites 60025, 60215 and 65315 Aliquots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, D. V.; Avice, G.; Marty, B.; Gudipati, M. S.; Henderson, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    theses samples and primordial U-Xe [4], inferred on theoretical ground to be the precursor of atmospheric Xe but never clearly identified. [1] Lightner and Marti (1974) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 5th, [2] Niemeyer and Leich (1976) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 7th, [3] Niedermann and Eugster (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, [4] Pepin (2000) Space Sci. Rev.

  2. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  3. IEC-^3He Breeder for D-^3He Satellite Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, L.; Miley, G. H.

    1996-11-01

    D-^3He fusion minimizes neutrons and maximizes charged fusion products, enabling increased energy recovery efficiency by direct conversion. However, scarce ^3He terrestrial resources have deterred R&D on this alternative. Here, we explore ^3He production through Inertial Electrostatic Confinement^1 (IEC) D-breeders, which supply ^3He to FRC D-^3He satellite reactors.^2 Favorable features for the IEC breeder include simplicity, low cost, easy extraction of fusion products, and compatibility with direct conversion. The breeder-satellite system energy balance is analyzed taking the net energy gain of the overall system, Q_N, as the figure of merit. Breeding is applicable for systems where the satellite Q-value, Q_S, > the breeder Q-value, Q_B. For improved performance, i.e., for high Q_N, QS >= QB >> 1 is needed; however, lower QB values (typical of the IEC) are permissible and still offer sufficient Q_N. An economic study determined breeding produces ^3He at a cost comparable to lunar ^3He, already shown to lead to competitive power.^3 The cost of electricity (COE) for the breeder-satellite complex was compared with the ARTEMIS COE,^4 using lunar ^3He fuel: assuming one satellite (1000 MWe)/breeder (170 MWe), the ratio of the breeding system COE to the lunar mining base COE is ~ 1.2. However, economic breeding is driven by large IEC breeder powers, i.e., increased ^3He breeding rates. Thus, the COE ratio approaches unity with two or three satellites/breeder, requiring increased breeder size and power (340 MWe for 2 satellites, 510 MWe for 3 satellites). Such systems potentially provide a ``bridge'' to a future lunar ^3He economy. 1. G.H. Miley et al., Dense Z-pinches, AIP Conf. 299, AIP Press, 675-689 (1994). 2. G.H. Miley, Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A271, 197-202 (1988). 3. L.J. Wittenberg et al., Fusion Technol., 10, 167-178 (1986). 4. H. Momota et al., Fusion Technol., 21, 2307-2323 (1992).

  4. Power deposition in the JET divertor during ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, S.; Chankin, A.; Ciric, D.; Coad, J. P.; Falter, J.; Gauthier, E.; Lingertat, J.; Puppin, S.

    The power deposited in the JET divertor during ELMs has been evaluated using an infrared camera specifically designed for fast measurements. The first results [E. Gauthier, A. Charkin, S. Clement et al., Proc. 24th Euro. conf. on contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Berchtesgaden, 1997 (European Physical Society, 1998), vol. 21A, p. 61.] indicated that during type I ELMs, surface temperatures in excess of 2000°C were measured, leading to peak power fluxes in the order of 4 GW/m 2. The time integrated power flux exceeded the measured plasma energy loss per ELM by a factor of four. The reasons for this discrepancy are studied in this paper. Redeposited carbon layers of up to 40 μm have been found on the divertor surface in the places where the highest temperatures are measured. The impact of such layers on the power flux evaluation has been studied with numerical calculations, and a controlled simulation of ELM heating has been performed in the JET neutral beam test facility. It is found that neglecting the existence of layers on the surface in a 2D calculation can lead to overestimating the power by a factor of 3, whereas the error in the calculation of the energy is much smaller. An energy based calculation reduces the peak power during type I ELMs to values around 1.2 GW/m 2.

  5. Transverse quantum Stern-Gerlach magnets for electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Scot; Bach, Roger; Batelaan, Herman

    2011-06-01

    In the Stern-Gerlach experiment, silver atoms were separated according to their spin state (Gerlach and Stern 1922 Z. Phys. 9 353-355). This experiment demonstrates the quantization of spin and relies on the classical description of motion. However, so far, no design has led to a functional Stern-Gerlach magnet for free electrons. Bohr and Pauli showed in the 1930 Solvay conference that Stern-Gerlach magnets for electrons cannot work, at least if the design is based on classical trajectories (Pauli W 1932 Proc. of the 6th Solvay Conf. 2 (1930) (Brussels: Gauthier-Villars) pp 183-86, 217-20, 275-80 Pauli W 1964 Collected Scientific Papers ed R Kronig and V F Weiskopf, vol 2 (New York: Wiley)). Here, we present ideas for the realization of a Stern-Gerlach magnet for electrons in which spin and motion are treated fully quantum mechanically. We show that a magnetic phase grating composed of a regular array of microscopic current loops can separate electron diffraction peaks according to their spin states. The experimental feasibility of a diffractive approach is compared to that of an interferometric approach. We show that an interferometric arrangement with magnetic phase control is the functional equivalent of an electron Stern-Gerlach magnet.

  6. Multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging of wire array and gas puff Z pinches on the Z and Saturn pulsed power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Nielsen, D. S.; Jones, M. C.; Deeney, C.; Serrano, J. D.; Nielsen-Weber, L. B.; Meyer, C. J.; Apruzese, J. P.; Clark, R. W.; Coleman, P. L.

    2008-10-15

    A multicolor, time-gated, soft x-ray pinhole imaging instrument is fielded as part of the core diagnostic set on the 25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage et al., in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. 979] for studying intense wire array and gas puff Z-pinch soft x-ray sources. Pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror, passing 277 eV photons with <10 eV bandwidth. An adjacent pinhole camera uses filtration alone to view 1-10 keV photons simultaneously. Overlaying these data provides composite images that contain both spectral as well as spatial information, allowing for the study of radiation production in dense Z-pinch plasmas. Cu wire arrays at 20 MA on Z show the implosion of a colder cloud of material onto a hot dense core where K-shell photons are excited. A 528 eV imaging configuration has been developed on the 8 MA Saturn generator [R. B. Spielman et al., and A. I. P. Conf, Proc. 195, 3 (1989)] for imaging a bright Li-like Ar L-shell line. Ar gas puff Z pinches show an intense K-shell emission from a zippering stagnation front with L-shell emission dominating as the plasma cools.

  7. TRAK_RF - Electromagnetic Field and Charged Particle Simulations in RF Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Stanley; Rees, Daniel

    1997-05-01

    An integrated software system has been developed to model electromagnetic fields and charged particle orbits in high-power RF devices. The primary application is simulation of electron multipactoring in linac vacuum windows for Accelerator Production of Tritium(G. Lawrence, et.al., Conventional and Superconducting RF Linac Design for the APT Project, in Proc. 1996 Int'l. Linear Acc. Conf. (Geneva, 1996), to be published.). The finite-element frequency-domain field solver can determine resonant fields such as cutoff and propagating modes of waveguides and TE(mnp) and TM(mnp) modes of cylindrical structures. In contrast to codes like Superfish, TRAK_RF makes direct determinations of power dissipation and phase shifts resulting ffrom lossy materials and walls. Furthermore, the program can handle scattering solutions, simulating free-space conditions with resistive termination boundary layers. TRAK_RF has advanced particle tracking capabilities to investigate a variety of innovative window designs. The program can simutaneously apply three numerical solutions for electrostatic, magnetostatic and electromagnetic fields on independent conformal triangular meshes. The finite-element method allows an unambiguous determination of particle collisions with material surfaces. It is possible to define up to 32 material types with energy-dependent secondary emission coefficients. TRAK_RF has a versatile automatic mesh generator with an interactive drafting utility for boundary input. Other applications include cavity design, radar and communications, microwave systems, and beam optics in RF accelerators.

  8. Variability and Mode Lifetimes in K Giants: Time-frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Heather L.; Buzasi, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    During the period 1999 - 2007, the WIRE spacecraft was the first space-based asteroseismology mission (Buzasi 2002, ASP Conf. Proc. 259, 616). Here we report on the final processing and analysis of WIRE observations of 23 K giant stars. Processing was extended beyond the basic pipeline (Bruntt & Buzasi 2006, Mem. Soc. Ast. Italiana 77, 278) to include filtering the time series based on a granulation and activity model fit in Fourier space. The resulting power spectra were analyzed in a consistent manner to locate the region of peak power and to determine the large separation, as well as to identify major peaks. In addition, we have introduced the use of time-frequency analysis to examine mode lifetimes and variability. Current space missions such as COROT and Kepler are making this a golden age for asteroseismology, and these would seem to have rendered the WIRE data set largely obsolete. However, these data can still serve as a testbed for analysis techniques. Even more significantly, since all WIRE targets were brighter than m = 5, ground-based followup can be performed in a way which is impossible for the much fainter targets of the newer missions.

  9. SOL Properties of HHFW Electron Heating Generated H-modes in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosea, Joel; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Leblanc, B. P.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    In neutral beam generated H-modes, it has been shown that high harmonic fast wave power lost to the divertor regions flows along the magnetic field lines passing in front of the antenna [1]. Here we extend this power flow study to the case of HHFW generated H-modes [2]. Using the field strike point spiral from the Spiral code as a guide (Langmuir probe characteristics near the outer vessel strike radius are used to specify the best equilibrium for the code), it is found that for comparable launched RF powers the power loss in the outer scrape off layer (SOL) is generally much less for the HHFW generated H-mode case. Also, much of the heating in the lower divertor region is at/near the outer vessel strike radius as expected for low RF power loss in the SOL. The dependence of the loss at the outer vessel strike radius on the possible presence of ETG turbulence will be discussed.[4pt] [1] R. Perkins et al., to be published in Phys Rev Letters.[0pt] [2] J. Hosea et al, EPS Conf. Proc. (Strasbourg 2011) paper P2-098.

  10. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Lower Hybrid Current Drive in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Kessel, C. E.; Jardin, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    It has been shown in Alcator C-Mod that the onset time for sawteeth can be delayed significantly (up to 0.5 s) relative to ohmically heated plasmas, through the injection of off-axis LH current drive power [1]. We are simulating these experiments using the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) [2], where the driven LH current density profiles are computed using a ray tracing component (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck code (CQL3D) [3] that are run in a tightly coupled time advance. The background plasma is evolved using the TSC transport code with the Porcelli sawtooth model [4]. Predictions of the driven LH current profiles will be compared with simpler ``reduced'' models for LHCD such as the LSC code which is implemented in TSC and which is also invoked within the IPS. [4pt] [1] C. E. Kessel et al, Bull. of the Am. Phys. Soc. 53, Poster PP6.00074 (2008). [0pt] [2] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008). [0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992). [0pt] [4] S. C. Jardin et al, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).

  11. Designing an RF thruster booster unit with TOPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe; Maggiora, Riccardo

    2007-11-01

    Electromagnetic (RF) plasma-based propulsion systems have gained increasing interest, as able to yield continuous thrust and controllable and wide-ranging exhaust velocities. An RF plasma thruster essentially features a plasma source, a booster unit and a magnetic nozzle. The usual choice for the booster is the ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), a well-established technology in fusion experiments to convey RF powers to magnetized plasmas. To help design the booster unit, TOPICA was extended to deal with magnetized cylindrical inhomogeneous plasmas [1]. The latter required a new module in charge of solving Maxwell's equations within the plasma to obtain the pertinent Green's function in the Fourier domain, i.e. the relation between the transverse magnetic and electric fields at the air-plasma interface. Calculating the antenna impedance---and hence the plasma loading---relies on an integral-equation formulation and subsequent finite-element weighted-residual scheme to evaluate the current density distribution on the conducting bodies and at the air-plasma interface. In this work the design of an ICRH stage with TOPICA is discussed. [1] V. Lancellotti et al. (2007) Proc. Joint Propulsion Conf. AIAA-2007-5129

  12. Solutions and Objectives of the Ignitor Program^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Coppi, B.

    2007-04-01

    The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment^1 is to establish the ``plasma reactor physics'' in regimes close to ignition, as required for realistic and economical reactors, where the ``thermonuclear instability'' can set in with all its associated non-linear effects. Reactor relevant plasma regimes require^2 Q > 50 . The only appropriate technological solution at this time to reach this objective is the adoption of normal-conducting magnets. Furthermore, experiments without a divertor chamber can sustain, for equal overall sizes and magnetic field values, higher currents and therefore achieve better confinement parameters^2. In fact, Ignitor can operate with both an ``extended first wall'' configuration and double X-points on the first wall and lower currents to access H-mode regimes. Since the process of attaining ignition has been investigated extensively^1, a special effort has been devoted to identify the conditions where the thermonuclear instability is barely prevented over the entire length of the current pulse. While tritium is the necessary step forward of any advanced fusion facility, Ignitor can provide novel and important results even when limited to operate with H, D, and He plasmas in the early phase of its experimental life. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.B. Coppi, et al., Nucl. Fusion 41(9), 1253 (2001) P.H. Rebut, Proc. 33rd EPS Conf. Plasma Phys., Rome (Italy), 2006

  13. Gas-Phase Photoionization Of A Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljevic, A. R.; Giuliani, A.; Nicolas, C.; Gil, J.-F.; Lemaire, J.; Refregiers, M.; Nahon, L.

    2010-07-01

    We present preliminary results on gas phase photoionization of electrosprayproduced multiply protonated cytochrome c protein (104 amino acids; ˜12.4 kDa), which has been achieved with a newly developed experimental system for spectroscopy of electrosprayed ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap using a monochromatized vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and tandem mass spectrometry method. The investigation of proteins in the gas phase, where they are free of the influence of counterions and solvent molecules, offer a possibility to understand their intrinsic molecular properties. However, due to limited both ion densities and available number of photons, the use of synchrotron radiation for the trapped ions spectroscopy is a rather challenging task. The feasibility of coupling a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance ion trap with soft x-ray synchrotron beamline and the first successful use of synchrotron radiation for spectroscopy of electrosprayed negative ions stored in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap have been demonstrated only recently (R. Thissen et al., 2008, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 223001; A. Giulliani et al., Proc. 57th ASMS Conf., Philadelphia, 2009). The present results are the first reported on photoionization of kDa species in the gas phase and are valuable regarding both a fundamental interest of accessing physical properties of large biological ions isolated in vacuo and potential development of a new technique for proteomics.

  14. Unifying Paschen Curve Conditions across Pressure and Gap Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Amanda; Garner, Allen; Valfells, Agust

    2015-11-01

    The Paschen curve (PC) predicts the breakdown voltage of a gas by relating it to the product of pressure and gap distance (pd). Recent experiments deviate from the PC for microscale gaps at low pd. A scaling law incorporating field emission-driven breakdown and field enhancement to the macroscale Paschen law yields more accurate predictions for microscale gaps (A. Venkattraman and A. A. Alexeenko, Phys. Plasmas 19, 123515 (2012).). While many studies consider low pd, deviations from the PC also arise at high pd, as demonstrated for gap distances between 0.0508 and 0.254 cm and pressures between 96.5 and 6900 kPa (W. J. Carey, A. J. Wiebe, R. D. Nord, and L. L. Altgilbers, in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., 2011, pp. 741-744). High pd values are relevant for ongoing high voltage plasma experiments for food treatment and combustion. We attempt to elucidate the impact of large gap distances (~ 5 cm) and higher pressures (~ 200-300 kPa) on these deviations by connecting recent work at low pd to high pd by assessing scaling laws, analyzing field emission models, and using particle-in-cell codes. Implications on experimental design will be discussed, and the development of a universal Paschen curve will be explored.

  15. Search for cosmogenic Ar-42 in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Cane, D.; Taricco, C.; Bhandari, N.

    2003-04-01

    We have evidence for decreasing galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux in the past 3 centuries by a factor about two [1]. The measurements of the activity of cosmogenic 44Ti (T1/2 = 59.2 y) produced by GCR in stony meteorites that fell during the last two centuries are in good agreement with the calculated values and validate the decreasing trend of GCR flux. The measurements were obtained by an hyperpure (372 cm3) Ge-NaI(Tl) spectrometer operating in the Monte dei Cappuccini laboratory in Torino[2]. To further improve upon statistical precision of 44Ti data and also to be able to measure the 42Ar (T1/2 = 33 y) which is produced in even smaller amounts by GCR in meteorites, we have set up in the same laboratory a larger (581 cm3) hyperpure Ge detector operating in coincidence with a 100 kg NaI(Tl) crystal assembly. This should enable us to confirm the above results about GCR variations. We wish to acknowledge our deep gratitude to professor Bonino, deceased on September 29, 2002, to whom the assemblage of the new equipment is due. [1] G. Bonino, G. Cini Castagnoli, D. Cane, C. Taricco and N. Bhandari,Proc. XXVII Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg, 2001) 3769-3772. [2] Bonino G., Cini Castagnoli G., Cane D., Taricco C., Bhandari N, textit {34th COSPAR Sci. Ass. Houston 2002 (Adv. Space Res.)}, in press

  16. Universal asymptotical behaviour of poloidal spectra of resonant magnetic perturbations created by a set of saddle coils in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    Universal asymptotical behaviour of poloidal spectra of resonant magnetic perturbations created by a set of saddle coils in tokamak plasmas is studied in a vacuum approximation. It is shown that the poloidal mode spectra for a given toroidal mode can be presented by a linear combination of three universal asymptotical formulae corresponding to horizontal and vertical segments of a set of saddle coils. Each of the asymptotical formulae depends only on the safety factor of the equilibrium plasma and the geometry of the perturbation coils. The validity of the universal formulae is confirmed by numerical computations of the poloidal mode spectra for typical plasmas with large and small inverse aspect ratios, DIII-D-like plasmas with internal (I-) coils (Jackson et al 2003 Proc. 30th EPS Conf. on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (St Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003) vol 27A (ECA) P-4.47) and spherical NSTX-like plasmas with error field coils (Gates et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 104016).

  17. Numerical analysis of JET discharges with the European Transport Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalupin, D.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Ferreira, J.; Coster, D.; Alves, L. L.; Aniel, Th.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bizarro, Joãs P. S.; Coelho, R.; Czarnecka, A.; Huynh, Ph.; Figueiredo, A.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Imbeaux, F.; Köchl, F.; Nave, M. F.; Pereverzev, G.; Sauter, O.; Scott, B. D.; Stankiewicz, R.; Strand, P.; contributors, ITM-TF; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-12-01

    The ‘European Transport Simulator’ (ETS) (Coster et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38 2085-92, Kalupin et al 2011 Proc. 38th EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (Strasbourg, France, 2011) vol 35G (ECA) P. 4.111) is the new modular package for 1D discharge evolution developed within the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) Task Force. It consists of precompiled physics modules combined into a workflow through standardized input/output data structures. Ultimately, the ETS will allow for an entire discharge simulation from the start up until the current termination phase, including controllers and sub-systems. The paper presents the current status of the ETS towards this ultimate goal. It discusses the design of the workflow, the validation and verification of its components on the example of impurity solver and demonstrates a proof-of-principles coupling of a local gyrofluid model for turbulent transport to the ETS. It also presents the first results on the application of the ETS to JET tokamak discharges with the ITER like wall. It studies the correlations of the radiation from impurity to the choice of the sources and transport coefficients.

  18. Study on the Feasibility of Direct Fusion Energy Conversion for Deep-Space Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Miley, George H.; Scott, John H.

    2012-10-01

    A significant change in the current space mission capabilities can be achieved with a highly efficient integration of a fusion energy source with an advanced space propulsion thruster, both with low specific mass. With aneutronic nuclear fusion as the high-density primary energy source, this study considers first electric energy extraction from the fusion reaction products via direct energy conversion to recirculate power as required for the operation of the fusion core. Then the beam of remaining reaction products is conditioned to achieve the optimal thrust and specific impulse for the mission. The research is specifically focused on two key issues: (i) Efficiency improvement of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) by achieving a higher ion beam density and optimization of the electrode coupling and of the neutralizing electron flow. (ii) A fast-particle kinetic energy-to-thrust conversion process based on collective interaction between ion bunches well separated in space [2]. Computer simulation results and a design for a basic physics experiment currently under development are reported. [4pt] [1] H. Momota et al., Fus. Tech., 35, 60(1999)[0pt] [2] A. G. Tarditi et al. Proc. NETS 2012 Conf., Woodlands, TX (2012)

  19. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  20. Carbon flows in attached divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, R.C.; Brooks, N.H.; West, W.P.; Porter, G.D. |; The DIII-D Divertor Team

    1999-05-01

    Parallel flow velocities of carbon ions in the DIII-D divertor [J. Luxon {ital et al.}, {ital Plasma Physics Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research}, 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159; S. L. Allen {ital et al.}, {ital Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics}, 1987 (Proc. 24th European Conf. Berchtesgaden, 1997), Vol. 21 A, Part III, p. 1129] have been studied under various operating conditions: L-mode (low-confinement mode), H-mode (high-confinement mode) with low-frequency ELMs (edge-localized modes), and H-mode with high-frequency ELMs. Both normal and reversed flows (toward the target plate and away from the target plate, respectively) are observed under all conditions, with the reversed speeds being as much as a factor of four greater than normal speeds. Magnitudes are approximately the same for L-mode and H-mode operation with high-frequency ELMs. In H-mode conditions with low-frequency ELMs, normal velocities are frequently observed to decline while reversed velocities increase in comparison to the other two conditions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Compatibility of the Radiating Divertor with High Performance Plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T W; Wade, M R; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Hyatt, A W; Isler, R C; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Mahdavi, M A; Porter, G D; Schaffer, M J; Watkins, J G; West, W P

    2006-05-18

    A radiating divertor approach was successfully applied to high performance 'hybrid' plasmas [M.R. Wade, et al., Proc. 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., Vilamoura, (2004)]. Our technique included: (1) injecting argon near the outer divertor target, (2) enhancing the plasma flow into the inner and outer divertors by a combination of particle pumping and deuterium gas puffing upstream of the divertor targets, and (3) isolating the inner divertor from the outer by a structure in the private flux region. Good hybrid conditions were maintained, as the peak heat flux at the outer divertor target was reduced by a factor of 2.5; the peak heat flux at the inner target decreased by 20%. This difference was caused by a higher concentration of argon at the outer target than at the inner target. Argon accumulation in the main plasma was modest (n{sub AR}/n{sub e} {le}0.004 on axis), although the argon profile was more peaked than the electron profile.

  2. Material Modeling and Springback Prediction of Ultra Thin Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rahul K.; Murakoso, Satoko; Chung, Kwansoo; Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2010-06-01

    The constitutive model with combined isotropic-kinematic hardening along with hardening stagnation (or permanent softening) [Verma, Kuwabara, Chung, Haldar: Int. J. Plasticity (submitted)] was used here for modeling the tension-compression behaviors of a 0.1 mm thick austenitic stainless steel sheet (SUS304), which was observed in a recent work [Kuwabara and Murakoso: Proc. CIRP 2010 Conf. (submitted)]. Springback was also experimentally measured for a shallow drawn rectangular cup here and it was verified using the above model. It was found that this model can successfully predict the Bauschinger effect and hardening stagnation. As for springback, it was found that in this particular case it depends on, other than the material model, factors like boundary conditions, in the finite element analysis (FEA), during unloading. It was also observed that incorporation of the Bauschinger effect and permanent softening is a key for accurate springback prediction and, therefore, the present model performs better than the one which is based only on isotropic hardening without any hardening stagnation.

  3. 3-D model of beam kicker in DARHT-2 accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Carsten; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    The DARHT-2 beamline uses a fast stripline kicker developed at LLNL [1] to create a series of short pulses out of a 2 microsecond pulse for use in high resolution x-ray radiography. Normally, a static bias dipole bends the 2 kA, 18 MeV electron beam off axis into a dump. When the fast stripline kicker is activated, the static dipole kick is cancelled by the dynamic dipole field of the kicker, and the beam travels to the x-ray converter. 3-D PIC simulations are performed to compute the effect of the kicker on the beam. The calculations incorporate the kicker biplate conductor geometry, allowing for accurate modeling of the effects of higher multipole fields as well as beam wakefield effects. Beam emittance growth through the kicker is investigated for various beam loads. [1] B.R. Poole and Y.-J. Chen, "Particle Simulations of DARHT-2 Transport System", Proc. PAC 2001 Conference (http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/p01/PAPERS/RPPH034.PDF).

  4. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  5. Kinetic Modelling of Parallel Electron Transport in TdeV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.; Stansfield, B.; Batishchev, O.; Batishcheva, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Sigmar

    1996-11-01

    The 1D2V Fokker-Planck code ALLA [1] is used to model parallel electron transport in the SOL of TdeV. Our model uses detached and attached experimental data [2] given by Langmuir probes, Li ablation and He spectroscopy. We obtain the electron distribution function on a precise 257x65x60 non-uniform grid. Strong deviations of hydrogen and carbon excitation rates, and heat conduction coefficient from their Maxwellian values are shown. We compare the calculated variation of the effective temperature at the reciprocating probe position with experimental measurements. We also explain by non-local effects why different experimental techniques show differences in the electron temperature. altaffiltext [1] A.A.Batishcheva et al., Physics of Plasmas 3 (1996) 1634 altaffiltext [2] B.L.Stansfield et al., Proc. 22 Eur.Conf., Bornemouth, 19C pIII-101. *Supported by Government of Canada, Hydro-Québec and INRS. Work performed under USDoE contracts DE-FG02-91-ER-54109 at MIT and DE-FG02-88-ER-53263 at Lodestar.

  6. A High-Power RF-Focusing CW Electron LINAC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobenin, N. P.; Kostin, D. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Trower, W. P.

    1997-05-01

    Using a biperiodic accelerating structure with rectangular cavities in a high-power Continuous Wave electron LINear ACcelerator simplifies accelerator construction and reduces beam losses. By optimizing the beam aperture and coupling slots, we have obtained high focusing gradients, shunt impedances (N.P. Sobenin, V.N. Kandurin, A.I. Karev, V.N. Melekhin, V.I. Shvedunov, and W.P. Trower, in Proc. 1995 Particle Accelerator Conf., L. Gennari ed. (IEEE, Piscataway,1996) v. 3, p. 1827.), and couplings (around 20 percent). By successively rotating six rectangular accelerating cavity sections through 90^o about the beam axis and separating the sections by axially symmetric cavities which serve as drift spaces, we obtain focusing similar to that of a quadrupole magnets system. We find that a 500 mA beam accelerated from 2 to 10 MeV in a 4 m structure suffers negligible beam losses. A similar axially symmetric structure without external focusing begins losing substantial beam at around 100 mA.

  7. EFFECT OF SITE ON BACTERIAL POPULATIONS IN THE SAPWOOD OF COARSE WOODY DEBRIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Emma, G.,; Waldrop, Thomas, A.; McElreath, Susan, D.; Tainter, Frank, H.

    1998-01-01

    Porter, Emma G., T.A. Waldrop, Susan D. McElreath, and Frank H. Tainter. 1998. Effect of site on bacterial populations in the sapwood of coarse woody debris. Pp. 480-484. In: Proc. 9th Bienn. South. Silv. Res. Conf. T.A. Waldrop (ed). USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-20. Abstract: Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southeastern forest ecosystems, yet little is known about its dynamics in these systems. This project identified bacterial populations associated with CWD and their dynamics across landscape ecosystem classification (LEC) units. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three hydric, mesic, and xeric sites at the Savannah River Station. After the controls were processed, samples were taken at four intervals over a 16-week period. Samples were ground within an anaerobe chamber using nonselective media. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identified using the Biolog system and the anaerobes were identified using the API 20A system. Major genera isolated were: Bacillus, Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Xanthomonas. The mean total isolates were determined by LEC units and sample intervals. Differences occurred between the sample intervals with total isolates of 6.67, 13.33, 10.17, and 9.50 at 3, 6, 10, and 16 weeks, respectively. No significant differences in the numbers of bacteria isolated were found between LEC units.

  8. Optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution without quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, Aurélien; Alléaume, Romain; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    We consider the security of the BB84 (Bennett and Brassard 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing pp 175-9), six-state (Bruß 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.3018) and SARG04 (Scarani et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.057901) quantum key distribution protocols when the eavesdropper does not have access to a quantum memory. In this case, Eve’s most general strategy is to measure her ancilla with an appropriate positive operator-valued measure designed to take advantage of the post-measurement information that will be released during the sifting phase of the protocol. After an optimization on all the parameters accessible to Eve, our method provides us with new bounds for the security of six-state and SARG04 against a memoryless adversary. In particular, for the six-state protocol we show that the maximum quantum bit error ratio for which a secure key can be extracted is increased from 12.6% (for collective attacks) to 20.4% with the memoryless assumption.

  9. Simulated Desorption of Aluminum and Oxide Covered Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvajian, Henry

    1998-03-01

    There is evidence that laser or electron stimulated nonthermal desorption from aluminum can proceed through plasmon excitation processes. Arakawa et al. observed this phenomenon with Al films and Kim et al. observed it with direct laser irradiation. (E.T. Arakawa, I. Lee and T.A. Callcott in Laser Ablation, J.C. Miller and R.F. Haglund Eds., Springer-Verlag, NY, 82 (1991).; H. S. Kim and H. Helvjian, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6623 (1991).) Dreyfus et al. found nonthermal Al neutral species from laser irradiation of Al_2O_3, Schildbach et al. measured nonthermal Al ions from a well characterized sapphire (1120) sample, and Pedraza et al. showed that for laser irradiation of both alumina and sapphire there is a change in the degree of oxidation of the surface Al.(R.W. Dreyfus, R. Kelly and R.E. Walkup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1478 (1986);M.A. Schildbach and A.V. Hamza, Phys. Rev. B. 45, 6197 (1992); Pedraza et al., AIP Proc., Vol. 288 (1993) pg. 329.) These experiments show that oxygen on Al does not quench the nonthermal desorption. We will present measurements of the Al yield and K. E. w.r.t. oxygen coverage and laser fluence. This stimulated desorption work has environmental relevance to the storage of oxidized Al clad nuclear fuel rods.

  10. Creating and Sustaining University-Community Partnerships in Science Education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, N.

    2009-12-01

    Despite years of research and investment, we have yet to see the widespread implementation of a myriad research-proven instructional strategies in STEM education[1]. To address this challenge, we present and analyze one such strategy, a theoretically-grounded model of university-community partnership [2] that engages university students and children in a collective enterprise that has the potential to improve the participation and education of all. We document the impact of this effort on: university participants who learn about education, the community and science; children in the community who learn about science, the nature of science and develop their identities and attitudes towards science; and, shifts in institutional structures which may allow these programs to be part of standard practice. This project is designed to be sustained and scaled, and is analyzed through the application of a new framework [3] which brings together theories of STEM change that come from studies in higher education, faculty development and disciplinary-based education research in STEM. [1] National Research Council. (2003). Improving Undergraduate Instruction in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Report of A Workshop. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. [2] Finkelstein, N. and Mayhew, L. (2008). Acting in Our Own Self-Interest: Blending University and Community. Proceedings of the 2008 Physics Education Research Conf, AIP Press. Melville NY, 1064, 19-22. [3] Henderson, C., Finkelstein, N. & Beach A. (to appear). Beyond Dissemination in College science teaching: An Introduction to Four Core Change Strategies. Accepted May 2009 in Journal of College Science Teaching.

  11. Porphyrins and Porphyria Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ... Alliance Healthcare Professionals AIP, HCP, VP & ADP EPP PCT Drug Safety in Acute Porphyrias Emergency Room Guidelines ...

  12. Amélioration des performances du procédé de soudage TIG sur un acier au carbone et un alliage d'aluminium par dépôt de silice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, Stéphane; Marya, Surendar

    This Note presents ways to improve the weld penetration potential of TIG process by optimising silica application around the joints in a plain carbon steel and an aluminium alloy 5086. Whereas for plain carbon steels, full coverage of joint improves penetration, the presence of a blank zone around the joint in the flux coating on aluminium 5086 using AC-TIG seems to be the best solution for cosmetic and deep welds. To cite this article: S. Sire, S. Marya, C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 83-89.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of thin films prepared by spin coating a dispersion of nano-sized tin-doped indium oxide particlesThis paper was presented at the BioMEMS and Smart Nanostructures SPIE Conf. (Adelaide, 2001).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, Jesper; Hultåker, Annette; Heszler, Peter; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.; van Doorn, Arie; van Haag, Chris; Jongerius, Michel J.; Burgard, Detlef

    2002-10-01

    Thin films were made by spinning a dispersion of tin-doped indium oxide particles, having an average diameter of 14 nm, onto glass substrates. As-deposited thin films displayed a resistivity ρ of 0.3 Ω m and some optical absorption. Annealing in vacuum at 200-400̂C for 2 h, and subsequently in air at 500̂C for 2 h, produced films with ρ ≈ 10-3 Ω m and a visible transmittance exceeding 90%. Leaving out the vacuum treatment yielded higher resistivity.

  14. Dielectronic Satellite Lines of Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Laska, Alexander; Lepson, Jaan K.

    2015-08-01

    . C. Johns-Krull, M. K. Browning, and A. A. West (San Francisco:Astronomical Society of the Pacific), 787 (2011)[3] P. Beiersdorfer et al., ApJ., 793, 99 (2014)[4] P. Beiersdorfer et al., J. Phys. Conf. Proc. 583, 012022 (2015)

  15. Acute intermittent porphyria leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): a rare cause of abdominal pain and seizures.

    PubMed

    Dagens, Andrew; Gilhooley, Michael James

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited deficiency in the haem biosynthesis pathway. AIP is rare, affecting around 1 in 75 000 people. Acute attacks are characterised by abdominal pain associated with autonomic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. AIP is rarely associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES is a clinicoradiological condition caused by the failure of the posterior circulation to autoregulate, resulting in cerebral oedema, headaches, nausea and seizures. This association is important because drugs used in the management of seizures may worsen an attack of AIP. This article describes a case of AIP and PRES in a young woman. PMID:27277587

  16. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: An Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Madhani, Kamraan; Farrell, James J

    2016-03-01

    There is an evolving understanding that autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 systemic disease. It can manifest as primarily a pancreatic disorder or in association with other disorders of presumed autoimmune cause. Classic clinical characteristics include obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, and acute pancreatitis. Thus, AIP can be difficult to distinguish from pancreatic malignancy. However, AIP may respond to therapy with corticosteroids, and has a strong association with other immune mediated diseases. Although primarily a pathologic diagnosis, attempts have been made to reliably diagnose AIP clinically. AIP can be classified as either type 1 or type 2. PMID:26895679

  17. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a pediatric patient with acute intermittent porphyria: literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Olutunmbi, Yetunde; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Galvez, Jorge A; Simpao, Allan F

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia techniques placed under general anesthesia have not been reported in pediatric patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). A 9-year-old male with AIP presented for right inguinal herniorraphy. Family history included one relative's death after anesthesia. Preoperative preparation included reviewing medications safe for AIP patients, minimizing known AIP triggers (fasting, stress) and ensuring access to rescue medications. Intraoperative management included a propofol induction with the patient's mother present in the operating room. We performed an ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block under general anesthesia. The surgery proceeded without complications and the patient did not demonstrate signs of an AIP crisis. PMID:25137868

  18. Acute intermittent porphyria: comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Bergen, Sarah E; Larsson, Henrik; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) has been associated with schizophrenia in some studies, but prior research is limited by the absence of comparison populations. Here, we linked Swedish registers to examine the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in 717 individuals diagnosed with AIP and their first-degree relatives, compared with matched individuals without AIP and their first-degree relatives. Individuals with AIP had a fourfold increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Similarly, relatives of individuals with AIP had double the risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, suggesting that these associations may be as a result of common genetic influences. PMID:26494868

  19. Functional analysis of Abp1p-interacting proteins involved in endocytosis of the MCC component in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kento; Higuchi, Yujiro; Kikuma, Takashi; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the functions of three endocytosis-related proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Yeast two-hybrid screening using the endocytic marker protein AoAbp1 (A.oryzae homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1p) as a bait identified four interacting proteins named Aip (AoAbp1 interacting proteins). In mature hyphae, EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fused to Aips colocalized with AoAbp1 at the hyphal tip region and the plasma membrane, suggesting that Aips function in endocytosis. aipA is a putative AAA ATPase and its function has been dissected (Higuchi et al., 2011). aipB, the homolog of A. nidulans myoA, encodes an essential class I myosin and its conditional mutant showed a germination defect. aipC and aipD do not contain any recognizable domains except some proline-rich regions which may interact with two SH3 (Src homology 3) domains of AoAbp1. Neither aipC nor aipD disruptants showed any defects in their growth, but the aipC disruptant formed less conidia compared with the control strain. In addition, the aipC disruptant was resistant to the triazole antifungal drugs that inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis. Although no aip disruptants showed any defects in the uptake of the fluorescent dye FM4-64, the endocytosis of the arginine permease AoCan1, one of the MCC (membrane compartment of Can1p) components, was delayed in both aipC and aipD disruptants. In A. oryzae, AoCan1 localized mainly at the plasma membrane in the basal region of hyphae, suggesting that different endocytic mechanisms exist in apical and basal regions of highly polarized cells. PMID:23597630

  20. Thermal Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonium Nitrate at Low Pressure: Kinetic Modeling of Product Formation and Heterogeneous Decomposition of Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N2, N2O, H2O, and NH3, which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH3-NO2 (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO3 itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO3 in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(-12 600/T) s-1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  1. Thermoluminescence and Compositional Zoning in the Mesostasis of a Semarkona Group A1 Chondrule and New Insights into the Chondrule-Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, S.; Ninagawa, K.; Yamamoto, I.; Kohata, M.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Lu, J.; Sears, D. W. G.; Nishimura, H.

    1992-07-01

    anorthite then crystallized in the mesostasis. The Mn zoning caused the difference of Mn-contents in anorthite crystallized in the mesostasis, finally leading to the formation of TL and CL zoning. Jones R.H. and Scott E.R.D. (1989) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 19th, B523-B536. Ninagawa K. et al. (1990) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 15th, 244-253. Sears D.W.G. et al. (1992) Nature, in press.

  2. Spectral evolution and extreme value analysis of non-linear numerical simulations of narrow band random surface gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet-Juglard, H.; Dysthe, K. B.; Trulsen, K.; Liu, J.; Krogstad, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a narrow band gaussian spectrum of random surface gravity waves have been carried out in two and three spatial dimensions [7]. Different types of non-linear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equations, [1] and [4], have been used in these simulations. Simulations have now been carried with a JONSWAP spectrum associated with a spreading function of the type cosine-squared [5]. The evolution of the spectrum, skewness, kurtosis, ... will be presented. In addition, some results about stochastic properties of the surface will be shown. Based on the approach found in [2], [3] and [6], the results are presented in terms of deviations from linear Gaussian theory and the standard second order small slope perturbation theory. begin{thebibliography}{9} bibitem{kk96} Trulsen, K. &Dysthe, K. B. (1996). A modified nonlinear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion, 24, pp. 281-289. bibitem{BK2000} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2000). A uniform approach to extreme value analysis of ocean waves, Proc. ISOPE'2000, Seattle, USA, 3, pp. 103-108. bibitem{PRK} Prevosto, M., H. E. Krogstad and A. Robin (2000). Probability distributions for maximum wave and crest heights, Coast. Eng., 40, 329-360. bibitem{ketal} Trulsen, K., Kliakhandler, I., Dysthe, K. B. &Velarde, M. G. (2000) On weakly nonlinear modulation of waves on deep water, Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. L25-L28. bibitem{onorato} Onorato, M., Osborne, A.R. and Serio, M. (2002) Extreme wave events in directional, random oceanic sea states, Phys. Fluids, 14, pp. 2432-2437. bibitem{BK2002} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2002). Analysis and Applications of Second Order Models for the Maximum Crest height, % Proc. 21nd Int. Conf. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Oslo. Paper no. OMAE2002-28479. bibitem{JFMP} Dysthe, K. B., Trulsen, K., Krogstad, H. E. and Socquet-Juglard, H. (2002, in press) Evolution of a narrow band spectrum of random surface gravity waves, J. Fluid

  3. Areal Crater Density Analysis of Volcanic Smooth Plains: A New Approach to Distinguishing Age Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrach, L. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    and composition) are not observed on Mercury [e.g., 13-15], so the ACD method can be used to test hypotheses concerning timing of smooth plains emplacement [15]. [1] Hartmann W.K. et al. (1981) In: BVTP, 1049-1127. [2] Stöffler D. et al. (2006) Rev. Mineral. Geochem, 60, 519-596. [3] Hiesinger H. et al. (2011) Spec. Pap. - Geol. Soc. Am, 477, 1-51. [4] Pieters C.M. (1978) Proc. Lunar Plan. Sci. Conf, 9th, 2825-2849. [5] Hiesinger H. et al. (2000) J. Geophys. Res, 105, 29239-29275. [6] Staid M.I. and C.M. Pieters (2001) J. Geophys. Res, 106, 27887-27900. [7] Staid M.I. et al. (2011) J. Geophys. Res, 116, E00G10. [8] Lucey P.G. et al. (2000) J. Geophys. Res, 105, 20297-20306. [9] Schaber G.G. (1973) In: Apollo 17 PSR, NASA SP-330, 30-17 to 30-25. [10] Schaber G.G. et al. (1975) The Moon, 13, 395-423. [11] Boyce J.M. and A.L. Dial Jr. (1975) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf, 6th, 2585-2595. [12] Bugiolacchi R. and J.E. Guest (2008) Icarus, 197, 1-18. [13] Robinson M.S. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 66-69. [14] Denevi B.W. et al. (2009) Science, 324, 613-618. [15] Denevi B.W. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res, 118, 1-17.

  4. How Old is Cone Crater at the Apollo 14 Landing Site?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Simon, Ina; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Robinson, Mark S.; Plescia, Jeff B.

    2015-04-01

    and 23 Ma older than the exposure ages [e.g., 10]. We find that CSFD measurements performed on the ejecta blanket of Cone crater yield AMAs that agree well with the exposure ages, considering the relatively small count areas and the hummocky nature of the ejecta blanket. However, the AMAs are generally older than the exposure ages, which may be due to the small count area sizes [16], a possibly higher recent impact rate [17], some unidentified secondary craters [13], poor calibration of the production function, or inaccurate exposure ages. [1] Hiesinger et al. (2012) J. Geophys. Res. 117. [2] Stöffler and Ryder (2001) Chronology and Evolution of Mars. [3] Neukum (1983) Habil. thesis, U. of Munich. [4] Neukum et al. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96. [5] Swann et al. (1971) Apollo 14 Prelim. Sci. Rep. [6] Carlson (1978) NASA STI/Recon Technical Report. [7] Swann (1977) Washington US Govt. Print. Off. [8] Bhandari et al. (1972) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 3. [9] Crozaz et al. (1972) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 3. [10] Arvidson et al. (1975) Moon 13. [11] Stadermann et al. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55. [12] Moore et al. (1980) Moon and Planets 23. [13] Plescia and Robinson (2011) LPSC 42. [14] Williams et al. (2014) Icarus 235. [15] Robbins (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 403. [16] van der Bogert et al. (2015) LPSC 46. [17] McEwen et al. (2015) LPSC 46.

  5. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.; Cobb, J.; Loew, G.; Morton, P.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Paterson, J.; Pianetta, P.; Raubenheimer, T.; Seeman, J.; Tatchyn, R.; Vylet, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Travish, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.-J.; Schlueter, R.; Xie, M.; Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

    1994-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a linac coherent light source (LCLS) (C. Pellegrini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 331 (1993) 223; H. Winick et al., Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, May 1993; C. Pellegrini, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 341 (1994) 326; J. Seeman, SPIE Meet. on Electron Beam Sources of High Brightness Radiation, San Diego, CA, July 1993 [1-4]); it would be a fourth-generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much shorter wavelength than the 240 nm that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3 to 100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high-energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low-gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by self-amplified-spontaneous-emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops (M. Cornacchia and H. Winick (eds.), SLAC Report 92/02; I. Ben-Zvi and H. Winick (eds.), BNL report 49651 [5,6]). The required low-emittance electron beam can be achieved with recently-developed rf photocathode electron guns (B.E. Carlsten, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 285 (1989) 313; J. Rosenzweig and L. Serafini, Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, 1993 [7,8]). The peak current is increased by about an

  6. Fish and chips: implementation of a neural network model into computer chips to maximize swimming efficiency in autonomous underwater vehicles.

    PubMed

    Blake, R W; Ng, H; Chan, K H S; Li, J

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and propulsion of biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have focused on boxfish as models (e.g. Deng and Avadhanula 2005 Biomimetic micro underwater vehicle with oscillating fin propulsion: system design and force measurement Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Auto. (Barcelona, Spain) pp 3312-7). Whilst such vehicles have many potential advantages in operating in complex environments (e.g. high manoeuvrability and stability), limited battery life and payload capacity are likely functional disadvantages. Boxfish employ undulatory median and paired fins during routine swimming which are characterized by high hydromechanical Froude efficiencies (approximately 0.9) at low forward speeds. Current boxfish-inspired vehicles are propelled by a low aspect ratio, 'plate-like' caudal fin (ostraciiform tail) which can be shown to operate at a relatively low maximum Froude efficiency (approximately 0.5) and is mainly employed as a rudder for steering and in rapid swimming bouts (e.g. escape responses). Given this and the fact that bioinspired engineering designs are not obligated to wholly duplicate a biological model, computer chips were developed using a multilayer perception neural network model of undulatory fin propulsion in the knifefish Xenomystus nigri that would potentially allow an AUV to achieve high optimum values of propulsive efficiency at any given forward velocity, giving a minimum energy drain on the battery. We envisage that externally monitored information on flow velocity (sensory system) would be conveyed to the chips residing in the vehicle's control unit, which in turn would signal the locomotor unit to adopt kinematics (e.g. fin frequency, amplitude) associated with optimal propulsion efficiency. Power savings could protract vehicle operational life and/or provide more power to other functions (e.g. communications). PMID:18626130

  7. High Resolution Spectrum of the 13C12C12C Lowest Bending Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, C. P.; Lutter, V.; Kötting, J.; Krieg, J.; Thorwirth, S.; Schlemmer, S.; Giesen, T. F.; Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.

    2012-06-01

    Linear C_3 is a floppy molecule which possesses an extremely low lying bending mode, ν_2, at roughly 60 cm-1 or 1.9 THz. Based on highly accurate laboratory data C_3 has been detected in various astronomical sources most recently with the HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite. Although C_3 turns out to be quite abundant in interstellar environments which makes a search for 13C substituted isotopologs feasible, other isotopologs could not be detected so far, because no accurate transition frequencies have been available for these species in this frequency range. Relative abundance ratios of C_3 isotopologs might give important hints on its building mechanism and further constraints for chemical networks. In this work, the spectrum of the ν_2 lowest bending mode of 13CCC has been investigated. We used laser ablation of 13C enriched carbon samples to record absorption spectra in a supersonic jet expansion. The radiation in our setup is generated by a synthesizer referenced to a Rubidium standard in combination with a frequency multiplier chain and detected by a liquid Helium cooled InSb bolometer. The laboratory search has been supported by high-level coupled-cluster calculations, which turns out to compare very favorably with obtained experimental molecular parameters. Schmuttenmaer, C. A., Cohen, R. C., Pugliano, N., Heath, et al., Science 249, 897-900 (1990) Giesen, T. F., van Orden, A. O., Cruzan, J. D., and Provencal, R. A., et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L181-L184 (2001) Gendriesch, R. and Pehl, K. and Giesen, T. and Winnewisser, G. and Lewen, F., Z. Naturforsch. 58a, 129-138 (2003) Van Orden, A., Cruzan, J. D., Provencal, R. A., et al. in Proc. Airborne Astronomy Symp., ASP Conf. Ser. 73, 67 (1995) ernicharo, J. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Caux, E., Astrophys. J. Lett. 534, L199-L202 (2000) Mookerjea, B., Giesen, T., Stutzki, J., Cernicharo, J., et al., Astron. Astrophys. 521, L13 (2010)

  8. NVR-BIP: Nuclear Vector Replacement using Binary Integer Programming for NMR Structure-Based Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Apaydin, Mehmet Serkan; Çatay, Bülent; Patrick, Nicholas; Donald, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an important experimental technique that allows one to study protein structure and dynamics in solution. An important bottleneck in NMR protein structure determination is the assignment of NMR peaks to the corresponding nuclei. Structure-based assignment (SBA) aims to solve this problem with the help of a template protein which is homologous to the target and has applications in the study of structure–activity relationship, protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions. We formulate SBA as a linear assignment problem with additional nuclear overhauser effect constraints, which can be solved within nuclear vector replacement’s (NVR) framework (Langmead, C., Yan, A., Lilien, R., Wang, L. and Donald, B. (2003) A Polynomial-Time Nuclear Vector Replacement Algorithm for Automated NMR Resonance Assignments. Proc. the 7th Annual Int. Conf. Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB), Berlin, Germany, April 10–13, pp. 176–187. ACM Press, New York, NY. J. Comp. Bio., (2004), 11, pp. 277–298; Langmead, C. and Donald, B. (2004) An expectation/maximization nuclear vector replacement algorithm for automated NMR resonance assignments. J. Biomol. NMR, 29, 111–138). Our approach uses NVR’s scoring function and data types and also gives the option of using CH and NH residual dipolar coupling (RDCs), instead of NH RDCs which NVR requires. We test our technique on NVR’s data set as well as on four new proteins. Our results are comparable to NVR’s assignment accuracy on NVR’s test set, but higher on novel proteins. Our approach allows partial assignments. It is also complete and can return the optimum as well as near-optimum assignments. Furthermore, it allows us to analyze the information content of each data type and is easily extendable to accept new forms of input data, such as additional RDCs. PMID:25580019

  9. {sup 208}Pb-daughter cluster radioactivity and the deformations and orientations of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Arun, Sham K.; Gupta, Raj K.; Singh, BirBikram; Kanwar, Shefali; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2009-06-15

    The role of deformations and orientations of nuclei is studied for the first time in cluster decays of various radioactive nuclei, particularly those decaying to doubly closed shell, spherical {sup 208}Pb daughter nucleus. Also, the significance of using the correct Q-value of the decay process is pointed out. The model used is the preformed cluster model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators [R. K. Gupta et al., Proc. Int. Conf. on Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms, Varenna, 1988, p. 416; Phys. Rev. C 39, 1992 (1989); 55, 218 (1997); Heavy Elements and Related New Phenomena, edited by W. Greiner and R. K. Gupta, World Sc. 1999, Vol. II, p. 731]. In this model, cluster emission is treated as a tunneling of the confining interaction barrier by a cluster considered already preformed with a relative probability P{sub 0}. Since both the scattering potential and potential energy surface due to the fragmentation process in the ground state of the parent nucleus change significantly with the inclusion of deformation and orientation effects, both the penetrability P and preformation probability P{sub 0} of clusters change accordingly. The calculated decay half-lives for all the cluster decays investigated here are generally in good agreement with measured values for the calculation performed with quadrupole deformations {beta}{sub 2} alone and 'optimum' orientations of cold elongated configurations. In some cases, particularly for {sup 14}C decay of Ra nuclei, the inclusion of multipole deformations up to hexadecapole {beta}{sub 4} is found to be essential for a comparison with data. However, the available {beta}{sub 4}-values, particularly for nuclei in the mass region 16{<=}A{<=}26, need be used with caution.

  10. A portable electronic system for radiation dosimetry using electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, P. E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Cameron, J.

    1990-02-01

    An electret dosimeter with a cylindrical active volume has been introduced by Mascarenhas and collaborators [Proc. 10th Anniversary Conf. 1969-1979, Associacâo Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, p. 488; Topics Appl. Phys. 33 (1987) 321] for possible use in personnel and area monitoring. The full energy response curve as well as the degree of reproducibility and accuracy of the dosimeter are reported in a previous report [O. Guerrini, Master Science Thesis, São Carlos, USP-IFQSC (1982)]. For dimensions similar to those of the common pen dosimeter, the electret has a total surface charge of the order of 10 -9 C and it has a readout sensitivity of the order of 10 -5 Gy with a useful range of 5 × 10 -2 Gy. In this paper we describe a portable electronic system to measure X and γ-rays using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber. It uses commercially available operational amplifiers, and charge measurements can also be made by connecting a suitable capacitor in the feedback loop. With this system it is possible to measure equivalent surface charges up to (19.99±0.01) on the dosimeter. The readout doses are shown on a 3 {1}/{2} digit liquid crystal display (LCD). We have used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar metal oxide semiconductor (BiMOS) operatonal amplifier devices in the system's design. This choice provides small power consumption and is ideal for battery powered instruments. Furthermore the instrument is ideally suited for in situ measurements of X and γ radiation using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber.

  11. Committee of machine learning predictors of hydrological models uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    In prediction of uncertainty based on machine learning methods, the results of various sampling schemes namely, Monte Carlo sampling (MCS), generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE), Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), shuffled complex evolution metropolis algorithm (SCEMUA), differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and adaptive cluster covering (ACCO)[1] used to build a predictive models. These models predict the uncertainty (quantiles of pdf) of a deterministic output from hydrological model [2]. Inputs to these models are the specially identified representative variables (past events precipitation and flows). The trained machine learning models are then employed to predict the model output uncertainty which is specific for the new input data. For each sampling scheme three machine learning methods namely, artificial neural networks, model tree, locally weighted regression are applied to predict output uncertainties. The problem here is that different sampling algorithms result in different data sets used to train different machine learning models which leads to several models (21 predictive uncertainty models). There is no clear evidence which model is the best since there is no basis for comparison. A solution could be to form a committee of all models and to sue a dynamic averaging scheme to generate the final output [3]. This approach is applied to estimate uncertainty of streamflows simulation from a conceptual hydrological model HBV in the Nzoia catchment in Kenya. [1] N. Kayastha, D. L. Shrestha and D. P. Solomatine. Experiments with several methods of parameter uncertainty estimation in hydrological modeling. Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. on Hydroinformatics, Tianjin, China, September 2010. [2] D. L. Shrestha, N. Kayastha, and D. P. Solomatine, and R. Price. Encapsulation of parameteric uncertainty statistics by various predictive machine learning models: MLUE method, Journal of Hydroinformatic, in press

  12. Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear Waves in Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2004-11-01

    A new type of coherent self-sustaining nonlinear kinetic wave has been discovered, well below the plasma frequency, which we call Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) waves. Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations where KEEN waves were excited by ponderomotive forces of short duration, generated by the beating of counter-propagating lasers of the appropriate colors [1-2], show that these waves persist without decay well after the driving fields are turned off. The resulting phase space vortical structures are reminiscent in certain respects to BGK modes proposed in 1957 [3]. However, KEEN waves are not stationary and higher harmonics which are an essential part of their make up have wider and wider frequency content. KEEN waves constitute a generalization and clarification of concepts previously invoked to help explain stimulated electron acoustic wave scattering in the presence of SRS [4,5]. However, in the case of KEEN waves, no flattened (zero slope) electron velocity distribution function need be invoked and no single mode behavior is observed. There is a threshold drive which is necessary in order to create KEEN waves. A reduced model based on a phase space coupled mode theory with 3-4 modes will be shown to capture the phase locked multimode nonlinear nature of KEEN waves. We have also successfully completed a series of experiments to generate via optical mixing and observe via 4ω Thomson scattering KEEN waves on Trident at LANL. Our latest results from this campaign will be shown. [1] B. Afeyan, et al., "Kinetic Electrostatic " Proc. IFSA Conf. (2004). [2] B. Afeyan, et al., submitted to PRL (2004) [3] I. Bernstein et al., Phys. Rev. 108. 546 (1957). [4] D. S. Montgomery et al., PRL 87, 155001 (2001). [5] H. A, Rose and D. A. Russell, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4784 (2001).

  13. Interaction of Low Temperature Plasmas with Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2008-10-01

    Due to promising possibilities for their use in medical applications such as wound healing, surface modification of biocompatible materials, and the sterilization of reusable heat-sensitive medical instruments, low temperature plasmas and plasma jets are making big strides as a technology that can potentially be used in medicine^1-2. At this stage of research, fundamental questions about the effects of plasma on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are still not completely answered. An in-depth understanding of the pathway whereby cold plasma interact with biological cells is necessary before real applications can emerge. In this paper, first an overview of non-equilibrium plasma sources (both low and high pressures) will be presented. Secondly, the effects of plasma on bacterial cells will be discussed. Here, the roles of the various plasma agents in the inactivation process will be outlined. In particular, the effects of UV and that of various reactive species (O3, O, OH) are highlighted. Thirdly, preliminary findings on the effects of plasma on few types of eukaryotic cells will be presented. How plasma affects eukaryotic cells, such as mammalian cells, is very important in applications where the viability/preservation of the cells could be an issue (such as in wound treatment). Another interesting aspect is the triggering of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some investigators have claimed that plasma is able to induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells. If successfully replicated, this can open up a novel method of cancer treatment. In this talk however, I will briefly focus more on the wound healing potential of cold plasmas. ^1E. A. Blakely, K. A. Bjornstad, J. E. Galvin, O. R. Monteiro, and I. G. Brown, ``Selective Neuron Growth on Ion Implanted and Plasma Deposited Surfaces'', In Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Plasma Sci., (2002), p. 253. ^2M. Laroussi, ``Non-thermal Decontamination of Biological Media by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas: Review, Analysis, and

  14. Temperature gradients in the Cepheus B molecular cloud - a multi-line analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiss, B. M.; Beuther, H.; Kramer, C.

    The Cepheus B molecular cloud is a prime candidate to study the effect of sequential star formation on molecular clouds: it is located at the edge of an H ii region (S155) and an OB association (Cepheus OB3), and it comprises a hot-core region with an embedded compact H ii region and NIR cluster suggesting on-going star formation. The bulk of the cloud, however, appears to be in a 'calm' state where star formation has not (yet) started. We conducted on-the-fly maps of the (2-1) and (3-2) low-J transitions of the CO isotopomers 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (Beuther et al. 1999, to appear in A&A); the observations were carried out with the 3 m KOSMA submillimeter telescope at Gornergrat, Switzerland (Kramer et al. 1998, SPIE, Conf.Proc., Kona, Vol 3350). We present line ratio maps as well as spectra at selected positions, where the latter sample regions of Cepheus B each having different physical conditions. The line ratio distribution is a measure for the variation of the excitation conditions. Adopting an escape probability integration scheme the data can be fitted reasonably treating each of the CO isotopomers seperately. From that we derive differing kinetic temperatures at each of the projected positions. This strongly indicates a temperature gradient along the line-of-sight since different isotopomers trace different layers of the cloud due to their differing optical depths. The temperature difference between the cooler inner parts of the cloud and the cloud's 'surface' amounts up to 40 K. We also found a lateral west-to-east 'surface' temperature decrease from 70 K at the hot-core region down to 40 K.

  15. Re-analysis of previous laboratory phase curves: 1. Variations of the opposition effect morphology with the textural properties, and an application to planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déau, Estelle; Flandes, Alberto; Spilker, Linda J.; Petazzoni, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    Typical variations in the opposition effect morphology of laboratory samples at optical wavelengths are investigated to probe the role of the textural properties of the surface (roughness, porosity and grain size). A previously published dataset of 34 laboratory phase curves is re-analyzed and fit with several morphological models. The retrieved morphological parameters that characterize the opposition surge, amplitude, width and slope (A, HWHM and S respectively) are correlated to the single scattering albedo, the roughness, the porosity and the grain size of the samples. To test the universality of the laboratory samples’ trends, we use previously published phase curves of planetary surfaces, including the Moon, satellites and rings of the giant planets. The morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM) for planetary surfaces are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids (Belskaya, I.N., Shevchenko, V.G. [2000]. Icarus 147, 94-105), which is unexplained so far. The morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM) for laboratory samples seem to exhibit the same non-monotonic variation with single scattering albedo. While the non-monotonic variation with albedo was already observed by Nelson et al. (Nelson, R.M., Hapke, B.W., Smythe, W.D., Hale, A.S., Piatek, J.L. [2004]. Planetary regolith microstructure: An unexpected opposition effect result. In: Mackwell, S., Stansbery, E. (Eds.), Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 35, p. 1089), we report here the same variation for the angular width.

  16. The Ultra-Low Aspect Ratio Stellarator SCR-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Mora, Jaime; Zamora, Esteban; Asenjo, Jose; Ribas, Leonardo; Guadamuz, Saul

    2012-10-01

    The world most compact stellarator is currently being designed at the Costa Rica Institute of Technology (ITCR). The SCR-1(Stellarator of Costa Rica 1) is a 2-field period modular device with a circular cross-section vessel (Ro=0.238m, a=0.097m, Ro{/a≈ 2.5}, 0.014m3, {4mm} thickness 6061-T6 aluminum). The expected D-shaped high elongated plasma cross section has a maximum average radius of < a> ≈ 0.062m, leading to Ro/< a> ≥ 3.8. Such compactness was reached after a SCR-1 earlier proposal [1] was redesigned, both based on the low shear stellarator UST/1: Ro/< a> ≈ 6, ι =0.32/0.28 (core/edge) [2]. The set field at centre is 88mT produced by 12 copper modular coils, 8.7kA-turn each. This field is EC resonant at Ro with a 2.45GHz μ w, 1st harmonic, from 2/3kW magnetrons which will produce a second time-scale plasma pulse. The coil current will be produced by a bank of cell batteries. Poincar'{e} and EC deposition plots will be presented using COMSOL Multiphysics software. SCR-1 will be synergetic to the ST MEDUSA currently under donation to ITCR [3]. Both will benefit of the local new activities in technological plasmas.[4pt] [1] Barillas L et al., Proc.19th Int.Conf. Nucl.Eng., Japan, 2011[0pt] [2] Queral V, Stellarator News, 118, 2008[0pt] [3] Ribeiro C et al., 54th APS, Plasma Phys. Div., US, 2012

  17. Laboratory Experiments of Rip Current Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, R.; Coco, G.; Lomonaco, P.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Alvarez, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Medina, R.

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis of rip current generation from purely hydrodynamic processes is here investigated through laboratory experiments. The experiments have been performed at the Cantabria Coastal and Ocean Basin (CCOB) with a segmented wavemaker consisting of 64 waveboards. The basin measures 25m in the cross-shore and 32m in the alongshore direction and the water depth at the wavemaker is 1m. A concrete plane sloping (1:5) beach has been built in the opposite side of the wave machine, its toe is 15m from the waveboards. Reflective lateral walls covered the full length of the basin. The set of instruments consists of 33 wave gauges deployed along two longshore and two cross-shore transects, 7 acoustic Doppler velocimeters and 15 run-up wires. Furthermore a set of two cameras has been synchronized with the data acquisition system. Two types of experiments have been performed to specifically study the generation of rip currents under wave group forcing. First, similarly to the experiments of Fowler and Dalrymple (Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Coast. Eng.,1990), two intersecting wave trains with opposite directions have been imposed. They give rise to the formation of a non-migrating rip current system with a wavelength that depends on wave frequency and direction. Second, single wave trains with alongshore periodic amplitude attenuation have been imposed. Although the attenuation has been set such that the incident wave field has the same envelope as in the first type of experiments, the rip current system differs due to diffraction and interference processes. The results for different wave conditions (maximum incident wave height from 0.2m to 0.4m, wave period from 1.4s to 2s) will be presented and the intensity of the rip currents will be compared to the alongshore variation in wave set-up. This research is part of the ANIMO project funded by the Spanish Government under contract BIA2012-36822.

  18. Maximizing contrast resolution in the outer retina of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert G.; Taylor, W. Rowland

    2010-01-01

    The outer retina removes the first-order correlation, the background light level, and thus more efficiently transmits contrast. This removal is accomplished by negative feedback from horizontal cell to photoreceptors. However, the optimal feedback gain to maximize the contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution is not known. The objective of this study was to determine, from the known structure of the outer retina, the synaptic gains that optimize the response to spatial and temporal contrast within natural images. We modeled the outer retina as a continuous 2D extension of the discrete 1D model of Yagi et al. (Proc Int Joint Conf Neural Netw 1: 787–789, 1989). We determined the spatio-temporal impulse response of the model using small-signal analysis, assuming that the stimulus did not perturb the resting state of the feedback system. In order to maximize the efficiency of the feedback system, we derived the relationships between time constants, space constants, and synaptic gains that give the fastest temporal adaptation and the highest spatial resolution of the photoreceptor input to bipolar cells. We found that feedback which directly modulated photoreceptor calcium channel activation, as opposed to changing photoreceptor voltage, provides faster adaptation to light onset and higher spatial resolution. The optimal solution suggests that the feedback gain from horizontal cells to photoreceptors should be ~0.5. The model can be extended to retinas that have two or more horizontal cell networks with different space constants. The theoretical predictions closely match experimental observations of outer retinal function. PMID:20361204

  19. Failure Wave in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas

    2005-07-01

    Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor impact experiments reveal that failure wave velocity U/F depends on impact velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with impact velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal wave velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure wave for gold rod impact from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod impact on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with impact velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass impact on a gold rod at an impact velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-impact'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod impact, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. Impact Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).

  20. Bevalac operations update: Pub. 496, No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report contains information on the following experiments: Beam 30-1 (Dilepton Spectrometer); Beam 30-2 (Janus Spectrometer); Beam 39 I Low Energy Program; Beam 39 II Irradiation Station; Beam 39 III Irradiation Station; Beam 40 I RTE; Beam 40 II NASA; Beam 42 I EOS; Beam 42 II Radioactive Beams-Nuclear Radii; Beam 42 III Fragmentation; Beam 42 IV TPC; Beam 42 V Time of Flight Wall; Beam 44 I Low Energy Program; Beam 44 II Radioactive Beams-Magnetic Moments; Beam 44 III Antiprotons; AIP 86-Uranium Intensity; AIP 87-SHILAC Drift Tubes; AIP 88-Computer Control Upgrade I; AIP 89-Computer Control Upgrade II; AIP 90-External Particle Beam Lines Control; AIP 91-Power Supplies; BEVAX Developments; Spiller Control; and, New Pulsed Switching Magnet. 20 figs.

  1. GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percivall, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is conducting a second phase of the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP-2) to integrate services into the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The first phase of AIP contributed to the initial operating capability of GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) established in early 2008. AIP-2 will augment the GCI with services contributed by GEO Members and Participating Organizations. The activities of AIP-2 are conducted in working groups. Five working groups are developing the transverse technology that supports the multiple user communities. Four Community working groups are applying the transverse technologies to support the following communties of practice: Energy, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Disasters and Air Quality. The Air Quality Working Group is led by the ESIP AQ Cluster. AIP-2 testing and integration will integrate the use cases in to demonstration scenarios. Persistent exemplar services will be nominated to augment the GCI. This presentation will describe the AIP-2 process, progress and planned deliverables.

  2. SPAM: Source Peeling and Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intema, Huib T.

    2014-08-01

    SPAM is a extension to AIPS for reducing high-resolution, low-frequency radio interferometric observations. Direction-dependent ionospheric calibration and image-plane ripple suppression are among the features that help to make high-quality sub-GHz images. Data reductions are captured in well-tested Python scripts that execute AIPS tasks directly (mostly during initial data reduction steps), call high-level functions that make multiple AIPS or ParselTongue calls, and require few manual operations.

  3. Molecular identification and differential expression of sensory neuron membrane proteins in the antennae of the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shao-Hua; Yang, Ruo-Nan; Guo, Meng-Bo; Wang, Gui-Rong; Wu, Kong-Ming; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2013-04-01

    The insect sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) SNMP1 and SNMP2 are transmembrane domain-containing proteins and are homologs of the vertebrate CD36 transmembrane proteins. It has been suggested that SNMPs play a significant role in insect chemoreception. Previous studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is expressed in the pheromone-sensitive olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), whereas SNMP2 is expressed in the supporting cells. In this study, we identified two full-length SNMP transcripts, AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2, in the black cutworm moth Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). The qRT-PCR results indicated that the AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 transcripts were expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues of both sexes. The expression of AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 in the antennae from different development stages of both sexes was investigated and was shown to begin to express in the pupae stage from 3days before emergence and then increased dramatically at the day of the emergence, and the high expression levels were maintained during the following 4days after the emergence in both sexes. The mating status had no effect on the expression levels of the AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 transcripts. Consistent with previous in situ hybridization studies in other Lepidoptera insects, our immunolocalization results at protein level demonstrated that both AipsSNMP1 and AipsSNMP2 were expressed in pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea but with a completely different expression profile. AipsSNMP1 is more uniformed and highly expressed along the membrane of the ORN dendrites, whereas AipsSNMP2 is widely distributed at the bottom of the sensilla trichodea and highly localized in the sensillum lymph. Our studies provide further detailed evidence for the involvement and general functional role of insect SNMPs in the detection of sex pheromones and general odorant molecules. PMID:23454276

  4. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  5. A Case Report of Childhood Recurrent Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Rare Emerging Entity.

    PubMed

    Hasosah, Mohammed Y; Masawa, Lojain; Jan, Ajwan; Alsaleem, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare entity in the paediatric population and its aetiology is unknown. Here, we report a 10-year-old girl with recurrent abdominal pain. A diagnosis of AIP was made based on elevated pancreatic enzymes, elevated IgG 4 and image findings. She responded to corticosteroid treatment. AIP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent pancreatitis. Correct diagnosis can help avert the consequences of progressive disease and unnecessary surgery. PMID:27504369

  6. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    European test sites and laboratories for the testing of GPR equipment, methodology and procedures, that is being coordinated by France and Italy. The catalogue will represent a useful tool for the GPR community and it will contribute to identifying new cooperation possibilities among research groups, to clarifying which are the missing testing facilities in the various European regions, and to addressing current or future research needs. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' References [1] Proc. First Action's General Meeting (Rome, Italy, 22-24 July 2013), 1st edition, COST Action TU1208, L. Pajewski, A. Benedetto, Eds., ISBN 978-88-548-6191-6 (Aracne, 2013). [2] Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar, A. Benedetto, L. Pajewski, Eds., ISBN 978-3-319-04812-3 (Springer, 2015). [3] A. Benedetto, 'State of the Art of GPR Applications and New Trends in Transportation Infrastructures,' Future Trends in Civil Engineering, A. Ceric, S. Lakusic, Eds., ISBN 978-953-6272-65-5 (2014). [4] Proc. 2013 Working Group Progress Meeting (Nantes, France, 24-25 February 2014), COST Action TU1208, L. Pajewski, X. Derobert, Eds., ISBN 978-88-548-7223-3 (Aracne, 2014). [5] Proc. 15th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar - GPR2014, S. Lambot, A. Giannopoulos, L. Pajewski, F. De André, E. Slob, C. Craeye, Eds., IEEE Conf. Number 35163 (IEEE, 2014). [6] Proc. Second Action's General Meeting (Vienna, Austria, 30 April-2 May 2014), COST Action TU1208, L. Pajewski, A. Benedetto, Eds., ISBN 978-88-548-7224-0 (Aracne, 2014). [7] S. Fontul, F. De Chiara, E. Fortunato, A. Lopes, 'Evaluation of ballast condition using Ground Penetrating Radar,' The Ninth Intl. Conf. on Engineering Computational Technology (2014).

  7. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  9. Advanced information processing system - Status report. [for fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Lala, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles. The AIPS architecture also has attributes to enhance system effectiveness such as graceful degradation, growth and change tolerance, integrability, etc. Two key building blocks being developed by the AIPS program are a fault and damage tolerant processor and communication network. A proof-of-concept system is now being built and will be tested to demonstrate the validity and performance of the AIPS concepts.

  10. Characterization of acute interstitial pneumonia in cattle in southern Alberta feedyards.

    PubMed Central

    Ayroud, M; Popp, J D; VanderKop, M A; Yost, G S; Haines, D M; Majak, W; Karren, D; Yanke, L J; McAllister, T A

    2000-01-01

    Field data were collected over 2 consecutive years to characterize acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) in feedyard cattle. Thirty-eight cattle with clinical symptoms of AIP were examined following emergency slaughter; 31 (all heifers) were confirmed to have AIP on the basis of gross and histological lung pathology. The 7 without AIP, plus 17 asymptomatic penmates, were used as contemporary controls. Plasma concentrations of 3-methylindole (3MI) metabolites were higher (P < 0.001) in heifers afflicted with AIP than in the control animals, and concentrations of 3MI mercapturates in the urine were lower (P < 0.007) in affected heifers. Concentrations of 3MI adducts in lung tissue and in microsomal protein did not differ (P > 0.05) between the 2 groups, and 3MI was not detected in ruminal fluid from either group. Total ruminal bacterial numbers and populations of lactobacilli and protozoa were similar (P > 0.05) between the AIP-positive and unafflicted groups, but fewer (P < 0.05) cellulolytic bacteria were present in the positive group. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus antigen was not found in lung tissue from any of the heifers confirmed to have AIP. To our knowledge, this study is the first to implicate 3MI metabolites as having a role in feedyard AIP. Further research is required to determine the factors responsible for the elevation in 3MI adducts in plasma and urine of feedyard cattle afflicted with AIP. Images Figure 1. PMID:10907577

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis: an illustrated guide to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R D; Rofe, C J; Bryant, T J C; Hacking, C N; Stedman, B

    2013-04-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains one of the rarer forms of pancreatitis but has become increasingly well recognized and widely diagnosed as it is an important differential, particularly due to the dramatic response to appropriate therapy. It is now best considered as part of a multisystem disease and the notion of "IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease" has become widely recognized as the number of extra-pancreatic associations of AIP grows. More recently AIP has been classified into two subtypes: lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) with distinct geographical, age and sex distributions for the two subtypes, in addition to different pathological characteristics. The role of imaging is crucial in AIP and should be considered in conjunction with clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to make the diagnosis. Radiologists are uniquely placed to raise the possibility of AIP and aid the exclusion of significant differentials to allow the initiation of appropriate management and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. Radiological investigation may reveal a number of characteristic imaging findings in AIP but appearances can vary considerably and the focal form of AIP may appear as a pancreatic mass, imitating pancreatic carcinoma. This review will illustrate typical and atypical appearances of AIP on all imaging modes. Emphasis will be placed on the imaging features that are likely to prove useful in discriminating AIP from other causes prior to histopathological confirmation. In addition, examples of relevant differential diagnoses are discussed and illustrated. PMID:23177083

  12. Spatial risk assessment of alien invasive plants in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fan; Chisholm, Ryan; Sang, Weiguo; Dong, Ming

    2013-07-16

    The large-scale distribution patterns of alien invasive plants (AIP) can provide key information and a theoretical basis for management strategies, including the prevention of invasions, the control and eradication of established AIPs, and the identification of areas at high risk of invasion. This study aims to quantify distribution patterns of AIP in China, to develop approaches that measure the social, economic, and ecological impacts, and to identify areas that are at higher risk of plant invasion. Based on published literature, there were 384 AIPs in China, representing 233 genera from 66 families. Climatic factors were among the primary factors determining AIPs' overall distribution patterns. The majority of AIPs were tropically distributed in China, meaning that they were mainly restricted to southern China. Temperate-distributed AIPs, those distributed only or predominantly in northern China, were fewer but had higher average rates of spread than tropically distributed AIPs. Average ecological and economic impact per AIP was negatively correlated with AIP richness, meaning that areas with relatively few AIPs nevertheless have some of the most detrimental ones. Our comparative evaluation showed that the risk of invasion differed among regions of China, with high-risk areas in southern China (Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong) and central coastal areas of eastern China (Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu). In the context of climate change, areas around latitudes of 33° N, including Hebei, Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu, should be given more attention for the control and prevention of plant invasions. Predictions of high-risk areas for future invasions differed depending on the scale of aggregation and the evaluation index, indicating that invasive risk assessments should be based on multiple factors. PMID:23738912

  13. A Bold Move: Reframing Composition through Assessment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condran, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the decision of the Art Institute of Pittsburgh (AiP) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to implement a rigorous writing program assessment in order to obtain the Middle States accreditation, and it describes the process of determining which assessment model would be the most appropriate for AiP's needs. The use of a quantitative…

  14. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  15. The Assessment Interaction Plan--A Tool for Driving Performance Improvement through Analysis to Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Brett; Barr, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The assessment interaction plan (AIP) is a performance support tool developed by members of the Canadian Defence Academy's Directorate of Learning Innovation. This article provides a brief overview of the performance gap that led to the creation of the AIP, its function within the overall courseware design process, a description of its components,…

  16. SNPs in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene associated with sporadic non-functioning pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    HU, YESHUAI; YANG, JUN; CHANG, YONGKAI; MA, SHUNCHANG; QI, JIANFA

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene have previously been associated with a predisposition to pituitary adenomas. However, to the best of our knowledge, mutations in AIP that relate specifically to sporadic non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) have yet to be reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AIP gene that may be associated with NFPAs. Peripheral blood samples and the entire coding sequence of the AIP gene from 56 patients with NFPAs and 56 controls were analyzed in triplicate. Of the 56 patients with NFPAs, 9 patients (16.1%) were identified as harboring five different SNPs, although no germline mutations in the AIP gene were detected in any of the patients. Three different SNPs (7051C>T, 8012G>C and 8020G>C) were identified in exons 4 and 6 in 3 different patients (each in 1 patient). Two different SNPs (7318C>A and 7886A>G) were identified in exons 5 and 6, respectively, in 6 different patients (each in 3 patients). No SNPs or germline mutations in the AIP gene were identified in the controls. The results of the present study suggested that mutations in the AIP gene might not have an important role in the tumorigenesis of NFPAs. However, further studies are required in order to investigate potential molecular and genetic mechanisms that may underlie the involvement of AIP in NFPA. PMID:26998050

  17. Actin Interacting Protein1 and Actin Depolymerizing Factor Drive Rapid Actin Dynamics in Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Robert C.; Pattavina, Kelli A.; Tüzel, Erkan; Vidali, Luis; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The remodeling of actin networks is required for a variety of cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, several actin binding proteins have been implicated in remodeling cortical actin filaments (F-actin). However, the extent to which these proteins support F-actin dynamics in planta has not been tested. Using reverse genetics, complementation analyses, and cell biological approaches, we assessed the in vivo function of two actin turnover proteins: actin interacting protein1 (AIP1) and actin depolymerizing factor (ADF). We report that AIP1 is a single-copy gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens. AIP1 knockout plants are viable but have reduced expansion of tip-growing cells. AIP1 is diffusely cytosolic and functions in a common genetic pathway with ADF to promote tip growth. Specifically, ADF can partially compensate for loss of AIP1, and AIP1 requires ADF for function. Consistent with a role in actin remodeling, AIP1 knockout lines accumulate F-actin bundles, have fewer dynamic ends, and have reduced severing frequency. Importantly, we demonstrate that AIP1 promotes and ADF is essential for cortical F-actin dynamics. PMID:22003077

  18. Is acute idiopathic pericarditis associated with recent upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Florian; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cecile; Meyer, Philippe; Genne, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP), and a reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or gastroenteritis (GE) in the preceding month. Design Patients who were hospitalised with a first diagnosis of AIP were retrospectively compared with a control group of patients admitted with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), matched by gender and age. Setting Primary and secondary care level; one hospital serving a population of about 170 000. Participants A total of 51 patients with AIP were included, of whom 46 could be matched with 46 patients with control DVT. Only patients with a complete review of systems on the admission note were included in the study. Main outcome measure Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of AIP and an infectious episode (URTI or GE) in the month preceding AIP diagnosis. Results Patients with AIP had more often experienced a recent episode of URTI or GE than patients with DVT (39.1% vs 10.9%, p=0.002). The multivariate conditional regression showed that AIP was independently associated with URTI or GE in the last month preceding diagnosis (OR=37.18, 95% CI=1.91 to 724.98, p=0.017). Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study demonstrating an association between a recent episode of URTI or GE and a clinical diagnosis of AIP. PMID:26603247

  19. Sleep and wake phase of heart beat dynamics by artificial insymmetrised patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.

    2004-05-01

    In order to determine differences between healthy patients and patients with congestive heart failure we apply the artificial insymmetrised pattern (AIP) method. The AIP method by exploring a human eye ability to extract regularities and read symmetries in a dot pattern, serves a tool for qualitative discrimination of heart rate states.

  20. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH. PMID:25796467

  1. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  2. Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Tim A.; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M.; Yost, Garold S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Over a 3-y period, 906 000 cattle were monitored in 23 feedlots in southern Alberta for symptoms of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Plasma, urine, and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 299 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP and from 156 healthy penmates and analyzed for 3-methylindole (3MI) derivatives and reduced glutathione concentration. From each animal, the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Concentrations of glutathione in lung tissue were reduced (P < 0.001) in animals showing clinical symptoms of AIP as compared with their asymptomatic penmates. Animals histologically confirmed as having AIP had higher levels of 3MI protein adducts in blood and lung tissue (P < 0.05) than did emergency-slaughtered animals without AIP. Within feedlots, where pens of heifers were fed either a standard dosage of melengestrol acetate (MGA) or none, the rate of death attributable to AIP was similar between treatment groups, but emergency slaughter after clinical diagnosis of AIP was done 3.2 times more often (P < 0.001) in the MGA-fed heifers than in the group not fed MGA. Use of MGA did not influence glutathione concentration. As growth performance of heifers given steroidal implants may not be improved by feeding MGA, the most cost-effective method of reducing the incidence of AIP-related emergency slaughter in feedlot heifers may be to eliminate MGA from the diet. PMID:16850945

  3. Image-Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Apple Image-Processing Educator (AIPE) explores ability of microcomputers to provide personalized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in digital image processing of remotely sensed images. AIPE is "proof-of-concept" system, not polished production system. User-friendly prompts provide access to explanations of common features of digital image processing and of sample programs that implement these features.

  4. A career in theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. W.

    in Proc. of 12th Int. Conf. on Low Temperature Physics -- 29. Anomalous low-temperature thermal properties of glasses and spin glasses -- 30. Comments on the maximum superconducting transition temperature (with M. L. Cohen). Comment on "Model for an exciton mechanism of superconductivity" (with J. C. Inkson) -- 31. Resonating valence bonds: a new kind of insulator? -- 32. Anisotropic superfluidity in [symbol]He: a possible interpretation of its stability as a spin-fluctuation effect (with W. F. Brinkman) -- 33. Conference summary in Collective Properties of Physical Systems -- 34. Asymptotically exact methods in the Kondo problem (with G. Yuval) -- 35. Many-body effects at surfaces in Elementary Excitations in Solids, Molecules and Atoms -- 36. Conductivity from charge or spin density waves (with P. A. Lee and T. M. Rice) -- 37. Uses of solid state analogies in Elementary Particle Theory in Proc. of Conf. on Gauge Theories and Modern Field Theory -- 38. Possible consequences of negative U centers in amorphous materials -- 39. Theory of spin glasses (with S. F. Edwards) -- 40. Solution of "Solvable model of a spin glass" (with D. J. Thouless and R. G. Palmer) -- 41. Phase slippage without vortex cores: vortex textures in superfluid [symbol]He (with G. Toulouse) -- 42. Scaling theory of localization: absence of quantum diffusion in two dimensions (with E. Abrahams, D. C. Licciardello and T. V. Ramakrishnan) -- 43. Some general thoughts about broken symmetry in Symmetries and Broken Symmetries in Condensed Matter Physics -- 44. The rheology of neutron stars: vortex line pinning in the crust superfluid (with M. A. Alpar, D. Pines and J. Shaham) -- 45. Localization redux -- 46. New method for scaling theory of localization. II: multi-channel theory of a "wire" and possible extension to higher dimensionality -- 47. Definition and measurement of the electrical and thermal resistances (with H.-L. Engquist) -- 48. Suggested model for prebiotic evolution: the use of chaos

  5. Light Nitrogen in Lahrauli Ureilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, S. V. S.; Bhandari, N.

    1992-07-01

    carbonaceous chondrites (which have delta^15N>=40o/oo), are the main precursor material for ureilites. Preservation of isotopically distinct N-components, will be consistant with the heterogenous accretion of the ureilite parent body, as suggested by oxygen isotopes (Clayton and Mayeda, 1988). N isotopic studies in separated phases, aimed at identifying the carriers of different N-components are in progress. References: Bhandari, N., Shah V.G., and Graham A. (1981) Meteoritics 16, 185; Clayton, R.N. and Mayeda, T.K. (1988) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52, 1313; Goodrich, C.A., Jones, J.J., and Berkley, J.L. (1987) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51, 2255; Grady, M.M., Wright, I.P., Swart, P.K., and Pillinger, C.T. (1985) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 903; Grady, M.M. and Pillinger, C.T. (1986) Meteoritics 21, 375; Grady, M.M. and Pillinger, C.T. (1988) Nature 331, 321; Murty, S.V.S. and Goswami, J.N. (1991) 22nd Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. (Abstract) 947; Sturgeon, G. and Marti, K. (1991) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 21, 523.

  6. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    steps; 1) a truncated Weibull distribution is fitted to the sample of burned areas and 2) the quality of the fitted statistical model is improved by incorporating components of the FWI System as covariates. Obtained model allows estimating on a daily basis the probability of occurrence of fires larger than a given threshold as well as producing maps of fire risk. Results as obtained from a prototype currently being developed will be presented and discussed. In particular, it will be shown that results provide additional evidence of the known fact that the extent of burned area in Portugal is controlled by two main atmospheric factors (Pereira et al. 2005): i) a long-term control related to the regime of temperature and precipitation in spring and ii) a short-term control exerted by the occurrence of very intense dry spells in days of extreme synoptic situations. Bovio, G., and A. Camia. 1998. An analysis of large forest fire danger conditions in Europe. In Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Forest Fire Research & 14th Conf. on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Viegas, D.X. (Ed.), Luso, 16-20 Nov., ADAI, 975-994. Cumming, S.G., 2001. Parametric models of the fire size distribution. Can J. For. Res., 31, 1297-1303. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C. and Leite, S.M., 2005. Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal. Agr. and For. Meteorol., 129 (1-2), 11-25. Uppala, S.M. et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012. Van Wagner, C.E., 1987. Development and structure of the Canadian forest fire weather index system. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Technical Report 35, Ottawa, 37 pp.

  7. Theoretical and Experimental SHG Angular Intensity Patterns from Healthy and Proteolysed Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Rouède, Denis; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Schaub, Emmanuel; Recher, Gaëlle; Tiaho, François

    2013-01-01

    SHG angular intensity pattern (SHG-AIP) of healthy and proteolysed muscle tissues are simulated and imaged here for the first time to our knowledge. The role of the spatial distribution of second-order nonlinear emitters on SHG-AIP is highlighted. SHG-AIP with two symmetrical spots is found to be a signature of healthy muscle whereas SHG-AIP with one centered spot in pathological mdx muscle is found to be a signature of myofibrillar disorder. We also show that SHG-AIP provides information on the three-dimensional structural organization of myofibrils in physiological and proteolysed muscle. Our results open an avenue for future studies aimed at unraveling more complex physiological and pathological fibrillar tissues organization. PMID:23663839

  8. Using Ada for a distributed, fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewolf, J. B.; Sodano, N. M.; Whittredge, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that advanced avionics applications increasingly require underlying machine architectures which are damage and fault tolerant, and which provide access to distributed sensors, effectors and high-throughput computational resources. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), sponsored by NASA, is to provide an architecture which can meet the considered requirements. Ada was selected for implementing the AIPS system software. Advantages of Ada are related to its provisions for real-time programming, error detection, modularity and separate compilation, and standardization and portability. Chief drawbacks of this language are currently limited availability and maturity of language implementations, and limited experience in applying the language to real-time applications. The present investigation is concerned with current plans for employing Ada in the design of the software for AIPS. Attention is given to an overview of AIPS, AIPS software services, and representative design issues in each of four major software categories.

  9. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  10. Hypermethylation of MST1 in IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Takataro; Tomiyama, Takashi; Yasuda, Kaneki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Yoshio; Son, Yonsu; Nomura, Shosaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2015-08-07

    The serine/threonine kinase Mst1 plays important roles in the control of immune cell trafficking, proliferation, and differentiation. Previously, we reported that Mst1 was required for thymocyte selection and regulatory T-cell functions, thereby the prevention of autoimmunity in mice. In humans, MST1 null mutations cause T-cell immunodeficiency and hypergammaglobulinemia with autoantibody production. RASSF5C(RAPL) is an activator of MST1 and it is frequently methylated in some tumors. Herein, we investigated methylation of the promoter regions of MST1 and RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from patients with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased number of CpG methylation in the 5′ region of MST1 was detected in AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions, whereas AIP patients without extrapancreatic lesions were similar to controls. In RA patients, we detected a slight increased CpG methylation in MST1, although the overall number of methylation sites was lower than that of AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions. There were no significant changes of the methylation levels of the CpG islands in the 5′ region of RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from AIP and RA patients. Consistently, we found a significantly down-regulated expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells of AIP patients. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells due to hypermethylation of the promoter contributes to the pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP. - Highlights: • Mst1 controls immune cells trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. • Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an idiopathic pancreatitis affecting multiple organs. • Decreased MST1 expression and increased CpG methylation of promoter of MST1 in AIP. • Slight increased CpG methylation of MST1 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. • MST1 contributes pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP.

  11. Studies in Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Shigeru; Zalar, Gregory L.; Kappas, Attallah

    1978-01-01

    A 50% reduction in the activity of uroporphyrinogen-I (URO) synthase in liver, erythrocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts characterizes all patients with clinically active acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The same enzyme defect has also been demonstrated in the erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts of completely latent gene carriers of this disorder and presumably exists in the liver as well. In this study, we examined whether or not the formation of URO-synthase is impaired in AIP cells using lymphocytes treated with mitogens or infected with Epstein-Barr virus. Both mitogens (phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen) and Epstein-Barr virus induced the synthesis of URO-synthase in lymphocytes, but the induction of URO-synthase in AIP lymphocytes was only 50% as compared with that in normal lymphocytes. The impaired induction of URO-synthase in AIP lymphocytes reflects a specific gene defect because AIP lymphocytes showed normal [3H] thymidine uptake into DNA, [3H] uridine uptake into RNA, and normal δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase, ALA-dehydratase, catalase activities, and heme content. Utilizing the same methodology, the ferrochelatase deficiency of hereditary erythropoietic protoporphyria could also be identified. The Km of the induced URO-synthase in AIP cells was identical to that of the enzyme in normal cells. The induced URO-synthase of mitogen-treated AIP lymphocytes was not accompanied by a concurrent enhanced level of ALA-synthase. Moreover, the URO-synthase deficiency in lymphocytes from actively ill AIP patients was not different from the level of enzyme activity when they were in clinical remission, or when compared with the enzyme activity of cells from completely latent AIP gene carriers. The results of this study indicate that the URO-synthase deficiency in AIP may be the result of a gene mutation regulating the rate of synthesis of a normal enzyme rather than a mutation causing a structural abnormality of this enzyme protein. PMID:621286

  12. Two EDF graphs for assessing agreement between paired data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is intended for those familiar with PROC GPLOT from SAS/GRAPH® and PROCs MEANS, TTEST, and NPAR1WAY in SAS/STAT®. Via macro procedures, two graphs related to the Smirnoff D statistic are developed to aid in the assessment of agreement between paired data. The first is a PROC GPLOT version...

  13. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As w...

  14. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying the data. They can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). ...

  15. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

  16. Two macros for producing graphs to assess agreement between two variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is intended for those familiar with PROC GPLOT from SAS/GRAPH®1 and PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC CORR from base SAS®. Via macro procedures, two graphs are developed to aid in the assessment of agreement between two variables. The first is a variant on a mean-difference plot, the second is a...

  17. D06: Graphs to aid in concordance analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is intended for those familiar with PROC GPLOT from SAS/GRAPH® and PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC CORR from base SAS®. Via macro procedures, two graphs are developed to aid in the assessment of agreement between two variables. The first is a variant on a mean-difference plot, the second is a va...

  18. Use of different sampling schemes in machine learning-based prediction of hydrological models' uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Solomatine, Dimitri; Lal Shrestha, Durga; van Griensven, Ann

    2013-04-01

    to sue a dynamic averaging scheme to generate the final output. [1] N. Kayastha, D. L. Shrestha and D. P. Solomatine. Experiments with several methods of parameter uncertainty estimation in hydrological modeling. Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. on Hydroinformatics, Tianjin, China, September 2010. [2] D. L. Shrestha, N. Kayastha, and D. P. Solomatine. A novel approach to parameter uncertainty analysis of hydrological models using neural networks. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1235-1248, 2009.

  19. Modeling of the Guagua Pichincha volcano (Ecuador) lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuti, Paolo; Casagli, Nicola; Catani, Filippo; Falorni, Giacomo

    Lahars, here defined as debris flows of volcanic origin, are rapid mass movements that pose a serious threat to cities located in the vicinity of many volcanoes. Quito, capital city of Ecuador and placed at the foot of the Pichincha volcano complex, is exposed to serious inundation hazard as part of the city is built on numerous deposits of large lahars that have occurred in the last 10,000 years. The objective of this paper is to model the potential lahars of the Pichincha volcano to predict inundation areas within the city of Quito. For this purpose two models that apply different approaches were utilized and their results were compared. The programs used were LAHARZ, a semi-empirical model conceived by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and FLO-2D, a hydraulic model distributed by FLO Software Inc. LAHARZ is designed as a rapid, objective and reproducible automated method for mapping areas of potential lahar inundation (Proc. First Int. Conf. on Debris Flow Hazards Mitigation, San Francisco, USA, ASCE, 1998, p. 176). FLO-2D is a two-dimensional flood routing model for simulating overland flow on complex surfaces such as floodplains, alluvial fans or urbanized areas (FLO-2D Users manual, version 99.2). Both models run within geographical information systems (GIS). Fieldwork was focused on collecting all available information involved in lahar modeling. A total of 49 channel cross-sections were measured along the two main streams and stratigraphic investigations were carried out on the fans to estimate the volume of previous events. A global positioning system was utilized to determine the coordinates of each cross-section. Further data collection concerned topography, rainfall characteristics and ashfall thicknesses. All fieldwork was carried out in cooperation with the Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional. Modeling in a GIS environment greatly aided the exportation of results for the creation of thematic maps and facilitated model

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of tungsten redeposition at the divertor target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankin, A. V.; Coster, D. P.; Dux, R.

    2014-02-01

    Recent modeling of controlled edge-localized modes (ELMs) in ITER with tungsten (W) divertor target plates by the SOLPS code package predicted high electron temperatures (>100 eV) and densities (>1 × 1021 m-3) at the outer target. Under certain scenarios W sputtered during ELMs can penetrate into the core in quantities large enough to cause deterioration of the discharge performance, as was shown by coupled SOLPS5.0/STRAHL/ASTRA runs. The net sputtering yield, however, was expected to be dramatically reduced by the ‘prompt redeposition’ during the first Larmor gyration of W1+ (Fussman et al 1995 Proc. 15th Int. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (Vienna: IAEA) vol 2, p 143). Under high ne/Te conditions at the target during ITER ELMs, prompt redeposition would reduce W sputtering by factor p-2 ˜ 104 (with p ≡ τionωgyro ˜ 0.01). However, this relation does not include the effects of multiple ionizations of sputtered W atoms and the electric field in the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS, or ‘Chodura sheath’) and Debye sheath (DS). Monte Carlo simulations of W redeposition with the inclusion of these effects are described in the paper. It is shown that for p ≪ 1, the inclusion of multiple W ionizations and the electric field in the MPS and DS changes the physics of W redeposition from geometrical effects of circular gyro-orbits hitting the target surface, to mainly energy considerations; the key effect is the electric potential barrier for ions trying to escape into the main plasma. The overwhelming majority of ions are drawn back to the target by a strong attracting electric field. It is also shown that the possibility of a W self-sputtering avalanche by ions circulating in the MPS can be ruled out due to the smallness of the sputtered W neutral energies, which means that they do not penetrate very far into the MPS before ionizing; thus the W ions do not gain a large kinetic energy as they are accelerated back to the surface by the

  1. Comparing the topographic long profiles of gullies on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Susan; Balme, Matthew; Murray, John; Towner, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Liquid water is not stable under the present atmospheric conditions on the martian surface. Hence, the discovery of widespread recently active kilometre-scale gullies that resemble those carved by water on Earth [1,2], was extremely surprising. Some authors suggest that either carbon dioxide driven processes or dry mass wasting could explain these features [3-6]. However, recent work has shown that some aspects of gully-morphology, such as braiding and streamlined features, are hard to explain with these mechanisms [e.g., 7,8]. In this study we have used topographic long profiles to investigate the formation mechanism of martian gullies. On Earth it is recognised that certain forms of long-profiles can be linked to a particular process, for example, at equilibrium fluvial systems have a profile curve of exponential decay [9]. However, these shapes have not been generalised for kilometre-scale landforms, such as gullies. We used differential GPS data and airborne laser altimeter data on Earth (LiDAR) from NSA-funded NCALM and UK's NERC ARSF to generate profile-data for gullies with a fluvial and debris flow origin. On Mars we used stereo-images from the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pix) and generated the gully-profiles using the manual point-matching method of Kreslavsky [10]. We found that the shape of gully long profiles on Mars is similar to that of both fluvial and debris flow gullies on Earth. However, more of the martian gullies we have studied are similar to fluvial gullies than to debris flow gullies. The slopes of the gully long profiles on Mars tend to be shallower than fluvial gullies on Earth, but this can be accounted for by the difference in gravity between Earth and Mars. References cited: [1] M.C. Malin and K.S. Edgett, Science, (2000), 288,2330-2335.[2] M.C. Malin et al., Science, (2006), 314,1573-1577. [3] T. Shinbrot et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U A, (2004), 101,8542-8546. [4] S. Diniega et al., Icarus, (2013), 225,526-537. [5] T. Ishii and S. Sasaki, Lunar

  2. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  3. Compressive Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles within Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations and Theory Relevant to the Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) over Solar Cycles 22-24 included the measurement of their pitch-angle distributions (PADs). When only magnetically "well-connected" SEP events were selected, i.e., with the spacecraft on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines whose coronal foot-points were within about 30 deg of the associated flare site, the PADs were usually "beam-like" during the rise-to-maximum phase (RTM) of the events. This nearly "scatter-free" propagation (due to magnetic focusing of the IMF) revealed that the injection times of the SEPs were delayed up to 10s of minutes after the onset of electromagnetic emissions from the flare. Direct comparison with the flare-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the western hemisphere indicated that the SEP acceleration/injection was occurring at least 1 Rs into the corona (and often continuing well above that radial distance). Moreover, the RTM profiles exhibited a continuum of shapes, from "spikes" to "pulses" to "ramps", and these shape characterizations ordered the properties of the associated CMEs. Most importantly, when compared at nearly the same near-relativistic velocities, electrons and protons exhibited similar PADs and RTM profiles. Clearly, such orderly patterns in the data call for a single dominant acceleration process that treats all particles of similar velocities the same, regardless of mass and charge. A simple theory that meets all of these requirements, based on nearly scatter-free propagation and energy change within particle "reservoirs" (such as the closed magnetic structure of a CME), has recently been proposed [Roelof, Proc. 14th Ann. Int'l. Astrophys. Conf., IOP, in press, 2015]. The acceleration results from compression (-divV) of the driver plasma, well sunward of the CME shock. Acceleration (e-folding) times of only a few minutes can be obtained from representative parameters of 1000 km/s CMEs. A companion paper [Roelof and Vourlidas, op. cit.], proposed a new

  4. Has Martian History Been Dominated by Explosive Rather than Effusive Volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, J. L.; Edwards, C. S.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    appears that Mars has a unique style of crustal formation that is distinct from that of the Moon and the other terrestrial planets. References: McEwen, A. S., and 14 colleagues (2007) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). J. Geophys. Res., 112, 10.1029/2005JE002605. Pike, R.J. (1980) Control of crater morphology by gravity and target type - Mars, earth, moon. Proc. Lun. Planet. Sci. Conf., 11, 2159-2189. Schultz, R. A. (2002) Stability of rock slopes in Valles Marineris, Mars. Geophys. Res. Let., 29, 10.1029/2002GL015728. Stewart, S. T. and G. J. Valiant (2006) Martian subsurface properties and crater formation processes inferred from fresh impact crater geometries. Meteor. Planet. Sci., 41, 1509-1537.

  5. Constraints on Lunar Heat Flow Rates from Diviner Lunar Radiometer Polar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The heat flow rate from the lunar interior is a fundamental property of the moon that is related to its composition, interior structure and history. Lunar heat flow rates have been measured at the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites [1], but it is widely believed that the measured values of 0.021 Wm-2 and 0.016 Wm-2 respectively may not be representative of the moon as a whole due to the presence of enhanced radiogenic elements at these landing sites [2]. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [3] has acquired an extensive set of thermal emission from the lunar surface at infrared wavelengths, including the first radiometric measurements of surface temperatures at the lunar poles [4]. Due to its low obliquity and rough topography, the moon has extensive cryogenic regions at high latitudes that never receive direct sunlight. The temperatures of the coldest of these regions can be used to place upper limits on the heat flow rate from the lunar interior because if other heat sources are neglected, then surface thermal emission is balanced by heat flow from warmer lunar interior [5]. Diviner has mapped the north and south polar regions over a complete annual cycle and we have identified a 4 km2 area within Hermite Crater in the north polar region that has a winter season nighttime Channel 9 (100-400 micron) brightness temperatures in of less than 20K. These low temperatures would imply a lunar heat flow rate of less than 0.010 Wm-2, which may be consistent with expectations for regions of the moon that do not contain enhanced concentrations of radiogenic elements [2,6], as is the case for the north polar region of the moon [7]. [1] Langseth, M. G. et al, Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf, 7th, 3143-3171, 1976. [2] Warren, P. H. and K. K. L. Rasmussen, JGR 92, 3453-3465, 1987. [3] Paige, D. A. et al, Space Sci. Rev, 150:125-160, 2010. [4] Paige, D. A. et al., Science, in press, 2010. [5] Watson, K. JGR 72, 3301-3302, 1967. [6] Wieczorek, M. A. and R

  6. Progress Report on the 1.8-meter Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, R. S.; Bressi, T. H.; Descour, A. S.; Gehrels, T.; Larsen, J. A.; Montani, J. L.; Perry, M. L.; Read, M. T.; Tubbiolo, A. F.

    1998-09-01

    The Spacewatch Project was begun "...to build and to place into operation a 182-cm scanning camera ... dedicated primarily to the search for small bodies of special interest in the solar system. Discovery of new earth-crossing asteroids, distant comets, and new classes of objects, such as Chiron...are among the goals..." (Gehrels 1980; Proposal). Work continues toward first light with the recently constructed 1.8-m Spacewatch Telescope (Barr 1993, internal report; Perry et al. 1996 BAAS 28, 1096). The servo controlled friction drives are being aligned, programmed, and tested (Perry et al. 1998 Proc. SPIE 3351, 450-465). The coma corrector/field flattener has been designed by Optical Design Services of Tucson with a field of view 0.8 deg in diameter and an image scale of 1.0 arcsec/24 micron pixel. Analyses for stray light and ghost images are being done by INOV, Inc. of Tucson. An SI424-AB thinned, back illuminated, antireflection-coated 2Kx2K CCD of excellent cosmetic quality has been received from SITe, Inc. of Beaverton, OR and its control and readout system is on order from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. of San Diego, CA. This system will be able to drift scan up to four times the sidereal rate along the ecliptic, as well as scan at subsidereal rates for more sensitivity. Four quadrant readout will permit efficient operation in "stop-and-stare" mode. A 400 MHz Pentium PC with 512 MB of SDRAM and 41 GB of disk will run Larsen's (1998 this Conf.) image motion software under Linux to detect asteroids and comets 40 efficiently than our 1989-vintage software. Limiting R mag will be 22 while scanning at the sidereal rate. In this mode the rate of coverage of sky will be 2000 square deg per year. Fainter magnitudes can be reached in longer "staring" exposures, while area coverage can be as much as 8000 square degrees per year with fast scanning. Funds are from DoD, NASA, and the private sector.

  7. Comparison of a beach parametric morphodynamic model results with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Caroline; Silva, Paulo A.; Baptista, Paulo; Abreu, Tiago

    2014-05-01

    unsaturated surf zones, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 34, 173-196. Baptista P, Cunha TR, Matias A, Gama C, Bernardes C, Ferreira O., 2011a. New land-based method for surveying sandy shores and extracting DEMs: the INSHORE system, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 182, 243-257. Baptista PRB, Bernardes C, Cunha TR, 2011b. The validation analysis of the INSHORE system-a precise and efficient coastal survey system, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179, 589-604. Battjes, JA, Janssen, JPFM, 1978. Energy Loss and Set-up due to Breaking of Random Waves Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Coastal Engineering, ASCE, Hamburg, Vol. 1, 569-587.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Lunar Samples: an Exhaustive Survey of the Apollo Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Andrade Lima, E.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Uehara, M.; Quesnel, Y.; Baratchart, L.; Leblond, J.; Chevillard, S.

    2014-12-01

    é 1970. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf. 3:2093-96 [9] Rochette et al. 2010. EPSL 292:383-391.

  9. The Importance of In Situ Measurements and Sample Return in the Search for Chemical Biosignatures on Mars or other Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Conrad, P. G.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    ) In The Chemistry of Life's Origin, pp. 209-258. [2] Summons et al. (2008) Space Sci. Rev. 135, 133. [3] Mahaffy, P. R. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev. 170, 401. [4] Getty, S. A. et al. (2013) IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proc. 10.1109/AERO.2013.6497391.

  10. Earth and Moon Observations by Thermal Infrared Imager TIR on Hayabusa2 and Applications to Asteroid 162173 Ryugu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    The Earth and the Moon were imaged by the thermal infrared imager TIR on Hayabusa2 during the Earth swing-by operation to change the trajectory of the spacecraft with a gravity assist of the Earth's mass. Hayabusa2 is the second sample-return from a near-Earth asteroid organized by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and will visit and explore C-type small asteroid 162173 Ryugu, collect samples from the surface of the asteroid, and return them to the Earth [1-3]. TIR is a thermal infrared imager based on uncooled micro-bolometer array. It covers the temperature range from 150 to 460 K, and resolves the surface by 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels with 0.05° per pixel [4, 5]. After the launch on 3 December 2014, TIR has been proven to work well by function tests, and its operation temperature has been adjusted by using the in-flight deep sky images. On 14 October 2015, TIR has detected the Earth and the Moon simultaneously from the distance of 2 x 107 km, and the alignment of -Z axis between TIR and the spacecraft attitude control system was checked. Afterwards, the Earth-Moon system were imaged many times and we could determine the alignment more precisely. Just after the Earth swing-by, TIR observed the Earth on 4 December 2015 and the Moon on the next day. We compared those thermal images with the calculated temperatures on the Earth and the Moon. It was a good opportunity to check the performance of thermal radiometry of this instrument, because there is no known calibration target before arrival at Ryugu. We found the temperature pattern on the Earth and the Moon are almost equal to the theoretical estimates [6]. The point spread feature shows that a point is imaged as a point, just the same as taken during the pre-flight tests. More detailed results will be presented. References: [1] Tsuda Y. et al. (2013) Acta. Astronautica, 91, 356-362. [2] Tachibana S. et al. (2014) Geochemical Journal, 48, 571-587. [3] Okada T. (2014) Proc. Intl. CJMT-1 workshop on

  11. Re-analysis of previous laboratory phase curves: 2. Connections between opposition effect morphology and spectral features of stony meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déau, Estelle; Spilker, Linda J.; Flandes, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We investigate connections between the opposition phase curves and the spectra from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths of stony meteorites. We use two datasets: the reflectance dataset of Capaccioni et al. ([1990] Icarus, 83, 325), which consists of optical phase curves (from 2° to 45°) of 17 stony meteorites (three carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, and three achondrites), and the spectral dataset from the RELAB database consisting of near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectra of the same meteorites. We re-analyzed the first dataset and fit it with two morphological models to derive the amplitude A, the angular width HWHM of the surge and the slope S of the linear part. Our re-analysis confirms that stony meteorites have a non-monotonic behavior of the surge amplitude with albedo, which is also observed in planetary surfaces (Déau et al. [2013] Icarus, 226, 1465), laboratory samples (Nelson et al. [2004] Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf., 35, p. 1089) and asteroids (Belskaya and Shevchenko [2000] Icarus, 147, 94). We find a very strong correlation between the opposition effect morphological parameters and the slope of the spectra between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. In particular, we found that meteorites with a positive amplitude-albedo correlation have a positive spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm, while meteorites with a negative amplitude-albedo correlation have a negative spectral slope between 0.75 μm and 0.95 μm. We have ruled out the role of the meteorite samples' macro-properties (grain size, porosity and macroscopic roughness) in the correlations found because these properties were constant during the preparation of the samples. If this hypothesis is correct, this implies that other properties like the composition or the micro-properties (grain inclusions, grain shape or microscopic roughness) could have a preponderant role in the non-monotonic behavior of the surge morphology with albedo at small and moderate phase angles. Further

  12. Fullerene ion (C 60+) damage in Si at 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hao; Brink, C.; Hvelplund, P.; Shiryaev, S.; Shi, PeiXiong; Davies, J. A.

    1997-07-01

    A series of low-dose (< 5 × 10 12 ions cm -2) fullerene ion implantations in silicon has been carried out at 25°C over the energy range 100-530 keV. The resulting damage was measured quantitatively by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), using 2.0 MeV helium ions. This is an extension of an earlier study [J.B. Mitchell, J.A. Davies, L.M. Howe, R.S. Walker, K.B. Winterbon, G. Foti and J.A. Moore, Proc. 4th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, (Plenum Press, New York, 1975), p. 493.] of cluster-ion damage in Si where we had observed a 15-fold increase in damage-creation efficiency — i.e., the number of displaced Si atoms per keV of deposited energy — in going from (8.8 keV) monatomic carbon to (53 keV) C 6+. Using the same 8.8 keV per carbon, we find that a 530 keV fullerene (C 60+) ion displaces 100 times more Si atoms than a 53 keV C 6+ ion; thus C 60+ exhibits an additional 10-fold increase in damage creation efficiency compared to C 6+. At 100 keV, the deposited (nuclear) energy density θ within the central core of each C 60+ cascade (˜ 1.5 ev per Si atom) is considerably larger than the Si heat of melting. Not surprisingly, the observed number of displaced Si atoms also exceeds the theoretical cascade volume, thus providing strong evidence for some sort of spike effect. Despite the high damage levels involved, scanning tunneling microscopy revealed no evidence of any anomalous surface structures or craters. Comparison of the present C 60+ data with earlier Si implantation studies, where a variety of ions (C, Ga, As, Sb, Te, Bi) and energies (10-60 keV) had been used, confirms the previous suggestion that room temperature damage in Si is governed mainly by the cascade energy density θ (eV/atom).

  13. Pulsars at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P.

    1994-04-01

    The atmospheric Cerenkov technique is used to search for emission at energies above several hundred GeV from a variety of objects, including pulsars (see, e.g., reviews by Weekes, 1988, Phys. Rep., 160, 1; Weekes, 1992, Sp. Sci. Rev., 59, 315). Claims for TeV emission (from any source) should be of high significance, show gamma-ray-like properties, and be independently confirmed. By these criteria the Crab nebula is currently the only established pulsar-driven system to be observed at TeV energies (Weekes et al., 1989, Astrophys. J., 342, 379; Vacanti et al., 1991, Astrophys. J., 377, 467; Goret et al., 1993, Astron. Astrophys., 270, 401). The gamma-ray signal is not pulsed at TeV energies, leading to models of synchrotron self-Compton emission from the Crab nebula (e.g., De Jager and Harding, 1992, Astrophys. J., 396, 161), although other models have also been proposed (Kwok et al., 1991, Astrophys. J., 379, 653). While claims exist for TeV emission from, amongst others, the Vela pulsar (e.g., Bhat et al., 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 178, 242, Geminga (Vishwanath et al., 1993, Astron. Astrophys., 267, L5; Bowden et al., 1993, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 19, L29), and PSR 1509-58 (Nel et al., 1992, Astrophys. Proc. 23rd Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., 1, 392), is of great interest but has yet to be confirmed. Several recently discovered millisecond pulsars have high values of E-dot/d2 (due to their proximity) and are thus potentially observable TeV sources. *The detection of TeV gamma-rays from millisecond pulsars has been considered recently by Smith (1993, Astrophys. -J., 408, 468).

  14. Pavlovian conditioning in the rabbit during inactivation of the interpositus nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, J P; Harvey, J A

    1991-01-01

    1. We have examined the role of the anterior interpositus nucleus (AIP) of the cerebellum in Pavlovian conditioning of the nictitating membrane response (NMR) of the rabbit with the use of reversible brain lesions produced by the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Previous experiments have demonstrated that destructive lesions of the AIP prevent the performance of conditioned NMRs (CRs). Microinjections of lidocaine into the AIP were used in the present experiment to determine whether the deficit in the performance of CRs resulted from a deficit in learning or memory. 2. A 3-phase procedure was employed to determine whether associative learning required the function of the AIP. In phase 1, rabbits were trained to make CRs to a flashing-light conditioned stimulus (CS) that was paired with an air-puff unconditioned stimulus (UCS) directed at the cornea. In phase 2, the AIP was anaesthetized during a session of conditioning in which a tone CS was paired with the UCS. Presentations of the light CS were interpolated throughout the tone conditioning in order to monitor the degree to which CRs were impaired by lidocaine. Phase 3 occurred after the effects of the lidocaine had dissipated and consisted of a test of retention to determine whether learning occurred during phase 2 but could not be expressed because of a performance deficit resulting from the inactivation of the AIP. 3. Infusion of lidocaine into the AIP abolished CRs to the light CS and prevented the performance of CRs to the tone CS in phase 2. The effect of the infusion was specifically due to a conduction block of neurons and/or fibres in the lateral aspect of the AIP. The infusion of lidocaine into regions surrounding the AIP did not affect CRs elicited by the light CS or prevent acquisition of CRs to the tone. Infusions of saline directly into the AIP did not impair the performance of CRs to either the tone or light CS. Quantitative analysis of diffusion revealed that the abolition of CRs was accompanied by

  15. Potential for in situ carbonation of peridotite for geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Matter, J.; Streit, L.; Rudge, J.; Spiegelman, M.

    2008-12-01

    , then armoring of unreacted peridotite minerals with carbonate reaction products will lead to decreasing rates. In Oman, there is a marked difference between (a) mildly carbonated peridotite, in which partially serpentinized, olivine-rich rocks host carbonate veins, and reaction products lack talc and quartz, and (b) rarer, completely carbonated peridotite composed of carbonate + talc and/or quartz with no remaining olivine. This suggests that the natural system has accessed both self-limiting and self-catalyzing conditions over time [2]. It is vital to use observations and models to predict conditions that cause reaction driven cracking and exothermic heating, and test predictions in field studies. We are just beginning this work. [1] Kelemen & Matter, Proc Nat Acad Sci 2008, in press [2] Kelemen, Matter & Streit, Proc Conf Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental & Materials Eng., 2008, in press

  16. Study of Gas and Plasma Conditions in the High Isp VASIMR Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishchev, O.; Molvig, K.

    2002-01-01

    Internal electrode-free VASIMR thruster [1-3] consists of three major sections: plasma production, plasma heating, and plasma exhaust. In our previous works [6-10] we have performed an extensive study of plasma dynamics in the plasma source. We have developed several models of helicon plasma discharge utilizing hydrogen (deuterium) gas, and analyzed its performance in the experimental set-up [4-5]. In the present work we are trying to expand and apply existing models to the helium gas propellant case. Though the specific impulse is somewhat lower with heavier helium atoms, but unlike hydrogenic species helium doesn't form molecules, and therefore shows less radiative losses. We extend 0-D plasma-chemistry, 1-D mixed-collisional and kinetic gas flow models [11] to characterize gas/plasma composition and condition in the helium helicon discharge. Recent experiments suggest that there is a strong dependence of both VASIMR 1st and 2nd stage performance on the magnetic field mirror ratio in the VX-10 experimental configuration. We study effects of the plasma particles trapping in a strong magnetic field and their acceleration by the combination of the mirror force and ambipolar potential for the typical VASIMR experiment conditions. We also discuss possibility for plasma instabilities and comment on the micro-scale plasma transport in the VASIMR thruster. [1] Chang Díaz F.R., "Research Status of The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket", Proc. 39th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics (Pittsburgh, PA, 1997), Bulletin of APS, 42 (1997) 2057. [2] Chang Díaz, F. R., Squire, J. P., Carter, M., et al., `'Recent Progress on the VASIMR'', Proc. 41th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics (Seattle, WA, 1999), Bulletin of APS, 44 (1999) 99. [3] Chang Díaz, F. R., Squire, J. P., Ilin, A. V., et al. "The Development of the VASIMR Engine", Proceedings of International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA99), Sept. 13

  17. Parentless Fission and Radiogenic Xe in Lunar Breccia 14301 Studied by Closed-System Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1993-07-01

    radiogenic 129Xe, including those that are devoid of fission Xe. This corroborates that at least part of the 129Xe(sub)rad is sited in places more resistant to etching than the fission Xe [2]. The noble gas data reveal the existence of several phases of different etchability, as expected for a bulk sample. It is conceivable that the 129Xe(sub)rad resides more deeply in the grains than the fission Xe or that the more acid resistant phases (e.g., mineral grains?) may contain 129Xe(sub)rad but no fission Xe. CSSE analyses of mineral separates may help to decide between the alternatives. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. References: [1] Drozd R. et al. (1972) EPSL, 15, 338-346. [2] Bernatowicz T. J. et al. (1979) Proc. LPSC 10th, 1587-1616. [3] Hohenberg C. M. et al. (1980) Proc. Conf. Lunar Highlands Crust, 419-439. [4] Wieler R. et al. GCA, 50, 1997-2017. [5] Wieler R. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 1525-1526.

  18. Hybrid kappa\\lambda antibody is a new serological marker to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis and differentiate it from pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Mingju; Li, Wenli; Yi, Lang; Yu, Songlin; Fan, Gaowei; Lu, Tian; Yang, Xin; Wang, Guojing; Zhang, Dong; Ding, Jiansheng; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The only generally accepted serological marker currently used for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is IgG4. Our aim was mainly to determine whether hybrid κ\\λ antibody can help to diagnose AIP and to differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to measure the levels of hybrid κ\\λ antibodies in human sera. Sera were obtained from 338 patients, including 61 with AIP, 74 with pancreatic cancer, 50 with acute pancreatitis, 40 with ordinary chronic pancreatitis, 15 with miscellaneous pancreatic diseases, and 98 with normal pancreas. Our study showed levels of hybrid κ\\λ antibodies in the AIP group were significantly higher than in the non-AIP group (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of AIP were 80.3%, 91%, 66.2% and 95.5% respectively. Furthermore, the combined measurement of serum hybrid κ\\λ antibody and IgG4 tended to increase the sensitivity although the difference was not statistically significant (90.2% vs. 78.7%, P = 0.08), compared to measurement of IgG4 alone. Our findings suggest that hybrid κ\\λ antibody could be a new serological marker to diagnose AIP and differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. PMID:27271825

  19. Hybrid kappa\\lambda antibody is a new serological marker to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis and differentiate it from pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Mingju; Li, Wenli; Yi, Lang; Yu, Songlin; Fan, Gaowei; Lu, Tian; Yang, Xin; Wang, Guojing; Zhang, Dong; Ding, Jiansheng; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The only generally accepted serological marker currently used for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is IgG4. Our aim was mainly to determine whether hybrid κ\\λ antibody can help to diagnose AIP and to differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. We established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to measure the levels of hybrid κ\\λ antibodies in human sera. Sera were obtained from 338 patients, including 61 with AIP, 74 with pancreatic cancer, 50 with acute pancreatitis, 40 with ordinary chronic pancreatitis, 15 with miscellaneous pancreatic diseases, and 98 with normal pancreas. Our study showed levels of hybrid κ\\λ antibodies in the AIP group were significantly higher than in the non-AIP group (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of AIP were 80.3%, 91%, 66.2% and 95.5% respectively. Furthermore, the combined measurement of serum hybrid κ\\λ antibody and IgG4 tended to increase the sensitivity although the difference was not statistically significant (90.2% vs. 78.7%, P = 0.08), compared to measurement of IgG4 alone. Our findings suggest that hybrid κ\\λ antibody could be a new serological marker to diagnose AIP and differentiate it from pancreatic cancer. PMID:27271825

  20. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  1. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001). AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11), the intermediate (0.11-0.21) and the increased (>0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665-0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706-0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China. PMID:27598187

  2. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lagonigro, Maria Stefania; Magri, Flavia; Koziak, Maria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Brauner, Raja; Bouligand, Jerome; Junier, Marie Pierre; Di Rocco, Federico; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Beckers, Albert; Roux, François Xavier; Daly, Adrian F; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are not sufficient. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headache caused by large pituitary macroadenomas require emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically, the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical characteristics. The adenomas were accompanied by multiple areas of pituitary hyperplasia, which stained positively for GH, indicating somatotrope hyperplasia. Genetic analyses of the FIPA kindred revealed a novel E216X mutation of the AIP gene, which was present in both the affected patients and the unaffected father. Molecular analysis of surgical specimens revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the adenoma but showed that LOH was not present in the hyperplastic pituitary tissue from either patient. AIP immunostaining confirmed normal staining in the hyperplastic tissue and decreased staining in the adenoma in the tumors from both patients. These results demonstrate that patients with AIP germline mutation can present with silent somatotrope pituitary adenomas. The finding of somatotrope hyperplasia unaccompanied by AIP LOH suggests that LOH at the AIP locus might be a late event in a potential progression from hyperplastic to adenomatous tissue. PMID:21450940

  3. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. PMID:26908609

  4. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Omid; Kleinhans, Ashley; Matallanas, Eduardo; Selby, Ben; Tripp, Bryan P

    2014-01-01

    The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP) encodes visual information about three-dimensional object shape that is used to shape the hand for grasping. We modeled shape tuning in visual AIP neurons and its relationship with curvature and gradient information from the caudal intraparietal area (CIP). The main goal was to gain insight into the kinds of shape parameterizations that can account for AIP tuning and that are consistent with both the inputs to AIP and the role of AIP in grasping. We first experimented with superquadric shape parameters. We considered superquadrics because they occupy a role in robotics that is similar to AIP, in that superquadric fits are derived from visual input and used for grasp planning. We also experimented with an alternative shape parameterization that was based on an Isomap dimension reduction of spatial derivatives of depth (i.e., distance from the observer to the object surface). We considered an Isomap-based model because its parameters lacked discontinuities between similar shapes. When we matched the dimension of the Isomap to the number of superquadric parameters, the superquadric model fit the AIP data somewhat more closely. However, higher-dimensional Isomaps provided excellent fits. Also, we found that the Isomap parameters could be approximated much more accurately than superquadric parameters by feedforward neural networks with CIP-like inputs. We conclude that Isomaps, or perhaps alternative dimension reductions of visual inputs to AIP, provide a promising model of AIP electrophysiology data. Further work is needed to test whether such shape parameterizations actually provide an effective basis for grasp control. PMID:25386134

  5. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip — delineated on AIP, GTVmip — delineated on MIP and GTVfus — delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals −0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  6. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS.

  7. Structural Basis for Ligand Recognition and Discrimination of a Quorum-quenching Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Garner, Amanda L.; Flack, Caralyn E.; Mee, Jenny M.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Janda, Kim D.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2011-09-16

    In the postantibiotic era, available treatment options for severe bacterial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become limited. Therefore, new and innovative approaches are needed to combat such life-threatening infections. Virulence factor expression in S. aureus is regulated in a cell density-dependent manner using 'quorum sensing,' which involves generation and secretion of autoinducing peptides (AIPs) into the surrounding environment to activate a bacterial sensor kinase at a particular threshold concentration. Mouse monoclonal antibody AP4-24H11 was shown previously to blunt quorum sensing-mediated changes in gene expression in vitro and protect mice from a lethal dose of S. aureus by sequestering the AIP signal. We have elucidated the crystal structure of the AP4-24H11 Fab in complex with AIP-4 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution to determine its mechanism of ligand recognition. A key GluH95 provides much of the binding specificity through formation of hydrogen bonds with each of the four amide nitrogens in the AIP-4 macrocyclic ring. Importantly, these structural data give clues as to the interactions between the cognate staphylococcal AIP receptors AgrC and the AIPs, as AP4-24H11 {center_dot} AIP-4 binding recapitulates features that have been proposed for AgrC-AIP recognition. Additionally, these structural insights may enable the engineering of AIP cross-reactive antibodies or quorum quenching vaccines for use in active or passive immunotherapy for prevention or treatment of S. aureus infections.

  8. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Omid; Kleinhans, Ashley; Matallanas, Eduardo; Selby, Ben; Tripp, Bryan P.

    2014-01-01

    The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP) encodes visual information about three-dimensional object shape that is used to shape the hand for grasping. We modeled shape tuning in visual AIP neurons and its relationship with curvature and gradient information from the caudal intraparietal area (CIP). The main goal was to gain insight into the kinds of shape parameterizations that can account for AIP tuning and that are consistent with both the inputs to AIP and the role of AIP in grasping. We first experimented with superquadric shape parameters. We considered superquadrics because they occupy a role in robotics that is similar to AIP, in that superquadric fits are derived from visual input and used for grasp planning. We also experimented with an alternative shape parameterization that was based on an Isomap dimension reduction of spatial derivatives of depth (i.e., distance from the observer to the object surface). We considered an Isomap-based model because its parameters lacked discontinuities between similar shapes. When we matched the dimension of the Isomap to the number of superquadric parameters, the superquadric model fit the AIP data somewhat more closely. However, higher-dimensional Isomaps provided excellent fits. Also, we found that the Isomap parameters could be approximated much more accurately than superquadric parameters by feedforward neural networks with CIP-like inputs. We conclude that Isomaps, or perhaps alternative dimension reductions of visual inputs to AIP, provide a promising model of AIP electrophysiology data. Further work is needed to test whether such shape parameterizations actually provide an effective basis for grasp control. PMID:25386134

  9. Circadian Rhythms in Acute Intermittent Porphyria—a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Larion, Sebastian; Caballes, F. Ryan; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Gyun; Rossman, Whitney Ellefson; Parsons, Judy; Steuerwald, Nury; Li, Ting; Maddukuri, Vinaya; Groseclose, Gale; Finkielstein, Carla V.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of heme synthesis wherein a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen [PBG] deaminase [PBGD], with other factors may give rise to biochemical and clinical manifestations of disease. The biochemical hallmarks of active AIP are relative hepatic heme deficiency and uncontrolled up-regulation of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1 [ALAS1] with overproduction of ALA and PBG. The treatment of choice is intravenous heme, which restores the deficient regulatory heme pool of the liver and represses ALAS1. Recently, heme has been shown to influence circadian rhythms by controlling their negative feedback loops. We evaluated whether subjects with AIP exhibited an altered circadian profile. Over a 21 h period, we measured levels of serum cortisol, melatonin, ALA, PBG, and mRNA levels [in peripheral blood mononuclear cells] of selected clock-controlled genes and genes involved in heme synthesis in 10 Caucasian [European-American] women who were either post-menopausal or had been receiving female hormone therapy, 6 of whom have AIP and 4 do not and are considered controls. Four AIP subjects with biochemical activity exhibited higher levels of PBG and lower levels and dampened oscillation of serum cortisol, and a trend for lower levels of serum melatonin, than controls or AIP subjects without biochemical activity. Levels of clock-controlled gene mRNAs showed significant increases over baseline in all subjects at 5 am and 11 pm, whereas mRNA levels of ALAS1, ALAS2, and PBGD were increased only at 11 pm in subjects with active AIP. This pilot study provides evidence for disturbances of circadian markers in women with active AIP that may trigger or sustain some common clinical features of AIP. PMID:23650938

  10. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  11. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  12. Final Report 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    2013-11-03

    The 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics was held in LaJolla, California on May 26 to May 31, 2009. The Conference Proceedings are published by the American Institute of Physics in Volume 1182 of the AIP Conference Proceedings (ISBN: 978-0-7354-0723-7). The Proceedings include papers from each of the Conference Presenters and a detailed schedule of talks at the Conference. The Table of Contents of the Conference Proceedings is available at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1182. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy and by DOE Laboratories was essential to the success of the Conference.

  13. Inter-computer communication architecture for a mixed redundancy distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Adams, Stuart J.

    1987-01-01

    The triply redundant intercomputer network for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), an architecture developed to serve as the core avionics system for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, is discussed. The AIPS intercomputer network provides a high-speed, Byzantine-fault-resilient communication service between processing sites, even in the presence of arbitrary failures of simplex and duplex processing sites on the IC network. The IC network contention poll has evolved from the Laning Poll. An analysis of the failure modes and effects and a simulation of the AIPS contention poll, demonstrate the robustness of the system.

  14. Anesthetic implication of tricuspid valve replacement in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Kianoush; Salehi, Mehrdad; Rahmanian, Mehrzad; Bakhshandeh, Ali Reza; Mahlabani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Facing a patient with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), there is narrow safety margin which circumscribe all the therapeutic actions including choice of drugs. This would become even more complicated when it comes to a stressful and drug-dependent process like a cardiopulmonary bypass. According to author's researches, no specific AIP case of tricuspid valve (TV) replacement is reported recently. Furthermore, fast-track anesthesia was safely used in this 37-year-old male known the case of AIP, who was a candidate for TV replacement and removing the port catheter. The patient was extubated subsequently, only 3 h after entering the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:27052088

  15. Anesthetic implication of tricuspid valve replacement in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Kianoush; Salehi, Mehrdad; Rahmanian, Mehrzad; Bakhshandeh, Ali Reza; Mahlabani, Mohammad Amin Gorji

    2016-01-01

    Facing a patient with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), there is narrow safety margin which circumscribe all the therapeutic actions including choice of drugs. This would become even more complicated when it comes to a stressful and drug-dependent process like a cardiopulmonary bypass. According to author's researches, no specific AIP case of tricuspid valve (TV) replacement is reported recently. Furthermore, fast-track anesthesia was safely used in this 37-year-old male known the case of AIP, who was a candidate for TV replacement and removing the port catheter. The patient was extubated subsequently, only 3 h after entering the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:27052088

  16. Future directions in studies of nuclei far from stability. [Nashville, Tennessee, Sept. 10-13, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.H.; Spejewski, E.H.; Bingham, C.R.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Individual abstracts were prepared for 27 of the papers in this volume. The remaining ten have already been cited in ERA; these papers can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790976-- in the report number index. (RWR)

  17. New Techniques for the Analysis of Carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrates are complex. In addition to the size/mass differences increasing from monosaccharides to oligosaccharides to polysaccharides, the carbohydrate analyst must also contend with which sugars are present (composition), how they are joined together (linkage), and their stereochemistry (conf...

  18. Bulk Compositions of Antarctic Micrometeorites: Nebular and Terrestrial Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurat, G.; Koeberl, C.; Presper, T.; Brandstatter, F.; Maurette, M.

    1992-07-01

    . The depletion in S could also be due to terrestrial loss of sulphates, common in CI chondrites. All enrichments observed-- with the possible exception of C (e.g., 10)--appear to be terrestrial, analogous to what has been proposed for Br and Cl (11). These comprise enrichments in K, Rb, Zn, As, and Fe. The latter is visibly enriched in many MMs that are coated by magnetite rims, apparently condensates emplaced in the upper atmosphere whose E-layer is enriched in Fe (and other elements from evaporated meteoroids, e.g., 12). In some cases Fe diffusion from the surface into the particles is also observed. In conclusion, bulk compositions of most MMs resemble that of CM and CI chondrites but appear to have been altered in the terrestrial environment to different degrees. Some bulk chemical (10) and mineralogical (13) peculiarities, however, are apparently pristine features of MMs. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by FWF, Vienna References: (1) Maurette M. et al. (1991) Nature 351, 44-47; (2) Maurette M. et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 861-862; (3) Klock W. and Beckerling W. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 725-726; (4) Koeberl C. et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci XXIII, 709-710; (5) Kurat G. et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci XXIII, 747-748; (6) Brownlee D.E. (1985) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 13, 147- 173; (7) Sutton S.R. and Flynn G.J. (1988) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 18, 607-614; (8) Flynn G.J. and Sutton S.R. (1990) Proc. 20th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 335-342; (9) Christophe Michel-Levy M. (1992) Meteoritics 27, 73-80; (10) Perreau M. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, this issue; (11) Jessberger E. et al. (1992) MS submitted to EPSL; (12) Steinweg A. et al. (1992) J. Atmosph. Terrestr. Phys., in press; (13) Presper T. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, this issue.

  19. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... date NACLC or SSBI Conf, Sec; “L” Top Secret, SCI; “Q” None None SSBI B None; Conf, Sec; “L” Current or... NACLC Secret; “L” 0 to 9 yrs 11 mos None (note 1) 10 yrs. or more NACLC Top Secret, SCI; “Q” 0 to 4 yrs... indicates the person may no longer satisfy the standards of Executive Order 12968....

  20. 32 CFR Attachment D to Subpart B... - Decision Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... date NACLC or SSBI Conf, Sec; “L” Top Secret, SCI; “Q” None None SSBI B None; Conf, Sec; “L” Current or... NACLC Secret; “L” 0 to 9 yrs 11 mos None (note 1) 10 yrs. or more NACLC Top Secret, SCI; “Q” 0 to 4 yrs... indicates the person may no longer satisfy the standards of Executive Order 12968....

  1. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  2. Injection locking of wide-aperture TEA CO/sub 2/ lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tratt, D.M.; Kar, A.K.; Mathew, J.G.H.; Harrison, R.G.

    1983-01-15

    The performance and operation of a TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described and the single longitudinal mode (SLM) TEM/sub 00/ pulses are analyzed. The wide-aperture SLM output was reproducible 98% of the time. (AIP)

  3. Survey questions evidence of US female hiring bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-09-01

    An analysis by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) suggests that the complete absence of female faculty in more than a third of US university physics departments does not necessarily constitute evidence that they discriminate against women.

  4. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  5. Aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal modulation of Mie scattered light

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-09-15

    Absorption spectroscopy of suspended submicron-sized aqueous ammonium-sulfate aerosol droplets has been performed by employing a CO/sub 2/ laser to photothermally modulate visible Mie scattered light. (AIP)

  6. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  7. Recent advances in high-power tunable lasers (UV, visible, and near IR)

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, V.N.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the current technology of high-power tunable lasers is presented with the emphasis on dye lasers. Among the topics covered are color center lasers, excimer lasers, picosecond techniques, and nonlinear coherent sources. (AIP)

  8. The DOE-2 computer program for thermal simulation of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Curtis, R.B.; Erdem, A.E.; Eto, J.H.; Hirsch, J.J.; Olson, K.H.; Winkelmann, F.C.

    1985-11-25

    The DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program is described. This program allows engineers and architects to perform design studies of whole-building energy use under actual weather conditions. (AIP)

  9. Interference colors with ''hidden'' polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Mark P.

    1981-09-01

    The author demonstrates the importance of polarizers when investigating interference colors in birefringence by considering a special case of cellophane placed on a smooth kitchen table illuminated from behind by an open window.(AIP)

  10. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  11. Materials and process development for the monolithic interconnected module (MIM) InGaAs/InP TPV devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Wilt, D.M.; Jenkins, P.P.; Hoffman, R.W., Jr.; Weizer, V.G.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.

    1997-03-01

    The selection, development, and testing of materials and processes for MIM fabrication are described. Topics covered include isolation trenches, contact and interconnect metallization, dielectric isolation barriers, back surface reflectors, and antireflection coatings. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. 77 FR 73511 - Clarification of Wildlife Hazard Management Requirements for Non-Certificated Federally Obligated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... ``Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Grant Assurances,'' 77 FR 22376). The FAA uses a standard set of...), turkey vultures (2.6 percent), American white pelicans (8.4 percent), double-crested cormorants...

  13. US, Europe reciprocate scientifically and financially on LHC, other big science projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, M.

    1997-08-01

    The reciprocal USA and European financial support and scientific usage of the Large Hadron Collider, Hubble Space Telescope and Space Station facilities are discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. ICRF antenna and feedthrough development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, T. L.; Baity, F. W.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1985-07-01

    Antennas, vacuum feedthroughs, Faraday shields, and antenna materials for application in the ICR frequencies have been analysed and tested. The emphasis on the RDL (resonant double loop) antenna.(AIP)

  15. Focal autoimmune pancreatitis and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis mimicking pancreatic cancer and neck metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Qiang; Brigstock, David R; Yan, Su; Xiu, Ming; Piao, Rong-Li; Gao, Yan-Hang; Gao, Run-Ping

    2014-12-14

    Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) or chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner's tumour) is an uncommon disorder that has recently been confirmed as an IgG4-related disease. Here, we describe a rare case of a 53-year-old male patient who primarily presented with pancreatic body mass, left neck mass and several lumps in his lower lip mimicking pancreatic cancer (PC) and neck metastasis. The patient underwent pancreatic body mass and labial gland lumps resection as well as an ultrasound-guided biopsy of the left neck mass. He was diagnosed with IgG4-related focal type of AIP (f-AIP) and Küttner's tumour by immunohistochemistry. The patient responded well to corticosteroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. The differentiation of f-AIP from PC is very important to avoid unnecessary pancreatic resection. PMID:25516685

  16. Reply to the comments by Roger B. Lazarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishkin, Eli A.

    1980-04-01

    It is claimed that because the pressure, density and velocity, behind the shock front, must be well behaved analytical functions the pressure must have an extremum. The claim by Lazarus of circular reasoning is refuted. (AIP)

  17. Evolution of noctuid pheromone binding proteins: identification of PBP in the black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon.

    PubMed

    Picimbon, J F; Gadenne, C

    2002-08-01

    Male black cutworm moths (Agrotis ipsilon, Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Noctuidae), which are attracted by a three-component pheromone blend ((Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Z7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Z9-14:Ac; (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, Z11-16:Ac), express diverse antennal pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Two PBP isoforms (Aips-1 and Aips-2) that show 46% identity were cloned from antennal cDNA of male A. ipsilon. The protein Aips-1 displays a high degree of identity (70-95%) with PBPs of other noctuiids, but shows only 42-65% identity with the PBPs of more phylogenetically distant species. The other protein, Aips-2, represents a distinct group of PBP that includes proteins from Sphingidae and Yponomeutidae. These differences observed suggest that each of the two PBPs may be tuned to a specific pheromone ligand. PMID:12110291

  18. Radiofrequency quadrupole accelerators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    This review of Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Acelerators contains a short history of Soviet and Los Alamos RFQ developments, RFQ beam dynamics, resonator structures, and the characteristics and performance of RFQ accelerators. (AIP)

  19. Scaling relations in hyperfine shifts of impurity atoms in rare gas crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, M. )

    1991-06-15

    The hf interaction of impurity atoms in rare gas crystals is investiga The ratio of the orbital moments of the impurity atom and the rare gas atom serveas a measure of each constituent's contribution to the net interaction energy. (AIP)

  20. Enhancing multiple object tracking performance with noninvasive brain stimulation: a causal role for the anterior intraparietal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Eric J.; Peterson, Matthew S.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a complex task recruiting a distributed network of brain regions. There are also marked individual differences in MOT performance. A positive causal relationship between the anterior intraparietal sulcus (AIPS), an integral region in the MOT attention network and inter-individual variation in MOT performance has not been previously established. The present study used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, in order to examine such a causal link. Active anodal stimulation was applied to the right AIPS and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (and sham stimulation), an area associated with working memory (but not MOT) while participants completed a MOT task. Stimulation to the right AIPS significantly improved MOT accuracy more than the other two conditions. The results confirm a causal role of the AIPS in the MOT task and illustrate that tDCS has the ability to improve MOT performance. PMID:25698943

  1. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, Keith Z.; Ho, Meng-Chaio; Cassera, Maria B.; Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Rosario Jr., Irving; Merino, Emilio F.; Almo, Steve C.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2012-06-22

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPs are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.

  2. Fragmentation patterns of {alpha}-phenylcinnamic acid derivatives upon electron impact ionization; a computational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Palinko, I.; Tasi, G.; Toeroek, B.

    1995-04-01

    Secondary transformations such as fragmentation and rearrangement reacting are computed for {proportional_to}-phenylcinnamic acid derivations upon electron impact ionization. (AIP) {copyright}{ital 1995 American Institute of Physics}

  3. Association between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Qi, Huajin; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Yang, Chengjian; Wang, Ling; Shui, Kedong; Wang, Yaping; Qiang, Dongchang; Yun, Jingting; Weng, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    The American Heart Association aims to improve cardiovascular health by encouraging the general population to meet 7 cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is an important index. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in middle-aged Chinese men.A cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 27,824 middle-aged Chinese men were enrolled. The association between ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors and AIP was determined. The 7 cardiovascular health metrics were scored as follows: 0, poor; 1, general; and 2, ideal. The cardiovascular health status was classified according to the total score, as follows: 0 to 4, inadequate; 5 to 9, average; and 10 to 14, optimum. Analyses assessed the prevalence of 7 cardiovascular health metrics, its association with AIP. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), adjusting for age.All 7 cardiovascular health metrics were shown to correlate with AIP (all P values < 0.05), and the strongest correlation existed between body mass and AIP, followed by total cholesterol and AIP. The mean AIP level increased with the decrease in the score of each of the 7 cardiovascular health metrics (all P values < 0.05). The subjects with poor cardiovascular health status had a 4.982-fold increase in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis, whereas a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score resulted a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high-risk of developing atherosclerosis (OR = 0.777, 95% CI: 0.768-0.787).The ideal cardiovascular health score correlated significantly with AIP, and a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score led to a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis. These validated the value of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors in the prediction of high risk of

  4. Association between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Qi, Huajin; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Yang, Chengjian; Wang, Ling; Shui, Kedong; Wang, Yaping; Qiang, Dongchang; Yun, Jingting; Weng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The American Heart Association aims to improve cardiovascular health by encouraging the general population to meet 7 cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is an important index. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in middle-aged Chinese men. A cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 27,824 middle-aged Chinese men were enrolled. The association between ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors and AIP was determined. The 7 cardiovascular health metrics were scored as follows: 0, poor; 1, general; and 2, ideal. The cardiovascular health status was classified according to the total score, as follows: 0 to 4, inadequate; 5 to 9, average; and 10 to 14, optimum. Analyses assessed the prevalence of 7 cardiovascular health metrics, its association with AIP. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), adjusting for age. All 7 cardiovascular health metrics were shown to correlate with AIP (all P values < 0.05), and the strongest correlation existed between body mass and AIP, followed by total cholesterol and AIP. The mean AIP level increased with the decrease in the score of each of the 7 cardiovascular health metrics (all P values < 0.05). The subjects with poor cardiovascular health status had a 4.982-fold increase in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis, whereas a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score resulted a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high-risk of developing atherosclerosis (OR = 0.777, 95% CI: 0.768–0.787). The ideal cardiovascular health score correlated significantly with AIP, and a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score led to a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis. These validated the value of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors in the prediction of high

  5. FINAL REPORT OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE UDC AS THE INDEXING LANGUAGE FOR A MECHANIZED REFERENCE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM. APPENDIX 4--UDC ENGLISH MEDIUM EDITION MANUSCRIPT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; ATHERTON, PAULINE

    THIS APPENDIX TO THE FINAL REPORT OF THE AIP/UDC PROJECT (LI 000 583) INCLUDES THE FULL MANUSCRIPT FOR THE MAIN CLASSES OF AN ENGLISH LANGUAGE MEDIUM EDITION OF UDC WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CLASS 6. THE RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUSCRIPT WAS (1) AN EARLIER VERSION OF THE AIP/UDC PROJECT ENGLISH LANGUAGE MASTER FILE, ISSUED AS LI 000 585, (2) RECENT…

  6. Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.

  7. Commensal Flora, is it an Unwelcomed Companion as a Triggering Factor of Autoimmune Pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Haruta, Ikuko; Shimizu, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Naoko; Shiratori, Keiko; Yagi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders has not been identified. The aim of this paper is to focus on the involvement of bacterial exposure, as an environmental factor, in the pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), which is broadly categorized as autoimmune disorders involving pancreatic lesions. Avirulent and/or commensal bacteria, which may have an important role(s) as initiating/progressing factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorder AIP, will be emphasized. PMID:22485093

  8. FINAL REPORT OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE UDC AS THE INDEXING LANGUAGE FOR A MECHANIZED REFERENCE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM. APPENDIX 5--THE UDC ENGLISH LANGUGAE MASTER FILES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; ATHERTON, PAULINE

    THIS APPENDIX TO THE FINAL REPORT OF THE AIP/UDC PROJECT (LI 000 583) INCLUDES THE COMPLETE, MERGED SET OF UDC SCHEDULES ACCUMULATED BY THE AIP/UDC PROJECT FROM 1965-1967. PART 1 OF THE FILE CONTAINS 110,759 RECORDS. EACH RECORD INCLUDES THE UDC NUMBER, A CODE WHICH REPRESENTS THE SOURCE OF THE RECORD, AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE EQUIVALENT OF THE…

  9. Performance of Nymph and Adult of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding on Cultivated Legumes.

    PubMed

    Zerbino, M S; Altier, N A; Panizzi, A R

    2016-04-01

    Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) feeding on different cultivated legumes was studied under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH, 14 h of photophase) on soybean immature pod (SIP; R5.5-R6), birdsfoot trefoil immature pod (BTIP), alfalfa immature pod (AIP), and red clover flower with immature seeds (RCF). Food had significant effects on the life history of P. guildinii. The major differences in nymph survivorship were observed at second and third instars, with similar survivorship on SIP and AIP as hosts and higher than that recorded on BTIP and RCF. Total nymph mortality was much greater on BTIP (87.6%) than on SIP (32.6%) and AIP (54.2%); all nymphs died on RCF. Food did not affect nymph development time (about 20 days). Adult longevity was highest and lowest on AIP and RCF (62 and 32 days), respectively. Percentage of ovipositing females was highest (≈ 80%) on SIP and AIP, and intermediate on BTIP (52.2%); no females reproduced on RCF. Fecundity on SIP and AIP was similar (≈ 9 egg masses/female; and ≈ 141 eggs/female) and twice as higher than on BTIP (4.1 egg masses/female; and 60.2 eggs/female). Egg fertility (58%) did not vary with food sources. Adults fed on SIP and AIP gained weight during 43 days, remained unaltered on BTIP, and decreased on RCF. Data obtained indicated that SIP and AIP are suitable food sources, and emphasize the importance of alfalfa as a host plant of P. guildinii in Uruguay. PMID:26581380

  10. Quantitative perfusion analysis in pancreatic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US): a promising tool for the differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Vitali, F; Pfeifer, L; Janson, C; Goertz, R S; Neurath, M F; Strobel, D; Wildner, D

    2015-10-01

    In the work-up of focal pancreatic lesions autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare differential diagnosis to pancreatic cancer (PC) with similar clinical constellations. The aim of our study was to compare differences between proven AIP and PC using transabdominal dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US). Therefore we recorded 3-minute-clips of CEUS examinations and analyzed perfusion parameters with VueBox®-quantification software. To obtain DCE-US Parameters, Regions-of-Interest were selected within the lesions and the surrounding pancreas parenchyma, serving as reference tissue. We compared 3 patients with AIP (mean age: 58 years; lesion mean size: 40 mm) to 17 patients with PC (mean age: 68 years; lesion mean size: 35.9 mm). Significant differences between PC and parenchyma could be found in the following parameters: Peak-Enhancement (PE), Wash-in-and-Wash-out-AUC, Wash-in Perfusion-Index. PE of AIP was comparable to normal parenchyma. The relation of PE between parenchyma and lesion (ΔPE) AIP and PC was significantly different [AIP: 0.21 (±0.06); PC: 0.81 (±0.1); p<0.01]. PE of neoplastic lesions was significantly lower as AIP and normal parenchyma (p<0.01). Therefore perfusion analysis in DCE-US can help to differentiate hypovascular PC from AIP presenting nearly isovascular time intensity curves. Diagnostic accuracy of DCE-US in this setting has to be validated in future prospective studies in comparison to CT and MRI. PMID:26480053

  11. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Rania; Idowu, Modupe; Brown, Gregory S.; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Person, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP. PMID:25525547

  12. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases. PMID:26675058

  13. Localized 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at the pancreatic head during remission phase of autoimmune pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kushihata, Fumiki; Watanabe, Jota; Tohyama, Taiji; Inoue, Hitoshi; Sugita, Atsuro; Takada, Yasutsugu

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of pancreatitis, histopathologically characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis of the pancreas with obliterative phlebitis. AIP is associated with a good response to steroid therapy. Differentiation between AIP and pancreatic cancer to determine a preoperative diagnosis is often challenging, despite the use of various diagnostic modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. It has been reported that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT may be a useful tool for distinguishing between the two diseases. In the present case report, a 71-year-old male patient presented with a well-circumscribed, solitary, nodular and homogenous 18F-FDG uptake at the pancreatic head, while receiving maintenance steroid therapy in the remission phase of AIP; preoperatively, the patient had been strongly suspected of having pancreatic cancer. Pathological examination revealed post-treatment relapse of AIP. The present case highlights the diagnostic and management difficulties with AIP in the remission phase. In certain cases, it remains challenging to differentiate the two diseases, even using the latest modalities.

  14. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  15. Supramolecular Nanostructure Formation of Coassembled Amyloid Inspired Peptides.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Goksu; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Ide, Semra; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-06-28

    Characterization of amyloid-like aggregates through converging approaches can yield deeper understanding of their complex self-assembly mechanisms and the nature of their strong mechanical stability, which may in turn contribute to the design of novel supramolecular peptide nanostructures as functional materials. In this study, we investigated the coassembly kinetics of oppositely charged short amyloid-inspired peptides (AIPs) into supramolecular nanostructures by using confocal fluorescence imaging of thioflavin T binding, turbidity assay and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. We showed that coassembly kinetics of the AIP nanostructures were consistent with nucleation-dependent amyloid-like aggregation, and aggregation behavior of the AIPs was affected by the initial monomer concentration and sonication. Moreover, SAXS analysis was performed to gain structural information on the size, shape, electron density, and internal organization of the coassembled AIP nanostructures. The scattering data of the coassembled AIP nanostructures were best fitted into to a combination of polydisperse core-shell cylinder (PCSC) and decoupling flexible cylinder (FCPR) models, and the structural parameters were estimated based on the fitting results of the scattering data. The stability of the coassembled AIP nanostructures in both fiber organization and bulk viscoelastic properties was also revealed via temperature-dependent SAXS analysis and oscillatory rheology measurements, respectively. PMID:27267733

  16. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Somesh

    2015-01-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25792565

  17. A Preliminary Geochemical Study of Crystalline Melt from the Manson Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Rockow, K. M.; Haskin, L. A.; Crossey, L. J.

    1993-07-01

    , the CCB-M is not a simple melt of the underlying CCB-S. The lithologic components of the two breccias may be the same, but if so, their proportions must differ. CCB-M is enriched relative to CCB-S in one or more lithologies with high K and heavy REE and low Na, Sc, Cr, and Fe. Among target lithologies studied by [8], that designated as MA-11 ("Unit E," upper red clastics) is a likely candidate. The systematic compositional variations with depth in the CCB-M unit may be related in part to the increasing abundance of clasts with depth [4]. For some elements there is a distinct "break" in slope of the profiles between the bottom of CCB-M and the top of the transition zone. This is consistent with the suggestion that CCB-M consists of "transported" basement materials and that the transition zone is a mixing zone [4]. Similarly, for most elements (most notably Na, K, Ca, Sc, As, Sb) there is a major discontinuity in the profiles between the top of the CCB-M and the overlying SCB. This is consistent with the interpretation of SCB as a debris flow [3] and that Paleozoic and younger sediments are a minor component of the melt [1]. References: [1] Anderson R. R. and Hartung J. B. (1992) Proc. LPS, Vol. 22, 101-110. [2] Kunk M. J. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 835-836. [3] Anderson R. R. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 35-36. [4] Bell M. S. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 87-88. [5] Crossey L. J. and McCarville P. (1993) LPS XXIV, 351-352. [6] Koeberl C. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 811-812. [7] Stoffler D. et al. (1980) Proc. Conf. Lunar Highlands Crust (J. J. Papike and R. B. Merrill, eds.), 51-70, LPI, Houston. [8] Koeberl C. and Hartung J. B. (1992) Proc. LPS, Vol. 22, 111-126.

  18. [The new atherogenic plasma index reflects the triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol ratio, the lipoprotein particle size and the cholesterol esterification rate: changes during lipanor therapy].

    PubMed

    Dobiásová, M; Frohlich, J

    2000-03-01

    The new atherogenic plasma index (AIP) is a logarithmic transformation of the ratio of the molar triglyceride (TG) concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). AIP correlates closely with the size of LDL particles (r = 0.8) and esterification rate of plasma cholesterol devoid of apo B lipoproteins (FERHDL), r = 0.9 which are considered at present the most sensitive indicators of the atherogenic plasma profile. AIP was recommended by the authors, based on analysis of results of 11 previous studies (1156 subjects) where FERHDL and plasma lipid parameters were investigated in different groups of people who differed as to the atherogenic risk. The AIP index was moreover used for evaluation of a clinical study comprising 609 patients with hyperlipidaemia, who were treated for three months with ciprofibrate (Lipanor). The mean AIP values of non-risk groups (plasma from umbilical blood, children, healthy women etc.) equalled zero or were lower, while with an increasing atherogenic risk (men, women after the menopause) AIP reached positive values, incl. high positive values in risk groups (plasma of diabetic subjects, patients with HLP, patients with positive angiography, myocardial infarction etc.). In all groups women had lower AIP values as compared with males. In patients after Lipanor therapy the AIP declined (from 0.58 +/- 0.17 to 0.33_0.18 in men, from 0.50 +/- 0.18 to 0.21 +/- 0.19 in women). If we consider AIP values from negative ones to 0.15 as "safe" from the aspect of atherogenicity, before Lipanor treatment these "safe" levels were recorded in 1.5% men and in 5.2% women and after treatment in 32% men and 48% women. The results indicate, that AIP which reflects the plasma lipoprotein profile quantifies the relations between TG and HDL-C and thus can be an objective indicator of the atherogenic risk and effectiveness of treatment and it is useful because it can be assessed in any surgery. PMID:11048517

  19. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chonqing, China, engaged in... virus in Chinese patients with seronegative hepatitis discovered by deep sequencing.'' Proc. Natl....

  20. Use of automated irrigation pumps improves quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Sujan; Sabbagh, Rana; Antaki, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of automated irrigation pumps (AIPs) in improving the quality of the bowel preparation and the yield of colonoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a single medical center. Outpatient colonoscopies performed during a 4-mo time period when AIPs were not in use, were compared to colonoscopies performed during control period. The main outcomes measured were quality of bowel preparation, procedures aborted due to poor preparation, recommendations to repeat at short interval due to sub-optimal bowel preparation and adenoma detection rates. RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-seven colonoscopies were included. A higher proportion of cases did not achieve a satisfactory bowel preparation when AIPs were not used (24.4% vs 10.3%, P < 0.01). The number of procedures aborted due to inadequate preparation was not significantly different, however a repeat procedure at a short interval was recommended in a higher proportion of cases when AIPs were not used (21.3% vs 6.9%, P < 0.01). Good or excellent preparation was 2.91 (95%CI: 2.04-4.15) times more likely when AIPs were used. Detection of polyps and adenomas was not significantly different. CONCLUSION: AIP use during colonoscopy results in a higher proportion of colonic preparation rated as satisfactory, although polyp detection rate is not significantly affected. Recommendations for repeat colonoscopy at shorter interval significantly decrease with the use of AIPs. This study supports the use of the irrigation pumps in endoscopy units to improve the quality of colonoscopy. PMID:27014425

  1. Sclerosing cholecystitis associated with autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Tu, Yuyang; Nakajima, Hitoshi; Egawa, Naoto; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Horiguchi, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histopathological and radiological findings of the gallbladder in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: The radiological findings of the gallbladder of 19 AIP patients were retrospectively reviewed. Resected gallbladders of 8 AIP patients were examined histologically and were immunostained with anti-IgG4 antibody. Controls consisted of gallbladders resected for symptomatic gallstones (n = 10) and those removed during pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma (n = 10), as well as extrahepatic bile ducts and pancreases removed by pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma (n = 10). RESULTS: Thickening of the gallbladder wall was detected by ultrasound and/or computed tomography in 10 patients with AIP (3 severe and 7 moderate); in these patients severe stenosis of the extrahepatic bile duct was also noted. Histologically, thickening of the gallbladder was detected in 6 of 8 (75%) patients with AIP; 4 cases had transmural lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosis, and 2 cases had mucosal-based lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Considerable transmural thickening of the extrahepatic bile duct wall with dense fibrosis and diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was detected in 7 patients. Immunohistochemically, severe or moderate infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells was detected in the gallbladder, bile duct, and pancreas of all 8 patients, but was not detected in controls. CONCLUSION: Gallbladder wall thickening with fibrosis and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is frequently detected in patients with AIP. We propose the use of a new term, sclerosing cholecystitis, for these cases that are induced by the same mechanism as sclerosing pancreatitis or sclerosing cholangitis in AIP. PMID:16773691

  2. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Activation and IFN-α Production Are Prominent Features of Murine Autoimmune Pancreatitis and Human IgG4-Related Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Kouhei; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Mizugishi, Kiyomi; Uchida, Kazushige; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Strober, Warren; Chiba, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The abnormal immune response accompanying IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is presently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation and IFN-α production in this disease as well as in a murine model of AIP (MRL/Mp mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid). We found that the development of AIP in treated MRL/Mp mice occurred in parallel with pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α, and with pDC depletion and IFN-α-blocking studies, we showed that such accumulation was necessary for AIP induction. In addition, we found that the pancreas of treated MRL/Mp mice contained neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) shown previously to stimulate pDCs to produce IFN-α. Consistent with these findings, we found that patients with IgG4-related AIP also exhibited pancreatic tissue localization of IFN-α-expressing pDCs and had significantly higher serum IFN-α levels than healthy controls. In addition, the inflamed pancreas of these patients but not controls also contained NETs that were shown to be capable of pDC activation. More importantly, patient pDCs cultured in the presence of NETs produced greatly increased levels of IFN-α and induced control B cells to produce IgG4 (but not IgG1) as compared with control pDCs. These data suggest that pDC activation and production of IFN-α is a major cause of murine AIP; in addition, the increased pDC production of IFN-α and its relation to IgG4 production observed in IgG4-related AIP suggest that this mechanism also plays a role in the human disease. PMID:26297761

  3. Distinct Spatiotemporal Activation Patterns of the Perirhinal-Entorhinal Network in Response to Cortical and Amygdala Input

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Janske G. P.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Cappaert, Natalie L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal (PER) and entorhinal cortex (EC) receive input from the agranular insular cortex (AiP) and the subcortical lateral amygdala (LA) and the main output area is the hippocampus. Information transfer through the PER/EC network however, is not always guaranteed. It is hypothesized that this network actively regulates the (sub)cortical activity transfer to the hippocampal network and that the inhibitory system is involved in this function. This study determined the recruitment by the AiP and LA afferents in PER/EC network with the use of voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in horizontal mouse brain slices. Electrical stimulation (500 μA) of the AiP induced activity that gradually propagated predominantly in the rostro-caudal direction: from the PER to the lateral EC (LEC). In the presence of 1 μM of the competitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline, AiP stimulation recruited the medial EC (MEC) as well. In contrast, LA stimulation (500 μA) only induced activity in the deep layers of the PER. In the presence of bicuculline, the initial population activity in the PER propagated further towards the superficial layers and the EC after a delay. The latency of evoked responses decreased with increasing stimulus intensities (50–500 μA) for both the AiP and LA stimuli. The stimulation threshold for evoking responses in the PER/EC network was higher for the LA than for the AiP. This study showed that the extent of the PER/EC network activation depends on release of inhibition. When GABAA dependent inhibition is reduced, both the AiP and the LA activate spatially overlapping regions, although in a distinct spatiotemporal fashion. It is therefore hypothesized that the inhibitory network regulates excitatory activity from both cortical and subcortical areas that has to be transmitted through the PER/EC network. PMID:27378860

  4. Effects of Microstimulation in the Anterior Intraparietal Area during Three-Dimensional Shape Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The anterior intraparietal area (AIP) of rhesus monkeys is part of the dorsal visual stream and contains neurons whose visual response properties are commensurate with a role in three-dimensional (3D) shape perception. Neuronal responses in AIP signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3D shapes, reflect the choices of monkeys while they categorize 3D shapes, and mirror the behavioral variability across different stimulus conditions during 3D-shape categorization. However, direct evidence for a role of AIP in 3D-shape perception has been lacking. We trained rhesus monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3D shapes and examined AIP's contribution to 3D-shape categorization by microstimulating in clusters of 3D-shape selective AIP neurons during task performance. We find that microstimulation effects on choices (monkey M1) and reaction times (monkey M1 and M2) depend on the 3D-shape preference of the stimulated site. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the same cells, during either the 3D-shape-categorization task or a saccade task, could affect behavior differently. Interestingly, in one monkey we observed a strong correlation between the strength of choice-related AIP activity (choice probabilities) and the influence of microstimulation on 3D-shape-categorization behavior (choices and reaction time). These findings propose AIP as part of the network responsible for 3D-shape perception. The results also show that the anterior intraparietal cortex contains cells with different tuning properties, i.e. 3D-shape- or saccade-related, that can be dynamically read out depending on the requirements of the task at hand. PMID:26295941

  5. Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    alluvial rivers. References Crosato A. and Mosselman E., 2009. Simple physics-based predictor for the number of river bars and the transition between meandering and braiding. Water Resources Research, 45, W03424, doi: 10.1029/2008WR007242. Crosato A., Mosselman E., Desta F.B. and Uijttewaal W.S.J., 2011. Experimental and numerical evidence for intrinsic nonmigrating bars in alluvial channels. Water Resources Research, AGU, 47(3), W03511, doi 10.1029/2010WR009714. Frascati A. and Lanzoni S., 2013. A mathematical model for meandering rivers with varying width. J. Geophys. Res.Earth Surf., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20084. Olesen K.W., 1984. Alternate bars in and meandering of alluvial rivers. In: River Meandering, Proc. of the Conf. Rivers '83, 24-26 Oct. 1983, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., ed. Elliott C.M., pp. 873-884, ASCE, New York. ISBN 0-87262-393-9. Repetto R., Tubino, M. and Paola C., 2002. Planimetric instability of channels with variable width. J. Fluid Mech., 457, 79-109. Struiksma N., Olesen K.W., Flokstra C. and De Vriend H.J., 1985. Bed deformation in curved alluvial channels. J. Hydraul. Res., 23(1), 57- 79. Wu F.-C. and Yeh T.-H., 2005. Forced bars induced by variations of channel width: Implications for incipient bifurcation. J. Geophys. Res., 110, F02009, doi:10.1029/2004JF000160. Zolezzi, G., R. Luchi, and M. Tubino (2012), Modeling morphodynamic processes in meandering rivers with spatial width variations, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG4005, doi:10.1029/2012RG000392.

  6. Modelling of the effect of a sea-level rise and land subsidence on the evolution of the groundwater density in the subsoil of the northern part of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meij, J. L.; Minnema, B.

    1999-12-01

    The Province of Friesland is conducting a study on possible future changes in the surface water and groundwater systems of Friesland. The aim of the study is to assess what changes might be caused by land subsidence and a rise in sea level—focusing in particular on the salinization of the surface water—by modelling the flow of groundwater in the coastal zone of the Province of Friesland. A three-dimensional density distribution of groundwater (based on the chloride distribution in the groundwater) can be projected by using the density dependent version of the MLAEM software: MVAEM (Strack, O.D.L., 1989. Multi-layer aquifer modeling using the analytical element method. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on the use of models to findworking solutions to groundwater problems, National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, USA, 1995). Construction of a fully three-dimensional density distribution is based on irregularly spaced chloride concentration data points. These are interpolated using a three-dimensional multi-quadric interpolator (in MVAEM). For some parts of the model area, chloride data were not available (e.g. the Wadden Sea); for these regions chloride concentrations were estimated (based on geo-electric and other information) and assigned to artificial data points, which were added to the data set. The techniques used for this process were developed during the construction of the coastal elements in NAGROM—the NAtional GROundwater Model for The Netherlands (De Lange, W.J., van der Meij, J.L., 1995. NAGROM (National GROundwater Model). RIZA, Lelystad, TNO-GG, Delft, The Netherlands; De Lange, W.J., 1996. Groundwater modeling of large domains with analytic elements. Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands). The influences of a sea-level rise and land subsidence on the groundwater system were simulated by computational modelling of density-driven groundwater flow. The groundwater model that was used is a refined version of the regional model contained in

  7. Improving Short Wave Breaking Behavior In Surfbeat Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, J.; Daly, C.; Vandongeren, A. R.; van Thiel de Vries, J.; McCall, R.

    2009-12-01

    C. Obviously this has important consequences for the forcing of both long waves and mean currents. In our presentation we will show results of comparisons of both formulations. References. Arcilla, A.S., Roelvink, J.A., O'Connor, B.A. Reniers, A., and Jimenez. J.A. The Delta Flume '93 Experiment. Coastal Dynamics '94. Arcilla, Stive and Kraus (eds), ASCE, New York, pp. 488-502. Battjes, J.A. and J.P.F.M. Janssen, (1978), Energy loss and set-up due to breaking in random waves, Proc. 16th Int. Coastal Eng. Conf., Hamburg, vol. 1: 569-587. Dally, W.R. (1992) Random breaking waves: Field verification of a wave-by-wave algorithm for engineering application. Coastal Engineering, Volume 16, Issue 4, March 1992, Pages 369-397. Roelvink, Dano, Ad Reniers, Ap van Dongeren, Jaap van Thiel de Vries, Robert McCall, Jamie Lescinski. Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands, Coast. Eng. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.006 Roelvink, J.A. Dissipation in random wave groups incident on a beach. Coastal Eng., 19 (1993) pp. 127-150.

  8. Comparison between different approaches of modeling shallow landslide susceptibility: a case history in the area of Oltrepo Pavese, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizioli, D.; Meisina, C.; Valentino, R.; Montrasio, L.

    2012-04-01

    , slope position index). In order to apply the different methods, a test area, with an extension of 17.5 km2, was selected in the sector of Oltrepo Pavese with the highest density of the April 2009 landslides. The main peculiarities distinguishing the different models are outlined and their predictive capabilities for the forecasting of the potential source areas are evaluated using a quantitative method (the ROC plot). TRIGRS is characterized by different levels of complexity and its results strongly depend on the quality and detail of input data. The SLIP model allows a "dynamic" (i.e. time-varying) stability analysis on territory scale. ANN and logistic regression are very promising and have the advantage to take into account some important predisposing factors in the study area, that are not considered by the other models. Finally, both the main limits and the most important advantages of the different methods are discussed, and comparisons between the results obtained are highlighted. Baum R L, Savage WZ, Godt JW (2008) TRIGRS - A FORTRAN program for transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope stability analysis, version 2.0. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1159, 75 p. Montrasio L (2000) Stability analysis of soil slip. In: Brebbia, C.A.(Ed.), Proc. of International Conf. "Risk 2000", Wit Press, Southampton. Montrasio L, Valentino R (2008) A model for triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 8: 1149-1159.

  9. Insolation and Resulting Surface Temperatures of the Kuiper-Rudaki Study Region on Mercury.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Karin E.; Hiesinger, Harald; D'Amore, Mario; Helbert, Jörn; Weinauer, Julia

    2016-04-01

    cold poles along the equator. The region shows smooth plains surrounding crater Rudaki (˜120km), as well as cratered terrain around the prominent crater Kuiper (˜60km) and has been extensively covered by measurements during the MESSENGER mission. Temperatures range from about 100K during the night to 570K (cold pole) and 700K (hot pole) at local noon. The floor of Kuiper crater reaches temperatures of ˜660K at local noon, while those at Rudaki crater are 625K (+/-5K). Due to their higher albedo, the rays of Kuiper crater are about 5K colder than the surrounding regions. These temperature estimates will aid the accurate interpretation of future MERTIS spectra of the region obtained during the BepiColombo mission [10]. References: [1] Hiesinger, H. et al. (2010), PSS 58, 144-165. [2] Helbert, J. et al. (2005), LPSC XXXVI, #1753. [3] Keihm, S.J. and Langseth, M.G. (1973), Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 4th, 2503-2513. [4] Lawson, S.L. et al. (2000), JGR 105, E5, 4273-4290. [5] Pieters, C.M. et al. (2009), Science 326, 568-572. [6] Paige, D.A. et al. (2010), Space Sci. Rev 150, 125-160. [7] Bauch, K.E. et al. (2014), PSS 101, 27-36. [8] Vasavada, A. et al. (1999), Icarus 141, 179-193. [9] Solomon, S.C. et al. (2008), Science 321, 59-62. [10] D'Amore et al. (2013), AGU, #P13A-1735.

  10. Ceres composition as inferred by the VIR-Dawn imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    been formed in the outer Solar System before to migrate in its actual location [9]. References [1] Russell, C.T. et al., Science, 336, 684, 2012 [2] De Sanctis M.C. et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163, 329-336, 2011 [3] Longobardo, A. et al., LPSC abstract, #2239, 2016 [4] De Sanctis, M.C. et al., LPSC abstract, #1832, 2016 [5] De Sanctis, M.C. et al., Nature, 528, 241-244, 2015 [6] Palomba, E. et al., LPSC abstract, #2166, 2016 [7] Ammannito, E. et al., LPSC abstract, #3020, 2016 [8] Johansen, A. et al., Sci. Adv. 1, 1500109, 2015 [9] McKinnon, W.B. et al., Proc. Conf. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, # 6475, 2012

  11. Temperate Ice Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, V.; Player, K.; Gogineni, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Thompson, L.

    2007-12-01

    system to store the acquired data. At HF, a physically large-antenna is needed. TIDSoR takes advantage of the helix antenna concept to minimize its physical dimensions and weight. Moreover, the ability to achieve different polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical) was considered to maximize the performance of the radar system. Arcone, S. A., Lawson, D. E., Moran, M. and Delaney, A. J., 2000, 12-100-MHz profiles of ice depth and stratigraphy of three temperate glaciers. In: Proc. GPR 2000, Eighth Intl. Conf. Ground-Penetrating Radar, Gold Coast, Austral., 23-26 May, 2000.

  12. High-pressure melting experiments on garnet clinopyroxenite and the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in ocean-island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, Shantanu; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H.; Sen, Gautam; Fei, Yingwei

    2004-07-01

    -pressure melting experiments in the CMAS system at 2.0-3.0 GPa indicates that the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in our experiments can be explained by a rapid expansion of the eclogite "surface" from the tholeiitic part to well into the alkalic part of the basalt tetrahedron in natural systems. Importantly, the partial melting trends of 77SL-582 are transverse to those seen in ocean-island basalts. In addition, although the alkalic to tholeiitic basalt transition observed in ocean-island basalts is well reproduced in our experiments, there is very little overlap between the partial melts of 77SL-582 and ocean-island basalts. It appears that most of the major-element systematics of the ocean-island basalts considered here can be explained by combined contributions of melts from anhydrous and carbonated lherzolite [Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 2837; G.H. Gudfinnsson, D.C. Presnall, Continuous gradations among primary kimberlitic, carbonatitic, melilititic, and komatiitic melts in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite at 3-8 GPa, Proc. 8th Int. Kimber. Conf. Extended abstracts.] at high pressures with possible contributions from melts from garnet clinopyroxenite of bulk composition similar to 77SL-582.

  13. A new look at photometry of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Stone, Thomas C.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2010-08-01

    We use ROLO photometry (Kieffer, H.H., Stone, T.C. [2005]. Astron. J. 129, 2887-2901) to characterize the before and after full Moon radiance variation for a typical highlands site and a typical mare site. Focusing on the phase angle range 45° < α < 50°, we test two different physical models, macroscopic roughness and multiple scattering between regolith particles, for their ability to quantitatively reproduce the measured radiance difference. Our method for estimating the rms slope angle is unique and model-independent in the sense that the measured radiance factor I/ F at small incidence angles (high Sun) is used as an estimate of I/ F for zero roughness regolith. The roughness is determined from the change in I/ F at larger incidence angles. We determine the roughness for 23 wavelengths from 350 to 939 nm. There is no significant wavelength dependence. The average rms slope angle is 22.2° ± 1.3° for the mare site and 34.1° ± 2.6° for the highland site. These large slopes, which are similar to previous "photometric roughness" estimates, require that sub-mm scale "micro-topography" dominates roughness measurements based on photometry, consistent with the conclusions of Helfenstein and Shepard (Helfenstein, P., Shepard, M.K. [1999]. Icarus 141, 107-131). We then tested an alternative and very different model for the before and after full Moon I/ F variation: multiple scattering within a flat layer of realistic regolith particles. This model consists of a log normal size distribution of spheres that match the measured distribution of particles in a typical mature lunar soil 72141,1 (McKay, D.S., Fruland, R.M., Heiken, G.H. [1974]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 5, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1 (5), 887-906). The model particles have a complex index of refraction 1.65-0.003 i, where 1.65 is typical of impact-generated lunar glasses. Of the four model parameters, three were fixed at values determined from Apollo lunar soils: the mean radius and width of the log normal

  14. Collaborative Catchment-Scale Water Quality Management using Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Huma; Harris, Nick; Merrett, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    collaborative information sharing can have a direct influence on agricultural practice. We apply a nutrient management scheme to a model of an example catchment with several individual networks. The networks are able to correlate catchment events to events within their zone of influence, allowing them to adapt their monitoring and control strategy in light of wider changes across the catchment. Results indicate that this can lead to significant reductions in nutrient losses (up to 50%) and better reutilization of nutrients amongst farms, having a positive impact on catchment scale water quality and fertilizer costs. 1. EC, E.C., Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, 2000. 2. Rivers, M., K. Smettem, and P. Davies. Estimating future scenarios for farm-watershed nutrient fluxes using dynamic simulation modelling-Can on-farm BMPs really do the job at the watershed scale? in Proc.29th Int.Conf System Dynamics Society, 2011. 2010. Washington 3. Liu, C., et al., On-farm evaluation of winter wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N in North China Plain. Agronomy Journal, 2008. 100(6): p. 1527-1534. 4. Kotamäki, N., et al., Wireless in-situ sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring on a river basin scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a data user's perspective. Sensors, 2009. 9(4): p. 2862-2883.

  15. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    velocity-pressure variables is constructed on the base of the splitting method. The velocity field and pressure field we obtain using the checkerboard grid. The occurring and evolution of the initial heterogeneities in the growing planets is caused by heterogeneous distribution of falling accumulated bodies. 1.V.N. Anfilogov and Yu.V.Khachai A Possible Scenario of Material Differentiation at the Ini-tial Stage of the Earth's Formation // Doklady Earth Sciences. V. 403 A.N 6. 2005. 954-957 Transl. from Doklady Akademii Nauk.v.403.N 6.2005.803-806. 2.Khachay Yu., Anfilogov V. VARIANTS OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE EARTH ON ITS ACCUMULATION // Proc. of the 6th Orlov Conf. "The study of the Earth as a planet by methods of geophysics, geodesy and astronomy" K.: Akad. 2010.197-202. 3.V.N. Anfilogov and Yu.V.Khachay Differentiation of the mantle matter during the process of the Earth's accumulation and early crust formation // Litosphere, 2012, N6, 3-15.

  16. Lunar cryptomare: Analysis of mineralogy and distribution of ancient volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Hiesinger, H.

    2012-12-01

    (LOLA) data are being used to understand the geologic context and surface roughness of these ancient volcanic deposits and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) image data are used to identify the exposure of lower albedo material or small dark-halo craters and also to help narrow down the boundary of the cryptomare deposits. In addition to topographic and image data, mineralogy data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument are being used to identify cryptomare deposits and to measure the compositional variability of the exposed mafic regions in these deposits. The measured mineral compositions of cryptomare deposits from dark-halo craters are compared with spectra collected from exposed mare deposits to determine if there are observable compositional differences. Our analyses support previous interpretations in the Schiller-Schickard region that suggest that the composition of volcanic deposits did not changed significantly during the ≥100 Ma of volcanic activity and that at least some of the cryptomare deposits in the region were emplaced in the Schiller-Zucchius basin. References Head, J.W. and L. Wilson, (1992) GCA, 55, 2155-2175. Schultz, P.H. and P.D. Spudis, (1079) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 10th, 2899-2918. Whitten, J.L., J.W. Head, C.M. Pieters and H. Hiesinger, (2012) Lunar Sci. Forum, Abstract #592.

  17. Spatial Distribution and Characteristics of Graben on the Lunar Nearside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    mare margins. In some places within and on the margins of the maria, graben are observed to cut 'highland islands,' that is, graben cut older highland terrain but not mare. This observation indicates that graben in these locations are younger than the highland material but older than the maria, providing a means with which to constrain the timing of faulting, critical for understanding the temporal distribution and evolution of stresses on the lunar nearside. In addition, these observations will help determine the source(s) of stress responsible for the formation of graben on the lunar nearside. References: [1] Lucchitta and Watkins (1978), Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 9, 3459-3472. [2] Watters and Johnson (2010), in Planetary Tectonics, pp. 121-182, Cambridge University Press. [3] Nahm and Schultz (2013), Geol. Soc. Sp. Pub. 401, 377-394.

  18. Development of Natural Alkalinity in Appalachian Deep Coal Mine Discharges, Irwin Syncline, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, E. M.; Winters, W. R.; Winters, W. R.; Capo, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    dissolution. The discharges in the southwestern sub-basins, however, exhibit a significant excess of sodium relative to chloride that correlates with increasing alkalinity. Modeling results are consistent with the development of net alkaline waters as a result of limestone dissolution enhanced by subsurface cation exchange reactions with coal overburden clay minerals such as illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite. The data suggest these processes occur in deeper sub-basins (overburden thickness greater than 100 m), dominated by groundwaters derived from neighboring mine pools with minimum infiltration of surface waters; this is corroborated by calculated infiltration rates for these sub-basins. [1]Weaver, T. J., Capo, R.C., Hedin, R. S., 1997, Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Prog., v. 29, A-321. [2]Winters, W.R., Capo, R.C., Wolinsky, M.W., Weaver, T.J., Hedin, R.S., 1999, Proc. 16th Ann. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., sect. 6-5, p. 1-36. [3]Parkhurst, D.L. and Appelo, C.A.J., 1999, USGS Water Res. Invest. Rept. 99-4259, 326 p.

  19. Distinct kimberlite pipe classes with contrasting eruption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, E. M. W.; Marsh, J. S.

    2004-09-01

    Field and Scott Smith [Field, M., Scott Smith, B.H., 1999. Contrasting geology and near-surface emplacement of kimberlite pipes in southern Africa and Canada. Proc. 7th Int. Kimb. Conf. (Eds. Gurney et al.) 1, 214-237.] propose that kimberlite pipes can be grouped into three types or classes. Classical or Class 1 pipes are the only class with characteristic low temperature, diatreme-facies kimberlite in addition to hypabyssal- and crater-facies kimberlite. Class 2 and 3 pipes are characterized only by hypabyssal-and crater-facies kimberlite. In an increasing number of Class 1 pipes a new kimberlite facies, transitional-facies kimberlite, is being found. In most cases this facies forms a zone several metres wide at the interface between the hypabyssal- and diatreme-facies. The transitional-facies exhibits textural and mineralogical features, which are continuously gradational between the hypabyssal and the diatreme types. The textural gradations are from a coherent magmatic texture to one where the rock becomes increasingly magmaclastic and this is accompanied by concomitant mineralogical gradations involving the decline and eventual elimination of primary calcite at the expense of microlitic diopside. Both transitional- and diatreme-facies kimberlites are considered to have formed in situ from intruding hypabyssal kimberlite magma as a consequence of exsolution of initially CO 2-rich volatiles from the volatile-rich kimberlite magma. The transitional-facies is initiated by volatile exsolution at depths of about 3 km below the original surface. With subsequent cracking through to the surface and resultant rapid decompression, the further catastrophic exsolution of volatiles and their expansion leads to the formation of the diatreme facies. Thus diatreme-facies kimberlite and Class 1 pipes are emplaced by essentially magmatic processes rather than by phreatomagmatism. Distinctly different petrographic features characterize crater-facies kimberlite in each of the

  20. Two-way WKB Approximation Applied to GPR - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopovich, Igor; Popov, Alexei; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    account. In this work we study bistatic EM pulse probing of a horizontally layered medium in a 2D case. Coupled WKB equations set describing both forward and backward waves are derived and solved analytically. The comparison of our semi-analytical solutions with numerical calculations by gprMax software [4] demonstrates a good agreement, being hundreds of times faster than the letter. Our numerical results explain the protracted return pulses in the low-frequency GPR data. As an example, we discuss the experimental data obtained during the GPR mission in search of a big fragment of Chelyabinsk meteorite under a thick silt layer at the bottom of Chebarcul' Lake [5]. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (www.cost.eu) facilitating this work by a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) within the framework of the Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu). References 1. H. Bremmer "Propagation of electromagnetic waves", in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed. Berlin-Goettingen-Heidelberg: Springer, 1958, pp. 423-639 2. L.M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Stratified Media (in Russian). Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, 1957. 3. V.A.Vinogradov, V.V. Kopeikin, A.V. Popov, "An Approximate Solution of 1D Inverse Problem", in Proc. 10th Internat. Conf. on GPR, 21-24 June, 2004, Delft, The Netherlands 4. A. Giannopoulos, "Modelling ground penetrating radar by GprMax", Construction and Building Materials, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 755-762, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.06.007 5. V. V. Kopeikin , V. D. Kuznetsov, P. A. Morozov, A. V. Popov et al., "Ground penetrating radar investigation of the supposed fall site of a fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite in Lake Chebarkul'", Geochemistry International, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 575-582, 2013, doi: 10.1134/S0016702913070112

  1. Hydrate pingoes at Nyegga - natural small-scale carbon capture laboratories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.

    2009-12-01

    methane clathrates into CO2 hydrates by segregation. A ‘Chinese hat’ (steel cone) could for example be put over one of the most accessible pingoes, to collect fluids emitting from it. After a year or so of fluid type and flux monitoring, the next research step could for example be to inject a known volume of CO2 into the base of the pingo and monitor what happens to the flux and fluid type emitting from it. Such pioneering experiments will call for a high degree of international cooperation and probably also the involvement of industry partners, especially with respect to offshore multi-purpose vessel support. References Hovland, M., Svensen, H., 2006. Marine Geology 228, 15-23 Ivanov et al., 2007. EOS 88 (19), 209, 212 Westbrook et al., 2008. ICGH Conf. Proc., Vancouver, July 6-10

  2. The Influence of Relative Submergence on the Near-bed Flow Field: Implications for Bed-load Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Tait, S.; Marion, A.

    2005-12-01

    the above tests. The overlap between this distribution and the measured velocities are used to estimate entrainment rates. Predicted entrainment rates increase with relative submergence, even for similar bed shear stress. Assuming bed-load rate is the product of entrainment rate and hop length, and that hop lengths are sensibly stable, suggests that transport rate has a dependence on relative submergence. This demonstrates that transport rate is not a direct function of average bed shear stress. The results describe a mechanism that will cause river channels with contrasting morphologies (and different relative submergence) but similar levels of average bed stress to experience different levels of sediment mobility. Chegini A. Tait S. Heald J. McEwan I. 2002 The development of an automated system for the measurement of near bed turbulence and grain motion. Proc. ASCE Conf. on Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods, ISBN 0-7844-0655-3. Drake T.G. Shreve R.L. Dietrich W.E. Whiting P.J. Leopold L.B. 1988 Bedload transport of fine gravel observed by motion-picture photography, J. Fluid Mech., 192, 193-217. Heald J. McEwan I. Tait, S. 2004 Sediment transport over a flat bed in a unidirectional flow: simulations and validation, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. of London A, 362, 1973-1986. Nelson J.M. Shreve R.L. McLean S.R. Drake T.G. 1995 Role of near-bed turbulence structure in bed-load transport and bed form mechanics, Water. Res. Res., 31, 8, 2071-2086.

  3. Ejecta velocity distribution of impact craters formed on quartz sand: Effect of projectile density on crater scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujido, Sayaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayako I.; Yasui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    . Pergamon, NY, pp. 1003-1008). Therefore, we used the extended Z-model by Croft (Croft, S.K. [1980]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 11, 2347-2378), which could be applied to the crater excavation process when the point source was buried at the depth of d under the target surface, and then all the experimental results of μ and θ were reasonably explained by suitable Z and d values of the extended Z-model.

  4. A comparison of dynamical and statistical downscaling methods for regional wave climate projections along French coastlines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugel, Amélie; Menendez, Melisa; Benoit, Michel; Mattarolo, Giovanni; Mendez, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    110 coastal locations along the French coast. The model, based on the BAJ parameterization of the source terms (Bidlot et al, 2007) was calibrated against ten years of GlobWave altimeter observations (2000-2009) and validated through deep and shallow water buoy observations. The dynamical downscaling method has been performed with the same numerical wave model TOMAWAC used for building ANEMOC-2. Forecast simulations are forced by the 10m wind fields of ARPEGE-CLIMAT (A1B, A2, B1) from 2010 to 2100. The model covers the Atlantic Ocean and uses a spatial resolution along the French and European coast of 10 and 20 km respectively. The results of the model are stored with a time resolution of one hour. References: Benoit M., Marcos F., and F. Becq, (1996). Development of a third generation shallow-water wave model with unstructured spatial meshing. Proc. 25th Int. Conf. on Coastal Eng., (ICCE'1996), Orlando (Florida, USA), pp 465-478. Bidlot J-R, Janssen P. and Adballa S., (2007). A revised formulation of ocean wave dissipation and its model impact, technical memorandum ECMWF n°509. Menendez, M., Mendez, F.J., Izaguirre,C., Camus, P., Espejo, A., Canovas, V., Minguez, R., Losada, I.J., Medina, R. (2011). Statistical Downscaling of Multivariate Wave Climate Using a Weather Type Approach, 12th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and 3rd Coastal Hazard Symposium, Kona (Hawaii).

  5. Excavation of buried hydrated minerals on Mars by impact cratering? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Poulet, F.; Loizeau, D.; Bibring, J.

    2010-12-01

    buried, pre-existing phyllosilicates is thought to be the driving process. Other hydrated mineral formation pathways linked with impact cratering include impact-induced hydrothermal alteration [10-12], shock-induced and post-impact changes to mineral composition. [1]Poulet et al., Nature 438, 623 (2005). [2]Murchie et al., J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D06 (2009). [3]Bibring et al., Science 312, 5772 (2006). [4]Baratoux et al., J. Geophys. Res. 112, E08S05 (2007). [5]Tanaka et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108, (E4), 8043 (2003). [6]Carter et al., Science 328, 1682 (2010). [7]Bibring et al., Eur. Space Agency Spec. Pub. 1240, 37 (2004). [8]Murchie et al., J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00D07 (2009). [9]Carter et al., Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 40, abstr. 2028 (2009). [10]Abramov and Kring, J. Geophys. Res. 110, (E12), E12S09 (2005). [11]Schwenzer and Kring, Geology 37, 1091 (2009). [12]Marzo et al., Icarus 208, 667-683 (2010).

  6. Inhomogeneities Between and Within Moldavites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.-M.; Meisel, T.

    1995-09-01

    ratios, the Bohemian subfield contains the tektites of unusual composition and covers a large range in element abundances and ratios. Moldavites from the Lusatian population contain glasses of mainly normal Bohemian and Moravian composition and also cover a large range in composition. So far no tektites of unusual composition have been discovered in the Lusatian subfield. References: [1] Bouska V. I. and Konta J. (1986) Acta Univ. Carolinae, Geol. 1, 1-126. [2] Delano J. W. and Lindsley D. H. (1982) GCA, 46, 2447-2452. [3] Rost R. (1966) Acta Univ. Carolinae, Geol. 4, 235-242. [4] Delano J. W. et al. (1988) Proc. 2nd Intl. Conf. Nat. Glasses, 221-230. [5] Bouska V. I. and Cilek V. (1992) Vestn. Cesk. Geol. Ust., 67, 225-234. [6] Meisel T. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 397-398.

  7. Real World Data and Service Integration: Demonstrations and Lessons Learnt from the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot Phase Four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, I.; Alameh, N.; Percivall, G.

    2012-04-01

    The GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilots (AIP) develop and pilot new process and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and the broader GEOSS architecture through an evolutionary development process consisting of a set of phases. Each phase addresses a set of Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) and geoinformatic topics. The first three phases consisted of architecture refinements based on interactions with users; component interoperability testing; and SBA-driven demonstrations. The fourth phase (AIP-4) documented here focused on fostering interoperability arrangements and common practices for GEOSS by facilitating access to priority earth observation data sources and by developing and testing specific clients and mediation components to enable such access. Additionally, AIP-4 supported the development of a thesaurus for earth observation parameters and tutorials to guide data providers to make their data available through GEOSS. The results of AIP-4 are documented in two engineering reports and captured in a series of videos posted online. Led by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), AIP-4 built on contributions from over 60 organizations. This wide portfolio helped testing interoperability arrangements in a highly heterogeneous environment. AIP-4 participants cooperated closely to test available data sets, access services, and client applications in multiple workflows and set ups. Eventually, AIP-4 improved the accessibility of GEOSS datasets identified as supporting Critical Earth Observation Priorities by the GEO User Interface Committee (UIC), and increased the use of the data through promoting availability of new data services, clients, and applications. During AIP-4, A number of key earth observation data sources have been made available online at standard service interfaces, discovered using brokered search approaches, and processed and visualized in generalized client applications. AIP-4 demonstrated the level of interoperability

  8. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    soil water content at the occurrence of slope failure is of key importance, since high soil moisture, in such loose granular soils, may lead the landslide to develop in a fast flowslide, either by modifying the rehological properties of the mud, or by affecting slope equilibrium. However, actual water content is not predictable from suction measurements alone, because soil water retention curve is modified by shear stress and by soil bulk volume change under wet conditions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research was co-financed by the Italian Ministry of University, by means of the PRIN 2006 PRIN program, within the research project entitled ‘Definition of critical rainfall thresholds for destructive landslides for civil protection purposes'. REFERENCES Damiano, E., 2004, Meccanismi d'innesco di colate di fango in terreni piroclastici, Ph.D. Thesis, Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli, Italy. Eckersely, J. 1990. Instrumented laboratory flowslides. Géotechnique, 40(3): 489-502 Greco, R., 2006, Soil water content inverse profiling from single TDR waveforms, Journal Hydrol., Vol. 317, pp. 325-339. Olivares, L. and Picarelli, L., 2001, Susceptibility of loose pyroclastic soils to static liquefaction - Some preliminary data, Int. Conf. Landslides - Causes, countermeasures and impacts. Davos Olivares, L., Damiano, E. and Picarelli, L., 2003, Wetting and flume tests on a volcanic ash, International Conference on Fast Slope Movements - Prediction and Prevention for Risk Mitigation, Naples, Italy, pp. 399-404. Olivares, L. and Picarelli, L., 2006, Modelling of flowslides behaviour for risk mitigation, General Report, Int. Conf. on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, Hong Kong, Vol. 1, pp. 99-113. Olivares, L., Damiano, E., Greco, R., Zeni, L., Picarelli, L., Minardo, A., Guida, A. and Bernini, R., 2007, An instrumented flume for investigation of the mechanics of rainfall-induced landslides in unsaturated granular soils. Subbmitted for publication in ASTM Geotechnical Testing

  9. Thickness Estimate of Ice-Rich Mantle Deposits on Malea Planum and the Southern Hellas Basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, M.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.

    2009-04-01

    map. The thickest areas of deposited material are found on the southern slope of the Hellas Basin, where craters are often completely mantled and no rim is seen. These were identified by concentric fractures in the mantle which mark the approximate outline of the buried rim. Mantle in these regions is typically smooth and continuously seen draped over the topography. Our results indicate distinct thickening of ice-rich deposited material north of ~58°S on the southern wall of the Hellas Basin, compared to the plains of Malea Planum. The mantle on the plains is probably thinner than what is indicated due to the overestimation of values caused by partially buried craters. Similarly, the mantle on the slope of the basin is probably thicker than represented due underestimation caused by complete burial of many craters. [1] Zanetti et al., 2009, Icarus, in review. [2] DeHon, R.A., 1974 Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf., 5th, 53. [3] Bleacher, J.E., et al., 2003, JGR, JE001535. [4] Garvin et al., 2003, 6th Intl. Conf. on Mars, Abs. #3277. [5] Head, J.W., (1982), Moon and Planets, 26, 61-88.

  10. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    an InGaAs heterostructure Nanotechnology 24 214007 [4] Chen H-T, Padilla W J, Zide J M O, Gossard A C, Taylor A J and Averitt R D 2006 Active terahertz metamaterial devices Nature 444 597-600 [5] Hans H 1991 Microwave technology in the terahertz region Brand Conf. Proc.—European Microwave Conf. vol 1, pp 16-35 [6]Joyce H J, Docherty C J, Gao Q, Tan H H, Jagadish C, Lloyd-Hughes J, Herz L M and Johnston M B 2013 Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy Nanotechnology 24 214006 [7] Knap W, Rumyantsev S, Vitiello M S, Coquillat D, Blin S, Dyakonova N, Shur M, Teppe F, Tredicucci A and Nagatsuma T 2013 Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors Nanotechnology 24 214002 [8] Kawano Y 2013 Wide-band frequency-tunable terahertz and infrared detection with graphene Nanotechnology 24 214004 [9]Romeo L, Coquillat D, Pea M, Ercolani D, Beltram F, Sorba L, Knap W, Tredicucci A and Vitiello M S 2013 Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems Nanotechnology 24 214005 [10] Son J-H 2013 Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging Nanotechnology 24 214001 [11] Zhu Z, Yang X, Gu J, Jiang J, Yue W, Tian Z, Tonouchi M, Han J and Zhang W 2013 Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials Nanotechnology 24 214003 [12] Tonouchi M 2007 Cutting-edge terahertz technology Nature Photon. 1 97-105

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Omiyale, Ayodeji Oluwarotimi

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  12. Spousal Presence as a Nonpharmacological Pain Management during Childbirth: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Emelonye, Abigail U.; Pitkäaho, Taina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Background. Measures of spousal effect during parturient pain should take a tripartite approach involving the parturients, spouses, and midwives. Aim. To develop and validate three questionnaires measuring spousal presence in management of parturient pain in Nigeria. Methods. There are two phases: (1) development of questionnaires, Abuja Instrument for Midwives (AIM), Abuja Instrument for Parturient Pain (AIPP), and Abuja Instrument for Parturient Spouses (AIPS), utilizing literatures, Kuopio instrument for fathers (KIF) and expertise of health professionals, and (2) pilot study to validate the questionnaires which were administered in two hospitals in Nigeria: midwives (n = 10), parturients (n = 10), and spouses (n = 10).  Results. Internal consistency for the three questionnaires indicated Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.789 (AIM), 0.802 (AIPP), and 0.860 (AIPS), while test-retest reliability was r = 0.99 (AIM), r = 0.99 (AIPP), and r = 0.90 (AIPS). Conclusions. AIM, AIPP, and AIPS provide a means of investigating the effectiveness of spousal presence in management of parturient pain in Nigeria. However, further testing of each instrument is needed in a larger population to replicate the beneficial findings of AIMS, AIPP, and AIPS which can contribute rigor to future studies. PMID:26682066

  13. A Cell-penetrating Peptide Suppresses Inflammation by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu Fu; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Xia; Zhang, Chun; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xi; Guo, Wei; Xing, Wei; Yu, Jian; Yan, Jing-Long; Liang, Hua-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central regulator of immune response and a potential target for developing anti-inflammatory agents. Mechanistic studies suggest that compounds that directly inhibit NF-κB DNA binding may block inflammation and the associated tissue damage. Thus, we attempted to discover peptides that could interfere with NF-κB signaling based on a highly conserved DNA-binding domain found in all NF-κB members. One such small peptide, designated as anti-inflammatory peptide-6 (AIP6), was characterized in the current study. AIP6 directly interacted with p65 and displayed an intrinsic cell-penetrating property. This peptide demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, AIP6 inhibited the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of the p65 NF-κB subunit as well as the production of inflammatory mediators in macrophages upon stimulation. Local administration of AIP6 significantly inhibited inflammation induced by zymosan in mice. Collectively, our results suggest that AIP6 is a promising lead peptide for the development of specific NF-κB inhibitors as potential anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:21556052

  14. NOVIDAS and UVPROC II---Data Archive and Reduction System for Nobeyama Millimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, T.; Morita, K.-I.; Umeyama, S.

    A workstation-based data archive and reduction software system is developed for the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA). NOVIDAS is used for archiving the output data from the interferometer onto 8mm tapes. It also provides a search utility for the archived database. The calibration and reduction of the data are handled by UVPROC II\\@. It uses the AIPS file system via a set of interface modules called vif library developed by us in order to make an easier transition from the calibration processing to further imaging and analysis using AIPS. Basic functions of the UVPROC II are: correcting bandpass characteristics and time variations of complex gains, correction of variations in system temperature due to atmosphere, subtraction of continuum from spectral data, data flagging, and flux scaling. A key concept for designing the software is that the system should be user-friendly. We adopted a GUI based on X-windows system with a menu-button feature for execution of commands and PGPLOT for graphical display. This allows users to examine the data quality visually and edit the data interactively. The vif library consists of simple fortran programs to open/close and read/write the AIPS files. Therefore it can also be used by users to develop their own codes for manipulating the AIPS data without calling the AIPS routines directly. The system currently runs on SUN-Solaris and will be ported to SGI-Irix with a disk array.

  15. Efficacy of three surface disinfectants for dental radiographic films and gloves.

    PubMed

    Coogan, M M; Patel, M; Mladenova, D

    2004-07-01

    Contaminated radiographic films and gloves may transmit infectious diseases. Objective. To determine whether Pre Sept (NaDC), a sodium dichloroisocyanurate based disinfectant; Bronocide SP (AIP) an alcohol-phenol-iodine disinfectant and polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine (PVPI) can be used to disinfect radiographic films and gloves. Study design. Radiographic films were contaminated with Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli or saliva and placed in either 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 NaDC for 1, 2 or 5 min; PVPI for 5 min or sprayed with AIP. Gloves contaminated with C. albicans, S. mutans or Lactobacilli were sprayed with AIP. After treatment the films and gloves were tested for viable microorganisms. Results. A 0.5% solution of NaDC killed all microorganisms after one-minute exposure. PVPI killed 99.8% and AIP spray between 95.8 and 99% of microorganisms. Conclusions. NaDC was the most successful disinfectant in the laboratory and clinical setting followed by PVPI and AIP. PMID:15193787

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, distinct and increasingly recognized form of pancreatitis which has autoimmune features. The international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC) for AIP recently described two subtypes; type 1[lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP)] and type 2 [idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesion (GEL)]. Type 1 is the more common form of the disease worldwide and current understanding suggests that it is a pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In contrast, type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disease not associated with IgG4 and mostly without the overt extra-pancreatic organ involvement seen in type 1. The pathogenesis of AIP is not completely understood and its clinical presentation is non-specific. It shares overlapping features with more sinister pathologies such as cancer of the pancreas, which continues to pose a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The diagnostic criteria requires a variable combination of histopathological, imaging and serological features in the presence of typical extrapancreatic lesions and a predictable response to steroids. PMID:27294040

  17. State Water Resources Control Board, California Agreement in Principle 1995 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Laudon, L.

    1996-03-01

    The Agreement in Principle (AIP) was established as part of the Secretary of Energy`s Ten-Point Initiative which was announced in 1989. One of the Secretary`s goals was to integrate the Department of Energy`s (DOE) national security mission with their environmental restoration and compliance responsibilities. In an effort to accomplish this goal, DOE increased the role of the states in the oversight of DOE`s monitoring programs through AIPs. The State of California and DOE negotiated the California AIP beginning in 1989 and signed the Agreement in September 1990. The AIP identified six DOE facilities to be evaluated under the program. The six facilities evaluated by the AIP program were: (1) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) including LLNL`s Site 300; (2) Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA); (3) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL); (4) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); (5) Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC); and (6) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR).

  18. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  19. Mass spectrometric characterisation of a condensation product between porphobilinogen and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Josep; Ibañez, Maria; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi; To-Figueras, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J

    2015-07-01

    We document the presence of a previously unknown species in the urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The compound was fully characterised by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of both full spectrum acquisition and product ion spectra acquired in positive and negative ionisation modes by quadrupole time of flight MS allowed for the identification of a condensation product arising from porphobilinogen (PBG, increased in the urine of AIP patients) and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG, derived from indolylacrylic acid and present in human urine). The structure was unequivocally confirmed through comparison between the selected reaction monitoring chromatograms obtained from the urinary species and the condensation product qualitatively synthesised in the laboratory. Owing to the large amounts of both PBG and IAG in urine of AIP patients, the possible ex vivo formation of PBG-IAG in urine samples was evaluated. The product was spontaneously formed at room temperature, at 4 °C and even during storage at -20 °C when spiking a control sample with PBG. A positive correlation was found between PBG and PBG-IAG in samples collected from AIP patients. However, no correlation was found between PBG-IAG and IAG. Purified PBG-IAG did not form the characteristic chromogen after application of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in HCl, thus suggesting that the current techniques used to measure PBG in urine of AIP patients based on Ehlrich's reaction do not detect this newly characterised PBG-IAG fraction. PMID:26349648

  20. Configurational temperature and local properties of the anisotropic Gay-Berne liquid crystal model: Applications to the isotropic liquid/vapor interface and isotropic/nematic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoufi, Aziz; Morineau, Denis; Lefort, Ronan; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Molecular simulations in the isothermal statistical ensembles require that the macroscopic thermal and mechanical equilibriums are respected and that the local values of these properties are constant at every point in the system. The thermal equilibrium in Monte Carlo simulations can be checked through the calculation of the configurational temperature, {k_BT_{conf}={< |nabla _r U({r}^N)|2>}/{< nabla _r{^2} U({r}^N) >}}, where nabla _r is the nabla operator of position vector r. As far as we know, T_{conf} was never calculated with the anisotropic Gay-Berne potential, whereas the calculation of T_{conf} is much more widespread with more common potentials (Lennard Jones, electrostatic, …). We establish here an operational expression of the macroscopic and local configurational temperatures, and we investigate locally the isotropic liquid phase, the liquid / vapor interface, and the isotropic-nematic transition by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Approximate semi-analytical solutions for the steady-state expansion of a contactor plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporeale, E.; Hogan, E. A.; MacDonald, E. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the steady-state expansion of a collisionless, electrostatic, quasi-neutral plasma plume into vacuum, with a fluid model. We analyze approximate semi-analytical solutions, that can be used in lieu of much more expensive numerical solutions. In particular, we focus on the earlier studies presented in Parks and Katz (1979 American Institute of Aeronautics, Astronautics Conf. vol 1), Korsun and Tverdokhlebova (1997 33rd Joint Prop. Conf. (Seattle, WA) AIAA-97-3065), and Ashkenazy and Fruchtman (2001 27th Int. Electric Propulsion Conf. (Pasadena, CA)). By calculating the error with respect to the numerical solution, we can judge the range of validity for each solution. Moreover, we introduce a generalization of earlier models that has a wider range of applicability, in terms of plasma injection profiles. We conclude by showing a straightforward way to extend the discussed solutions to the case of a plasma plume injected with non-null azimuthal velocity.

  2. Configurational temperature and local properties of the anisotropic Gay-Berne liquid crystal model: applications to the isotropic liquid/vapor interface and isotropic/nematic transition.

    PubMed

    Ghoufi, Aziz; Morineau, Denis; Lefort, Ronan; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2011-01-21

    Molecular simulations in the isothermal statistical ensembles require that the macroscopic thermal and mechanical equilibriums are respected and that the local values of these properties are constant at every point in the system. The thermal equilibrium in Monte Carlo simulations can be checked through the calculation of the configurational temperature, k(B)T(conf)=<|∇(r)U(r(N))|(2)>/<∇(r) (2)U(r(N))>, where ∇(r) is the nabla operator of position vector r. As far as we know, T(conf) was never calculated with the anisotropic Gay-Berne potential, whereas the calculation of T(conf) is much more widespread with more common potentials (Lennard Jones, electrostatic, ...). We establish here an operational expression of the macroscopic and local configurational temperatures, and we investigate locally the isotropic liquid phase, the liquid / vapor interface, and the isotropic-nematic transition by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21261339

  3. 3 CFR 102.171-102.999 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected Index Title 3—The President Table 1—Proclamations Table 1—PROCLAMATIONS No... FRFederal Register PLOPublic Land Order (43 CFR, Appendix to Chapter II) Proc.Proclamation Pub. L.Public Law... Act of 1985 Proc. 9072 Title 3—The President List of Sections Affected LIST OF CFR SECTIONS...

  4. A Basic Study Toward Optimization of LFC Resources in Future Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Yoshihiko; Masuda, Ryoichi; Sugita, Shinya

    Load frequency control (LFC) in future power systems, in which a large amount of solar photovoltaic generation is introduced, is studied. The constraints in LFC resources are classified as rate, simple, and energy limits. First the nonlinear transfer functions of the limiters are modeled using random noise input. Second the transfer functions of limiters are characterized by coefficients of necessary facilities (CoNF). Third the appropriateness of concept and identified value of CoNF is demonstrated through numerical simulations using a simple power system model. Also a way to control the contribution of existing and introducing resources to regulation of frequency fluctuation is proposed and demonstrated.

  5. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Multiorgan Disease Presenting a Conundrum for Clinicians in the West

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eileen; Voaklander, Rebecca; Kasmin, Franklin E.; Brown, William H.; Mannan, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a clinical entity originally described in East Asia and more recently recognized in the United States and Europe, poses a diagnostic conundrum for clinicians in the West due to immunoglobulin G4 seronegativity. Although expert panels classify this disease into 2 types, it remains difficult to stratify the disease given that both types share most clinical, biochemical, and imaging characteristics. The classic presentation of AIP can mimic that of pancreatic carcinoma, which increases the urgency of evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. In this article, we elucidate the differences between the 2 types of AIP, highlight the shortcomings of the current classification system, and propose a more inclusive view of the disorder. PMID:27482182

  6. Purple pigments: the pathophysiology of acute porphyric neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cindy S-Y; Lee, Ming-Jen; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2011-12-01

    The porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders arising from disturbance in the haem biosynthesis pathway. The neuropathy associated with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) occurs due to mutation involving the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and is characterised by motor-predominant features. Definitive diagnosis often encompasses a combination of biochemical, enzyme analysis and genetic testing, with clinical neurophysiological findings of a predominantly motor axonal neuropathy. Symptomatic and supportive treatment are the mainstays during an acute attack. If administered early, intravenous haemin may prevent progression of neuropathy. While the pathophysiology of AIP neuropathy remains unclear, axonal dysfunction appears intrinsically linked to the effects of neural energy deficits acquired through haem deficiency coupled to the neurotoxic effects of porphyrin precursors. The present review will provide an overview of AIP neuropathy, including discussion of recent advances in understanding developed through neurophysiological approaches that have further delineated the pathophysiology of axonal degeneration. PMID:21855406

  7. Porphyria and anorexia: cause and effect.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos R; Bandeira, Barbara E S; Martinez, Alberto R M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; França, Marcondes C

    2014-12-01

    Porphyrias are hereditary disorders related to impaired biosynthesis of heme and characterized by multisystemic manifestations. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common acute subtype of the disease, and often associated with psychiatric symptoms. We here report a patient who developed acute flaccid paralysis after remarkable weight loss, which was related to an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa). After an extensive neurologic workup, he was diagnosed with AIP. This case emphasizes a deleterious vicious cycle between AIP and anorexia: porphyria may lead to anorexia and the carbohydrate restriction may lead to recurrent porphyric attacks. Therefore, an interruption of this cycle with psychiatric approaches to the eating disorders is crucial for long-term therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25988062

  8. Theoretical studies toward understanding the excited state dynamics of a bichromophoric molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fang; Zhao, Yi; Liang, WanZhen

    2007-06-01

    By means of the time-dependent density functional theory, the authors study the torsional dynamics of the lowest singlet electronic excited state (S1) of a bichromophoric molecule, 2-(9-anthryl)-1H-imidazo [4,5-f]-phenanthroline (AIP). The intramolecular dynamical relaxation process, the S1 potential energy surface, and the vibrationally resolved electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are estimated. The results reveal that the strong electron-nuclear coupling leads to a dynamic structural distortion in S1 state so that the mirror-image symmetry of absorption and fluorescence spectra of AIP breaks down. The torsional motion between the donor and acceptor moieties in AIP favors the intramolecular electronic energy transfer process. The transfer rate is dominated by the relaxation time along S1 low-frequency torsional motion.

  9. The antihyperlipidemic activities of enzymatic and acidic intracellular polysaccharides by Termitomyces albuminosus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huajie; Li, Shangshang; Zhang, Jianjun; Che, Gen; Zhou, Meng; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Liu, Yu; Jia, Le

    2016-10-20

    Two polysaccharides, EIPS and AIPS were obtained by the hydrolysis of IPS from Termitomyces albuminosus, and their pharmacological effects on blood lipid profiles metabolism and oxidative stress were investigated. The results demonstrated that EIPS was superior to IPS and AIPS on reducing hepatic lipid levels and preventing oxidative stress by improving serum enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and ALP), serum lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C), hepatic lipid levels (TC and TG), and antioxidant status (SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, T-AOC, MDA, and LPO). These conclusions indicated that EIPS, AIPS and IPS might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs on preventing the high-fat emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia. In addition, the monosaccharide compositions of IPS and its hydrolyzate were also processed. PMID:27474674

  10. Court rejects challenge to publication of pricing surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For the second time, the U.S. District Court in New York has upheld the right to publish surveys analyzing the prices of scientific journals. The decision is a significant confirmation of the legal protection given to a form of speech important to the scholarly community.In 1986 and 1988, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and The American Physical Society (APS) published the results of surveys that analyzed the comparative prices of physics journals. Journals published by AIP and APS scored near the top of the rankings, and several of Gordon & Breach's (G & B) journals scored at or near the bottom. G&B sued AIP and APS in New York and in Europe, claiming that the publication of the survey results constituted false or misleading advertising.

  11. Porphyria and anorexia: cause and effect

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carlos R.; Bandeira, Barbara E.S.; Martinez, Alberto R.M.; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; França, Marcondes C.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are hereditary disorders related to impaired biosynthesis of heme and characterized by multisystemic manifestations. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common acute subtype of the disease, and often associated with psychiatric symptoms. We here report a patient who developed acute flaccid paralysis after remarkable weight loss, which was related to an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa). After an extensive neurologic workup, he was diagnosed with AIP. This case emphasizes a deleterious vicious cycle between AIP and anorexia: porphyria may lead to anorexia and the carbohydrate restriction may lead to recurrent porphyric attacks. Therefore, an interruption of this cycle with psychiatric approaches to the eating disorders is crucial for long-term therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25988062

  12. IgG4-negative autoimmune pancreatitis with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis: possible association with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keita; Hozawa, Shigenari; Miyata, Naoteru; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Soma, Hiromitsu; Iwao, Yasushi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with cholangiography and histopathology showing features characteristic of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and colitis. A 55-year-old previously-healthy man was diagnosed with anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-positive AIP according to the finding of serum biochemistry, abdominal US (ultrasonography), CT (computed tomography) and ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). However, bead-like strictures of intrahepatic bile ducts were also found and liver tissue showed onion skin-like periductal fibrosis but no anti-IgG4-positive cells. In addition, colon fiberscopy showed a pancolitis similar to ulcerative colitis indicating that, in this case, there may be an association with PSC. Here, we report a rare case of IgG4-negative AIP with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis with many clinical features that support an association with PSC. PMID:18480579

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis agr Quorum-Sensing System: Signal Identification, Cross Talk, and Importance in Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Michael E.; Todd, Daniel A.; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Paharik, Alexandra E.; Van Dyke, Michael J.; Büttner, Henning; Dunman, Paul M.; Rohde, Holger; Cech, Nadja B.; Fey, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of medical device infections. Global regulators like the agr quorum-sensing system in this pathogen have received a limited amount of attention, leaving important questions unanswered. There are three agr types in S. epidermidis strains, but only one of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) signals has been identified (AIP-I), and cross talk between agr systems has not been tested. We structurally characterized all three AIP types using mass spectrometry and discovered that the AIP-II and AIP-III signals are 12 residues in length, making them the largest staphylococcal AIPs identified to date. S. epidermidis agr reporter strains were developed for each system, and we determined that cross-inhibitory interactions occur between the agr type I and II systems and between the agr type I and III systems. In contrast, no cross talk was observed between the type II and III systems. To further understand the outputs of the S. epidermidis agr system, an RNAIII mutant was constructed, and microarray studies revealed that exoenzymes (Ecp protease and Geh lipase) and low-molecular-weight toxins were downregulated in the mutant. Follow-up analysis of Ecp confirmed the RNAIII is required to induce protease activity and that agr cross talk modulates Ecp activity in a manner that mirrors the agr reporter results. Finally, we demonstrated that the agr system enhances skin colonization by S. epidermidis using a porcine model. This work expands our knowledge of S. epidermidis agr system function and will aid future studies on cell-cell communication in this important opportunistic pathogen. PMID:25070736

  14. Phantom and Clinical Study of Differences in Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Registration When Aligned to Maximum and Average Intensity Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Kiyonori; Nishiyama, Kinji; Katsuda, Toshizo; Teshima, Teruki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Tsujii, Katsutomo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether maximum or average intensity projection (MIP or AIP, respectively) reconstructed from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is preferred for alignment to cone beam CT (CBCT) images in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Stationary CT and 4DCT images were acquired with a target phantom at the center of motion and moving along the superior–inferior (SI) direction, respectively. Motion profiles were asymmetrical waveforms with amplitudes of 10, 15, and 20 mm and a 4-second cycle. Stationary CBCT and dynamic CBCT images were acquired in the same manner as stationary CT and 4DCT images. Stationary CBCT was aligned to stationary CT, and the couch position was used as the baseline. Dynamic CBCT was aligned to the MIP and AIP of corresponding amplitudes. Registration error was defined as the SI deviation of the couch position from the baseline. In 16 patients with isolated lung lesions, free-breathing CBCT (FBCBCT) was registered to AIP and MIP (64 sessions in total), and the difference in couch shifts was calculated. Results: In the phantom study, registration errors were within 0.1 mm for AIP and 1.5 to 1.8 mm toward the inferior direction for MIP. In the patient study, the difference in the couch shifts (mean, range) was insignificant in the right-left (0.0 mm, ≤1.0 mm) and anterior–posterior (0.0 mm, ≤2.1 mm) directions. In the SI direction, however, the couch position significantly shifted in the inferior direction after MIP registration compared with after AIP registration (mean, −0.6 mm; ranging 1.7 mm to the superior side and 3.5 mm to the inferior side, P=.02). Conclusions: AIP is recommended as the reference image for registration to FBCBCT when target alignment is performed in the presence of asymmetrical respiratory motion, whereas MIP causes systematic target positioning error.

  15. Structure-Function Analyses of a Staphylococcus epidermidis Autoinducing Peptide Reveals Motifs Critical for AgrC-type Receptor Modulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Tal-Gan, Yftah; Paharik, Alexandra E; Horswill, Alexander R; Blackwell, Helen E

    2016-07-15

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is frequently implicated in human infections associated with indwelling medical devices due to its ubiquity in the skin flora and formation of robust biofilms. The accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system plays a prominent role in the establishment of biofilms and infection by this bacterium. Agr activation is mediated by the binding of a peptide signal (or autoinducing peptide, AIP) to its cognate AgrC receptor. Many questions remain about the role of QS in S. epidermidis infections, as well as in mixed-microbial populations on a host, and chemical modulators of its agr system could provide novel insights into this signaling network. The AIP ligand provides an initial scaffold for the development of such probes; however, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) for activation of S. epidermidis AgrC receptors by AIPs are largely unknown. Herein, we report the first SAR analyses of an S. epidermidis AIP by performing systematic alanine and d-amino acid scans of the S. epidermidis AIP-I. On the basis of these results, we designed and identified potent, pan-group inhibitors of the AgrC receptors in the three S. epidermidis agr groups, as well as a set of AIP-I analogs capable of selective AgrC inhibition in either specific S. epidermidis agr groups or in another common staphylococcal species, S. aureus. In addition, we uncovered a non-native peptide agonist of AgrC-I that can strongly inhibit S. epidermidis biofilm growth. Together, these synthetic analogs represent new and readily accessible probes for investigating the roles of QS in S. epidermidis colonization and infections. PMID:27159024

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, "sausage-like" pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  18. Feline acute intermittent porphyria: a phenocopy masquerading as an erythropoietic porphyria due to dominant and recessive hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutations

    PubMed Central

    Clavero, Sonia; Bishop, David F.; Haskins, Mark E.; Giger, Urs; Kauppinen, Raili; Desnick, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Human acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), the most common acute hepatic porphyria, is an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme biosynthesis due to the half-normal activity of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMB-synthase). Here, we describe the first naturally occurring animal model of AIP in four unrelated cat lines who presented phenotypically as congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). Affected cats had erythrodontia, brownish urine, fluorescent bones, and markedly elevated urinary uroporphyrin (URO) and coproporphyrin (COPRO) consistent with CEP. However, their uroporphyrinogen-III-synthase (URO-synthase) activities (deficient in CEP) were normal. Notably, affected cats had half-normal HMB-synthase activities and elevated urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG), the deficient enzyme and accumulated metabolites in human AIP. Sequencing the feline HMB-synthase gene revealed different mutations in each line: a duplication (c.189dupT), an in-frame 3 bp deletion (c.842_844delGAG) identical to that causing human AIP and two missense mutations, c.250G>A (p.A84T) and c.445C>T (p.R149W). Prokaryotic expression of mutations c.842_844delGAG and c.445C>T resulted in mutant enzymes with <1% wild-type activity, whereas c.250G>A expressed a stable enzyme with ∼35% of wild-type activity. The discolored teeth from the affected cats contained markedly elevated URO I and III, accounting for the CEP-like phenocopy. In three lines, the phenotype was an autosomal dominant trait, while affected cats with the c.250G>A (p.A84T) mutation were homozygous, a unique recessive form of AIP. These animal models may permit further investigation of the pathogenesis of the acute, life-threatening neurological attacks in human AIP and the evaluation of therapeutic strategies. GenBank Accession Numbers: GQ850461–GQ850464. PMID:19934113

  19. Transpapillary biliary stenting is a risk factor for pancreatic stones in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Iwai, Tomohiro; Murai, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Masao; Imai, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Kikuyama, Masataka; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Pancreatic stones occasionally develop in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), often worsen endocrine and exocrine functions, and occasionally cause pain attacks. However, the risks of pancreatic stones in AIP have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors associated with pancreatic stone formation in cases of AIP. Patients and methods: In total, 50 patients with AIP (39 males, 11 females; mean age 64.0 years), followed up for at least a year, were analyzed for their demographic and clinical findings and pancreatic stone occurrence. Results: In total, 50 patients were followed up for an average of 59.7 (12 – 120) months, with steroid treatment in 44 patients (88 %); pancreatic stones occurred in 14 (28 %) patients after the diagnosis of AIP and endoscopic treatment was needed in one patient with pain attack. The pancreatic stones appeared only in patients with long follow-up period (P < 0.001, 83.9 months vs. 49.6 months), biliary stenting (odds ratio [OR]: 8.40, P = 0.010), relapse (OR: 6.20, P = 0.023), jaundice (OR: 5.40, P = 0.019), and swelling of the duodenal major papilla (OR: 4.67, P = 0.040). Biliary stenting was placed for an average of 9.9 months in 27 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association only with biliary stenting (P = 0.011). The stones appeared relatively earlier in patients with stones in the main pancreatic duct or Santorini duct (22.1 months) than in patients where pancreatic stones developed elsewhere (53.4 months) (P = 0.018). Conclusions: The risk of pancreatic stone development should be taken into account when a biliary stent is placed in patients with AIP. PMID:27540582

  20. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    image from the Hubble Space Telescope (STIS, observation of team by Sara Heap, our co-author) and results of our simulation of scattered light from warped disk will be compared [4]. The direct signatures of this planet were discovered on 2002 by Keck telescope observations. References: 1. Fridman, A.M. and Gorkavyi, N.N. Physics of Planetary Rings (Celestial Mechanics of a Continuous Media). Springer-Verlag, 1999, 436 p. 2. Gorkavyi, N.N., Taidakova, T.A. The Model for Formation of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune Satellite Systems, Astronomy Letters., 1995, v. 21 (6). pp.939-945; Discovered Saturnian and undiscovered Neptuanian retrograde satellites, BAAS, v.33, N4, 1403; The New Model of the Origin of the Moon, BAAS, 2004, 36, #2 3. Ozernoy, L.M., Gorkavyi, N.N., Mather, J.C. & Taidakova, T. 2000, Signatures of Exo-solar Planets in Dust Debris Disks, ApJ, 537:L147-L151, 2000 July 10. 4. Gorkavyi, N.N., Heap S.R., Ozernoy, L.M., Taidakova, T.A., and Mather, J.C. Indicator of Exo-Solar Planet(s) in the Circumstellar Disk Around Beta Pictoris. In:"Planetary Systems in the Universe: Observation, Formation, and Evolution". Proc. IAU Symp. No. 202, 2004, ASP Conf. Series, p.331-334. 5. Gorkavyi, N., Taidakova, T. Outermost planets of Beta Pictoris, Vega and Epsilon Eridani: goals for direct imaging. In: "Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science and Techniques" (C. Aime and F. Vakili, eds.). Proc. IAU Coll. No. 200, 2005, p.47-51.

  1. Use of quantitative approaches in plan development.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B Z

    1978-04-01

    Health Planning as mandated by P.L. 93-641 requires considerable emphasis on technical procedures, especially during the development of the 5 year Health Systems Plans (HSP) and the one year Annual Implementation Plans (AIP). In addition, the State Health Plans and the State Medical Facilities Plans, which are to be developed in part on the basis of HSPs and AIPs of the Health Systems Agencies (HSAs) in each state, are expected to have solid quantitative documentation. The gap between these expectations and the state of the art reality are reviewed in this article. PMID:10307191

  2. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing with Nonpeptidic Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of 3-oxo-C12-HSL, tetramic acid, and tetronic acid analogues were synthesized to gain insights into the structural requirements for quorum sensing inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus. Compounds active against agr were noncompetitive inhibitors of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) activated AgrC receptor, by altering the activation efficacy of the cognate AIP-1. They appeared to act as negative allosteric modulators and are exemplified by 3-tetradecanoyltetronic acid 17, which reduced nasal cell colonization and arthritis in a murine infection model. PMID:24592914

  3. Dosimetric comparison of treatment plans based on free breathing, maximum, and average intensity projection CTs for lung cancer SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Wang Zhiheng; Ge Hong; Zhang Tian; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Christopher; Yoo, David; Yin Fangfang

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To determine whether there is a CT dataset may be more favorable for planning and dose calculation by comparing dosimetric characteristics between treatment plans calculated using free breathing (FB), maximum and average intensity projection (MIP and AIP, respectively) CTs for lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Twenty lung cancer SBRT patients, treated on a linac with 2.5 mm width multileaf-collimator (MLC), were analyzed retrospectively. Both FB helical and four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for each patient. Internal target volume (ITV) was delineated based on MIP CTs and modified based on both ten-phase datasets and FB CTs. Planning target volume (PTV) was then determined by adding additional setup margin to ITV. The PTVs and beams in the optimized treatment plan based on FB CTs were copied to MIP and AIP CTs, with the same isocenters, MLC patterns and monitor units. Mean effective depth (MED) of beams, and some dosimetric parameters for both PTVs and most important organ at risk (OAR), lung minus PTV, were compared between any two datasets using two-tail paired t test. Results: The MEDs in FB and AIP plans were similar but significantly smaller (Ps < 0.001) than that in MIP plans. Minimum dose, mean dose, dose covering at least 90% and 95% of PTVs in MIP plans were slightly higher than two other plans (Ps < 0.008). The absolute volume of lung minus PTV receiving greater than 5, 10, and 20 Gy in MIP plans were significantly smaller than those in both FB and AIP plans (Ps < 0.008). Conformity index for FB plans showed a small but statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Dosimetric characteristics of AIP plans are similar to those of FB plans. Slightly better target volume coverage and significantly lower low-dose region ({<=}30 Gy) in lung was observed in MIP plans. The decrease in low-dose region in lung was mainly caused by the change of lung volume contoured on two datasets rather than the

  4. Association study of GABA system genes polymorphisms with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Qingzhong; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Zhao, Min

    2016-05-27

    GABA system genes have been implicated in neurotrophy and neurogenesis, which play pivotal roles in an individual's variation in vulnerability to amphetamine addiction or amphetamine-induced psychosis (AIP). We hypothesized that common genetic variants in the GABA system genes may be associated with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. In our study, thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GABA system genes were genotyped in 400 amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients and 400 amphetamine use disorders patients (AUP) (not including those categorized as psychosis) in the Han Chinese population. In this study, 51.88% of the Han Chinese amphetamine-type substance use disorder patients met the criteria of amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder, and 79.5% amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients had auditory hallucinations, while 46.5% had delusions of reference. The allele frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the Han Chinese population (P=0.03). Compared with AUP group patients, T allele frequency of AIP group patients was significantly increased. The adjustment for age and gender factors in the AIP and AUP patients was executed using unconditional logistic regression under five inheritance models. The genotype frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the log-additive model (P=0.04). The genotype frequency of rs2290733 showed nominal association with AIP in the recessive model (P=0.04). Compared with female AIP patients, male patients were more likely to have the CC genotype of rs17545383 (P=0.04). Moreover, we determined that more male patients carried the T allele of rs2290733 in the AIP group (P=0.004). Unfortunately, the significant differences did not survive Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction (adjusted P>0.05). No association between the SNPs of the GABA system genes and amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder risk was identified. No haplotype of the GABA system

  5. Free audio archive brings legends to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-09-01

    A free online archive that contains thousands of hours of interviews with physicists and astronomers has been launched by the American Institute of Physics (AIP). The archive currently contains full transcripts of interviews with over 400 physicists that were recorded by historians and journalists from 1960 onwards as well as selected parts of the audio files. By the end of the year, the archive, belonging to the AIP's Niels Bohr Library and Archives in Washington, DC, will contain 500 online transcripts and over a dozen audio interviews.

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis results from loss of TGFβ signalling in S100A4-positive dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Boomershine, C S; Chamberlain, A; Kendall, P; Afshar-Sharif, A-R; Huang, H; Washington, M K; Lawson, W E; Thomas, J W; Blackwell, T S; Bhowmick, N A

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a poorly understood human disease affecting the exocrine pancreas. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying pancreatic autoimmunity in a murine disease model. Methods: A transgenic mouse with an S100A4/fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) Cre-mediated conditional knockout of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) type II receptor, termed Tgfbr2fspKO, was used to determine the direct role of TGFβ in S100A4+ cells. Immunohistochemical studies suggested that Tgfbr2fspKO mice develop mouse AIP (mAIP) characterised by interlobular ductal inflammatory infiltrates and pancreatic autoantibody production. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-isolated dendritic cells (DCs) from diseased pancreata were verified to have S100A4-Cre-mediated DNA recombination. Results: The Tgfbr2fspKO mice spontaneously developed mAIP by 6 weeks of age. DCs were confirmed to express S100A4, a previously reported protein expressed by fibroblasts. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived DCs from Tgfbr2fspKO mice into 2-week-old syngenic wild-type C57BL/6 mice resulted in reproduction of pancreatitis within 6 weeks. Similar adoptive transfer of wild-type DCs had no effect on pancreas pathology of the host mice. The inability to induce pancreatitis by adoptive transfer of Tgfbr2fspKO DCs in adult mice suggested a developmental event in mAIP pathogenesis. Tgfbr2fspKO DCs undergo elevated maturation in response to antigen and increased activation of naïve CD4-positive T cells. Conclusion: The development of mAIP in the Tgfbr2fspKO mouse model illustrates the role of TGFβ in maintaining myeloid DC immune tolerance. The loss of immune tolerance in myeloid S100A4+ DCs can mediate mAIP and may explain some aspects of AIP disease pathogenesis. PMID:19625278

  7. Amphiphilic invertible polymers: Self-assembly into functional materials driven by environment polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hevus, Ivan

    Stimuli-responsive polymers adapt to environmental changes by adjusting their chain conformation in a fast and reversible way. Responsive polymeric materials have already found use in electronics, coatings industry, personal care, and bio-related areas. The current work aims at the development of novel responsive functional polymeric materials by manipulating environment-dependent self-assembly of a new class of responsive macromolecules strategically designed in this study,—amphiphilic invertible polymers (AIPs). Environment-dependent micellization and self-assembly of three different synthesized AIP types based on poly(ethylene glycol) as a hydrophilic fragment and varying hydrophobic constituents was demonstrated in polar and nonpolar solvents, as well as on the surfaces and interfaces. With increasing concentration, AIP micelles self-assemble into invertible micellar assemblies composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. Polarity-responsive properties of AIPs make invertible micellar assemblies functional in polar and nonpolar media including at interfaces. Thus, invertible micellar assemblies solubilize poorly soluble substances in their interior in polar and nonpolar solvents. In a polar aqueous medium, a novel stimuli-responsive mechanism of drug release based on response of AIP-based drug delivery system to polarity change upon contact with the target cell has been established using invertible micellar assemblies loaded with curcumin, a phytochemical drug. In a nonpolar medium, invertible micellar assemblies were applied simultaneously as nanoreactors and stabilizers for size-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles stable in both polar and nonpolar media. The developed amphiphilic nanosilver was subsequently used as seeds to promote anisotropic growth of CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles that have potential in different applications ranging from physics to medicine. Amphiphilic invertible polymers were shown to adsorb on the surface of silica

  8. A novel mutation in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in an extended Chinese family with acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Honglian; Yin, Kunlun; Hua, Baolai; Zhu, Tienan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Guo, Shubin; Yu, Xuezhong; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-07-10

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), the third enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Establishing accurate diagnoses of the patient and asymptomatic family members with AIP involves identifying the PBGD enzyme mutations directly. Genetic testing provides a precise diagnosis for the patient and other asymptomatic family members, and thereby proper treatments can be initiated to prevent the disease from progressing. In this study, we report a novel PBGD missense mutation, A G-to-C, at the position 988 resulting in Alanine to Proline (Ala330Pro), in a Chinese family. PMID:25870942

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Pancreatitis in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Tian, Bo; Wang, Luowei; Li, Zhaoshen

    2015-01-01

    Aims To provide comprehensive data on the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) patients in China. Design A systematic review. Methods All clinical studies concerning AIP from China published between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results A total of 26 original articles involving 706 AIP patients were included with an estimated proportion of type 2 AIP as 4.7%. In the 706 AIP patients, the range of mean/median age was 48.6–67.0 years old and the male to female ratio was 4.47:1. The common presentations included obstructive jaundice (pooled rate: 63.4%, 95%CI: 55.4%–71.0%) and abdominal symptoms (pooled rate: 62.3%, 95%CI: 52.4%–71.7%). Biliary involvement was the most common extrapancreatic manifestations, especially the lower part of the common bile duct (pooled rate: 62.3%, 95%CI: 49.9%–73.9%). According to the imaging examinations, 53.8% and 41.6% patients were classified into focal-type and diffuse-type, respectively. Notably, upstream pancreatic duct dilatation was found in parts of patients (pooled rate: 13.8%, 95%CI: 6.6%–23.1%). The levels of serum IgG4 were elevated in most patients (pooled rate: 86.0%, 95%CI: 74.2%–94.6%). Nearly three tenths AIP patients received surgery (pooled rate: 29.7%, 95%CI: 18.1%–42.8%) due to mimicked malignancy. Steroid treatment was given to 78.4% patients (95%CI: 65.3%–89.1%) with a pooled remission rate of 96.2% (95%CI: 94.0%–97.9%). The pooled relapse rate was 13.8% (95%CI: 7.2%–22.0%) with the mean follow-up time ranging from 12 to 45 months. Conclusion Type 1 is the predominant type of Chinese AIP patients and the clinical features, diagnostic modalities and therapeutic regimen were similar with those in other countries. Knowledge of AIP should be more widespread to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26110658

  10. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  11. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shu; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A.; Byrjalsen, Inger; Rittweger, Jörn; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Belavy, Daniel L.; Felsenberg, Dieter; Nedergaard, Anders F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM) and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization. Methods In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week’s strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage. Results Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization. Conclusion The Pro-C3 and–C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading. PMID:26641456

  12. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Radiative Corrections(RADCOR 2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Howard

    2001-05-21

    The eConf archive is a repository for full-text and eprint proceedings. It is designed to allow free, direct distribution of conference proceedings via a stable electronic archive that collects electronically-produced proceedings, indexes them, permanently archives them, and facilitates access to them over the Web.

  13. Proceedings of the 20th International Linac Conference (Linac 2000) Vol. 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2001-01-04

    The eConf archive is a repository for full-text and eprint proceedings. It is designed to allow free, direct distribution of conference proceedings via a stable electronic archive that collects electronically-produced proceedings, indexes them, permanently archives them, and facilitates access to them over the Web.

  14. Proceedings of the e+ e- Physics at Intermediate Energies Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Roxanne V

    2001-09-19

    The eConf archive is a repository for full-text and eprint proceedings. It is designed to allow free, direct distribution of conference proceedings via a stable electronic archive that collects electronically-produced proceedings, indexes them, permanently archives them, and facilitates access to them over the Web.

  15. Proceedings of the 1998 International Computational Accelerator Physics Conference (ICAP98)

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok

    2002-01-14

    The eConf archive is a repository for full-text and eprint proceedings. It is designed to allow free, direct distribution of conference proceedings via a stable electronic archive that collects electronically-produced proceedings, indexes them, permanently archives them, and facilitates access to them over the Web.

  16. Symposium on neutron cross-sections from 10 to 50 MeV. [BNL, May 12-14, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Pearlstein, S.

    1980-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for four of the papers in this volume. The remaining fifteen have already been cited in ERA, and can be located by reference to the entry CONF-800551--(Vol.2) in the Report Number Index. CINDA and charged-particle reaction indexes are included. (RWR)

  17. Aphid resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing and selecting for Russian wheat aphid (RWA) and greenbug resistance in WIT breeding lines continued this year. Several excellent lines with high levels of resistance advanced through the cultivar development process. Single plant selections from six experimental lines were retested to conf...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Eclipsing binaries in CoRoT-LRc01 field (Cabrera+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J.; Fridlund, M.; Ollivier, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J.-M.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Borde, P.; Bouchy, F.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deeg, H. J.; de La, Reza R.; Deleuil, M.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guenther, E. W.; Guillot, T.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A.; Hebrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Leger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Lovis, C.; Magain, P.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ofir, A.; Paetzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rabus, M.; Rauer, H.; Regulo, C.; Renner, S.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Shporer, A.; Stecklum, B.; Tingley, B.; Udry, S.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-01-01

    The 11408 targets observed by CoRoT were selected using the information gathered in the database Exo-Dat (Deleuil et al. 2009AJ....138..649D; Meunier et al. 2007, ASP Conf., 376, 339), built with dedicated ground based photometric observations in the visible and near IR bands from 2MASS catalog. (3 data files).

  19. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS' PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO THEIR MERCURY ADSORPTION: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYMPOS/CONF NRMRL-RTP-P-597 Li*, Y.H., Lee*, C.W., and Gullett*, B.K. Characterization of Activated Carbons' Physical and Chemical Properties in Relation to their Mercury Adsorption. Carbon '01, Lexington, KY, 7/14-19/01. 2001. EPA/600/A-01/075 (NTIS PB2002- 100291). 04/05/200...

  1. IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM- CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SODIUM DITHIONITE: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYMPOS/CONF NRMRL-ADA-01163 Paul*, C.J., Khan*, F.A., and Puls*, R.W. In-Situ Remediation of Chromium-Contaminated Soils and Sediments Using Sodium Dithionite. CD-ROM, GWPC Annual Forum, Reno, NV, ...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Velocities of interstellar lines in Sco-Cen (Poeppel+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeppel, W. G. L.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we are using our new high-sensitivity southern 21-cm line survey (see Arnal et al., 2000, ASP Conf. Ser., 218, 401), combined with the Leiden/Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen (Hartmann & Burton, 1997, Atlas of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen (Cambridge Univ. Press)). (2 data files).

  3. 76 FR 26243 - Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry on Antidumping Duty Order on Ferrovanadium and Nitrided...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... United Kingdom and Germany, 62 FR 34213 (June 25, 1997) (Lead and Bismuth). In that case, the Department....'' \\4\\ \\3\\ See, H.R. Conf. Rep. No. 576, 100th Cong., 2d Sess. 603 (1988) and Lead and Bismuth, 62 FR... and Nitrided Vanadium From the Russian Federation, 60 FR 35550 (July 10, 1995). DATES: Effective...

  4. Welcoming Opposition: "Havruta" Learning and Montaigne's "The Art of Discussion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Michel de Montaigne's "L'art de Conférer" offers a moral groundwork for students' learning of "havruta," a traditional Jewish form of studying in pairs, based on collaborative critical text-based learning, that can be applied to students everywhere. The article attends to the nature of "havruta" learning and to…

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH SOUTHERN CONSERVATION SYSTEMS CONFERENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steering committee of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture emphasized the need for a systems approach for optimum production and profit with the name change to the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference held at Florence, SC. During the Florence confe...

  6. Antimicrobial Packaging using PLA-pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite was compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the composite by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure, as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, conf...

  7. A small family of Phakopsora pachyrhizi proteins localized to the spore wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian soybean rust, which has become established over an expanding range in the U.S. We previously identified and characterized a set of extracellular proteins recovered from P. pachyrhizi urediniospore germination media. Immunolocalization studies conf...

  8. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor Conf. Room 3146, 5635 Fishers...

  9. Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli in transgenic Gladiolus plants expressing either a bacterial chloroperoxidase or fungal chitinase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three antifungal genes, a non-heme chloroperoxidase from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, and an exochitinase and endochitinase from Fusarium venetanum under regulation by the CaMV 35S promoter, were used to transform Gladiolus for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Gladiolus plants were conf...

  10. The epigenetic landscape of mammary gland development and functional differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the development and functional differentiation in the mammary gland occur after birth. Epigenetics is defined as the stable alterations in gene expression potential that arise during development and proliferation. Epigenetic changes are mediated at the biochemical level by the chromatin conf...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES FOR USE OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 2nd Int'l High-Performance Fabrics Conf. Proceedings, Boston, MA 1/12-13/92. he USEPA through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies inclu...

  12. Motivation and Mobile Devices: Exploring the Role of Appropriation and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ann; Issroff, Kim

    2007-01-01

    There has been interest recently in how mobile devices may be motivating forces in the right contexts: for example, one of the themes for the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning in 2007 was "Affective Factors in Learning with Mobile Devices" (http://www.mlearning-conf.org). The authors have previously proposed six aspects of learning…

  13. The science of a revolutionary chemist and spectroscopist: Velmer A. Fassel

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1998-11-01

    The contributions of Velmer A. Fassel toward trace analysis on a single-element basis is reviewed. At Ames Laboratory, Fassel conducted research toward obtaining the elemental composition of samples in rapid sequence. Thanks to his efforts, such analyses are routinely conducted currently. (AIP)

  14. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The Landau school and the American Institute of Physics translation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambegaokar, Vinay

    2008-12-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s several American scientists recognized the importance of results appearing in Russian language journals. Their efforts, aided by 'Cold War' considerations, culminated in the launch of the AIP program of translations into English of the then Soviet Union's leading physics journals. The present brief review gives a personal perspective on the history of that development.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  16. Economics of Primary Journals in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, H. William

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) publishes 87% of the primary research journals in the discipline of physics in the United States. These journals have provided an indispensable communication mechanism for research results and education in physics and astronomy. A redesign of the present journal system is required because of expansions in…

  17. Trends in Physics PhDs. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Each fall, the American Institute of Physics (AIP's) Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. The survey is sent to all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, and asks them to provide the number of degrees they conferred in the previous academic year. The academic year…

  18. 50 CFR 253.12 - Credit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit application. 253.12 Section 253.12..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program § 253.12... § 253.13(e). The Program will not issue an AIP letter if any of the application fee remains unpaid....

  19. 50 CFR 253.12 - Credit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit application. 253.12 Section 253.12..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program § 253.12... § 253.13(e). The Program will not issue an AIP letter if any of the application fee remains unpaid....

  20. Reply to ''Comment on the 'Energy level analysis of Np/sup 3 +/:LaCl/sub 3/ and Np/sup 3 +/:LaBr/sub 3/' ''

    SciTech Connect

    Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Hessler, J.P.; Edelstein, N.; Conway, J.G.; Shalimoff, G.V.; Sarup, R.

    1981-10-01

    The crystal field parameters in Np/sup 3 +/:Lad/sub 3/ and Np/sup 3 +/:LaBr/sub 3/ are discussed. The arguments of Poon and Newman, regarding the scaling of the crystal field parameters are aknowdged as being correct.(AIP)