Science.gov

Sample records for aipl1 effective rescue

  1. AIPL1 implicated in the pathogenesis of two cases of autosomal recessive retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, David; Jin, Chongfei; Jiao, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Bushra, Tahmina; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Butt, Nadeem H.; Husnain, Tayyab; Sieving, Paul A.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Riazuddin, S. Amer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To localize and identify the gene and mutations causing autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy in two consanguineous Pakistani families. Methods Consanguineous families from Pakistan were ascertained to be affected with autosomal recessive retinal degeneration. All affected individuals underwent thorough ophthalmologic examinations. Blood samples were collected, and genomic DNA was extracted using a salting out procedure. Genotyping was performed using microsatellite markers spaced at approximately 10 cM intervals. Two-point linkage analysis was performed with the lod score method. Direct DNA sequencing of amplified genomic DNA was performed for mutation screening of candidate genes. Results Genome-wide linkage scans yielded a lod score of 3.05 at θ=0 for D17S1832 and 3.82 at θ=0 for D17S938, localizing the disease gene to a 12.22 cM (6.64 Mb) region flanked by D17S1828 and D17S1852 for family 61032 and family 61227, which contains aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1), a gene previously implicated in recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy. Sequencing of AIPL1 showed a homozygous c.773G>C (p.Arg258Pro) sequence change in all affected individuals of family 61032 and a homozygous c.465G>T (p.(H93_Q155del)) change in all affected members of family 61227. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that the c.773G>C (p.R258P) and c.465G>T (p.(H93_Q155del)) mutations in AIPL1 cause autosomal recessive retinal degeneration in these consanguineous Pakistani families. PMID:24426771

  2. The effects of Operation Rescue on pro-life support.

    PubMed

    Ansuini, C G; Fiddler-woite, J; Woitaszek, R S

    1994-12-01

    Operation Rescue is a militant anti-abortion group. The organization conveys its position against abortion by targeting a city in which it will mount speeches, rallies, pickets, and media barrages. Operation Rescue held activities in Greater Buffalo, New York, in 1992. The authors investigated the effect of the anti-abortion campaign upon a sample of non-activist university undergraduate students and the anti-abortion cause in general. 114 male and 195 female students of the State University of New York College at Buffalo participated. 60% were younger than age 22 years and 17% were 46 years of age or older. 87% were sexually active, but only 18% were married. 11% reported having an abortion themselves or dating someone who had. 150 subjects were surveyed each spring for three years with regard to their abortion-related attitudes and behaviors. 18% of the participants identified themselves as pro-life in 1991, 22% in 1992, and 12% in 1993, the year after the Operation Rescue campaign. 70% identified themselves as pro-choice in 1991, 60% in 1992, and 57% in 1993. The percentage of respondents reporting that they would not have an abortion themselves, but support a woman's right to free choice with regard to abortion steadily increased from 11% in 1991 to 19% in 1992 and 30% in 1993. In general, support for the anti-abortion camp increased during protest activities, but decreased overall over the long term. The campaign had a particularly negative effect upon males.

  3. The Effect of Perioperative Rescue Transesophageal Echocardiography on the Management of Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Matthew J; Singleton, Andrew; Zimmerman, Joshua M; Morgan, David E; Nirula, Raminder

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of rescue transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on the management of trauma patients, we reviewed imaging and charts of unstable trauma patients at a level I trauma center. Critical rescue TEE findings included acute right ventricular failure, stress cardiomyopathy, type B aortic dissection, mediastinal air, and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Left ventricular filling was classified as low (underfilled) in 57% of all cases. Rescue TEE revealed a variety of new diagnoses and led to a change in resuscitation strategy about half of the time. PMID:27301053

  4. Persistence in epidemic metapopulations: quantifying the rescue effects for measles, mumps, rubella and whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C Jessica E; Hampson, Katie; Tatem, Andrew J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2013-01-01

    Metapopulation rescue effects are thought to be key to the persistence of many acute immunizing infections. Yet the enhancement of persistence through spatial coupling has not been previously quantified. Here we estimate the metapopulation rescue effects for four childhood infections using global WHO reported incidence data by comparing persistence on island countries vs all other countries, while controlling for key variables such as vaccine cover, birth rates and economic development. The relative risk of extinction on islands is significantly higher, and approximately double the risk of extinction in mainland countries. Furthermore, as may be expected, infections with longer infectious periods tend to have the strongest metapopulation rescue effects. Our results quantitate the notion that demography and local community size controls disease persistence.

  5. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, James A.; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Ratcliffe, Don R.; Fielding, Stephen M.; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid signaling caused by embryonic ethanol. Retinoic acid deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100 mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid at a low concentration (10−9 M) and 100 mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100 mM ethanol alone. The rescue phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10−9 M retinoic acid alone (retinoic acid toxicity) than to untreated or 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. Retinoic acid rescues defects caused by 100 mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e. g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. PMID:20036484

  6. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement.

  7. Thio Effects and an Unconventional Metal Ion Rescue in the Genomic HDV Ribozyme§

    PubMed Central

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Ganguly, Abir; Golden, Barbara L.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Metal ion and nucleobase catalysis are important for ribozyme mechanism, but the extent to which they cooperate is unclear. A crystal structure of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme suggested that the pro-RP oxygen at the scissile phosphate directly coordinates a catalytic Mg2+ ion and is within hydrogen bonding distance of the amine of the general acid C75. Prior studies on the genomic HDV ribozyme, however, showed neither a thio effect nor metal ion rescue using Mn2+. Here, we combine experiment and theory to explore phosphorothioate substitutions at the scissile phosphate. We report significant thio effects at the scissile phosphate and metal ion rescue with Cd2+. Reaction profiles with an SP-phosphorothioate substitution are indistinguishable from those of the unmodified substrate in the presence of Mg2+ or Cd2+, supporting that the pro-SP oxygen does not coordinate metal ions. The RP-phosphorothioate substitution, however, exhibits biphasic kinetics, with the fast-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of up to 5-fold effect and the slow-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of ~1,000-fold. Moreover, the fast- and slow-reacting phases give metal ion rescues in Cd2+ of up to 10- and 330-fold, respectively. The metal ion rescues are unconventional in that they arise from Cd2+ inhibiting the oxo substrate but not the RP substrate. This metal ion rescue suggests a direct interaction of the catalytic metal ion with the pro-RP oxygen, in line with experiments on the antigenomic HDV ribozyme. Experiments without divalent ions, with mutants that interfere with Mg2+ binding, or with C75 deleted suggest that the pro-RP oxygen plays at most a redundant role in positioning C75. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) studies indicate that the metal ion contributes to catalysis by interacting with both the pro-RP oxygen and the nucleophilic 2’- hydroxyl, supporting the experimental findings. PMID:24001219

  8. Demographic costs of inbreeding revealed by sex-specific genetic rescue effects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Inbreeding can slow population growth and elevate extinction risk. A small number of unrelated immigrants to an inbred population can substantially reduce inbreeding and improve fitness, but little attention has been paid to the sex-specific effects of immigrants on such "genetic rescue". We conducted two subsequent experiments to investigate demographic consequences of inbreeding and genetic rescue in guppies. Results Populations established from pairs of full siblings that were descended either from two generations of full-sibling inbreeding or unrelated outbred guppies did not grow at different rates initially, but when the first generation offspring started breeding, outbred-founded populations grew more slowly than inbred-founded populations. In a second experiment, adding two outbred males to the inbred populations resulted in significantly faster population growth than in control populations where no immigrants were added. Adding females resulted in growth at a rate intermediate to the control and male-immigrant treatments. Conclusion The slower growth of the outbred-founded than inbred-founded populations is the opposite of what would be expected under inbreeding depression unless many deleterious recessive alleles had already been selectively purged in the inbreeding that preceded the start of the experiment, and that significant inbreeding depression occurred when the first generation offspring in outbred-founded populations started to inbreed. The second experiment revealed strong inbreeding depression in the inbred founded populations, despite the apparent lack thereof in these populations earlier on. Moreover, the fact that the addition of male immigrants resulted in the highest levels of population growth suggests that sex-specific genetic rescue may occur in promiscuous species, with male rescue resulting in higher levels of outbreeding than female rescue. PMID:20003302

  9. The emergence of the rescue effect from explicit within- and between-patch dynamics in a metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anders; Elías-Wolff, Federico; Mehlig, Bernhard; Manica, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Immigration can rescue local populations from extinction, helping to stabilize a metapopulation. Local population dynamics is important for determining the strength of this rescue effect, but the mechanistic link between local demographic parameters and the rescue effect at the metapopulation level has received very little attention by modellers. We develop an analytical framework that allows us to describe the emergence of the rescue effect from interacting local stochastic dynamics. We show this framework to be applicable to a wide range of spatial scales, providing a powerful and convenient alternative to individual-based models for making predictions concerning the fate of metapopulations. We show that the rescue effect plays an important role in minimizing the increase in local extinction probability associated with high demographic stochasticity, but its role is more limited in the case of high local environmental stochasticity of recruitment or survival. While most models postulate the rescue effect, our framework provides an explicit mechanistic link between local dynamics and the emergence of the rescue effect, and more generally the stability of the whole metapopulation. PMID:24523274

  10. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  11. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  12. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  13. Rescue of a patient out of a grain container: the quicksand effect of grain.

    PubMed

    Bahlmann, Ludger; Klaus, Stephan; Heringlake, Matthias; Baumeier, Wolfgang; Schmucker, Peter; Wagner, Klaus F

    2002-04-01

    Grain storage containers not only present inherent dangers to the operators, but also to the rescuers if someone falls in. Here we report the rescue of a patient from a grain container using a novel technique involving a cylinder placed around the patient. This allowed the grain to be sucked out from around the patient and enabled his rescue uninjured. The rescue action was complicated by acute chest pain in the patient while he was submerged in the grain, and a severe asthma attack in the emergency physician. The rescue and the dilemmas encountered are described together with a review of the relevant literature.

  14. Risk of large-scale evacuation based on the effectiveness of rescue strategies under different crowd densities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghong; Lo, Siuming; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; Mu, Honglin

    2013-08-01

    Crowd density is a key factor that influences the moving characteristics of a large group of people during a large-scale evacuation. In this article, the macro features of crowd flow and subsequent rescue strategies were considered, and a series of characteristic crowd densities that affect large-scale people movement, as well as the maximum bearing density when the crowd is extremely congested, were analyzed. On the basis of characteristic crowd densities, the queuing theory was applied to simulate crowd movement. Accordingly, the moving characteristics of the crowd and the effects of typical crowd density-which is viewed as the representation of the crowd's arrival intensity in front of the evacuation passageways-on rescue strategies was studied. Furthermore, a "risk axle of crowd density" is proposed to determine the efficiency of rescue strategies in a large-scale evacuation, i.e., whether the rescue strategies are able to effectively maintain or improve evacuation efficiency. Finally, through some rational hypotheses for the value of evacuation risk, a three-dimensional distribution of the evacuation risk is established to illustrate the risk axle of crowd density. This work aims to make some macro, but original, analysis on the risk of large-scale crowd evacuation from the perspective of the efficiency of rescue strategies.

  15. Development of a Search and Rescue Simulation to Study the Effects of Prolonged Isolation on Team Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entin, Elliot E.; Kerrigan, Caroline; Serfaty, Daniel; Young, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this project were to identify and investigate aspects of team and individual decision-making and risk-taking behaviors hypothesized to be most affected by prolonged isolation. A key premise driving our research approach is that effects of stressors that impact individual and team cognitive processes in an isolated, confined, and hazardous environment will be projected onto the performance of a simulation task. To elicit and investigate these team behaviors we developed a search and rescue task concept as a scenario domain that would be relevant for isolated crews. We modified the Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD) simulator, a platform that has been extensively used for empirical research in team processes and taskwork performance, to portray the features of a search and rescue scenario and present the task components incorporated into that scenario. The resulting software is called DD-Search and Rescue (Version 1.0). To support the use of the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator in isolated experiment settings, we wrote a player's manual for teaching team members to operate the simulator and play the scenario. We then developed a research design and experiment plan that would allow quantitative measures of individual and team decision making skills using the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator as the experiment platform. A description of these activities and the associated materials that were produced under this contract are contained in this report.

  16. Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Amanda C; Khoury, Antoine; Lima Queiroz, Erika; MacRae, Molly

    2016-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15. On postnatal day 50, offspring were randomized into one of three conditions: EE (group housed in a large multi-level cage with novel toys, tubes and ramps), Colony Nesting (CN; socially-housed in a larger style cage), or Standard Care (SC; pair-housed in standard cages). Six weeks later we scored social engagement and performance in the object-in-place task. Afterwards hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (n=7-9) were collected and evaluated for excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 2 (TrkB) gene expression (normalized to GAPDH) using qPCR methods. Overall, we show that gestational inflammation downregulates genes critical to synaptic transmission and plasticity, which may underlie the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, we observed disruptions in both social engagement and spatial discrimination. Importantly, behavioral and neurophysiological effects were rescued in an experience dependent manner. Given the evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be associated with infection during pregnancy, these data have compelling implications for the prevention and reversibility of the consequences that follow immune activation in early in

  17. Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Amanda C; Khoury, Antoine; Lima Queiroz, Erika; MacRae, Molly

    2016-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15. On postnatal day 50, offspring were randomized into one of three conditions: EE (group housed in a large multi-level cage with novel toys, tubes and ramps), Colony Nesting (CN; socially-housed in a larger style cage), or Standard Care (SC; pair-housed in standard cages). Six weeks later we scored social engagement and performance in the object-in-place task. Afterwards hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (n=7-9) were collected and evaluated for excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 2 (TrkB) gene expression (normalized to GAPDH) using qPCR methods. Overall, we show that gestational inflammation downregulates genes critical to synaptic transmission and plasticity, which may underlie the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, we observed disruptions in both social engagement and spatial discrimination. Importantly, behavioral and neurophysiological effects were rescued in an experience dependent manner. Given the evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be associated with infection during pregnancy, these data have compelling implications for the prevention and reversibility of the consequences that follow immune activation in early in

  18. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  19. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  20. Vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC mediated by HMOX1 rescues retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Zhao, Chen; Kumar, Anil; Lee, Chunsik; Chen, Mingquan; Huang, Lijuan; Wang, Jing; Ren, Xiangrong; Jiang, Yida; Chen, Wei; Wang, Bin; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhong, Zheng; Huang, Zijing; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Bing; Ding, Hao; Ju, Rong; Tang, Zhongshu; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai; Li, Xuri; Liu, Xialin

    2014-10-14

    Blood vessel degeneration is critically involved in nearly all types of degenerative diseases. Therefore strategies to enhance blood vessel protection and survival are highly needed. In this study, using different animal models and cultured cells, we show that PDGF-CC is a potent vascular protective and survival factor. PDGF-CC deficiency by genetic deletion exacerbated blood vessel regression/degeneration in various animal models. Importantly, treatment with PDGF-CC protein not only increased the survival of retinal blood vessels in a model of oxygen-induced blood vessel regression but also markedly rescued retinal and blood vessel degeneration in a disease model of retinitis pigmentosa. Mechanistically, we revealed that heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) activity is critically required for the vascular protective/survival effect of PDGF-CC, because blockade of HMOX1 completely abolished the protective effect of PDGF-CC in vitro and in vivo. We further found that both PDGF receptors, PDGFR-β and PDGFR-α, are required for the vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC. Thus our data show that PDGF-CC plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood vessel survival and may be of therapeutic value in treating various types of degenerative diseases.

  1. Rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Bai, Zhixia; Lv, Danni; Liu, Haibo; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine (BPV)‑induced cardiomyocyte toxicity. The inhibitory effects of BPV on H9c2 myoblast cell proliferation were investigated using an MTT assay. The H9c2 myoblast cells were treated with either 1 mM BPV or 1% lipid emulsion (LE) alone, or co‑treated with both of the drugs. Cell apoptosis was detected using both Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP assay. The protein expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were quantified using western blot analysis, and the mRNA expression levels were quantified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of reactive oxidative species, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were quantified using the optical density values obtained from a spectrophotometer. In addition, the mechanism underlying the mitochondrial function of the H9c2 myoblast cells was investigated using both JC‑1 staining, and cyclosporin A and atractyloside treatment. The results indicated that the H9c2 myoblast cells treated with BPV exhibited significantly higher levels of apoptosis. Furthermore, BPV treatment increased the levels of oxidative stress, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction within the H9c2 myoblast cells. LE treatment reversed the effects of BPV treatment in the H9c2 myoblast cells.

  2. Rescuing lymphocytes from HLA-G immunosuppressive effects mediated by the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Danli; Kuiaste, Isere; Moreau, Philippe; Carosella, Edgardo; Yotnda, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the antitumor activities of both T and natural killer (NK) effector populations are limited by the immunosuppressive strategies of tumors. In several malignant transformations, the expression of HLA-G by tumor cells rises dramatically, rendering them strongly immunosuppressive. In this study, we postulated that the absence of HLA-G receptors would prevent the immunosuppressive effects of both soluble and membrane-bound HLA-G. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic potential of effector NK cells genetically modified to downregulate the expression of ILT2 (HLA-G receptor) on their cell surfaces. We have shown that the proliferation of modified NK is still dependent on stimulation signals (no malignant transformation). ILT2− NK cells proliferate, migrate, and eliminate HLA-G negative targets cells to the same extent parental NK cells do. However, in the presence of HLA-G positive tumors, ILT2− NK cells exhibit superior proliferation, conjugate formation, degranulation, and killing activities compared to parent NK cells. We tested the effectiveness of ILT2− NK cells in vivo using a xenograft cancer model and found that silencing ILT2 rescued their anti-tumor activity. We believe that combining ILT2− NK cells with existing therapeutic strategies will strengthen the antitumor response in cancer patients. PMID:26460949

  3. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components.

  4. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  5. Rescue Manual. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The ninth of 10 modules contains 7 chapters: (1) ice characteristics; (2) river characteristics and tactics for rescue; (3) water rescue techniques; (4) water rescue/recovery operations; (5) dive operations; (6) water rescue equipment; and…

  6. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different rescue therapies in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several rescue therapies have been used in patients with lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, the economic outcome of these therapies is unclear. The object of the current analysis was to evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of rescue therapies among patients with LAM-resistant CHB. Methods A Markov model was developed to simulate the clinical course of patients with LAM-resistant CHB. From the perspective of Chinese health care, a lifetime cost-utility analysis was performedfor 4 rescue strategies: adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir (TDF) monotherapy and combination therapy using LAM and ADV. A hypothetical cohort of 45-year-old patients with genotypic or clinical LAM-resistant CHB entered the model, and the beginning health state was LAM-resistant CHB without other complications. The transition probabilities, efficacy and resistance data for each rescue therapy as well as the costs and utility data were estimated from the literature. The discount rate (3%) utilized for costs and benefits. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of uncertainty on the results. Results In LAM-resistant HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB cohorts, TDF monotherapy and combination therapy were on the efficiency frontier for both positive and negative populations. Compared with no treatment, the use of combination therapy cost an additional $6,531.7 to gain 1 additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for HBeAg-positive patients and $4,571.7 to gain 1 additional QALY for HBeAg-negative patients. TDF monotherapy for HBeAg-positive patients, shows greater increase in QALYs but higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in comparison with combination therapy. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, combination therapy was the preferred option for health care systems with limited health resources, such as Chinese health care system. Conclusion In Chinese patients with LAM-resistant CHB, combination therapy is a more

  8. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Escape/rescue analysis and plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the technical analysis of escape/rescue/survival situations, crew survival techniques, alternate escape/rescue approaches and vehicles, and the advantages and disadvantages of each for advanced lunar exploration. Candidate escape/rescue guidelines are proposed and elements of a rescue plan developed. The areas of discussions include the following: lunar arrival/departure operations, lunar orbiter operations, lunar surface operations, lunar surface base escape/rescue analysis, lander tug location operations, portable airlock, emergency pressure suit, and the effects of no orbiting lunar station, no lunar surface base, and no foreign lunar orbit/surface operations on the escape/rescue plan.

  9. Electronic search and rescue aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    There are two elements to the basic electronic search and rescue problem: a means for immediately alerting potential rescuers and an effective method to guide the rescue forces to the scene of the emergency. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) used by aircraft or an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) used by maritime vessels has the capability of providing for both an immediate alert and a homing signal to assist rescue forces in locating the site of the distress. This paper describes the development of ELT/EPIRB systems. Emphasis is placed on the SARSAT project, the COSPAS/SARSAT project, and an experimental 406 MHz ELT/EPIRB system.

  10. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  11. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    PubMed

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality.

  12. A Screen for F1 Hybrid Male Rescue Reveals No Major-Effect Hybrid Lethality Loci in the Drosophila melanogaster Autosomal Genome

    PubMed Central

    Cuykendall, Tawny N.; Satyaki, P.; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M.; Edelman, Nathaniel B.; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A.; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. PMID:25352540

  13. [Accidents and their health effects in firemen of rescue and firefighting teams].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Sobala, W

    2000-01-01

    Accidents, traumas and poisoning are the most frequent causes of health impairments among firemen, determined by the nature of their occupation. Their work is directly related with the exposure to various harmful chemical and physical factors, involving at the same time mental stress during rescue and firefighting actions. The aim of the analysis performed was to determine the accident rate, range and causes of accident-related absenteeism among firemen of the rescue and firefighting brigades, as well as to indicate major traumas resulting from accidents at work. The study was carried out in a group of 1503 firemen (7% of the total number of firemen in Poland) employed in the rescue and firefighting brigades, selected at random throughout the country. Workers' personal data, as well as the data on the number of accidents and the number of days of work disability during the years 1994-97 were analysed. Accidents and accident-related absenteeism by age, certified causes and sites (body parts) of traumas were also analysed using the following parameters: the accident rate (the number of accidents per 1000 workers), accident severity rate (the number of work disability days per one accident), and absenteeism rate (the number of accident-related work disability days per 100 employed). In the period under study (1994-97) 352 accidents, involving 301 persons were registered. Thus, the accident rate was 70.3. These accidents were responsible for the period of work disability three times higher (293.5 days/100 workers) than that observed in the male population employed in the national economy, and eight times higher (770.2 days/100 workers) in the 50-59 age group. Dislocations and distortions were the most frequent causes of accident-related absenteeism--48, whereas fractures occupied the second place--25%. Burns were classified among the most severe injuries, resulting in more than 90 days of absenteeism annually, but they made only 7% of absenteeism with frequency rate of

  14. Snyder-Robinson Syndrome: Rescuing the Disease-Causing Effect of G56S mutant by Small Molecule Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Martiny, Virginie; Lagorce, David; Alexov, Emil; Miteva, Maria; Clemson University Team; Université Paris Diderot Team

    2013-03-01

    Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked mental retardation disorder, which is caused by defects in a particular gene coding for the spermine synthase (SMS) protein. Among the missense mutations known to be disease-causing is the G56S, which is positioned at the interface of the SMS homo-dimer. Previous computational and experimental investigations have shown that G56S mutation destabilizes the homo-dimer and thus greatly reduces the SMS enzymatic activity. In this study, we explore the possibility of mitigating the effect of G56S mutation by binding small molecules to suitable pockets around the mutation site. It is done by combined efforts of molecular dynamics simulations and in silico screening. The binding of selected molecules was calculated to fully compensate the effect of the mutation and rescue the wild type dimer affinity. This work was supported by NIH, NLM grant. No. 1R03LM009748

  15. Effect of advanced location methods on search and rescue duration for general aviation aircraft accidents in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization ceasing satellite monitoring for 121.5 MHz ELTs in 2009 was factored into the study. Additionally, the effect of using radar forensic analysis and cellular phone forensic search methods were also assessed. The study's data was derived from an Air Force Rescue Coordination Center database and included 365 historical general aviation search and rescue missions conducted between 2006 and 2011. Highly skewed data was transformed to meet normality requirements for parametric testing. The significance of each ELT model was assessed using a combination of Brown-Forsythe Means Testing or Orthogonal Contrast Testing. ANOVA and Brown-Forsythe Means testing was used to evaluate cellular phone and radar forensic search methods. A Spearman's Rho test was used to determine if the use of multiple search methods produced an additive effect in search efficiency. Aircraft which utilized an Emergency Locator Transmitter resulted in a shorter search duration than those which did not use such devices. Aircraft utilizing GPS-Aided 406 MHz ELTs appeared to require less time to locate than if equipped with other ELT models, however, this assessment requires further study due to limited data. Aircraft equipped with 406 MHz ELTs required slightly less time to locate than aircraft equipped with older 121.5 MHz ELTs. The study found no substantial difference in the search durations for 121.5 MHz ELTs monitored by COSPAS-SARSAT verses those which were not. Significance testing revealed that the use of cellular phone forensic data and radar forensic data both resulted in substantially higher mission search durations. Some possible explanations for this

  16. Rescue Skills and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The guide has been prepared for use as a textbook in rescue training courses at DCPA (Defense Civil Preparedness Agency) approved training schools and is to be used in rescue training programs of State and local governments. The document explains the various types of rescue missions, command structure, the personnel of the operating unit,…

  17. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  18. The rule of rescue.

    PubMed

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  19. Rescue of heavy metal effects on cell physiology of the algal model system Micrasterias by divalent ions.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Bayer, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Verena; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Sima, Evelyn; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2014-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that metals such as copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron and lead cause severe dose-dependent disturbances in growth, morphogenesis, photosynthetic and respiratory activity as well as on ultrastructure and function of organelles in the algal model system Micrasterias denticulata (Volland et al., 2011, 2012; Andosch et al., 2012). In the present investigation we focus on amelioration of these adverse effects of cadmium, chromium and lead by supplying the cells with different antioxidants and essential micronutrients to obtain insight into metal uptake mechanisms and subcellular metal targets. This seems particularly interesting as Micrasterias is adapted to extremely low-concentrated, oligotrophic conditions in its natural bog environment. The divalent ions of iron, zinc and calcium were able to diminish the effects of the metals cadmium, chromium and lead on Micrasterias. Iron showed most ameliorating effects on cadmium and chromium in short- and long-term treatments and improved cell morphogenesis, ultrastructure, cell division rates and photosynthesis. Analytical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods (electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)) revealed that chromium uptake was decreased when Micrasterias cells were pre-treated with iron, which resulted in no longer detectable intracellular chromium accumulations. Zinc rescued the detrimental effects of chromium on net-photosynthesis, respiration rates and electron transport in PS II. Calcium and gadolinium were able to almost completely compensate the inhibiting effects of lead and cadmium on cell morphogenesis after mitosis, respectively. These results indicate that cadmium is taken up by calcium and iron transporters, whereas chromium appears to enter the algae cells via iron and zinc carriers. It was shown that lead is not taken up into Micrasterias at all but exerts its adverse effects on cell growth by substituting cell

  20. Rescue of heavy metal effects on cell physiology of the algal model system Micrasterias by divalent ions.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Bayer, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Verena; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Sima, Evelyn; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2014-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that metals such as copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron and lead cause severe dose-dependent disturbances in growth, morphogenesis, photosynthetic and respiratory activity as well as on ultrastructure and function of organelles in the algal model system Micrasterias denticulata (Volland et al., 2011, 2012; Andosch et al., 2012). In the present investigation we focus on amelioration of these adverse effects of cadmium, chromium and lead by supplying the cells with different antioxidants and essential micronutrients to obtain insight into metal uptake mechanisms and subcellular metal targets. This seems particularly interesting as Micrasterias is adapted to extremely low-concentrated, oligotrophic conditions in its natural bog environment. The divalent ions of iron, zinc and calcium were able to diminish the effects of the metals cadmium, chromium and lead on Micrasterias. Iron showed most ameliorating effects on cadmium and chromium in short- and long-term treatments and improved cell morphogenesis, ultrastructure, cell division rates and photosynthesis. Analytical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods (electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)) revealed that chromium uptake was decreased when Micrasterias cells were pre-treated with iron, which resulted in no longer detectable intracellular chromium accumulations. Zinc rescued the detrimental effects of chromium on net-photosynthesis, respiration rates and electron transport in PS II. Calcium and gadolinium were able to almost completely compensate the inhibiting effects of lead and cadmium on cell morphogenesis after mitosis, respectively. These results indicate that cadmium is taken up by calcium and iron transporters, whereas chromium appears to enter the algae cells via iron and zinc carriers. It was shown that lead is not taken up into Micrasterias at all but exerts its adverse effects on cell growth by substituting cell

  1. Rescue of heavy metal effects on cell physiology of the algal model system Micrasterias by divalent ions

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Stefanie; Bayer, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Verena; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Sima, Evelyn; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that metals such as copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron and lead cause severe dose-dependent disturbances in growth, morphogenesis, photosynthetic and respiratory activity as well as on ultrastructure and function of organelles in the algal model system Micrasterias denticulata (Volland et al., 2011, 2012; Andosch et al., 2012). In the present investigation we focus on amelioration of these adverse effects of cadmium, chromium and lead by supplying the cells with different antioxidants and essential micronutrients to obtain insight into metal uptake mechanisms and subcellular metal targets. This seems particularly interesting as Micrasterias is adapted to extremely low-concentrated, oligotrophic conditions in its natural bog environment. The divalent ions of iron, zinc and calcium were able to diminish the effects of the metals cadmium, chromium and lead on Micrasterias. Iron showed most ameliorating effects on cadmium and chromium in short- and long-term treatments and improved cell morphogenesis, ultrastructure, cell division rates and photosynthesis. Analytical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods (electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)) revealed that chromium uptake was decreased when Micrasterias cells were pre-treated with iron, which resulted in no longer detectable intracellular chromium accumulations. Zinc rescued the detrimental effects of chromium on net-photosynthesis, respiration rates and electron transport in PS II. Calcium and gadolinium were able to almost completely compensate the inhibiting effects of lead and cadmium on cell morphogenesis after mitosis, respectively. These results indicate that cadmium is taken up by calcium and iron transporters, whereas chromium appears to enter the algae cells via iron and zinc carriers. It was shown that lead is not taken up into Micrasterias at all but exerts its adverse effects on cell growth by substituting cell

  2. Relieved residual damage in the hematopoietic system of mice rescued by radiation-induced adaptive response (Yonezawa Effect).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Varès, Guillaume; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Existence of adaptive response (AR) was previously demonstrated in C57BL/6J mice. Irradiations were performed by delivering a priming low dose of X-rays (0.50 Gy) in combination with a challenge high dose of accelerated carbon or neon ion particles. AR was characterized by significantly decreased mortality in the 30-day survival test. This mouse AR model ('Yonezawa Effect') was originally established by using X-rays as both the priming and challenge irradiations. The underlying mechanism was due to radio-resistance occurring in blood-forming tissues. In this study, we verified the existence of AR and further investigated residual damage in the hematopoietic system in surviving animals. Results showed that the priming low dose of X-rays could relieve the detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system. We observed both an improvement in the blood platelet count and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to the sum of PCEs and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) and a marked reduction of the incidences of micronucleated PCEs and micronucleated NCEs. These findings suggest that the priming low dose of low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays induced a protective effect on the hematopoietic system, which may play an important role in both rescue from acute lethal damage (mouse killing) and prevention of late detrimental consequences (residual anhematopoiesis and delayed genotoxic effects) caused by exposure to a high challenge dose from low-LET (X-ray) or high-LET (carbon and neon ion) irradiations. These findings provide new knowledge of the characterization of the Yonezawa Effect by providing new insight into the mechanistic study of AR in vivo. PMID:22923746

  3. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective. PMID:25739433

  4. Cadmium-induced embryopathy: nitric oxide rescues teratogenic effects of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Veeriah, Vimal; Saran, Uttara; Swaminathan, Akila; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Thangaraj, Pradeep; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2015-03-01

    Although Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known heavy metal pollutant and teratogen, the mechanism behind Cd-mediated teratogenicity remains unknown. Previously, we have reported of the protective role of Nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule in the embryonic developmental process, against Thalidomide-induced teratogenicity. The objective of this study was to obtain a mechanistic in-sight of the antiteratogenic potential of NO against Cd-mediated teratogenicity. To achieve this goal, we first studied the effect of Cd on the vasculature of developing embryos and then we investigated whether Cd mediated its effects by interfering with the redox regulation of NO signaling in the early development milieu. We used a chick embryonic model to determine the time and dose-dependent effects of Cd and NO recovery against Cd assault. The effects of Cd and NO recovery were assessed using various angiogenic assays. Redox and NO levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that exposure to Cd at early stage of development caused multiple birth defects in the chick embryos. Exposure to Cd suppressed endogenous NO levels and cGMP signaling, inhibiting angioblast activation and subsequently impairing yolk sac vascular development. Furthermore, Cd-induced superoxide and lipid peroxidation mediated activation of proapoptotic markers p21 and p53 in the developing embryo. Cd also caused the down-regulation of FOXO1, and up-regulation of FOXO3a and Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis. Addition of exogenous NO through a NO donor was able to blunt Cd-mediated effects and restore normal vascular and embryonic development. In conclusion, Cd-mediated teratogenicity occurs as a result of impaired NO-cGMP signaling, increased oxidative stress, and the activation of apoptotic pathways. Subsequent addition of exogenous NO through NO donor negated Cd-mediated effects and protected the developing embryo.

  5. Epilepsy emergency rescue training

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Rohit; Jory, Caryn; ashton, juliet; McLean, Brendan; Walker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The NICE audit of epilepsy related deaths revealed that 1200 epilepsy deaths occur every year in the UK, with 42% potentially avoidable.[1] Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening condition with over 20% mortality rate, especially if early treatment is not initiated.[2] Ten percent of all UK emergency department (ED) admissions are due to epilepsy, usually over represented by cases of SE.[3] Six out of seven epilepsy cases seen in the ED are admitted into medical care.[4] Patients with chronic and/or treatment resistant epilepsy carry a higher risk of premature death. When a seizure lasts for five minutes or more then the patient is at high risk of continuing to SE and this may result in causing brain damage or death.[2] Buccal midazolam is an emergency rescue medication prescribed on a special named patient license to reduce the duration of an epileptic seizure and prevent SE.[2,5] It should be administered by a trained person and is widely used due to its effectiveness and social acceptability. In the UK, epilepsy education and training courses are expected to be conducted by epilepsy professionals in line with the agreed training guidelines of Joint Epilepsy Council (JEC) backed up by evidence from NICE.[6,7] Training should provide an overview of epilepsy to facilitate safe care and appropriate administration of rescue medication for people with epilepsy (PWE) when experiencing a prolonged seizure. The medication is prescribed on specialist advice by the GP or specialists directly. Unfortunately the JEC guidelines are not robust enough to provide assurances of safe care. This problem had a myriad of complexities and an appropriate solution using web based resource was piloted, tested, and applied successfully using quality improvement methodology. PMID:26734339

  6. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  7. A survey of the relationship between work schedule and its effect on the fatigue of rescue personnel in Isfahan with a standard method of CIS202

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Vardanjani, Hassan Rajabi; Khodarahmi, Behnam; Dehghan, Habibollah; Hosseini, Mohsen; Esmaeli, Hamid; Khademi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fatigue is a factor that can have negative effects on family life, social relationship and work. Work schedule is one of the affective factors on personnel's fatigue in different jobs. In this study, the work schedule and its effect on rescue personnel in Isfahan are explored. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between work schedules and fatigue among rescue personnel. Settings and Design: This study is periodical and has been conducted on 72 employees of rescue personnel in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: Random sampling was done and the primary data that was collected through fatigue assessment questionnaire after being conducted as a pilot study on 10% of samples were collected to confirm the validity of this study. Finally, the data was given to SPSS11.5 software and were analyzed by descriptive statistics and linear digression. Results: The results showed that from the statistical point of view some parts of work schedules like work hours satisfaction, resting time and work order on total fatigue are effective in linear and inverse way but the item “predictibility of work conditions” does not have a meaningful relationship with total fatigue. Furthermore, the results showed that there is a meaningful and inverse relationship with work hours, resting time and work order with mental fatigue and also the work schedule has a meaningful, linear and inverse relation with mental fatigue and total fatigue. Conclusions: By increasing the satisfaction of working hours, increasing resting time and also with an increase of work order the total fatigue of rescue personnel will decrease. PMID:27462640

  8. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  9. Nrf2 the rescue: Effects of the antioxidative/electrophilic response on the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, Curtis D.; Reisman, Scott A.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that positively regulates the basal and inducible expression of a large battery of cytoprotective genes. These gene products include proteins that catalyze reduction reactions (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, Nqo1), conjugation reactions (glutathione-S-transferases, Gsts and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, Ugts), as well as the efflux of potentially toxic xenobiotics and xenobiotic conjugates (multidrug resistance-associated proteins, Mrps). The significance of Nrf2 in the liver has been established, as livers of Nrf2-null mice are more susceptible to various oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced pathologies than wild-type mice. In contrast, both pharmacological and genetic models of hepatic Nrf2 activation are protective against oxidative/electrophilic stress. Furthermore, because certain Nrf2-target genes in the liver could affect the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics, the effects of Nrf2 on the kinetics of drugs and other xenobiotics should also be considered, with a special emphasis on metabolism and excretion. Therefore, this review highlights the research that has contributed to the understanding of the importance of Nrf2 in toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics, especially that which pertains to the liver.

  10. Apoptosis blocks Beclin 1-dependent autophagosome synthesis – an effect rescued by Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Luo, S; Rubinsztein, D C.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is mediated by caspase activation. Autophagy involves the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents into autophagosomes for traffic to lysosomes for degradation. While autophagy is antiapoptotic, increased numbers of autophagosomes have been associated with forms of non-apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis and autophagy may be co-regulated in the same directions, as the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins negatively regulate autophagy by binding to Beclin 1 (mammalian Atg6), and pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins may reverse this effect by displacing these interactions. Here we show that apoptosis can suppress autophagy. Apoptosis induced by the pro-apoptotic protein Bax reduced autophagy by enhancing caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin 1 at D149. After cleavage, both N and C-terminal Beclin 1 fragments change their localisations and these fragments do not interact normally with Vps34, which is required for autophagy. The cleavage of Beclin 1 is a critical event whereby caspases inhibit autophagy, as a non-cleavable Beclin 1 mutant restored autophagy in cells overexpressing Bax. PMID:19713971

  11. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks.

  12. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  13. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure.

    PubMed

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-08-10

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  14. Over-the-scope clip placement is effective rescue therapy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Matthew; Gutierrez, Juan P.; Neumann, Helmut; Wilcox, C. Mel; Burski, Chad; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aim: The novel over-the-scope clip (OTSC) allows for excellent apposition of tissue, potentially permitting hemostasis to be achieved in various types of gastrointestinal lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and safety of OTSCs for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom traditional endoscopic methods had failed. Patients and methods: A retrospective case series of all patients who underwent placement of an OTSC for severe recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 14-month period was studied. Outcome data for the procedure included achievement of primary hemostasis, episodes of recurrent bleeding, and complications. Results: Twelve consecutive patients (67 % men; mean age 59, range 29 – 86) with ongoing upper gastrointestinal bleeding despite previous endoscopic management were included. They had a mean ASA score of 3 (range 2 – 4), a mean hemoglobin of 7.2 g/dL (range 5.2 – 9.1), and shock was present in 75 % of patients. They had all received packed red blood cells (mean 5.1 units, range 2 – 12). The etiology of bleeding was: duodenal ulcer (n = 6), gastric ulcer (n = 2) Dieulafoy lesion (n = 2), anastomotic ulceration (n = 1), Mallory – Weiss tear (n = 1). Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients 1 day and 7 days after OTSC placement. There were no complications associated with OTSC application. Conclusions: OTSC use represents an effective, easily performed, and safe endoscopic therapy for various causes of severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding when conventional endoscopic techniques have failed. This therapy should be added to the armamentarium of therapeutic endoscopists. PMID:26134611

  15. Countries renew rescue agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    To insure long-term continuity for the international satellite search and rescue system, COSPAS/SARSAT, an intergovernmental agreement binding the four sponsoring nations to cooperate was signed July 1 in Paris. According to Russell Vollmers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the agreement is binding for 15 years, with an automatic extension.The system marked the fifth anniversary of its first rescue last year, when on September 10, 1982, three persons were rescued. Begun in the 1970s by NASA as an experiment, COSPAS/SARSAT (a Russian-English acronym) is now a cooperative project among the United States, Canada, France, and the Soviet Union. Its goal is to reduce the time required to rescue air and maritime distress victims and also to locate victims who otherwise may not be found, thus using the satellite system as a life-saving device.

  16. The population genetics of evolutionary rescue.

    PubMed

    Orr, H Allen; Unckless, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is threatened with extinction by an environmental change adapts to the change sufficiently rapidly to survive. Here we extend the mathematical theory of evolutionary rescue. In particular, we model evolutionary rescue to a sudden environmental change when adaptation involves evolution at a single locus. We consider adaptation using either new mutations or alleles from the standing genetic variation that begin rare. We obtain several results: i) the total probability of evolutionary rescue from either new mutation or standing variation; ii) the conditions under which rescue is more likely to involve a new mutation versus an allele from the standing genetic variation; iii) a mathematical description of the U-shaped curve of total population size through time, conditional on rescue; and iv) the time until the average population size begins to rebound as well as the minimal expected population size experienced by a rescued population. Our analysis requires taking into account a subtle population-genetic effect (familiar from the theory of genetic hitchhiking) that involves "oversampling" of those lucky alleles that ultimately sweep to high frequency. Our results are relevant to conservation biology, experimental microbial evolution, and medicine (e.g., the dynamics of antibiotic resistance).

  17. Escape and rescue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvord, D.; Nelson, H. E.

    The Escape and Rescue model is a discrete-event simulation program written in Simscript. It was developed to simulate the emergency movement involved in escape and/or rescue of people from a Board and Care Home housing a group of persons with varying degrees of physical or mental disabilities along with a small live-in staff. It may, however, be used in a much more general setting. It can reasonably handle a building with up to 100 residents and 100 rooms.

  18. Close Call: Unwanted Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Describes incident where group engaged in training exercise was almost "rescued" by Coast Guard, although Coast Guard had been alerted that training exercise would be taking place. On another occasion Coast Guard did not react to actual report, thinking it was training group. Group was studying grey seal breeding colonies in Pembrokeshire. (KS)

  19. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  20. Prodigiosin rescues deficient p53 signaling and anti-tumor effects via up-regulating p73 and disrupting its interaction with mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bo; Prabhu, Varun V.; Zhang, Shengliang; van den Heuvel, A. Pieter J.; Dicker, David T.; Kopelovich, Levy; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    p53 reactivation offers a broad-based strategy for cancer therapy. In this study we report the identification of prodigiosin that can reactivate p53 family-dependent transcriptional activity in p53 deficient human colon cancer cells. Prodigiosin and its structural analogue (compound R) induced the expression of p53 target genes accompanied by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53 deficient cancer cells. Prodigiosin restored p53 signaling in cancer cells harboring hotspot p53 mutations, with little to no detectable cytotoxicity in normal human fibroblasts and with no genotoxicity. Prodigiosin induced the expression of p73 and disrupted its interaction with mutant p53, thereby rescuing p53 pathway deficiency and promoting anti-tumor effects. The disruption of mutant p53/p73 interaction was specific to prodigiosin and not related to mTOR inhibition. Our findings suggest that mutant p53 needs to be targeted in the context of p73 stimulation to allow efficient restoration of the p53 pathway. In exhibiting this capability, prodigiosin and its analogue provide lead compounds to rescue deficiencies in the p53 pathway in cancer cells by up-regulating p73 and targeting mutant p53/p73 interaction there. PMID:24247721

  1. Prodigiosin rescues deficient p53 signaling and antitumor effects via upregulating p73 and disrupting its interaction with mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bo; Prabhu, Varun V; Zhang, Shengliang; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Dicker, David T; Kopelovich, Levy; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2014-02-15

    p53 reactivation offers a broad-based strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we report the identification of prodigiosin that can reactivate p53 family-dependent transcriptional activity in p53-deficient human colon cancer cells. Prodigiosin and its structural analogue (compound R) induced the expression of p53 target genes accompanied by cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. Prodigiosin restored p53 signaling in cancer cells harboring hotspot TP53 mutations, with little to no detectable cytotoxicity in normal human fibroblasts and with no genotoxicity. Prodigiosin induced the expression of p73 and disrupted its interaction with mutant p53, thereby rescuing p53 pathway deficiency and promoting antitumor effects. The disruption of mutant p53/p73 interaction was specific to prodigiosin and not related to mTOR inhibition. Our findings suggest that mutant p53 needs to be targeted in the context of p73 stimulation to allow efficient restoration of the p53 pathway. In exhibiting this capability, prodigiosin and its analogue provide lead compounds to rescue deficiencies in the p53 pathway in cancer cells by upregulating p73 and targeting mutant p53/p73 interaction there.

  2. Collectivizing rescue obligations in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Bioethicists invoke a duty to rescue in a wide range of cases. Indeed, arguably, there exists an entire medical paradigm whereby vast numbers of medical encounters are treated as rescue cases. The intuitive power of the rescue paradigm is considerable, but much of this power stems from the problematic way that rescue cases are conceptualized-namely, as random, unanticipated, unavoidable, interpersonal events for which context is irrelevant and beneficence is the paramount value. In this article, I critique the basic assumptions of the rescue paradigm, reframe the ethical landscape in which rescue obligations are understood, and defend the necessity and value of a wider social and institutional view. Along the way, I move back and forth between ethical theory and a concrete case where the duty to rescue has been problematically applied: the purported duty to regularly return incidental findings and individual research results in genomic and genetic research.

  3. Stereoselective Blockage of Quinidine and Quinine in the hERG Channel and the Effect of Their Rescue Potency on Drug-Induced hERG Trafficking Defect

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Meng; Fan, Pan; Shi, Yanhui; Feng, Lifang; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Li, Baoxin

    2016-01-01

    Diastereoisomers of quinidine and quinine are used to treat arrhythmia and malaria, respectively. It has been reported that both drugs block the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel which is essential for myocardium repolarization. Abnormality of repolarization increases risk of arrhythmia. The aim of our research is to study and compare the impacts of quinidine and quinine on hERG. Results show that both drugs block the hERG channel, with quinine 14-fold less potent than quinidine. In addition, they presented distinct impacts on channel dynamics. The results imply their stereospecific block effect on the hERG channel. However, F656C-hERG reversed this stereoselectivity. The mutation decreases affinity of the two drugs with hERG, and quinine was more potent than quinidine in F656C-hERG blockage. These data suggest that F656 residue contributes to the stereoselective pocket for quinidine and quinine. Further study demonstrates that both drugs do not change hERG protein levels. In rescue experiments, we found that they exert no reverse effect on pentamidine- or desipramine-induced hERG trafficking defect, although quinidine has been reported to rescue trafficking-deficient pore mutation hERG G601S based on the interaction with F656. Our research demonstrated stereoselective effects of quinidine and quinine on the hERG channel, and this is the first study to explore their reversal potency on drug-induced hERG deficiency. PMID:27690007

  4. Asteroid Rescue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, S.; Kokan, T.; Lee, S.; Miller, J.; Morrell, R.; Richie, D.; Rohrschneider, R.; Rostan, S.; Staton, E.; Olds, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is in response to a request for papers from the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas as part of a National University Competition. A human rescue mission to the asteroid 16 Psyche was designed based around a failed Mars mission scenario. The scenario assumed the second human Mars mission, based on the Mars Design Reference Mission 3.0, failed to propulsively capture into Mars orbit, resulting in a higher energy trajectory headed towards the asteroid belt on an intercept trajectory with 16 Psyche. The task was to design a mission that could rescue the astronauts using existing Mars mission hardware prior to the failure of their life support system. Analysis tools were created in the following six disciplines for the design of the mission: trajectory, propulsion, habitat and life support, space rescue vehicle and earth reentry vehicle, space transfer vehicle, and operations. The disciplinary analysis tools were integrated into a computational framework in order to aid the design process. The problem was solved using a traditional fixed-point iteration method with user controlled design variables. Additionally, two other methods of optimization were implemented: design of experiments and collaborative optimization. These were looked at in order to evaluate their ease of implementation and use at solving a complex, multidisciplinary problem. The design of experiments methodology was used to create a central composite design array and a non-linear response surface equation. The response surface equation allows rapid system level optimization. Collaborative optimization is a true multidisciplinary optimization technique which benefits from disciplinary level optimization in conjunction with system level optimization. By reformatting the objective functions of the disciplinary optimizers, collaborative optimization guides the discipline optimizers toward the system optimum.

  5. Inflatable rescue device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses, in one aspect, a personal rescue device for use in outer space which has an inflatable flexible tube with a shaper apparatus herein. Gas under pressure flows through the shaper apparatus and into the flexible tube. The flexible tube is mounted to the shaper so that as it inflates it expands and deploys lengthwise away from the shaper. In one embodiment a housing contains the shaper and the flexible tube and the housing is designed to facilitate movement of the expanding tube from the housing so the expanding tube does not bunch up in the housing.

  6. Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike B; Brockhurst, Michael A; Hurst, Gregory D D; Greig, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental crosses, resulting in survival rates far exceeding those of their ancestors. We conclude that hybridization can increase evolutionary responsiveness and that taxa able to exchange genes with distant relatives may better survive rapid environmental change. PMID:25558281

  7. [Implementation of modern rescue medicine].

    PubMed

    Hou, S K; Fan, H J; Ding, H; Dong, W L

    2016-01-01

    Catastrophic disasters occur frequently in recent years, resulting in a large number of casualties. Thus, more and more scholars begin to focus on a newly emerged displine-rescue medicine. This paper introduces the status quo of rescue medicine and expounds the practical experience related to rescue medicine as practiced by author's unit, in order to provide a reference for the establishment of the discipline and its future development.

  8. 46 CFR 108.560 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 108.560 Section 108.560 Shipping COAST... Lifesaving Equipment § 108.560 Rescue boats. Each unit must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat is accepted as a rescue boat if it...

  9. 46 CFR 108.560 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 108.560 Section 108.560 Shipping COAST... Lifesaving Equipment § 108.560 Rescue boats. Each unit must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat is accepted as a rescue boat if it...

  10. Effects of sarin on the nervous system in rescue team staff members and police officers 3 years after the Tokyo subway sarin attack.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Y; Maekawa, K; Ogawa, Y; Asukai, N; Minami, M; Omae, K

    2001-11-01

    Although the clinical manifestations of acute sarin poisoning have been reported in detail, no comprehensive study of the chronic physical and psychiatric effects of acute sarin poisoning has been carried out. To clarify the chronic effects of sarin on the nervous system, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted 3 years after the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Subjects consisted of the rescue team staff members and police officers who had worked at the disaster site. Subjects consisted of 56 male exposed subjects and 52 referent subjects matched for age and occupation. A neurobehavioral test, stabilometry, and measurement of vibration perception thresholds were performed, as well as psychometric tests to assess traumatic stress symptoms. The exposed group performed less well in the backward digit span test than the referent group in a dose-effect manner. This result was the same after controlling for possible confounding factors and was independent of traumatic stress symptoms. In other tests of memory function, except for the Benton visual retention test (mean correct answers), effects related to exposure were also suggested, although they were not statistically significant. In contrast, the dose-effect relationships observed in the neurobehavioral tests (psychomotor function) were unclear. None of the stabilometry and vibration perception threshold parameters had any relation to exposure. Our findings suggest the chronic decline of memory function 2 years and 10 months to 3 years and 9 months after exposure to sarin in the Tokyo subway attack, and further study is needed.

  11. Psychological Factors in Wilderness Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Bruce C.

    This presentation provides wilderness rescue workers with an overview of the psychological reactions of victims of accidents and natural disasters and suggested responses for rescuers and caregivers. A personal account of rescue and death in a drowning accident illustrates how the rescuer can also be traumatized by such an incident and may suffer…

  12. Rescuing quadratic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sueiro, Maria E-mail: malcolm.fairbairn@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-02-01

    Inflationary models based on a single scalar field φ with a quadratic potential V = ½m{sup 2}φ{sup 2} are disfavoured by the recent Planck constraints on the scalar index, n{sub s}, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio for cosmological density perturbations, r{sub T}. In this paper we study how such a quadratic inflationary model can be rescued by postulating additional fields with quadratic potentials, such as might occur in sneutrino models, which might serve as either curvatons or supplementary inflatons. Introducing a second scalar field reduces but does not remove the pressure on quadratic inflation, but we find a sample of three-field models that are highly compatible with the Planck data on n{sub s} and r{sub T}. We exhibit a specific three-sneutrino example that is also compatible with the data on neutrino mass difference and mixing angles.

  13. Evolutionary rescue beyond the models

    PubMed Central

    Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Shaw, Ruth G.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory model systems and mathematical models have shed considerable light on the fundamental properties and processes of evolutionary rescue. But it remains to determine the extent to which these model-based findings can help biologists predict when evolution will fail or succeed in rescuing natural populations that are facing novel conditions that threaten their persistence. In this article, we present a prospectus for transferring our basic understanding of evolutionary rescue to wild and other non-laboratory populations. Current experimental and theoretical results emphasize how the interplay between inheritance processes and absolute fitness in changed environments drive population dynamics and determine prospects of extinction. We discuss the challenge of inferring these elements of the evolutionary rescue process in field and natural settings. Addressing this challenge will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of population persistence that combines processes of evolutionary rescue with developmental and ecological mechanisms. PMID:23209173

  14. Avalanche Survival After Rescue With the RECCO Rescue System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grasegger, Katharina; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Soteras, Inigo

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of survival of a completely buried avalanche victim after being located with the radar-based RECCO Rescue System. In the winter of 2015, 2 off-piste skiers were completely buried in an avalanche near the secured ski area in Baqueira Beret, Spain. The first victim was located with the RECCO Rescue System in less than 35 minutes and was alive and conscious at extrication. This system emits radio waves and requires a specific reflector. It is a portable device that is used by more than 600 rescue organizations worldwide, especially in secured ski areas. The device should be brought to the avalanche site together with electronic avalanche transceivers, a probing team, and avalanche dogs. In the hands of experienced professionals, the device may allow rapid location of victims not carrying an electronic avalanche transceiver. Although it is not the first successful extrication of a victim with the RECCO Rescue System, it is the first case published in the medical literature and is intended to encourage data collection and to increase our understanding of the effectiveness of this device in avalanche rescue. PMID:27116920

  15. Effective treatment of cervical incompetence in a monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy with a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szymusik, Iwona; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Brawura-Biskupski-Samaha, Robert; Wegrzyn, Piotr; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    A monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy is the rarest form of twin gestation, accounting for around 1:10000 to 1:20000 of all deliveries regardless of the region of the world. All multiple gestations have a higher risk of preterm delivery due to either preterm uterine contractions or asymptomatic cervical shortening (cervical incompetence). A case of a 28-year-old primigravida in MCMA twin pregnancy with cervical incompetence diagnosed at 22 weeks of gestation is presented. After obtaining cervical swabs, negative laboratory infection parameters and confirming concordant gestational age on ultrasound scan with no structural abnormalities of both fetuses, the patient was qualified for an emergency cervical cerclage according to Wurm-Hefner method. Five days after the procedure, a cervical pessary was additionally inserted. She was administered antibiotics and steroids. The wellbeing of both fetuses was strictly monitored by means of cardiotocography tracing and ultrasound examinations, on which they were both eutrophic, with no abnormalities in Doppler blood flow patterns. Spontaneous premature rupture of membranes took place at 32 weeks of gestation, a cesarean section was performed and two female fetuses of 1740 g and 1760 g were delivered. They both required antibiotics because of congenital pneumonia, but no respiratory support was necessary The twins were discharged from the hospital 22 days after birth in good general condition. This case of a rescue cervical cerclage and pessary used simultaneously can be an example of an effective method of cervical incompetence treatment in twin pregnancies.

  16. Donepezil rescues spatial learning and memory deficits following traumatic brain injury independent of its effects on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzong-Shiue; Kim, Ahleum; Kernie, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is ubiquitous and effective treatments for it remain supportive largely due to uncertainty over how endogenous repair occurs. Recently, we demonstrated that hippocampal injury-induced neurogenesis is one mechanism underlying endogenous repair following TBI. Donepezil is associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and has long been known to improve certain aspects of cognition following many types of brain injury through unknown mechanisms. By coupling donepezil therapy with temporally regulated ablation of injury-induced neurogenesis using nestin-HSV transgenic mice, we investigated whether the pro-cognitive effects of donepezil following injury might occur through increasing neurogenesis. We demonstrate that donepezil itself enhances neurogenesis and improves cognitive function following TBI, even when injury-induced neurogenesis was inhibited. This suggests that the therapeutic effects of donepezil in TBI occur separately from its effects on neurogenesis.

  17. Community rescue in experimental metacommunities

    PubMed Central

    Low-Décarie, Etienne; Kolber, Marcus; Homme, Paige; Lofano, Andrea; Dumbrell, Alex; Gonzalez, Andrew; Bell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The conditions that allow biodiversity to recover following severe environmental degradation are poorly understood. We studied community rescue, the recovery of a viable community through the evolutionary rescue of many populations within an evolving community, in metacommunities of soil microbes adapting to a herbicide. The metacommunities occupied a landscape of crossed spatial gradients of the herbicide (Dalapon) and a resource (glucose), whereas their constituent communities were either isolated or connected by dispersal. The spread of adapted communities across the landscape and the persistence of communities when that landscape was degraded were strongly promoted by dispersal, and the capacity to adapt to lethal stress was also related to community size and initial diversity. After abrupt and lethal stress, community rescue was most frequent in communities that had previously experienced sublethal levels of stress and had been connected by dispersal. Community rescue occurred through the evolutionary rescue of both initially common taxa, which remained common, and of initially rare taxa, which grew to dominate the evolved community. Community rescue may allow productivity and biodiversity to recover from severe environmental degradation. PMID:26578777

  18. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under...

  19. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under...

  20. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under...

  1. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under...

  2. 46 CFR 199.262 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.262 Section 199.262 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.262 Rescue boats. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under...

  3. 46 CFR 108.560 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 108.560 Section 108.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.560 Rescue boats. Each unit must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue...

  4. 46 CFR 108.560 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 108.560 Section 108.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.560 Rescue boats. Each unit must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue...

  5. 46 CFR 108.560 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 108.560 Section 108.560 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.560 Rescue boats. Each unit must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue...

  6. Acute effects of neonatal dexamethasone treatment on proliferation and astrocyte immunoreactivity in hippocampus and corpus callosum: towards a rescue strategy.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Sanne E F; Belanoff, Joseph K; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lucassen, Paul J; Champagne, Danielle L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2012-10-30

    Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been used to treat respiratory distress syndrome in prematurely born infants. Despite the important short-term benefit on lung function, there is growing concern about the long-term outcome of this treatment, since follow-up studies of prematurely born infants have shown lasting adverse neurodevelopmental effects. Since the mechanism underlying these neurodevelopmental impairments is largely unknown, the aim of the present study was (i) to investigate the acute effects of neonatal DEX treatment on the developing brain; and (ii) to block specifically the effects of DEX on the brain by central administration of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone. Long Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tapering doses of DEX or saline (SAL) on postnatal days (pnd) 1, 2 and 3. Separate groups received intracerebroventricular injections with mifepristone prior to DEX treatment. On pnd 4 and 10, pups were sacrificed and brains collected for analysis of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and astrogliosis (GFAP). We report that neonatal DEX treatment reduced hippocampal cell proliferation on pnd 4, an effect that was normalized by pnd 10. Although on pnd 4, GFAP expression was not affected, DEX treatment caused a significant reduction in the number and density of astrocytes in hippocampus and corpus callosum on pnd 10, which was normalized by mifepristone pre-treatment. These acute alterations in the neonate brain might underlie later functional impairments reported in DEX-treated animals and humans and further illustrate the impact of early GR activation on brain development.

  7. Cardiac mTOR rescues the detrimental effects of diet-induced obesity in the heart after ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Toshinori; Higa, Jason K; Aoyagi, Hiroko; Yorichika, Naaiko; Shimada, Briana K; Matsui, Takashi

    2015-06-15

    Diet-induced obesity deteriorates the recovery of cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. While mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key mediator of energy metabolism, the effects of cardiac mTOR in ischemic injury under metabolic syndrome remains undefined. Using cardiac-specific transgenic mice overexpressing mTOR (mTOR-Tg mice), we studied the effect of mTOR on cardiac function in both ex vivo and in vivo models of I/R injury in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. mTOR-Tg and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a HFD (60% fat by calories) for 12 wk. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by the HFD were comparable between WT HFD-fed and mTOR-Tg HFD-fed mice. Functional recovery after I/R in the ex vivo Langendorff perfusion model was significantly lower in HFD-fed mice than normal chow diet-fed mice. mTOR-Tg mice demonstrated better cardiac function recovery and had less of the necrotic markers creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in both feeding conditions. Additionally, mTOR overexpression suppressed expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, in both feeding conditions after I/R injury. In vivo I/R models showed that at 1 wk after I/R, HFD-fed mice exhibited worse cardiac function and larger myocardial scarring along myofibers compared with normal chow diet-fed mice. In both feeding conditions, mTOR overexpression preserved cardiac function and prevented myocardial scarring. These findings suggest that cardiac mTOR overexpression is sufficient to prevent the detrimental effects of diet-induced obesity on the heart after I/R, by reducing cardiac dysfunction and myocardial scarring.

  8. A Standardised Abundance Index from Commercial Spotting Data of Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii): Random Effects to the Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Basson, Marinelle; Farley, Jessica H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aerial spotting of surface schools of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii, is conducted as part of fishing operations in the Great Australian Bight in summer. This provides the opportunity to efficiently collect large amounts of data on sightings of SBT. The data can potentially be used to construct a time-series index of relative abundance by standardising the data for issues such as weather, spotter ability and ocean conditions. Unlike a statistically designed survey, the commercial spotting is governed by business considerations and fishing operations. The SBT dataset is therefore highly unbalanced with regard to spotters operating in each season. This complicates the standardisation of the data, particularly with regard to interactions between covariates. We show how a generalized additive model with random effects can simplify both the fitting of the model and the construction of an index, while also avoiding the need to leave out strata or interaction terms that are important. The approach is applicable to standardisation of more traditional catch and effort data. PMID:25541730

  9. Distinct phenotypes of new transmembrane-domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice and the rescue effects of valproate on the observed schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ju-Chun; Liu, Chih-Min; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) might be involved in the neurodevelopment, neural plasticity, GABAergic neurotransmission, and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. NRG1 is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, and emerging studies have begun to reveal the link between NRG1 signaling and cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients. Because the transmembrane domain of NRG1 is vital for both forward and reverse signaling cascades, new Nrg1-deficient mice that carry a truncation of the transmembrane domain of the Nrg1 gene were characterized and used in this study to test a NRG1 loss-of-function hypothesis for schizophrenia. Both male and female Nrg1 heterozygous mutant mice and their wild-type littermates were used in a series of 4 experiments to characterize the impact of Nrg1 on behavioral phenotypes and to determine the importance of Nrg1 in the regulation of hippocampal neuromorphology and local GABAergic interneurons. First, a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks indicated that male Nrg1-deficient mice exhibited significant impairments in cognitive functions. Second, pharmacological challenges were conducted and revealed that Nrg1 haploinsufficiency altered GABAergic activity in males. Third, although no genotype-specific neuromorphological alterations were found in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, significant reductions in the hippocampal expressions of GAD67 and parvalbumin were revealed in the Nrg1-deficient males. Fourth, chronic treatment with valproate rescued the observed behavioral deficits and hippocampal GAD67 reduction in Nrg1-deficient males. Collectively, these results indicate the potential therapeutic effect of valproate and the importance of Nrg1 in the regulation of cognitive functions and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, especially in males. PMID:24782733

  10. Immature embryo rescue and culture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiuli; Gmitter, Fred G; Grosser, Jude W

    2011-01-01

    Embryo culture techniques have many significant applications in plant breeding, as well as basic studies in physiology and biochemistry. Immature embryo rescue and culture is a particularly attractive technique for recovering plants from sexual crosses where the majority of embryos cannot survive in vivo or become dormant for long periods of time. Overcoming embryo inviability is the most common reason for the application of embryo rescue techniques. Recently, fruit breeding programs have greatly increased the interest in exploiting interploid hybridization to combine desirable genetic traits of complementary parents at the triploid level for the purpose of developing improved seedless fruits. However, the success of this approach has only been reported in limited number of species due to various crossing barriers and embryo abortion at very early stages. Thus, immature embryo rescue provides an alternative means to recover triploid hybrids, which usually fail to completely develop in vivo. This chapter will provide a brief discussion of the utilization of interploid crosses between a monoembryonic diploid female with an allotetraploid male in a citrus cultivar improvement program, featuring a clear and comprehensive illustration of successful protocols for immature embryo rescue and culture. The protocols will cover the complete process from embryo excision to recovered plant in the greenhouse and can easily be adapted to other plant commodities. Factors affecting the success and failure of immature embryo rescue to recover triploid progeny from interploid crosses will be discussed.

  11. Gene therapy using self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 restores vision in a model of early onset Leber congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Ku, Cristy A; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Sanford L; Goldberg, Andrew F X; Li, Tiansen; Hauswirth, William W; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan

    2011-12-01

    Defects in the photoreceptor-specific gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (Aipl1) are associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a childhood blinding disease with early-onset retinal degeneration and vision loss. Furthermore, Aipl1 defects are characterized at the most severe end of the LCA spectrum. The rapid photoreceptor degeneration and vision loss observed in the LCA patient population are mimicked in a mouse model lacking AIPL1. Using this model, we evaluated if gene replacement therapy using recent advancements in adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) provides advantages in preventing rapid retinal degeneration. Specifically, we demonstrated that the novel self-complementary Y733F capsid mutant AAV2/8 (sc-Y733F-AAV) provided greater preservation of photoreceptors and functional vision in Aipl1 null mice compared with single-stranded AAV2/8. The benefits of sc-Y733F-AAV were evident following viral administration during the active phase of retinal degeneration, where only sc-Y733F-AAV treatment achieved functional vision rescue. This result was likely due to higher and earlier onset of Aipl1 expression. Based on our studies, we conclude that the sc-Y733F-AAV2/8 viral vector, to date, achieves the best rescue for rapid retinal degeneration in Aipl1 null mice. Our results provide important considerations for viral vectors to be used in future gene therapy clinical trials targeting a wider severity spectrum of inherited retinal dystrophies.

  12. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    PubMed

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text.

  13. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    PubMed

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text. PMID:24555549

  14. Effective T cell regeneration following high-dose chemotherapy rescued with CD34+ cell enriched peripheral blood progenitor cells in children.

    PubMed

    Heitger, A; Kern, H; Mayerl, D; Maurer, K; Nachbaur, D; Frühwirth, M; Fink, F M; Niederwieser, D

    1999-02-01

    The ex vivo enrichment for the CD34+ cell fraction of PBPC, while it retains the capacity to restore haematopoiesis and potentially reduces a contamination by tumour cells, implements a depletion of T cells. To test whether such a setting adversely affects T cell reconstitution, we monitored T cells in four paediatric patients after CD34+ selected PBPC transplantation. The dose of CD34+ cells, which were enriched to 74%, median, was 7.1 x 10(6)/kg, median, that of T cells was 0.071 x 10(6)/kg, median. The patients were homogenous with respect to features with a potential to effect T cell reconstitution (low median age, (35 years); stage IV malignant tumours in first CR, uncomplicated post-treatment course). The results of sequential FACS analyses showed that by 9 months after treatment all four patients had recovered (1) a normal T cell count (CD3+ cells 1434/microl, median); (2) a normal CD4+ cell count (816/microl, median), while CD8+ cells were recovered (>330/microl) already by 3 months; (3) a normal CD4/CD8 ratio (1.8, median), as a result of an augmented growth of CD4+ cells between 3 and 6 months (increase of CD4+ cells 4.9-fold, median, CD8+ cells 1.1-fold, median). Expansion of cells with a CD45RA+ phenotype (thymus-derived T cells) predominated; from 3 to 6 months the increase of CD4+/CD45RA+ T cells was 130-fold, that of CD4+/CD45RO+ cells was 1.7-fold; CD8+/CD45RA+ cells increased 9-fold, CD8+/CD45RO+ cells increased 2.1-fold, indicating effective thymopoiesis. The findings demonstrate that in paediatric patients the setting of HD-CTX rescued with autologous CD34+ selected PBPC per se is not predictive of an impaired T cell recovery. High thymic activity may be a key factor for the rapid restoration of T cells.

  15. Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Hufbauer, Ruth A; Szűcs, Marianna; Kasyon, Emily; Youngberg, Courtney; Koontz, Michael J; Richards, Christopher; Tuff, Ty; Melbourne, Brett A

    2015-08-18

    Setting aside high-quality large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of reductions in both the number of individuals and genetic variability. By bringing in additional individuals, threatened populations can be increased in size (demographic rescue) or provided with variation to facilitate adaptation and reduce inbreeding (genetic rescue). The relative strengths of demographic and genetic rescue for reducing extinction and increasing growth of threatened populations are untested, and which type of rescue is effective may vary with population size. Using the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in a microcosm experiment, we disentangled the genetic and demographic components of rescue, and compared them with adaptation from standing genetic variation (evolutionary rescue in the strictest sense) using 244 experimental populations founded at either a smaller (50 individuals) or larger (150 individuals) size. Both types of rescue reduced extinction, and those effects were additive. Over the course of six generations, genetic rescue increased population sizes and intrinsic fitness substantially. Both large and small populations showed evidence of being able to adapt from standing genetic variation. Our results support the practice of genetic rescue in facilitating adaptation and reducing inbreeding depression, and suggest that demographic rescue alone may suffice in larger populations even if only moderately inbred individuals are available for addition. PMID:26240320

  16. Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Szűcs, Marianna; Kasyon, Emily; Youngberg, Courtney; Koontz, Michael J.; Richards, Christopher; Tuff, Ty; Melbourne, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting aside high-quality large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of reductions in both the number of individuals and genetic variability. By bringing in additional individuals, threatened populations can be increased in size (demographic rescue) or provided with variation to facilitate adaptation and reduce inbreeding (genetic rescue). The relative strengths of demographic and genetic rescue for reducing extinction and increasing growth of threatened populations are untested, and which type of rescue is effective may vary with population size. Using the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in a microcosm experiment, we disentangled the genetic and demographic components of rescue, and compared them with adaptation from standing genetic variation (evolutionary rescue in the strictest sense) using 244 experimental populations founded at either a smaller (50 individuals) or larger (150 individuals) size. Both types of rescue reduced extinction, and those effects were additive. Over the course of six generations, genetic rescue increased population sizes and intrinsic fitness substantially. Both large and small populations showed evidence of being able to adapt from standing genetic variation. Our results support the practice of genetic rescue in facilitating adaptation and reducing inbreeding depression, and suggest that demographic rescue alone may suffice in larger populations even if only moderately inbred individuals are available for addition. PMID:26240320

  17. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  18. STS-26 EVA rescue training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-07-01

    This video shows astronauts Covey, Hilmers, and Hauck training in SES. It involves a simulated EVA rescue using the RMS. A computer-generated image is used to simulate the movement of a free-floating astronaut for grapple with the arm.

  19. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156 and equipped as specified in table 133.175 of...

  20. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156 and equipped as specified in table 133.175 of...

  1. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156 and equipped as specified in table 133.175 of...

  2. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.056 and equipped as specified in table 133.175 of...

  3. 46 CFR 133.135 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 133.135 Section 133.135 Shipping COAST... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.135 Rescue boats. (a) Each OSV must carry at least one rescue boat. Each rescue boat must be approved under approval series 160.156 and equipped as specified in table 133.175 of...

  4. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Rescue Teams; CFR Correction #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 126 / Monday, July 1, 2013 / Rules... Rescue Teams CFR Correction In Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 199, revised as of... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  5. 46 CFR 117.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 117.210 Section 117.210 Shipping COAST... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.210 Rescue boats. (a) Each vessel must carry at least one rescue boat unless the cognizant OCMI determines that: (1) The vessel is sufficiently maneuverable,...

  6. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table...

  7. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  8. 46 CFR 117.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 117.210 Section 117.210 Shipping COAST... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.210 Rescue boats. (a) Each vessel must carry at least one rescue boat unless the cognizant OCMI determines that: (1) The vessel is sufficiently maneuverable,...

  9. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must carry at least one rescue boat unless the...

  10. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  11. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table...

  12. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  13. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  14. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must carry at least one rescue boat unless the...

  15. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat,...

  16. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must carry at least one rescue boat unless the...

  17. 46 CFR 117.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 117.210 Section 117.210 Shipping COAST... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.210 Rescue boats. (a) Each vessel must carry at least one rescue boat unless the cognizant OCMI determines that: (1) The vessel is sufficiently maneuverable,...

  18. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must carry at least one rescue boat unless the...

  19. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table...

  20. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table...

  1. 46 CFR 117.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 117.210 Section 117.210 Shipping COAST... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.210 Rescue boats. (a) Each vessel must carry at least one rescue boat unless the cognizant OCMI determines that: (1) The vessel is sufficiently maneuverable,...

  2. 46 CFR 199.202 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 199.202 Section 199.202 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.202 Rescue boats... least one rescue boat approved under approval series 160.156 that is equipped as specified in table...

  3. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must carry at least one rescue boat unless the...

  4. 46 CFR 117.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boats. 117.210 Section 117.210 Shipping COAST... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.210 Rescue boats. (a) Each vessel must carry at least one rescue boat unless the cognizant OCMI determines that: (1) The vessel is sufficiently maneuverable,...

  5. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques.

  6. Research to the Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Debra J.; Angerosa, Angela M.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques in using readership surveys to boost the effectiveness and acceptance of a college publication, particularly those intended for faculty and alumni, are outlined. Steps include planning the research, selecting survey participants, drafting a questionnaire, designing a survey package, monitoring response, and reviewing and presenting…

  7. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  8. Submarine Rescue Decompression Procedure from Hyperbaric Exposures up to 6 Bar of Absolute Pressure in Man: Effects on Bubble Formation and Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  9. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  10. Hermes rescue strategies during launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cledassou, Rodelphe

    Safety and rescue strategies during the launch of Hermes space plane by Ariane 5 are discussed. Before solid booster separation, the pilots must be ejected by seats which are later recovered. After solid booster separation it becomes possible to extract the plane, which can perform a reentry leading to an available landing site or to sea recovery. When there is no useful landing site, the plane can be injected on a downgraded orbit.

  11. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System.

    PubMed

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams.

  12. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service. PMID:26013391

  13. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service.

  14. Structures of oncogenic, suppressor and rescued p53 core-domain variants: mechanisms of mutant p53 rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Wallentine, Brad D.; Wang, Ying; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Tan, Martha; Senear, Donald F.; Luecke, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined in order to gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53, X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined. These include an oncogenic mutant, V157F, two single-site suppressor mutants, N235K and N239Y, and the rescued cancer mutant V157F/N235K/N239Y. The V157F mutation substitutes a smaller hydrophobic valine with a larger hydrophobic phenylalanine within strand S4 of the hydrophobic core. The structure of this cancer mutant shows no gross structural changes in the overall fold of the p53 core domain, only minor rearrangements of side chains within the hydrophobic core of the protein. Based on biochemical analysis, these small local perturbations induce instability in the protein, increasing the free energy by 3.6 kcal mol{sup −1} (15.1 kJ mol{sup −1}). Further biochemical evidence shows that each suppressor mutation, N235K or N239Y, acts individually to restore thermodynamic stability to V157F and that both together are more effective than either alone. All rescued mutants were found to have wild-type DNA-binding activity when assessed at a permissive temperature, thus pointing to thermodynamic stability as the critical underlying variable. Interestingly, thermodynamic analysis shows that while N239Y demonstrates stabilization of the wild-type p53 core domain, N235K does not. These observations suggest distinct structural mechanisms of rescue. A new salt bridge between Lys235 and Glu198, found in both the N235K and rescued cancer mutant structures, suggests a rescue mechanism that relies on stabilizing the

  15. Evolutionary rescue in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Cunningham, Curry J; Westley, Peter A H

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary rescue occurs when adaptive evolutionary change restores positive growth to declining populations and prevents extinction. Here we outline the diagnostic features of evolutionary rescue and distinguish this phenomenon from demographic and genetic rescue. We then synthesize the rapidly accumulating theoretical and experimental studies of evolutionary rescue, highlighting the demographic, genetic, and extrinsic factors that affect the probability of rescue. By doing so, we clarify the factors to target through management and conservation. Additionally, we identify several putative cases of evolutionary rescue in nature, but conclude that compelling evidence remains elusive. We conclude with a horizon scan of where the field might develop, highlighting areas of potential application, and suggest areas where experimental evaluation will help to evaluate theoretical predictions. PMID:25038023

  16. The Data Rescue @ Home Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, A.; Allan, R.; Valente, M. A.; Tinz, B.; Brönnimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science as a whole as well as reanalyses as a special case can significantly profit from the recovery, imaging and digitisation of historical observations. The importance of this fact is reflected in large, global data rescue projects and initiatives such as the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE, www.met-acre.org) or the EU FP7 ERA-CLIM project (www.era-clim.eu). From the time before 1957, there are still large amounts of surface data e.g. from former colonies and from overseas territories of European countries )e.g. Portugal, France and Germany) that need to be rescued. Also in case of the very early upper-air observations before the 1930s, even Europe and North America still hold an important quantity of data to be recovered in digital form. Here, we present the web platform "Data Rescue @ Home" (www.data-rescue-at-home.org), which has been developed at ETH Zurich and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, and which has been designed to take advantage of the voluntary assistance of the thousands of people on the web who are interested in climate or old weather data. On the website, these volunteers can enter meteorological data shown on digital images into entry masks that resemble the original. By registering, the users get access to their personal digitisation statistics and help optimising the project. At the moment, 4 digitisation projects are online: One project is dealing with German upper-air data from the Second World War period. In a second project, station data from Tulagi (Solomon Islands) is being digitised. Finally, two collaborative projects have been included: One in cooperation with the Instituto Dom Luiz (Univ. Lisbon, Portugal), where Portuguese station data from Angra (Azores) is digitised, and a further one in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD), in which precipitation data from former German colonies is being digitised. On our poster, we will report on the status of the projects

  17. Search and Rescue. Auxiliary Operational Specialty Course. Student Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    This text, based on the National Search and Rescue (SAR) Plan, was prepared to provide a course of study on common procedures for SAR operations so that any basically qualified person in the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary can effectively accomplish a SAR mission and act as on-scene commander if required. There are 13 chapters: Introduction to Search…

  18. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an...

  19. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue...

  20. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue...

  1. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue...

  2. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue...

  3. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue...

  4. Rescue coronary stenting in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Meneghetti, Paolo; Molinari, Gionata; Zardini, Piero

    1996-01-01

    Failed rescue coronary angioplasty is a high risk situation because of high mortality. Coronary stent has given us the chance of improving and maintaining the patency of the artery. We report our preliminary experience of rescue stenting after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty.

  5. Structures of oncogenic, suppressor and rescued p53 core-domain variants: mechanisms of mutant p53 rescue.

    PubMed

    Wallentine, Brad D; Wang, Ying; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Tan, Martha; Senear, Donald F; Luecke, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53, X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined. These include an oncogenic mutant, V157F, two single-site suppressor mutants, N235K and N239Y, and the rescued cancer mutant V157F/N235K/N239Y. The V157F mutation substitutes a smaller hydrophobic valine with a larger hydrophobic phenylalanine within strand S4 of the hydrophobic core. The structure of this cancer mutant shows no gross structural changes in the overall fold of the p53 core domain, only minor rearrangements of side chains within the hydrophobic core of the protein. Based on biochemical analysis, these small local perturbations induce instability in the protein, increasing the free energy by 3.6 kcal mol(-1) (15.1 kJ mol(-1)). Further biochemical evidence shows that each suppressor mutation, N235K or N239Y, acts individually to restore thermodynamic stability to V157F and that both together are more effective than either alone. All rescued mutants were found to have wild-type DNA-binding activity when assessed at a permissive temperature, thus pointing to thermodynamic stability as the critical underlying variable. Interestingly, thermodynamic analysis shows that while N239Y demonstrates stabilization of the wild-type p53 core domain, N235K does not. These observations suggest distinct structural mechanisms of rescue. A new salt bridge between Lys235 and Glu198, found in both the N235K and rescued cancer mutant structures, suggests a rescue mechanism that relies on stabilizing the β-sandwich scaffold. On the other hand, the substitution N239Y creates an advantageous hydrophobic contact between the aromatic ring of this tyrosine and the adjacent Leu137. Surprisingly, the rescued cancer mutant shows much larger structural deviations than the cancer mutant alone when compared

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  7. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

  8. Development of Space Shuttle Rescue and Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the first Space Shuttle launch was still in our future, many from NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA contractors were busy planning for not only a nominal launch and return, but contingency operations at the launch pad and landing sites. Prior to the first launch, detailed coordination, planning and simulations were conducted at all three locations and internal rescue procedures were taught at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Later in the Program, the Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) sites were added in Europe and Africa. For the 51L mission a new TAL site was brought on line in Morocco. However, upon launch, the Shuttle Program experienced it's first lost. During the following months a complete review of all contingency operations (launch and landing) was completed. Many enhancements were made based on the reviews following. A Mode VIII water rescue was developed for NASA by the DoD before the STS-26 launch. Different concepts were explored and being debated by NASA. Training of the contingency forces was required before final decisions were made forcing the teaching of two different sets of procedures. To assist with training, a video was developed for the fire/crash/rescue personnel. This accompanied the detailed extraction procedures that were developed by a combination of KSC and DoD firemen. Training for the fire/crash/rescue personnel at Vandenberg AFB was also being planned before the accident happen. The fire/crash/rescue mockup that was being built at Chanute AFB was diverted to Edwards AFB. Educational Objectives: With the emphasis on Commercial Crew Programs for Space flight it is important that all involved understand what is required to prepare for contingencies. Cost effective means of being prepared for contingencies are needed. Questions: 1. When should planning for nominal and contingency operations begin? 2. What type of training aids are needed for contingency operations? 3. Who were the major contributors to Shuttle contingency

  9. Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

  10. NASA's Search-and-Rescue Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the next-generation search and rescue system, the DASS. Under this system, instruments used to relay emergency beacon signals will be installed on GPS satellites. When one em...

  11. A New Antibiotic to the Rescue?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the Rescue? Experimental drug shows promise against MRSA superbug in animal trials To use the sharing ... treated animals infected with the so-called "superbug" MRSA -- methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus . The results are "important ...

  12. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  13. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  15. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13),...

  16. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as...

  17. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  18. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the...

  19. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 108.565 Section 108.565... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.565 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2)...

  20. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 108.565 Section 108.565... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.565 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2)...

  1. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  2. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  5. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  6. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  8. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  9. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  10. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  11. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  12. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  13. Rescue model for the bystanders' intervention in emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, H.-H.; Jung, W.-S.; Moon, H.-T.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of social interaction on the bystanders' intervention in emergency situations we introduce a rescue model which includes the effects of the victim's acquaintance with bystanders and those among bystanders. This model reproduces the surprising experimental result that the helping rate tends to decrease although the number of bystanders k increases. The model also shows that given the coupling effect among bystanders, for a certain range of small k the helping rate increases according to k and that coupling effect plays both positive and negative roles in emergencies.

  14. Predicting evolutionary rescue via evolving plasticity in stochastic environments.

    PubMed

    Ashander, Jaime; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Baskett, Marissa L

    2016-09-28

    Phenotypic plasticity and its evolution may help evolutionary rescue in a novel and stressful environment, especially if environmental novelty reveals cryptic genetic variation that enables the evolution of increased plasticity. However, the environmental stochasticity ubiquitous in natural systems may alter these predictions, because high plasticity may amplify phenotype-environment mismatches. Although previous studies have highlighted this potential detrimental effect of plasticity in stochastic environments, they have not investigated how it affects extinction risk in the context of evolutionary rescue and with evolving plasticity. We investigate this question here by integrating stochastic demography with quantitative genetic theory in a model with simultaneous change in the mean and predictability (temporal autocorrelation) of the environment. We develop an approximate prediction of long-term persistence under the new pattern of environmental fluctuations, and compare it with numerical simulations for short- and long-term extinction risk. We find that reduced predictability increases extinction risk and reduces persistence because it increases stochastic load during rescue. This understanding of how stochastic demography, phenotypic plasticity, and evolution interact when evolution acts on cryptic genetic variation revealed in a novel environment can inform expectations for invasions, extinctions, or the emergence of chemical resistance in pests. PMID:27655762

  15. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator–prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term ‘indirect evolutionary rescue’, has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change. PMID:26366196

  16. The tmRNA ribosome rescue system

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian D.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial tmRNA quality control system monitors protein synthesis and recycles stalled translation complexes in a process termed “ribosome rescue”. During rescue, tmRNA acts first as a transfer RNA to bind stalled ribosomes, then as a messenger RNA to add the ssrA peptide tag to the C-terminus of the nascent polypeptide chain. The ssrA peptide targets tagged peptides for proteolysis, ensuring rapid degradation of potentially deleterious truncated polypeptides. Ribosome rescue also facilitates turnover of the damaged messages responsible for translational arrest. Thus, tmRNA increases the fidelity of gene expression by promoting the synthesis of full-length proteins. In addition to serving as a global quality control system, tmRNA also plays important roles in bacterial development, pathogenesis and environmental stress responses. This review focuses on the mechanism of tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue and the role of tmRNA in bacterial physiology. PMID:22243584

  17. RESCU: A real space electronic structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud-Rioux, Vincent; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present RESCU, a powerful MATLAB-based Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) solver. We demonstrate that RESCU can compute the electronic structure properties of systems comprising many thousands of atoms using modest computer resources, e.g. 16 to 256 cores. Its computational efficiency is achieved from exploiting four routes. First, we use numerical atomic orbital (NAO) techniques to efficiently generate a good quality initial subspace which is crucially required by Chebyshev filtering methods. Second, we exploit the fact that only a subspace spanning the occupied Kohn-Sham states is required, and solving accurately the KS equation using eigensolvers can generally be avoided. Third, by judiciously analyzing and optimizing various parts of the procedure in RESCU, we delay the O (N3) scaling to large N, and our tests show that RESCU scales consistently as O (N2.3) from a few hundred atoms to more than 5000 atoms when using a real space grid discretization. The scaling is better or comparable in a NAO basis up to the 14,000 atoms level. Fourth, we exploit various numerical algorithms and, in particular, we introduce a partial Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm to achieve efficiency gains for systems comprising more than 10,000 electrons. We demonstrate the power of RESCU in solving KS-DFT problems using many examples running on 16, 64 and/or 256 cores: a 5832 Si atoms supercell; a 8788 Al atoms supercell; a 5324 Cu atoms supercell and a small DNA molecule submerged in 1713 water molecules for a total 5399 atoms. The KS-DFT is entirely converged in a few hours in all cases. Our results suggest that the RESCU method has reached a milestone of solving thousands of atoms by KS-DFT on a modest computer cluster.

  18. Spatiotemporal rescue of memory dysfunction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Le, Phuong T; Osborn, Alexander J; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Davis, Ronald L

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) in Drosophila and show the simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of a memory defect. The transient expression of the rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase in the mushroom bodies of the adult brain was necessary and sufficient to rescue the rutabaga memory deficit, which rules out a developmental brain defect in the etiology of this deficit and demonstrates an acute role for rutabaga in memory formation in these neurons. The TARGET system offers general utility in simultaneously addressing issues of when and where gene products are required. PMID:14657498

  19. Dynamics of evolutionary rescue in changing environments and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Saddler, Clare A; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Populations can go extinct when their environments deteriorate, but evolutionary rescue occurs when a shrinking population adapts to the new environmental conditions. The emergence of resistance from a drug sensitive bacterial population under treatment can be regarded as an instance of evolutionary rescue. Understanding evolutionary rescue in a particular context such as drug resistance requires knowledge of how the environment changes and how selection coefficients change as a result. In this study, we propose a model for evolutionary rescue under three different scenarios of environmental change: abrupt change, periodic fluctuation and gradual decay. The model makes use of the notion of reaction norms to describe fitness values that depend on both genotype and environmental state. We find that although drug sensitive bacterial populations may be large, allowing them to generate resistant mutants frequently, a harsh abrupt change due to the drug usually drives them extinct. Evolutionary rescue occurs far more frequently under the milder forms of environmental change we investigated. Rescue is favoured when the absolute fitnesses of individuals remain sufficiently high over the range of environment qualities experienced by the population. The minimum environment quality, which is inversely related to drug dose in the antibiotic context, is thus an important factor. Interestingly, in the periodic fluctuation model, the inter-dose period is less influential in promoting rescue through resistance unless the minimum environment quality is in a particular range. We also investigated fitness trade-offs across environments including the case of a resistant allele not subject to any trade-off (a "superbug"). This fitness trade-off affects the probability of rescue in decaying environments, but surprisingly has only a weak effect in the periodic fluctuation scenario. Finally, we use the model to show how niche construction, whereby organisms are the source of environmental

  20. The probability of evolutionary rescue: towards a quantitative comparison between theory and evolution experiments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guillaume; Aguilée, Robin; Ramsayer, Johan; Kaltz, Oliver; Ronce, Ophélie

    2013-01-19

    Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population genetically adapts to a new stressful environment that would otherwise cause its extinction. Forecasting the probability of persistence under stress, including emergence of drug resistance as a special case of interest, requires experimentally validated quantitative predictions. Here, we propose general analytical predictions, based on diffusion approximations, for the probability of evolutionary rescue. We assume a narrow genetic basis for adaptation to stress, as is often the case for drug resistance. First, we extend the rescue model of Orr & Unckless (Am. Nat. 2008 172, 160-169) to a broader demographic and genetic context, allowing the model to apply to empirical systems with variation among mutation effects on demography, overlapping generations and bottlenecks, all common features of microbial populations. Second, we confront our predictions of rescue probability with two datasets from experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (bacterium). The tests show the qualitative agreement between the model and observed patterns, and illustrate how biologically relevant quantities, such as the per capita rate of rescue, can be estimated from fits of empirical data. Finally, we use the results of the model to suggest further, more quantitative, tests of evolutionary rescue theory.

  1. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  2. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  3. All-weather capability for rescue helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitmair-Steck, Wolfgang; Haisch, Stefan

    2001-08-01

    In Germany as well as in numerous other countries the air rescue system has been extended significantly since the first operation of the rescue helicopter Christoph 1. The primary target of the air rescue system was to guarantee fast and efficient emergency medical services for victims of accidents. During the years, the scope of the helicopter operations has been extended not only to other types of emergency medical services, but also to secondary medical services like the displacement of patients from hospitals to special service hospitals. While in general the displacement of patients is operated from well known and registered helipads, the primary rescue service currently has to rely on available onboard systems only. Those operations are risky and challenging for the pilots because of time pressure and the danger of obstacles in the environment of the helicopter. In addition, reduced visibility due to fog, rainfall or low light levels can further increase the risks or can make the services unavailable at all. Almost one decade ago, Eurocopter started the investigation of technologies and systems that could help the pilots to perform their tasks with reduced workload and risk, and to allow for a 24 h operation of helicopters irrespective of the weather conditions. After a number of preliminary studies, in 1995 the research program 'All-weather helicopter' has been started as a joint effort of Eurocopter and the supplier industry in Europe. The first phase of the program has been successfully completed in 1999 and the second phase is currently in progress.

  4. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-09-14

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  5. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  6. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost.

  7. Summary of prior grain entrapment rescue strategies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M J; Deboy, G R; Field, W E; Maier, D E

    2011-10-01

    Entrapment in flowable agricultural material continues to be a relevant problem facing both farmers and employees of commercial grain storage and handling operations. While considerable work has been done previously on the causes of entrapment in grain and possible preventative measures, there is little research on the efficacy of current first response or extrication techniques. With the recent introduction of new grain rescue equipment and training programs, it was determined that the need exists to document and summarize prior grain rescue strategies with a view to develop evidence-based recommendations that would enhance the efficacy of the techniques used and reduce the risks to both victims and first responders. Utilizing the Purdue University Agricultural Entrapment Database, all data were queried for information related to extrication of victims from grain entrapments documented over the period 1964-2006. Also analyzed were data from other sources, including public records related to entrapments and information from onsite investigations. Significant findings of this study include the following: (1) between 1964 and 2006, the number of entrapments averaged 16 per year, with the frequency increasing over the last decade; (2) of all cases documented, about 45% resulted in fatality; (3) no less than 44% of entrapments occurred in shelled corn; (4) fatality was the result in 82% of cases where victims were submerged beneath the grain surface, while fatality occurred in 10% of cases where victims were only partially engulfed; (5) the majority of rescues were reported to have been conducted by untrained personnel who were at the scene at the time of entrapment; and (6) in those cases where the rescue strategies were known, 56% involved cutting or punching holes in the side walls of the storage structure, 19% involved utilizing onsite fabricated grain retaining walls to extricate partially entrapped victims, and the use of grain vacuum machines as a rescue

  8. ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

  9. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  10. Neurotrauma and the rule of rescue.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, S; Gillett, G R; Ho, K M; Lind, C R P

    2011-12-01

    The rule of rescue describes the powerful human proclivity to rescue identified endangered lives, regardless of cost or risk. Deciding whether or not to perform a decompressive craniectomy as a life-saving or 'rescue' procedure for a young person with a severe traumatic brain injury provides a good example of the ethical tensions that occur in these situations. Unfortunately, there comes a point when the primary brain injury is so severe that if the patient survives they are likely to remain severely disabled and fully dependent. The health resource implications of this outcome are significant. By using a web-based outcome prediction model this study compares the long-term outcome and designation of two groups of patients. One group had a very severe injury as adjudged by the model and the other group a less severe injury. At 18 month follow-up there were significant differences in outcome and healthcare requirements. This raises important ethical issues when considering life-saving but non-restorative surgical intervention. The discussion about realistic outcome cannot be dichotomised into simply life or death so that the outcome for the patient must enter the equation. As in other 'rescue situations', the utility of the procedure cannot be rationalised on a mere cost-benefit analysis. A compromise has to be reached to determine at what point either the likely outcome would be unacceptable to the person on whom the procedure is being performed or the social utility gained from the rule of rescue intervention fails to justify the utilitarian value and justice of equitable resource allocation. PMID:21947803

  11. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  12. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement...

  13. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifeboats and rescue boats. 131.855 Section 131.855... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.855 Lifeboats and rescue boats. (a) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in...

  14. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifeboats and rescue boats. 131.855 Section 131.855... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.855 Lifeboats and rescue boats. (a) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in...

  15. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifeboats and rescue boats. 131.855 Section 131.855... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.855 Lifeboats and rescue boats. (a) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in...

  16. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifeboats and rescue boats. 131.855 Section 131.855... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.855 Lifeboats and rescue boats. (a) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in...

  17. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifeboats and rescue boats. 131.855 Section 131.855... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.855 Lifeboats and rescue boats. (a) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in...

  18. 46 CFR 199.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 199.140 Section 199.140... boats. (a) General. Rescue boats must be stowed— (1) To be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) In a position suitable for launching and recovery; (3) In a way that neither the rescue...

  19. 46 CFR 199.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 199.140 Section 199.140... boats. (a) General. Rescue boats must be stowed— (1) To be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) In a position suitable for launching and recovery; (3) In a way that neither the rescue...

  20. 46 CFR 199.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 199.140 Section 199.140... boats. (a) General. Rescue boats must be stowed— (1) To be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) In a position suitable for launching and recovery; (3) In a way that neither the rescue...

  1. 46 CFR 199.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 199.140 Section 199.140... boats. (a) General. Rescue boats must be stowed— (1) To be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) In a position suitable for launching and recovery; (3) In a way that neither the rescue...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1125 - Search and rescue coordinating communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Search and rescue coordinating communications...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1125 Search and rescue coordinating... responsible for controlling a search and rescue operation will also coordinate the distress traffic...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1125 - Search and rescue coordinating communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Search and rescue coordinating communications...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1125 Search and rescue coordinating... responsible for controlling a search and rescue operation will also coordinate the distress traffic...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1125 - Search and rescue coordinating communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Search and rescue coordinating communications...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1125 Search and rescue coordinating... responsible for controlling a search and rescue operation will also coordinate the distress traffic...

  5. Resource Guide for Search and Rescue Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaValla, Patrick

    The bibliography about search and rescue training materials lists booklets, books, manuals, films, papers, periodicals, and pamphlets that treat many aspects of search and rescue situations: general, cave, disaster, and mountain rescues; strategy tactics; communications; knots and ropes; outdoor living; dogs; tracking; map and compass; survival;…

  6. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 108.565 Section 108.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.565 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be...

  7. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 108.565 Section 108.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.565 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be...

  8. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 108.565 Section 108.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.565 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be...

  9. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  10. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  11. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  12. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  13. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  14. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine...

  15. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  16. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  17. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  18. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  19. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  20. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  1. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where...

  2. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  3. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  4. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  5. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  6. TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H; Müller-Rischart, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron

    2013-07-15

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate α-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking α-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin.

  7. 46 CFR 160.156-13 - Approval inspections and tests for prototype rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... between the independent laboratory and Commandant under 46 CFR part 159, subpart 159.010. (g) After... boats and fast rescue boats. 160.156-13 Section 160.156-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... EQUIPMENT Rescue Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-13 Approval inspections and tests...

  8. 46 CFR 160.156-13 - Approval inspections and tests for prototype rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... between the independent laboratory and Commandant under 46 CFR part 159, subpart 159.010. (g) After... boats and fast rescue boats. 160.156-13 Section 160.156-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... EQUIPMENT Rescue Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-13 Approval inspections and tests...

  9. 46 CFR 160.156-13 - Approval inspections and tests for prototype rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... between the independent laboratory and Commandant under 46 CFR part 159, subpart 159.010. (g) After... boats and fast rescue boats. 160.156-13 Section 160.156-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... EQUIPMENT Rescue Boats and Fast Rescue Boats (SOLAS) § 160.156-13 Approval inspections and tests...

  10. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.018. The arrangement of the retroreflective material must... (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet...

  11. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.018. The arrangement of the retroreflective material must... (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet...

  12. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved under 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.018. The arrangement of the retroreflective material must... (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet...

  13. Invited commentary: rescuing Robinson Crusoe.

    PubMed

    Oakes, J Michael

    2008-07-01

    Estimating the independent effect of "place" on health outcomes has proven quite difficult. In this issue of the Journal, Auchincloss and Diez Roux contribute a lucid introduction to agent-based simulation models and argue that they may be a fruitful alternative to current approaches to the problem. Insofar as conceptual understanding must precede empirical investigation, this author agrees. Given the obvious shortcoming of pure simulations, the key benefit of agent-based models lies in their ability to alter our thinking and/or theory. Among other things, the approach permits analysts to model (i.e., conceptualize) system dynamics, more realistic social treatment effects, endogenous contexts, and a more congenial image of human behavior.

  14. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  15. Lidar techniques for search and rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations within avalanche rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Genswein, Manuel; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Refining concepts for avalanche rescue involves calculating suitable settings for rescue strategies such as an adequate probing depth for probe line searches or an optimal time for performing resuscitation for a recovered avalanche victim in case of additional burials. In the latter case, treatment decisions have to be made in the context of triage. However, given the low number of incidents it is rarely possible to derive quantitative criteria based on historical statistics in the context of evidence-based medicine. For these rare, but complex rescue scenarios, most of the associated concepts, theories, and processes involve a number of unknown "random" parameters which have to be estimated in order to calculate anything quantitatively. An obvious approach for incorporating a number of random variables and their distributions into a calculation is to perform a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. We here present Monte Carlo simulations for calculating the most suitable probing depth for probe line searches depending on search area and an optimal resuscitation time in case of multiple avalanche burials. The MC approach reveals, e.g., new optimized values for the duration of resuscitation that differ from previous, mainly case-based assumptions.

  17. Melatonin rescues cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Itani, Nozomi; Skeffington, Katie L; Beck, Christian; Niu, Youguo; Giussani, Dino A

    2016-01-01

    There is a search for rescue therapy against fetal origins of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia, particularly following clinical diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Melatonin protects the placenta in adverse pregnancy; however, whether melatonin protects the fetal heart and vasculature in hypoxic pregnancy independent of effects on the placenta is unknown. Whether melatonin can rescue fetal cardiovascular dysfunction when treatment commences following FGR diagnosis is also unknown. We isolated the effects of melatonin on the developing cardiovascular system of the chick embryo during hypoxic incubation. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin directly protects the fetal cardiovascular system in adverse development and that it can rescue dysfunction following FGR diagnosis. Chick embryos were incubated under normoxia or hypoxia (14% O2) from day 1 ± melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/day) from day 13 of incubation (term ~21 days). Melatonin in hypoxic chick embryos rescued cardiac systolic dysfunction, impaired cardiac contractility and relaxability, increased cardiac sympathetic dominance, and endothelial dysfunction in peripheral circulations. The mechanisms involved included reduced oxidative stress, enhanced antioxidant capacity and restored vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and NO bioavailability. Melatonin treatment of the chick embryo starting at day 13 of incubation, equivalent to ca. 25 wk of gestation in human pregnancy, rescues early origins of cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development. Melatonin may be a suitable antioxidant candidate for translation to human therapy to protect the fetal cardiovascular system in adverse pregnancy.

  18. Increased Glucose Transport into Neurons Rescues Aβ Toxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Teresa; Cabecinha, Melissa; Tillmann, Anna; Kerr, Fiona; Wong, Chi T; Cardenes, Dalia; Vincent, Alec J; Bettedi, Lucia; Li, Li; Grönke, Sebastian; Dols, Jacqueline; Partridge, Linda

    2016-09-12

    Glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disease progression is associated with a reduction in glucose transporters in both neurons and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. However, whether increasing glucose transport into either of these cell types offers therapeutic potential remains unknown. Using an adult-onset Drosophila model of Aβ (amyloid beta) toxicity, we show that genetic overexpression of a glucose transporter, specifically in neurons, rescues lifespan, behavioral phenotypes, and neuronal morphology. This amelioration of Aβ toxicity is associated with a reduction in the protein levels of the unfolded protein response (UPR) negative master regulator Grp78 and an increase in the UPR. We further demonstrate that genetic downregulation of Grp78 activity also protects against Aβ toxicity, confirming a causal effect of its alteration on AD-related pathology. Metformin, a drug that stimulates glucose uptake in cells, mimicked these effects, with a concomitant reduction in Grp78 levels and rescue of the shortened lifespan and climbing defects of Aβ-expressing flies. Our findings demonstrate a protective effect of increased neuronal uptake of glucose against Aβ toxicity and highlight Grp78 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:27524482

  19. Problems and complications with cold-water rescue.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Hayward, John S

    2006-01-01

    A case description is presented of a 9-member rowing team whose scull swamped on a small lake in Victoria, Canada, because of a sudden winter storm, which immersed them in 4 degrees C water for 50 minutes until a small rescue boat found them in darkness. Another 13 minutes of cold exposure in 6.7 degrees C air occurred during boat transport to waiting ambulance paramedics. Two rowers died, one from severe hypothermia and the other from drowning as a consequence of cold incapacitation and hypothermia. The 2 coldest rowers, who were transported 8 km to a major hospital, arrived with rectal temperatures of 23.4 degrees C and 25 degrees C; the first was asystolic and the second was unconscious and in sinus bradycardia. Analysis of all the circumstances of this incident provided an opportunity to observe a continuum of responses in a heterogeneous group of rowers at risk of severe hypothermia. Several practical lessons concerning cold-water survival, rescue, and treatment can be learned. The effects of low body mass were associated with greater cooling rate. Diminished neuromuscular performance in the periphery appeared to be independent of body mass. Rough handling during moving of patients with marked hypothermia introduces the risk of producing ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest. Unconscious, nonshivering hypothermia victims who are rescued and insulated from cold could have a further afterdrop of 3 degrees C to 4 degrees C. During transport to a hospital, the use of heating devices concentrating on core regions may increase the chance of successful treatment in the hospital. Cardiopulmonary bypass may be indicated for severely hypothermic patients in asystole. PMID:16538942

  20. Rescue microsurgery with bypass and stent removal following Pipeline treatment of a giant internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Taussky, Philip; Park, Min S; Neil, Jayson A; Couldwell, William T

    2015-12-01

    We report the microsurgical rescue and removal of a Pipeline stent embolization of a giant internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm. After the initial placement of a Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), it migrated proximally to the cavernous carotid with the distal end free in the middle of the aneurysm, resulting in only partial aneurysm neck coverage. The patient underwent microsurgical rescue with trapping, bypass, and opening of the aneurysm with PED removal. The vessel remained patent in the proximal segment previously covered by the Pipeline stent. Microsurgical rescue for definitive aneurysm treatment with PED removal can be safe and effective for aneurysms unsuccessfully treated with PED.

  1. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  2. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer. PMID:25102536

  3. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer.

  4. Improved network performance via antagonism: From synthetic rescues to multi-drug combinations

    PubMed Central

    Motter, Adilson E

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that a faulty or sub-optimally operating metabolic network can often be rescued by the targeted removal of enzyme-coding genes – the exact opposite of what traditional gene therapy would suggest. Predictions go as far as to assert that certain gene knockouts can restore the growth of otherwise nonviable gene-deficient cells. Many questions follow from this discovery: What are the underlying mechanisms? How generalizable is this effect? What are the potential applications? Here, I approach these questions from the perspective of compensatory perturbations on networks. Relations are drawn between such synthetic rescues and naturally occurring cascades of reaction inactivation, as well as their analogs in physical and other biological networks. I specially discuss how rescue interactions can lead to the rational design of antagonistic drug combinations that select against resistance and how they can illuminate medical research on cancer, antibiotics, and metabolic diseases. PMID:20127700

  5. Retrospective on the construction and practice of a state-level emergency medical rescue team.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Haitao, Guo; Xin, Wang; Yundou, Wang

    2014-10-01

    For the past few years, disasters like earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, tsunamis, and traffic accidents have occurred with an ever-growing frequency, coverage, and intensity greatly beyond the expectation of the public. In order to respond effectively to disasters and to reduce casualties and property damage, countries around the world have invested more efforts in the theoretical study of emergency medicine and the construction of emergency medical rescue forces. Consequently, emergency medical rescue teams of all scales and types have come into being and have played significant roles in disaster response work. As the only state-level emergency medical rescue force from the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, the force described here has developed, through continuous learning and practice, a characteristic mode in terms of grouping methods, equipment system construction, and training. PMID:25397657

  6. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  7. Biobotic insect swarm based sensor networks for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Alper; Lobaton, Edgar; Sichitiu, Mihail; Hedrick, Tyson; Latif, Tahmid; Dirafzoon, Alireza; Whitmire, Eric; Verderber, Alexander; Marin, Juan; Xiong, Hong

    2014-06-01

    The potential benefits of distributed robotics systems in applications requiring situational awareness, such as search-and-rescue in emergency situations, are indisputable. The efficiency of such systems requires robotic agents capable of coping with uncertain and dynamic environmental conditions. For example, after an earthquake, a tremendous effort is spent for days to reach to surviving victims where robotic swarms or other distributed robotic systems might play a great role in achieving this faster. However, current technology falls short of offering centimeter scale mobile agents that can function effectively under such conditions. Insects, the inspiration of many robotic swarms, exhibit an unmatched ability to navigate through such environments while successfully maintaining control and stability. We have benefitted from recent developments in neural engineering and neuromuscular stimulation research to fuse the locomotory advantages of insects with the latest developments in wireless networking technologies to enable biobotic insect agents to function as search-and-rescue agents. Our research efforts towards this goal include development of biobot electronic backpack technologies, establishment of biobot tracking testbeds to evaluate locomotion control efficiency, investigation of biobotic control strategies with Gromphadorhina portentosa cockroaches and Manduca sexta moths, establishment of a localization and communication infrastructure, modeling and controlling collective motion by learning deterministic and stochastic motion models, topological motion modeling based on these models, and the development of a swarm robotic platform to be used as a testbed for our algorithms.

  8. Rescue of mumps virus from cDNA.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D K; Sidhu, M S; Johnson, J E; Udem, S A

    2000-05-01

    A complete DNA copy of the genome of a Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus (15,384 nucleotides) was assembled from cDNA fragments such that an exact antigenome RNA could be generated following transcription by T7 RNA polymerase and cleavage by hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. The plasmid containing the genome sequence, together with support plasmids which express mumps virus NP, P, and L proteins under control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, were transfected into A549 cells previously infected with recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-T7) that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Rescue of infectious virus from the genome cDNA was demonstrated by amplification of mumps virus from transfected-cell cultures and by subsequent consensus sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products generated from infected-cell RNA to verify the presence of specific nucleotide tags introduced into the genome cDNA clone. The only coding change (position 8502, A to G) in the cDNA clone relative to the consensus sequence of the Jeryl Lynn plaque isolate from which it was derived, resulting in a lysine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid 22 of the L protein, did not prevent rescue of mumps virus, even though an amino acid alignment for the L proteins of paramyxoviruses indicates that lysine is highly conserved at that position. This system may provide the basis of a safe and effective virus vector for the in vivo expression of immunologically and biologically active proteins, peptides, and RNAs.

  9. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Verla, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    ‘Failure to rescue’ is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  10. Structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme probed by base rescue.

    PubMed Central

    Peracchi, A; Matulic-Adamic, J; Wang, S; Beigelman, L; Herschlag, D

    1998-01-01

    We previously showed that the deleterious effects from introducing abasic nucleotides in the hammerhead ribozyme core can, in some instances, be relieved by exogenous addition of the ablated base and that the relative ability of different bases to rescue catalysis can be used to probe functional aspects of the ribozyme structure [Peracchi et al., Proc NatAcad Sci USA 93:11522]. Here we examine rescue at four additional positions, 3, 9, 12 and 13, to probe transition state interactions and to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of base rescue as a tool for structure-function studies. The results confirm functional roles for groups previously probed by mutagenesis, provide evidence that specific interactions observed in the ground-state X-ray structure are maintained in the transition state, and suggest formation in the transition state of other interactions that are absent in the ground state. In addition, the results suggest transition state roles for some groups that did not emerge as important in previous mutagenesis studies, presumably because base rescue has the ability to reveal interactions that are obscured by local structural redundancy in traditional mutagenesis. The base rescue results are complemented by comparing the effects of the abasic and phenyl nucleotide substitutions. The results together suggest that stacking of the bases at positions 9, 13 and 14 observed in the ground state is important for orienting other groups in the transition state. These findings add to our understanding of structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme and help delineate positions that may undergo rearrangements in the active hammerhead structure relative to the ground-state structure. Finally, the particularly efficient rescue by 2-methyladenine at position 13 relative to adenine and other bases suggests that natural base modifications may, in some instance, provide additional stability by taking advantage of hydrophobic interactions in folded RNAs

  11. Advanced IFSAR for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Duane; Rogers, George W.; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    One of the most promising tools for airborne SAR search and rescue is the use of interferometric techniques such as wavenumber filtering. These techniques make possible extremely accurate information extraction from SAR image pairs. The potential gain in accuracy is significant, since accuracy of measurements can theoretically be determined to within a wavelength (centimeter accuracy) as opposed to a pixel distance (meters). This paper presents the latest interferometric SAR (IFSAR) processing algorithms developed by the authors, along with examples of their use on actual data.

  12. Evolutionary rescue in vertebrates: evidence, applications and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, E.; Garant, D.; Festa-Bianchet, M.; Pelletier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The current rapid rate of human-driven environmental change presents wild populations with novel conditions and stresses. Theory and experimental evidence for evolutionary rescue present a promising case for species facing environmental change persisting via adaptation. Here, we assess the potential for evolutionary rescue in wild vertebrates. Available information on evolutionary rescue was rare and restricted to abundant and highly fecund species that faced severe intentional anthropogenic selective pressures. However, examples from adaptive tracking in common species and genetic rescues in species of conservation concern provide convincing evidence in favour of the mechanisms of evolutionary rescue. We conclude that low population size, long generation times and limited genetic variability will result in evolutionary rescue occurring rarely for endangered species without intervention. Owing to the risks presented by current environmental change and the possibility of evolutionary rescue in nature, we suggest means to study evolutionary rescue by mapping genotype → phenotype → demography → fitness relationships, and priorities for applying evolutionary rescue to wild populations. PMID:23209171

  13. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1.

    PubMed

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W

    2012-01-01

    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue.

  14. The Pain and the Gain of Rescuing Historic Science Data: The Nimbus Data Rescue Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Campbell, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While technology of our satellite systems have greatly improved the quality of observations over the past 50 years, it is the legacy of the first global coverage environment satellites, the Nimbus systems launched by NASA in the mid-1960s, that marks the beginning of a unique perspective from space. Such early data can extend our climate record and provide important context in longer-term climate changes. Unfortunately, the Nimbus data nearly disappeared before its value was recognized and attempts to recover the data were undertaken. While the Nimbus data was never truly lost, it was in a form that could not be read and was not organized in a way that could be accessed with modern computer systems. The rescue and recovery of the Nimbus data began in 2007 with an initiative by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Without the Goddard efforts, the early Nimbus data might be forever dark. The Nimbus Rescue Project has just completed processing and archival of the Nimbus 4 visible and infrared observations from 1970 and 1971. This adds to our rescue efforts from Nimbus 1, 2 and 3 for 1964, 1966 and 1969. The procedures to recover the Nimbus data, from both film and tape, could be used by other data rescue projects, however the algorithms presented will tend to be Nimbus specific. The compositing of the mapped minimum brightness over weekly intervals resulted in never before seen views of the Polar Regions, such as a visible light view of the Antarctic ice extent from October 1970 (Figure 1). The Nimbus data recovery and reprocessing into modern formats was important, however it was the utility of the data as a part of the satellite climate record that made it valuable. Data rescue projects are often both difficult and time consuming but the data they bring back to the science community makes these efforts worthwhile.

  15. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  16. [Anaesthesia under unfavorable conditions - rescue helicopter].

    PubMed

    Knacke, Peer G; Gehring, Hartmut; Saur, Petra

    2011-03-01

    Rescue helicopters are used for emergency care and transport of emergency patients. The dimension of the cabin is clearly limited. A transport is carried out under spatial narrowness and high noise levels. Acoustic alarms or noises caused by the patient are hardly to be perceived, so that the view at optical alarms is necessary. Environmental conditions affect the concentration on the patient. Rearrangement maneuvers represent the most critical phases. Always the whole apparative monitoring and respirator must be in the field of view of the emergency doctor, drugs to the care must be handy to be quickly administered, the quantity of oxygen has to be observed. Infusions and option of airway management are ready to set in advance. Standardized work with the aid of algorithms and knowledge of treatment recommendations and guidelines help to prevent errors. To optimize the care of emergency patients, special training courses for the crew of rescue helicopters are offered. A training simulator to practice different scenarios and the establishment of a CIRS system are recommended. PMID:21400396

  17. Collaboration between Extension and Industry: Coordination and Assessment of Technical Large Animal Emergency Rescue Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porr, C. A. Shea; Shultz, Alyx M.; Gimenez, Rebecca; Splan, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Rescuing large animals from emergency situations can be fraught with dangers not only to the animals but also to the rescuers. People involved at the scene of such an emergency are most likely to include first responders, horse owners, and veterinarians. These groups need to be aware of how they can best work together to effect a safe and…

  18. Self-rescue strategies for EVA crewmembers equipped with the SAFER backpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1994-01-01

    An extravehicular astronaut who becomes separated from a space station has three options available: grappling the station immediately by means of a 'shepherd's crook' device; rescue by either a second crewmember flying an MMU or a robotic-controlled MMU; or self-rescue by means of a propulsive system. The first option requires very fast response by a tumbling astronaut; the second requires constant availability of an MMU, as well as a rendezvous procedure thousands of feet from the station. This paper will consider the third option, propulsive self-rescue. In particular, the capability of the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsive backpack, which is to be tested on STS-64 in Sep. 1994, will be studied. This system possesses an attitude hold function that can automatically detumble an astronaut after separation. On-orbit tests of candidate self-rescue systems have demonstrated the need for such a feature. SAFER has a total delta(v) capability of about 10 fps, to cover both rotations and translations, compared with a possible separation rate of 2.5 fps. But the delta(v) required for self-rescue is critically dependent on the delay before return can be initiated, as a consequence of orbital effects. A very important practical question is then whether the total delta(v) of SAFER is adequate to perform self-rescue for worst case values of separation speed, time to detumble, and time for the astronaut to visually acquire the station. This paper shows that SAFER does indeed have sufficient propellant to carry out self-rescue in all realistic separation cases, as well as in cases which are considerably more severe than anything likely to be encountered in practice. The return trajectories and total delta(v)'s discussed are obtained by means of an 'inertial line-of-sight targeting' scheme, derived in the paper, which allows orbital effects to be corrected by making use of the visual information available to the pilot, namely the line-of-sight direction to the

  19. Awareness and Attitudes Toward Intranasal Naloxone Rescue for Opioid Overdose Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirane, Harshal; Ketteringham, Michael; Bereket, Sewit; Dima, Richie; Basta, Ann; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Opioid overdose prevention is a pressing public health concern and intranasal naloxone rescue kits are a useful tool in preventing fatal overdose. We evaluated the attitudes, knowledge, and experiences of patients and providers related to overdose and naloxone rescue. Over a six month period, patients and providers within a large community hospital in Staten Island were recruited to complete tailored questionnaires for their respective groupings. 100 patients and 101 providers completed questionnaires between August, 2014 and January, 2015. Patient participants were primarily Caucasian males with a mean age of 37.7 years, of which 65% accurately identified naloxone for opioid overdose, but only 21% knew more specific clinical features. 68% of patients had previously witnessed a drug overdose. Notably, 58% of patients anticipated their behavior would change if provided access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit, of which 83% predicted an increase in opioid use. Prior overdose was significantly correlated with anticipating no change in subsequent opioid use pattern (p=0.02). 99% of patients reported that their rapport with their health-care provider would be enhanced if offered an intranasal naloxone rescue kit. As for providers, 24% had completed naloxone rescue kit training, and 96% were able to properly identify its clinical application. 50% of providers felt naloxone access would decrease the likelihood of an overdose occurring, and 58% felt it would not contribute to high-risk behavior. Among providers, completion of naloxone training was correlated with increased awareness of where to access kits for patients (p<0.001). This study suggests that patients and providers have distinct beliefs and attitudes toward overdose prevention. Patient-Provider discussion of overdose prevention enhances patients' rapport with providers. However, access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit may make some patients more vulnerable to high-risk behavior. Future research efforts

  20. 30 CFR 49.17 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.17 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member of a mine rescue team shall be examined annually by...

  1. 46 CFR 108.570 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be possible when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. If the rescue boat is... approved rescue boat complement of at least six persons. (e) Each rescue boat launching appliance must be... the rescue boat when loaded with its full rescue boat complement of persons and equipment at a rate...

  2. Emergency medical rescue efforts after a major earthquake: lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Xu; Li, Youping; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Juncong; Shen, Ji; Tang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wannian

    2012-03-01

    Major earthquakes often result in incalculable environmental damage, loss of life, and threats to health. Tremendous progress has been made in response to many medical challenges resulting from earthquakes. However, emergency medical rescue is complicated, and great emphasis should be placed on its organisation to achieve the best results. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was one of the most devastating disasters in the past 10 years and caused more than 370,000 casualties. The lessons learnt from the medical disaster relief effort and the subsequent knowledge gained about the regulation and capabilities of medical and military back-up teams should be widely disseminated. In this Review we summarise and analyse the emergency medical rescue efforts after the Wenchuan earthquake. Establishment of a national disaster medical response system, an active and effective commanding system, successful coordination between rescue forces and government agencies, effective treatment, a moderate, timely and correct public health response, and long-term psychological support are all crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity and promote overall effectiveness of rescue efforts after a major earthquake.

  3. Rescue of the mineralocorticoid receptor knock-out mouse.

    PubMed

    Bleich, M; Warth, R; Schmidt-Hieber, M; Schulz-Baldes, A; Hasselblatt, P; Fisch, D; Berger, S; Kunzelmann, K; Kriz, W; Schütz, G; Greger, R

    1999-08-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor knock-out mouse (MR-/-), resembling inborn pseudohypoaldosteronism, dies 8-12 days after birth in circulatory failure with all the signs of terminal volume contraction. The present study aimed to examine the functional defects in the kidney and colon in detail and to attempt to rescue these mice. In neonatal (nn) MR-/- the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current in the colon was reduced to approximately one-third compared to controls (MR+/+ and MR+/-). In isolated in vitro perfused collecting ducts the amiloride-induced hyperpolarization of the basolateral membrane (Vbl) of nn MR-/- was similar to that of controls, but urinary Na+ excretion was markedly increased to 4.3 micromol/day.g (BW). Based on this measured urinary Na+ loss we tried to rescue nn MR-/- mice by injecting NaCl twice daily (3.85 micromol/g BW), corresponding to 22 microliter of isotonic saline/g BW subcutaneously. This regimen was continued until the animals had reached a body mass of 8.5 g. Thereafter, in addition to normal chow and tap water, NaCl drinking water (333 mmol/l) and pellets soaked in 333 mmol/l NaCl were offered. Unlike the untreated nn MR-/- most of these mice survived. The adult animals were examined between days 27 and 41, some were used for breeding. When compared to age-matched controls the growth of MR-/- was delayed until day 20. Then their growth curve increased in slope and reached that of controls. MR-/- retained their Na+-losing defect. Amiloride's effect on urinary Na+ excretion was not significant in MR-/- mice and the effect on Vbl in isolated cortical collecting ducts was attenuated. The renin-producing cells were hypertrophic and hyperplastic. Plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were significantly elevated in MR-/- mice. These data indicate that MR-/- can be rescued by timely and matched NaCl substitutions. This enables the animals to develop through a critical phase of life, after which they adapt their oral salt and water

  4. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1125 - Search and rescue coordinating communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be inspected at the Federal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Search and rescue coordinating communications...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1125 Search and rescue...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1125 - Search and rescue coordinating communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be inspected at the Federal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Search and rescue coordinating communications...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1125 Search and rescue...

  16. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  17. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is requesting comments on revised instruction guides for coal... guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify...

  18. 77 FR 39745 - General Aviation Search and Rescue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Search and Rescue The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on general aviation search and rescue operations on July 17 and 18, 2012. In the United States, following the crash of a general aviation airplane, inland searches for...

  19. Project Rescue: So Close and yet so Far

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This is the third installment in a four-part series that follows the exploits of Gene, a well-established CIO of a sizable IT organization at a top-100 university. Gene has been working with his team to regain the trust of the campus through Project Rescue, a 30-day turnaround plan focused on demonstrating IT's value. Project Rescue has two…

  20. National Organization for Women v. Operation Rescue.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Abortion clinics and abortion rights groups petitioned the U.S. District Court to enjoin permanently the blockading of legal abortion clinics in Washington, D.C. and northern Virginia by antiabortion activists. The court held that Operation Rescue's activities constituted a conspiracy (coordinated action to accomplish some purpose by unlawful means) motivated by discrimination against women seeking abortions. Since many women travel to Washington area facilities from out of state, the defendants' conspiracy illegally obstructed interstate travel. In addition, since the defendants entered and remained on the plaintiffs' property after being forbidden to do so for the purpose of interfering with the owners' rights, their conduct violated Virginia's trespass statutes; it also constituted nuisance and interference with business under Virginia law.

  1. Operation tropic refuge: the East Wood rescue.

    PubMed

    Cashman, T M; Hassell, L H; Barker, A J; Funderburk, L K

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard rescued 525 Chinese nationals and ten Indonesian crewmen from the disabled motor vessel East Wood. They were participating in a human smuggling operation. Subjected to a trying ordeal at sea, these individuals were at great risk to life and health but survived remarkably well because of their good health, age, and mutual cooperation. The U.S. military organized the joint task force, Operation Provide Refuge, to provide humanitarian aid. The task force rapidly mobilized resources to support camp development on Kwajalein Island and provide nutrition and health care to the stranded travelers. Preventive Medicine personnel, called in at the beginning of the operation, helped develop a healthy campsite, which contributed to a relatively uneventful refugee experience. Close liaison with the local medical resources on Kwajalein was essential to the success of the operation.

  2. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines... the operator as to the number of miners willing to serve on a mine rescue team; (8) The...

  3. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for... statement by the operator as to the number of miners willing to serve on a mine rescue team; (8)...

  4. Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Rescues Chronic Cognitive Deficits Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Titus, David J.; Sakurai, Atsushi; Kang, Yuan; Furones, Concepcion; Jergova, Stanislava; Santos, Rosmery; Sick, Thomas J.; Atkins, Coleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) modulates several cell signaling pathways in the hippocampus critical for memory formation. Previous studies have found that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway is downregulated after TBI and that treatment with a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor rolipram rescues the decrease in cAMP. In the present study, we examined the effect of rolipram on TBI-induced cognitive impairments. At 2 weeks after moderate fluid-percussion brain injury or sham surgery, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received vehicle or rolipram (0.03 mg/kg) 30 min before water maze acquisition or cue and contextual fear conditioning. TBI animals treated with rolipram showed a significant improvement in water maze acquisition and retention of both cue and contextual fear conditioning compared with vehicle-treated TBI animals. Cue and contextual fear conditioning significantly increased phosphorylated CREB levels in the hippocampus of sham animals, but not in TBI animals. This deficit in CREB activation during learning was rescued in TBI animals treated with rolipram. Hippocampal long-term potentiation was reduced in TBI animals, and this was also rescued with rolipram treatment. These results indicate that the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram rescues cognitive impairments after TBI, and this may be mediated through increased CREB activation during learning. PMID:23516287

  5. A killer-rescue system for self-limiting gene drive of anti-pathogen constructs.

    PubMed

    Gould, Fred; Huang, Yunxin; Legros, Mathieu; Lloyd, Alun L

    2008-12-22

    A number of genetic mechanisms have been suggested for driving anti-pathogen genes into natural populations. Each of these mechanisms requires complex genetic engineering, and most are theoretically expected to permanently spread throughout the target species' geographical range. In the near term, risk issues and technical limits of molecular methods could delay the development and use of these mechanisms. We propose a gene-drive mechanism that can be self-limiting over time and space, and is simpler to build. This mechanism involves one gene that codes for toxicity (killer) and a second that confers immunity to the toxic effects (rescue). We use population-genetic models to explore cases with one or two independent insertions of the killer gene and one insertion of the rescue gene. We vary the dominance and penetrance of gene action, as well as the magnitude of fitness costs. Even with the fitness costs of 10 per cent for each gene, the proportion of mosquitoes expected to transmit the pathogen decreases below 5 per cent for over 40 generations after one 2:1 release (engineered:wild) or after four 1:2 releases. Both the killer and rescue genes will be lost from the population over time, if the rescue construct has any associated fitness cost. Molecular approaches for constructing strains are discussed.

  6. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  7. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy. PMID:27649249

  8. Evolutionary rescue of sexual and asexual populations in a deteriorating environment.

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, Josianne; Bell, Graham

    2012-11-01

    The environmental change experienced by many contemporary populations of organisms poses a serious risk to their survival. From the theory of evolutionary rescue, we predict that the combination of sex and genetic diversity should increase the probability of survival by increasing variation and thereby the probability of generating a type that can tolerate the stressful environment. We tested this prediction by comparing experimental populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that differ in sexuality and in the initial amount of genetic diversity. The lines were serially propagated in an environment where the level of stress caused by salt increased over time from fresh water to the limits of marine conditions. In the long term, the combination of high diversity and obligate sexuality was most effective in supporting evolutionary rescue. Most of the adaptation to high-salt environments in the obligate sexual-high diversity lines had occurred by midway through the experiment, indicating that positive genetic correlations of adaptation to lethal stress with adaptation to sublethal stress greatly increased the probability of evolutionary rescue. The evolutionary rescue events observed in this study provide evidence that major shifts in ways of life can arise within short time frames through the action of natural selection in sexual populations.

  9. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zongchao; Banworth, Marcellus J.; Makkia, Rasha; Conley, Shannon M.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.; Cooper, Mark J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause retinal degeneration and clinical phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital stationary night blindness. Effective gene therapies have been difficult to develop, however, because generating precise levels of rhodopsin expression is critical; overexpression causes toxicity, and underexpression would result in incomplete rescue. Current gene delivery strategies routinely use cDNA-based vectors for gene targeting; however, inclusion of noncoding components of genomic DNA (gDNA) such as introns may help promote more endogenous regulation of gene expression. Here we test the hypothesis that inclusion of genomic sequences from the rhodopsin gene can improve the efficacy of rhodopsin gene therapy in the rhodopsin knockout (RKO) mouse model of RP. We utilize our compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs), which have the ability to transfer larger and more complex genetic constructs, to deliver murine rhodopsin cDNA or gDNA. We show functional and structural improvements in RKO eyes for up to 8 months after NP-mediated gDNA but not cDNA delivery. Importantly, in addition to improvements in rod function, we observe significant preservation of cone function at time points when cones in the RKO model are degenerated. These results suggest that inclusion of native expression elements, such as introns, can significantly enhance gene expression and therapeutic efficacy and may become an essential option in the array of available gene delivery tools.— Han, Z., Banworth, M. J., Makkia, R., Conley, S. M., Al-Ubaidi, M. R., Cooper, M. J., Naash, M. I. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. PMID:25713057

  10. Operation rescue: domestic terrorism or legitimate civil rights protest?

    PubMed

    Nathanson, B

    1989-01-01

    Nathanson, a prominent participant in the abortion debate in the United States, describes the mission and methods of Operation Rescue. An activist anti-abortion organization whose members protest against legalized abortion by staging peaceful, nonviolent sit-ins at abortion clinics, Operation Rescue's tactics affect pregnant women, abortion facilities, law enforcement agencies, pro-choice advocates, and bystanders. Nathanson discusses the moral features unique to Operation Rescue, as well as counterarguments against the legitimacy of its activities, in an attempt to determine whether the organization's actions are a legitimate form of civil disobedience.

  11. Artist's concept illustrating cutaway view of Skylab Rescue Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating a cutaway view of the general arrangement of the Skylab Rescue Command Module (CM). The standard Skylab CM accommodates a crew of three with storage lockers on the aft bulkhead for resupply of experiment film and other equipment as well as the return of exposed film, data tapes and experiment samples. To convert the standard CM to a rescue vehicle, the storage lockers are removed and replaced with two crew couches in order to seat five crewmen. The rescue CM would then be launched with a crew of two.

  12. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea. PMID:26309738

  13. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, R K K; Han, Wei; Yu, K N

    2015-12-01

    We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased significantly. PMID:26524645

  14. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, R K K; Han, Wei; Yu, K N

    2015-12-01

    We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased significantly.

  15. IMMEDIATE RESCUE DESIGNS IN PEDIATRIC ANALGESIC TRIALS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Berde, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Designing analgesic clinical trials in pediatrics requires a balance between scientific, ethical and practical concerns. A previous consensus group recommended immediate-rescue designs using opioid sparing as a surrogate measure of analgesic efficacy. We summarize the performance of rescue analgesic designs in pediatric trials of four commonly used classes of analgesics: opioids, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and local anesthetics. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Web of science were searched in April 2013. The 85 studies selected were randomized or controlled clinical trials using immediate rescue paradigms in postoperative pain settings. A random effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize predefined outcomes using Hedges’ G. Difference between the means of the treatment arms were also expressed as a percentage of the corresponding value in the placebo group (placebo-treatment/placebo). Distributions of pain scores in study and control groups and relationships between opioid sparing and pain scores were examined. Results For each of the four study drug classes, significant opioid sparing was demonstrated in a majority of studies by one or more of the following endpoints: (1) total dose (mg/kg/h), (2) percentage of children requiring rescue medication and (3) time to first rescue medication (minutes). Pain scores averaged 2.4/10 in study groups, 3.4/10 in control groups. Conclusions Opioid sparing is a feasible pragmatic endpoint for pediatric pain analgesic trials. This review serves to guide future research in pediatric analgesia trials, which could test whether some specific design features may improve assay sensitivity while minimizing the risk of unrelieved pain. PMID:25222831

  16. In vivo model of adeno-associated virus vector persistence and rescue.

    PubMed Central

    Afione, S A; Conrad, C K; Kearns, W G; Chunduru, S; Adams, R; Reynolds, T C; Guggino, W B; Cutting, G R; Carter, B J; Flotte, T R

    1996-01-01

    Gene therapy vectors based on human DNA viruses could be mobilized or rescued from individuals who are subsequently infected with the corresponding wild-type (wt) helper viruses. This phenomenon has been effectively modeled in vitro with both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors but has not previously been studied in vivo. In the current study, we have developed an in vivo model to study the interactions of a recombinant AAV vector (AAV-CFTR) with wt AAV type 2 (AAV2) and a host range mutant Ad (Ad2HR405) for which monkey cells are permissive (D.E.Brough, S.A.Rice, S.Sell, and D.F.Klessig, J. Virol. 55:206-212, 1985). AAV-CFTR was administered to the respiratory epithelium of the nose or lung of rhesus macaques. Primary cells were harvested from the infusion site at time points up to 3 months after vector administration to confirm vector DNA persistence. Vector DNA was present in episomal form and could be rescued in vitro only by addition of wt AAV2 and Ad. In in vivo rescue studies, vector was administered before or after wt-AAV2 and Ad2HR405 infection, and the shedding of AAV-CFTR was examined. Ad2HR405 and wt-AAV2 infections were established in the nose with concomitant administration. wt-AAV2 replication occurred in the lung when virus was administered directly at a high titer to the lower respiratory tract. AAV-CFTR vector rescue was also observed in the latter setting. Although these studies were performed with small numbers of animals within each group, it appears that AAV-CFTR DNA persists in the primate respiratory tract and that this model may be useful for studies of recombinant AAV vector rescue. PMID:8627804

  17. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, João C. S.; Donadio, Stefano; Jenssen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and/or in vivo was tested in Drosophila. Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides. PMID:27381394

  18. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Thomas T; Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, João C S; Donadio, Stefano; Jenssen, Håvard; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Rewitz, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and/or in vivo was tested in Drosophila Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides. PMID:27381394

  19. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  20. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  1. Relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Yasien, Saba; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shaheen, Tayabba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Following hypothesis was formulated; there would be negative correlation between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Method: A correlational study was conducted from June-August 2015 in Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the present study consisted of 100 rescue workers. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 40 year old with the mean age of 27.4±3.9 years. Demographic information form, Kessler psychological distress scale and adult resilience measure were administered on the participants to assess the level of psychological distress and resilience. Results: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship of psychological distress and resilience. Analysis of the result indicated that there is negative relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r= -0.203, p<0.01) in rescue workers. Further, contextual factors (r= -0.292, p<0.05) and its subcomponents including spiritual beliefs (r= -0.239, p<0.05) and cultural resources (r= -0.287, p<0.01) were also found to be inversely correlated with psychological distress. Conclusion: The research evidenced that rescue workers were experiencing psychological distress Resilience factors should be considered while designing trainings to preserve mental health and to enhance the psychological well-being of rescue workers. PMID:27381539

  2. A versatile sensor network for urban search and rescue operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Känsälä, Klaus; Korkalainen, Marko; Mäyrä, Aki

    2011-11-01

    The presentation is based in the research work carried out in EU funded project SGL for USaR (Second Generation Locator for Urban Search and Rescue Operations). The aim of this project is to develop wireless standalone communication system with embedded sensor network which can be globally used in rescue operations after accidents or terrorist attacks. The system should be able to operate without external support for several days: it should have autonomy with power supply and communication. The devices must be lightweight so that rescue team can easily carry them and finally they must be easy to install and use. The range of the wireless communication must cover an area of several square kilometers. The embedded sensor system must be able to detect sings of life but also detect hazards threatening the rescue operators thus preventing more accidents. It should also support positioning and digital mapping as well as the management of the search and rescue operation. This sensor network for urban search and rescue operations has been tested on a field conditions and it has proven to be robust and reliable and provides an energy efficient way of communication and positioning on harsh conditions.

  3. Evolutionary and plastic rescue in multitrophic model communities

    PubMed Central

    Kovach-Orr, Caolan; Fussmann, Gregor F.

    2013-01-01

    Under changing environmental conditions, intraspecific variation can potentially rescue populations from extinction. There are two principal sources of variation that may ultimately lead to population rescue: genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity. We compared the potential for evolutionary rescue (through genetic diversity) and plastic rescue (through phenotypic plasticity) by analysing their differential ability to produce dynamical stability and persistence in model food webs. We also evaluated how rescue is affected by the trophic location of variation. We tested the following hypotheses: (i) plastic communities are more likely to exhibit stability and persistence than communities in which genetic diversity provides the same range of traits. (ii) Variation at the lowest trophic level promotes stability and persistence more than variation at higher levels. (iii) Communities with variation at two levels have greater probabilities of stability and persistence than communities with variation at only one level. We found that (i) plasticity promotes stability and persistence more than genetic diversity; (ii) variation at the second highest trophic level promotes stability and persistence more than variation at the autotroph level; and (iii) more than variation at two trophic levels. Our study shows that proper evaluation of the rescue potential of intraspecific variation critically depends on its origin and trophic location. PMID:23209166

  4. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.7 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member of a mine rescue team shall be examined annually by a physician who shall certify that each person...

  5. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001...

  6. 33 CFR 149.314 - What are the approval and stowage requirements for rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (b) The stowage of rescue boats must comply with 46 CFR 108.565. ... requirements for rescue boats? 149.314 Section 149.314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... requirements for rescue boats? (a) Rescue boats must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat...

  7. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement...

  8. 33 CFR 149.314 - What are the approval and stowage requirements for rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The stowage of rescue boats must comply with 46 CFR 108.565. ... requirements for rescue boats? 149.314 Section 149.314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... requirements for rescue boats? (a) Rescue boats must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat...

  9. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement...

  10. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement...

  11. 33 CFR 149.314 - What are the approval and stowage requirements for rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (b) The stowage of rescue boats must comply with 46 CFR 108.565. ... requirements for rescue boats? 149.314 Section 149.314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... requirements for rescue boats? (a) Rescue boats must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat...

  12. 33 CFR 149.314 - What are the approval and stowage requirements for rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (b) The stowage of rescue boats must comply with 46 CFR 108.565. ... requirements for rescue boats? 149.314 Section 149.314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... requirements for rescue boats? (a) Rescue boats must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat...

  13. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement...

  14. 33 CFR 149.314 - What are the approval and stowage requirements for rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (b) The stowage of rescue boats must comply with 46 CFR 108.565. ... requirements for rescue boats? 149.314 Section 149.314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... requirements for rescue boats? (a) Rescue boats must be approved under approval series 160.156. A lifeboat...

  15. 30 CFR 49.60 - Requirements for a local mine rescue contest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for a local mine rescue contest. 49.60 Section 49.60 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.60 Requirements for a local mine rescue contest. (a) A...

  16. 30 CFR 49.60 - Requirements for a local mine rescue contest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for a local mine rescue contest. 49.60 Section 49.60 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.60 Requirements for a local mine rescue contest. (a) A...

  17. 75 FR 28200 - Safety Zone; Washington State Department of Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue Response (M2R) Full-Scale Exercise for a Mass Rescue Incident (MRI... Transportation Ferries Division (WSF) is conducting a Marine Rescue Response (M2R) full-scale exercise in Port Madison. This training exercise will simulate a mass rescue incident (MRI) and will involve an...

  18. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  19. The Drosophila melanogaster hybrid male rescue gene causes inviability in male and female species hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Barbash, D A; Roote, J; Ashburner, M

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster mutation Hmr rescues inviable hybrid sons from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species D. mauritiana, D. simulans, and D. sechellia. We have extended previous observations that hybrid daughters from this cross are poorly viable at high temperatures and have shown that this female lethality is suppressed by Hmr and the rescue mutations In(1)AB and D. simulans Lhr. Deficiencies defined here as Hmr(-) also suppressed lethality, demonstrating that reducing Hmr(+) activity can rescue otherwise inviable hybrids. An Hmr(+) duplication had the opposite effect of reducing the viability of female and sibling X-male hybrid progeny. Similar dose-dependent viability effects of Hmr were observed in the reciprocal cross of D. simulans females to D. melanogaster males. Finally, Lhr and Hmr(+) were shown to have mutually antagonistic effects on hybrid viability. These data suggest a model where the interaction of sibling species Lhr(+) and D. melanogaster Hmr(+) causes lethality in both sexes of species hybrids and in both directions of crossing. Our results further suggest that a twofold difference in Hmr(+) dosage accounts in part for the differential viability of male and female hybrid progeny, but also that additional, unidentified genes must be invoked to account for the invariant lethality of hybrid sons of D. melanogaster mothers. Implications of our findings for understanding Haldane's rule-the observation that hybrid breakdown is often specific to the heterogametic sex-are also discussed. PMID:10747067

  20. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  1. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2014-01-01

    Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes. PMID:25049998

  2. Loss of tau rescues inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Cardona, Astrid E.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Activated microglia spatially coexist with microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt or tau)-burdened neurons in the brains of human AD and non-AD tauopathies. Numerous studies have suggested that neuroinflammation precedes tau pathology and that induction or blockage of neuroinflammation via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or anti-inflammatory compounds (such as FK506) accelerate or block tau pathology, respectively in several animal models of tauopathy. We have previously demonstrated that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via deficiency of the microglia-specific chemokine (fractalkine) receptor, CX3CR1, promotes tau pathology and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that tau mediates the neurotoxic effects of LPS in Cx3cr1−/− mice. First, Mapt+/+ neurons displayed elevated levels of Annexin V (A5) and TUNEL (markers of neurodegeneration) when co-cultured with LPS-treated Cx3cr1−/−microglia, which is rescued in Mapt−/− neurons. Second, a neuronal population positive for phospho-S199 (AT8) tau in the dentate gyrus is also positive for activated or cleaved caspase (CC3) in the LPS-treated Cx3cr1−/− mice. Third, genetic deficiency for tau in Cx3cr1−/− mice resulted in reduced microglial activation, altered expression of inflammatory genes and a significant reduction in the number of neurons positive for CC3 compared to Cx3cr1−/−mice. Finally, Cx3cr1−/−mice exposed to LPS displayed a lack of inhibition in an open field exploratory behavioral test, which is rescued by tau deficiency. Taken together, our results suggest that pathological alterations in tau mediate inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and that deficiency of Mapt is neuroprotective. Thus, therapeutic approaches toward either reducing tau levels or blocking neuroinflammatory pathways may serve as a potential strategy

  3. Resolving ethical dilemmas in suicide prevention: the case of telephone helpline rescue policies.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2010-04-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to decide to die by suicide; U.S. helplines oblige emergency intervention during an attempt even against the caller's will. We analyze the effect of emergency rescue when there is high suicide risk but an attempt has not been initiated. We examine links between values and actions, needs for empirical evidence to guide practice, and propose vigorous dialogue about values in the gray zone of moral practice.

  4. Occupational meanings and coping practices of rescue workers in an earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Stuhlmiller, C M

    1994-06-01

    On 17 October 1989, an earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale struck the San Francisco Bay Area, causing the collapse of .76 miles of a double-decker roadway (known as the Cypress Street Viaduct), resulting in the death of 42 people. A study examined the effects of rescue work at 6 and 20 months after the event, among 42 people including: military pararescuers, firefighters, transportation workers, and coroner-investigators. The researcher explored the rescuers' motivations, actions, coping strategies, interactions, and understanding of their responses to the event, as well as the practical wisdom each acquired. This article focuses on the 6-month data, and reports the specific work meanings and practices that shaped forms of involvement, issues of stress, and sources of coping that influenced the experience of rescue work in this disaster.

  5. Flight tests with enhanced/synthetic vision system for rescue helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Hiroka; Funabiki, Kohei; Iijima, Tomoko; Tawada, Kazuho; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has been conducting a research project named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) with Shimadzu Corporation and NEC from 2008. SAVERH aims at inventing a method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions. An integrated system comprising an HMD (Helmet-Mounted Display) and a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) sensor were installed in a JAXA research helicopter, and a series of flight tests was conducted to evaluate the benefit of presenting FLIR images on the HMD in night flight. Three pilots evaluated the display system during six night flights, considering terrain and position awareness. The tests showed that use of FLIR gave better route tracking performance, and the effectiveness of head-slaved FLIR on an approach task was shown by subjective pilot rating.

  6. Intelligent systems for urban search and rescue: challenges and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Weiss, Brian A.

    2003-09-01

    Urban search and rescue (USAR) is one of the most dangerous and time-critical non-wartime activities. Researchers have been developing hardware and software to enable robots to perform some search and rescue functions so as to minimize the exposure of human rescue personnel to danger and maximize the survival of victims. Significant progress has been achieved, but much work remains. USAR demands a blending of numerous specialized technologies. An effective USAR robot must be endowed with key competencies, such as being able to negotiate collapsed structures, find victims and assess their condition, identify potential hazards, generate maps of the structure and victim locations, and communicate with rescue personnel. These competencies bring to bear work in numerous sub-disciplines of intelligent systems (or artificial intelligence) such as sensory processing, world modeling, behavior generation, path planning, and human-robot interaction, in addition to work in communications, mechanism design and advanced sensors. In an attempt to stimulate progress in the field, reference USAR challenges are being developed and propagated worldwide. In order to make efficient use of finite research resources, the robotic USAR community must share a common understanding of what is required, technologically, to attain each competency, and have a rigorous measure of the current level of effectiveness of various technologies. NIST is working with partner organizations to measure the performance of robotic USAR competencies and technologies. In this paper, we describe the reference test arenas for USAR robots, assess the current challenges within the field, and discuss experiences thus far in the testing effort.

  7. Can education rescue genetic liability for cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Cook, C Justin; Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-02-01

    Although there is a vast literature linking education and later health outcomes, the mechanisms underlying these associations are relatively unknown. In the spirit of some medical literature that leverages developmental abnormalities to understand mechanisms of normative functioning, we explore the ability of higher educational attainments to "rescue" biological/genetic liabilities in brain function through inheritance of a variant of the APOE gene shown to lead to cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in old age. Deploying a between-sibling design that allows quasi-experimental variation in genotype and educational attainment within a standard gene-environment interaction framework, we show evidence that the genetic effects of the "risky" APOE variant on old-age cognitive decline are absent in individuals who complete college (vs. high school graduates). Auxiliary analyses suggest that the likely mechanisms of education are most consistent through changing brain processes (i.e., "how we think") and potentially building cognitive reserves, rather than alleviating old age cognitive decline through the channels of higher socioeconomic status and resources over the life course.

  8. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue.

  9. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  10. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention.

    PubMed

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity.

  11. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xue, Yan-Xue; Han, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Na; Bao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fei-Long; Cao, Lin-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Shi, Jie; Song, Wei-Hong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cognition is impacted by aging. However, the mechanisms that underlie aging-associated cognitive impairment are unclear. Here we showed that cognitive decline in aged rats was associated with changes in DNA methylation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL). PKMζ is a crucial molecule involved in the maintenance of long-term memory. Using different behavioral models, we confirmed that aged rats exhibited cognitive impairment in memory retention test 24 h after training, and overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL rescued cognitive impairment in aged rats. After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the PrL decreased in all age groups, whereas the levels of unmethylated PKMζ DNA increased only in young and adult rats. We also found that environmentally enriched housing reversed the hypermethylation of PKMζ and restored cognitive performance in aged rats. Inactivation of PKMζ prevented the potentiating effects of environmental enrichment on memory retention in aged rats. These results indicated that PKMζ might be a potential target for the treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment, suggesting a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:26926225

  12. Reducing dynamin 2 expression rescues X-linked centronuclear myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Belinda S.; Chevremont, Thierry; Prokic, Ivana; Kretz, Christine; Ferry, Arnaud; Coirault, Catherine; Koutsopoulos, Olga; Laugel, Vincent; Romero, Norma B.; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are congenital disorders associated with muscle weakness and abnormally located nuclei in skeletal muscle. An autosomal dominant form of CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), and loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding myotubularin (MTM1) result in X-linked CNM (XLCNM, also called myotubular myopathy), which promotes severe neonatal hypotonia and early death. Currently, no effective treatments exist for XLCNM. Here, we found increased DNM2 levels in XLCNM patients and a mouse model of XLCNM (Mtm1–/y). Generation of Mtm1–/y mice that were heterozygous for Dnm2 revealed that reduction of DNM2 in XLCNM mice restored life span, whole-body strength, and diaphragm function and increased muscle strength. Additionally, classic CNM-associated histological features, including fiber atrophy and nuclei mispositioning, were absent or reduced. Ultrastructural analysis revealed improvement of sarcomere organization and triad structures. Skeletal muscle–specific decrease of Dnm2 during embryogenesis or in young mice after disease onset revealed that the rescue associated with downregulation of Dnm2 is cell autonomous and is able to stop and potentially revert XLCNM progression. These data indicate that MTM1 and DNM2 regulate muscle organization and force through a common pathway. Furthermore, despite DNM2 being a key mechanoenzyme, its reduction is beneficial for XLCNM and represents a potential therapeutic approach for patients. PMID:24569376

  13. Rescue of newborn ants by older Cataglyphis cursor adult workers.

    PubMed

    Nowbahari, Elise; Amirault, Céline; Hollis, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Cataglyphis cursor worker ants are capable of highly sophisticated rescue behaviour in which individuals are able to identify what has trapped a nestmate and to direct their behaviour towards that obstacle. Nonetheless, rescue behaviour is constrained by workers' subcaste: whereas foragers, the oldest workers, are able both to give and to receive the most help, the youngest workers, inactives, neither give nor receive any help whatsoever; nurses give and receive intermediate levels of aid, reflecting their intermediate age. Such differences in rescue behaviour across subcastes suggest that age and experience play a critical role. In this species, as in many others in which a sensitive period for nestmate recognition exists, newly enclosed ants, called callows, are adopted by ants belonging not only to different colonies but also to different species; foreign callows receive nearly the same special care provided to resident newborns. Because callows are younger than inactives, which are incapable of soliciting rescue, we wondered whether entrapped callows would receive such aid. In the present study, we artificially ensnared individual callows from their own colony (homocolonial), from a different colony (heterocolonial), and from a different species (heterospecific), and tested each one with groups of five potential C. cursor rescuers, either all foragers or all nurses. Our results show that all three types of callows are able to elicit rescue behaviour from both foragers and nurses. Nonetheless, nurse rescuers are better able to discriminate between the three types of callow victims than are foragers.

  14. Rescue of newborn ants by older Cataglyphis cursor adult workers.

    PubMed

    Nowbahari, Elise; Amirault, Céline; Hollis, Karen L

    2016-05-01

    Cataglyphis cursor worker ants are capable of highly sophisticated rescue behaviour in which individuals are able to identify what has trapped a nestmate and to direct their behaviour towards that obstacle. Nonetheless, rescue behaviour is constrained by workers' subcaste: whereas foragers, the oldest workers, are able both to give and to receive the most help, the youngest workers, inactives, neither give nor receive any help whatsoever; nurses give and receive intermediate levels of aid, reflecting their intermediate age. Such differences in rescue behaviour across subcastes suggest that age and experience play a critical role. In this species, as in many others in which a sensitive period for nestmate recognition exists, newly enclosed ants, called callows, are adopted by ants belonging not only to different colonies but also to different species; foreign callows receive nearly the same special care provided to resident newborns. Because callows are younger than inactives, which are incapable of soliciting rescue, we wondered whether entrapped callows would receive such aid. In the present study, we artificially ensnared individual callows from their own colony (homocolonial), from a different colony (heterocolonial), and from a different species (heterospecific), and tested each one with groups of five potential C. cursor rescuers, either all foragers or all nurses. Our results show that all three types of callows are able to elicit rescue behaviour from both foragers and nurses. Nonetheless, nurse rescuers are better able to discriminate between the three types of callow victims than are foragers. PMID:26846232

  15. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS) :

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  16. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Little is understood about the overall success of current wildlife rehabilitation techniques and the implications of these as an effective conservation strategy. This study collated admission records from four major wildlife hospitals catering to sick and injured koalas across southeast Queensland from 2009 to 2014, and analyzed specific factors that may be important when quantifying the extent and effectiveness of this work. The study found koalas to be at an increased risk from urbanization and human disturbance, that various rehabilitation techniques are employed amongst the four wildlife hospitals, and that a majority of koalas are either euthanized or die whilst in care rather than being released back to the wild. These results provide an interesting insight into current koala rehabilitation practices and have important implications for further research to better understand the practice of rescue and rehabilitation as an effective conservation strategy for this species. Abstract Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b

  17. An unmanned search and rescue mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaro Mascarello, Laura; Quagliotti, Fulvia; Bertini, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are becoming more and more powerful and innovative and they have an increased interest in civil applications, in particular, after natural hazard phenomena. The RPAS is useful in search and rescue missions in high mountain where scenarios are unfriendly and the use of helicopters is often not profitable. First, the unmanned configuration is safer because there is no hazards for human life that is not on board. Moreover, it is cheaper due to the use of electric propulsion instead of internal combustion engine and to its small dimensions and weights. Finally, the use of the RPAS is faster while the helicopter is often not available because is involved in other missions or it cannot be used if the search mission is in impervious scenario, such as forests with thick vegetation. For instance, the RPAS can be used after an avalanche when victims have little time to be saved before the death by hypothermia. In most conditions, the body maintains a healthy temperature. However, if it is exposed to cold temperatures, especially with a high cooling factor from wind and high humidity, for extended periods, the control mechanisms of the body may not be able to maintain a normal body temperature. When you lose more heat than the body can generate, it takes over hypothermia, defined as a body temperature below 35° C. Wet clothing, fall into cold water or not adequately cover themselves during the cold season, are all factors that can increase the chances of hypothermia. Signs and symptoms (tremor, slurred speech, breathing abnormally slow, cold and pale skin, loss of coordination, fatigue, lethargy or apathy, confusion or memory loss) usually develop slowly. People with hypothermia typically experience a gradual loss of mental acuity and physical capacity, and realize that you have need of emergency medical care. For these reasons, the use of an RPAS could be crucial for the survival of disappeared people in high mountain. In

  18. High-Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne T M; Prosser, Hamish C G; Dunn, Louise L; Vanags, Laura Z; Ridiandries, Anisyah; Tsatralis, Tania; Leece, Laura; Clayton, Zoë E; Yuen, Sui Ching G; Robertson, Stacy; Lam, Yuen Ting; Celermajer, David S; Ng, Martin K C; Bursill, Christina A

    2016-10-01

    Disordered neovascularization and impaired wound healing are important contributors to diabetic vascular complications. We recently showed that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) enhance ischemia-mediated neovascularization, and mounting evidence suggests HDL have antidiabetic properties. We therefore hypothesized that HDL rescue diabetes-impaired neovascularization. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice had reduced blood flow recovery and neovessel formation in a hindlimb ischemia model compared with nondiabetic mice. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusions in diabetic mice restored blood flow recovery and capillary density to nondiabetic levels. Topical rHDL application rescued diabetes-impaired wound closure, wound angiogenesis, and capillary density. In vitro, rHDL increased key mediators involved in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, Siah1, and Siah2, and suppressed the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) 2 and PHD3. rHDL rescued high glucose-induced impairment of tubulogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A protein production, a finding associated with enhanced phosphorylation of proangiogenic mediators VEGF receptor 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Siah1/2 small interfering RNA knockdown confirmed the importance of HIF-1α stability in mediating rHDL action. Lentiviral short hairpin RNA knockdown of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in vitro and SR-BI(-/-) diabetic mice in vivo attenuated rHDL rescue of diabetes-impaired angiogenesis, indicating a key role for SR-BI. These findings provide a greater understanding of the vascular biological effects of HDL, with potential therapeutic implications for diabetic vascular complications. PMID:27284113

  19. Clinical outcomes following "rescue" administration of abciximab in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S; Kornowski, R; Mehran, R; Gruberg, L; Satler, L F; Pichard, A D; Kent, K M; Stone, G W; Leon, M B

    2000-10-01

    Pre-intervention administration of abciximab in patients at "high risk" for coronary angioplasty has been shown to reduce acute and long-term cardiac outcomes. The role of intra-procedural ("rescue") administration of abciximab has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the clinical outcomes associated with rescue administration of abciximab during complex percutaneous coronary interventions. We studied in-hospital and long-term (1-year) outcomes (death, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization) of 298 consecutive patients (78% male; age, 62 +/- 11 years; 83% with acute coronary syndrome) treated with abciximab for thrombus-containing lesions, sub-optimal angioplasty results, procedural dissections or other complications. Stents were used in 73% of procedures. Procedural success was 97.0% and overall major in-hospital complication rate was 3.0% (death, 1.3%; Q-wave myocardial infarction, 0.7%; and emergent bypass surgery, 1.0%). Most frequent angiographic complications included visible thrombus (17%), dissections (17%), threatened closure (7%), and distal embolization (7%). In-hospital non-Q wave myocardial infarction (defined as CK-MB 5 times normal) occurred in 31.0%. Out-of-hospital to one-year events included death (1.7%), Q-wave myocardial infarction (2.7%), and target lesion revascularization (15.1%); cardiac event-free survival was 82.9%. We conclude that rescue administration of abciximab is associated with relatively low in-hospital complications and favorable long-term outcome in patients with sub-optimal angioplasty results and/or procedure-related complications, although peri-procedural non-Q wave myocardial infarction rate is high. A clinical and cost-effective comparison between provisional and rescue administration of abciximab may be warranted.

  20. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    PubMed

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-01-01

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies. PMID:26782511

  1. Mal3 masks catastrophe events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe microtubules by inhibiting shrinkage and promoting rescue.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Miho; Drummond, Douglas R; Osei, Michael; Cross, Robert A

    2009-10-23

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mal3 is a member of the EB family of proteins, which are proposed to be core elements in a tip-tracking network that regulates microtubule dynamics in cells. How Mal3 itself influences microtubule dynamics is unclear. We tested the effects of full-length recombinant Mal3 on dynamic microtubules assembled in vitro from purified S. pombe tubulin, using dark field video microscopy to avoid fluorescent tagging and data-averaging techniques to improve spatiotemporal resolution. We find that catastrophe occurs stochastically as a fast (<2.2 s) transition from constant speed growth to constant speed shrinkage with a constant probability that is independent of the Mal3 concentration. This implies that Mal3 neither stabilizes nor destabilizes microtubule tips. Mal3 does, however, stabilize the main part of the microtubule lattice, inhibiting shrinkage and increasing the frequency of rescues, consistent with recent models in which Mal3 on the lattice forms stabilizing lateral links between neighboring protofilaments. At high concentrations, Mal3 can entirely block shrinkage and induce very rapid rescue, making catastrophes impossible to detect, which may account for the apparent suppression of catastrophe by Mal3 and other EBs in vivo. Overall, we find that Mal3 stabilizes microtubules not by preventing catastrophe at the microtubule tip but by inhibiting lattice depolymerization and enhancing rescue. We argue that this implies that Mal3 binds microtubules in different modes at the tip and on the lattice. PMID:19740752

  2. Blueprint for Implementing New Processes in Acute Care: Rescuing Adult Patients With Intraosseous Access.

    PubMed

    Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D

    2015-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting. PMID:26352658

  3. Functional rescue of a kidney anion exchanger 1 trafficking mutant in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carmen Y S; King, Jennifer C; Berrini, Mattia; Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC4A1 gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) can cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease often due to mis-trafficking of the mutant protein. In this study, we investigated whether trafficking of a Golgi-retained dRTA mutant, G701D kAE1, or two dRTA mutants retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, C479W and R589H kAE1, could be functionally rescued to the plasma membrane of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Treatments with DMSO, glycerol, the corrector VX-809, or low temperature incubations restored the basolateral trafficking of G701D kAE1 mutant. These treatments had no significant rescuing effect on trafficking of the mis-folded C479W or R589H kAE1 mutants. DMSO was the only treatment that partially restored G701D kAE1 function in the plasma membrane of MDCK cells. Our experiments show that trafficking of intracellularly retained dRTA kAE1 mutants can be partially restored, and that one chemical treatment rescued both trafficking and function of a dRTA mutant. These studies provide an opportunity to develop alternative therapeutic solutions for dRTA patients. PMID:23460825

  4. Strategic supporting role of a regional state-level hospital during medical rescue after Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying Kang; Zheng, Shang Wei

    2008-11-01

    Shortly after the Wenchuan earthquake, the administrative leaders of West China Hospital accurately defined the role of the hospital during the medical rescue work as the treatment center for seriously wounded people, the support center for local hospitals and clinics in the disaster areas in Sichuan Province, and the logistics support center for medical teams from other provinces. Integrated leadership of management and efficient multidepartment co-ordination and co-operation were emphasized. The hospital was immediately transformed from regular mode into a double-track emergency mode. Scientific allocation and dispatch of resources were ensured to meet the changing demand from all levels of rescue work. Three stages were defined based on the conditions of wounded people delivered to the hospital, with different main focuses for each stage. Because of the multidisciplinary co-operation and concerted efforts of a large number of experts from other provinces and countries, an effective and efficient medical rescue service was offered to all wounded people. Until 2 June 2008, 2618 injured people from the disaster area have been treated, of whom 1751 were admitted to the inpatient department, 1135 were seriously wounded, 127 were admitted into the intensive care unit, 1239 underwent surgery, and 77 were treated with haemodialysis. There was an inpatient mortality less than 0.7%. Moreover, even during such a period, routine medical service was offered to patients other than people wounded in the disaster.

  5. OTX2 and CRX rescue overlapping and photoreceptor-specific functions in the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, David; Xie, Baotong; Workman, Michael; Mahato, Simpla; Zelhof, Andrew; Gebelein, Brian; Cook, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Background Otd-related transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved to control anterior patterning and neurogenesis. In humans, two such factors, OTX2 and CRX, are expressed in all photoreceptors from early specification through adulthood and associate with several photoreceptor-specific retinopathies. It is not well understood how these factors function independently vs. redundantly, or how specific mutations lead to different disease outcomes. It is also unclear how OTX1 and OTX2 functionally overlap during other aspects of neurogenesis and ocular development. Drosophila encodes a single Otd factor that has multiple functions during eye development. Using the Drosophila eye as a model, we tested the ability of the human OTX1, OTX2, and CRX genes, as well as several disease-associated CRX alleles, to rescue the different functions of Otd. Results Our results indicate the following: OTX2 and CRX display overlapping, yet distinct subfunctions of Otd during photoreceptor differentiation; CRX disease alleles can be functionally distinguished based on their rescue properties; and all three factors are able to rescue rhabdomeric photoreceptor morphogenesis. Conclusions Our findings have important implications for understanding how Otx proteins have subfunctionalized during evolution, and cement Drosophila as an effective tool to unravel the molecular bases of photoreceptor pathogenesis. PMID:22113834

  6. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006 Philippine landslide.

    PubMed

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P; Rodolfo, Raymond S; Soria, Janneli Lea A; Baliatan, Eden G; Paguican, Engielle R; Ong, John Burtkenley T; Lapus, Mark R; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D; Quimba, Zareth P; Uichanco, Christopher L

    2008-09-01

    A rockslide-debris avalanche destroyed the remote village of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on 17 February 2006. Although search and rescue procedures were implemented immediately, the scale of the landslide and a lack of information about its nature resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early days of the operation. Technical support was only introduced five days after the event, provided by a team of volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists. By the time search and rescue operations were transferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of finding survivors trapped under the rubble had diminished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We emphasise here the need for a systematic and technically informed approach to search and rescue missions in large-scale landslide disaster contexts, and the formulation of better disaster management policies in general. Standard procedures must be developed and enforced to improve how civil authorities respond to natural calamities.

  7. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar: The NCCS Enables Search and Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For as long as planes have gone down, dedicated men and women have used ever-improving technologies to aid their search for survivors. Nearly 2,000 general aviation crashes occur each year in U.S.-and many, like the Montana incident, occur without witnesses. On average, every day in the U.S. one airplane is reported missing. The Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC) organizes search missions for about 100 aircraft each year. Some of these are not found before the searches called off, and are discovered only by chance long after the crash. In some cases, the crash site is never found. NASA Search and Rescue Mission is using NCCS rescues to develop tools for processing radar data that can help these effort

  9. 46 CFR 12.615 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement in proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats other than lifeboats and fast rescue boats-limited (PSC-limited... lifeboats and fast rescue boats-limited (PSC-limited). (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement in proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats other than lifeboats and fast rescue boats-limited...

  10. 46 CFR 12.613 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement in proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats other than fast rescue boats (PSC). 12.613 Section 12.613... STCW endorsement in proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats other than fast rescue boats (PSC... fast rescue boats (PSC), the applicant must— (1) Be at least 18 years of age; (2) Meet the...

  11. Real-time SAR processing for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rogers, George W.; Rais, Houra

    1998-09-01

    The most important parameter in Search and Rescue is the time it takes to locate the downed aircraft and rescue the survivors. The resulting requirement for wide-area coverage, fine resolution, and day-night all-weather operation dictates the use of a SAR sensor. The time urgency dictates a real-time or near real-time SAR processor. This paper presents alternative real-time architectures and gives the results of feasibility studies of the enabling technologies, including new work by the authors in the area of SAR data compression.

  12. Rescue of Impaired Long-Term Facilitation at Sensorimotor Synapses of Aplysia following siRNA Knockdown of CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  13. Rescue of impaired long-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia following siRNA knockdown of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2015-01-28

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  14. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, TEXTBOOK FOR SQUADMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    DESIGNED FOR TRAINING EMERGENCY SQUAD PERSONNEL IN RESCUE PROCEDURES AND VICTIM CARE BEYOND BASIC FIRST AID, THIS TEXTBOOK WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF SQUADMEN, DOCTORS, NURSES, FIREMEN, AND STATE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL TO BE USED IN ADULT TRAINING CLASSES OF FULL-TIME OR VOLUNTEER SQUADMEN. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL INCLUDES 26…

  15. [History and activities of the Rescue Coordination Center].

    PubMed

    Hausman, A

    1983-01-01

    The founder and first director of the C.C.R. enumerates the principles that led to the conception and the achievement of the C.C.R. He reviews the principal rescue activities during these 25 years and mentions the development of supplementary activities on safety, ergonomics and respiratory protection during the last few years.

  16. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter, David E.

    1987-01-01

    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  17. Rescuing Recombinant Proteins by Sequestration Into the P22 VLP

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dustin P.; LaFrance, Benjamin; Douglas, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the use of a self-assembling protein cage to sequester and solubilize recombinant proteins which are usually trafficked to insoluble inclusion bodies. Our results suggest that protein cages can be used as novel vehicles to rescue and produce soluble proteins that are otherwise difficult to obtain using conventional methods. PMID:24079011

  18. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Rong, Huang; Xuedong, Liang; Guizhi, Zeng; Yulin, Ye; Da, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency.

  19. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Rong, Huang; Xuedong, Liang; Guizhi, Zeng; Yulin, Ye; Da, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency. PMID:26083170

  20. Hydralazine rescues PC12 cells from acrolein-mediated death.

    PubMed

    Liu-Snyder, Peishan; Borgens, Richard Ben; Shi, Riyi

    2006-07-01

    Acrolein, a major lipid peroxidation product, has been associated with both CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Because of its long half-life, acrolein is a potent endogenous toxin capable of killing healthy cells during the secondary injury process. Traditionally, attempts to intervene in the process of progressive cell death after the primary injury have included scavenging reactive oxygen species (so-called free radicals). The animal data supporting such an approach have generally been positive, but all human clinical trials attempting a similar outcome in human CNS injury have failed. New drugs that might reduce toxicity by scavenging the products of lipid peroxidation present a promising, and little investigated, therapeutic approach. Hydralazine, a well-known treatment for hypertension, has been reported to react with acrolein, forming hydrazone in cell-free systems. In the companion paper, we have established an acrolein-mediated cell injury model using PC12 cells in vitro. Here we test the hypothesis that the formation of hydrazone adducts with acrolein is able to reduce acrolein toxicity and spare a significant percentage of the population of PC12 cells from death. Concentrations of approximately 1 mM of this aldehyde scavenger can rescue over 80% of the population of PC12 cells. This study provides a basis for a new pharmacological treatment to reduce the effects of secondary injury in the damaged and/or diseased nervous system. In particular, we describe the need for new drugs that possess aldehyde scavenging properties but do not interfere with the regulation of blood pressure.

  1. How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will

    PubMed Central

    Hameroff, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Conscious “free will” is problematic because (1) brain mechanisms causing consciousness are unknown, (2) measurable brain activity correlating with conscious perception apparently occurs too late for real-time conscious response, consciousness thus being considered “epiphenomenal illusion,” and (3) determinism, i.e., our actions and the world around us seem algorithmic and inevitable. The Penrose–Hameroff theory of “orchestrated objective reduction (Orch OR)” identifies discrete conscious moments with quantum computations in microtubules inside brain neurons, e.g., 40/s in concert with gamma synchrony EEG. Microtubules organize neuronal interiors and regulate synapses. In Orch OR, microtubule quantum computations occur in integration phases in dendrites and cell bodies of integrate-and-fire brain neurons connected and synchronized by gap junctions, allowing entanglement of microtubules among many neurons. Quantum computations in entangled microtubules terminate by Penrose “objective reduction (OR),” a proposal for quantum state reduction and conscious moments linked to fundamental spacetime geometry. Each OR reduction selects microtubule states which can trigger axonal firings, and control behavior. The quantum computations are “orchestrated” by synaptic inputs and memory (thus “Orch OR”). If correct, Orch OR can account for conscious causal agency, resolving problem 1. Regarding problem 2, Orch OR can cause temporal non-locality, sending quantum information backward in classical time, enabling conscious control of behavior. Three lines of evidence for brain backward time effects are presented. Regarding problem 3, Penrose OR (and Orch OR) invokes non-computable influences from information embedded in spacetime geometry, potentially avoiding algorithmic determinism. In summary, Orch OR can account for real-time conscious causal agency, avoiding the need for consciousness to be seen as epiphenomenal illusion. Orch OR can rescue conscious

  2. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  3. Rescue treatment and prevention of asthma using magnesium throat lozenges: Hypothesis for a mouth-lung biologically closed electric circuit.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A

    2006-01-01

    In the rescue treatment of acute asthma, injected and inhalant magnesium are relatively weak having demonstrated value only in severe illness, although theoretical and laboratory considerations suggest that magnesium should be strongly effective as an asthma rescue agent. It was hypothesized that a mouth-lung biologically closed electric circuit (BCEC) exists capable of nearly instantly transporting positively charged magnesium ions from the mouth and throat into the lungs. One hundred milligram magnesium (magnesium chloride) 4-g throat lozenges producing 100+ mM magnesium ion concentration in saliva were tested to determine if they had beneficial effects in asthma rescue and prevention. Subjects were selected based solely on need for asthma rescue, and lozenges were used as needed. Case histories are presented showing the nearly immediate effect of magnesium chloride throat lozenges in terminating and preventing asthma attacks. Throat lozenges containing magnesium chloride produced much more rapid and stronger benefits than has been reported for inhaled and injected magnesium. An added benefit from magnesium chloride lozenge treatment of asthma was relaxation. In this first report of its kind, magnesium chloride throat lozenges appeared to provide rescue benefits in the treatment of asthma equivalent to pharmaceutical asthma drugs. Countering these benefits, strong ionic magnesium solutions greatly increase rhinovirus, herpesvirus and Candida albicans in vitro, and appear to worsen these infections in humans. Magnesium lozenges releasing concentrated magnesium ions appear contraindicated during common colds, oral herpes infections, chronic rhinosinusitis, oral and respiratory infections in general, and their use must immediately be terminated if respiratory or oral symptoms worsen. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in people without respiratory or oral infections are needed to determine magnesium lozenge safety, and the extent by which drug

  4. 46 CFR 160.156-11 - Fabrication of prototype rescue boats and fast rescue boats for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with the procedures for independent laboratory inspection in 46 CFR part 159, subpart 159.007 and... 46 CFR 159.005-11. (2) The independent laboratory must make such inspections as are necessary to... inspecting— (i) Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Construction. (A) FRP components of each prototype rescue...

  5. 30 CFR 49.60 - Requirements for a local mine rescue contest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.60 Requirements... United States; (2) Uses MSHA-recognized rules; (3) Has a minimum of three mine rescue teams competing; (4) Has one or more problems conducted on one or more days with a determined winner; (5) Includes...

  6. 77 FR 64360 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams...) to publish regulations which provide that mine rescue teams be available for rescue and recovery work... arrangements for such teams are to be borne by the operator of each such mine. II. Desired Focus of...

  7. 46 CFR 12.10-9 - Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. 12.10... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Lifeboatman § 12.10-9 Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. (a) Each person engaged or employed as a lifeboatman proficient in fast rescue boats...

  8. 46 CFR 12.10-9 - Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. 12.10... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Lifeboatman § 12.10-9 Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. (a) Each person engaged or employed as a lifeboatman proficient in fast rescue boats...

  9. 46 CFR 12.10-9 - Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. 12.10... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Lifeboatman § 12.10-9 Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. (a) Each person engaged or employed as a lifeboatman proficient in fast rescue boats...

  10. 46 CFR 12.10-9 - Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. 12.10... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR RATING ENDORSEMENTS Lifeboatman § 12.10-9 Endorsement for proficiency in fast rescue boats. (a) Each person engaged or employed as a lifeboatman proficient in fast rescue boats...

  11. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number...

  12. 46 CFR 108.570 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.570 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must be capable of being launched...

  13. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number...

  14. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval...

  15. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval...

  16. 33 CFR 150.508 - What are the maintenance and repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? 150.508 Section 150.508 Navigation and Navigable Waters... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? The operator must perform the maintenance and repair of inflatable rescue boats according to the manufacturer's instructions. Operational Tests and...

  17. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number...

  18. 33 CFR 150.508 - What are the maintenance and repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? 150.508 Section 150.508 Navigation and Navigable Waters... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? The operator must perform the maintenance and repair of inflatable rescue boats according to the manufacturer's instructions. Operational Tests and...

  19. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by...

  20. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number...

  1. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval...

  2. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval...

  3. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by...

  4. 33 CFR 150.508 - What are the maintenance and repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? 150.508 Section 150.508 Navigation and Navigable Waters... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? The operator must perform the maintenance and repair of inflatable rescue boats according to the manufacturer's instructions. Operational Tests and...

  5. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number...

  6. 33 CFR 150.508 - What are the maintenance and repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? 150.508 Section 150.508 Navigation and Navigable Waters... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? The operator must perform the maintenance and repair of inflatable rescue boats according to the manufacturer's instructions. Operational Tests and...

  7. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by...

  8. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by...

  9. 33 CFR 150.508 - What are the maintenance and repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? 150.508 Section 150.508 Navigation and Navigable Waters... repair requirements for inflatable rescue boats? The operator must perform the maintenance and repair of inflatable rescue boats according to the manufacturer's instructions. Operational Tests and...

  10. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval...

  11. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.319 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  12. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  13. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  14. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  15. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  16. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, the following rescue and firefighting...

  17. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coordination with search and rescue... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search and rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and...

  18. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coordination with search and rescue... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search and rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and...

  19. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coordination with search and rescue... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search and rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and...

  20. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with search and rescue... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search and rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and...

  1. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coordination with search and rescue... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search and rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and...

  2. 77 FR 2017 - Safety Zone; Ice Rescue Exercise; Green Bay, Dyckesville, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR PART 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ice Rescue Exercise; Green Bay, Dyckesville... restrict vessels and persons from a portion of Green Bay due to a large scale ice rescue exercise that will... surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the ice rescue exercise. DATES: This rule...

  3. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. 160.056-4 Section 160.056-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in...

  4. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. 160.056-4 Section 160.056-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in...

  5. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. 160.056-4 Section 160.056-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in...

  6. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49.7 Section 49.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines §...

  7. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49.7 Section 49.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines §...

  8. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49.7 Section 49.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines §...

  9. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  10. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  11. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  12. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49.4 Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. (a) If an...

  13. 30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal...

  14. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  16. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams Appendix to Subpart B of Part 49 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt....

  17. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams Appendix to Subpart B Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B,...

  18. 30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal...

  19. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... full complement of persons and equipment. If the rescue boat is also a lifeboat, rapid recovery must be possible when loaded with its lifeboat equipment and an approved rescue boat complement of at least six... rescue boat complement of persons and equipment at a rate of not less than 0.3 meters per second (59...

  20. Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies though re-establishing natural gene flow with another subspecies.

    PubMed

    Harrisson, Katherine A; Pavlova, Alexandra; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Rose, Rebecca; Bull, James K; Lancaster, Melanie L; Murray, Neil; Quin, Bruce; Menkhorst, Peter; Magrath, Michael J L; Sunnucks, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Genetic diversity is positively linked to the viability and evolutionary potential of species but is often compromised in threatened taxa. Genetic rescue by gene flow from a more diverse or differentiated source population of the same species can be an effective strategy for alleviating inbreeding depression and boosting evolutionary potential. The helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix is a critically endangered subspecies of the common yellow-tufted honeyeater. Cassidix has declined to a single wild population of ~130 birds, despite being subject to intensive population management over recent decades. We assessed changes in microsatellite diversity in cassidix over the last four decades and used population viability analysis to explore whether genetic rescue through hybridization with the neighbouring Lichenostomus melanops gippslandicus subspecies constitutes a viable conservation strategy. The contemporary cassidix population is characterized by low genetic diversity and effective population size (N(e) < 50), suggesting it is vulnerable to inbreeding depression and will have limited capacity to evolve to changing environments. We find that gene flow from gippslandicus to cassidix has declined substantially relative to pre-1990 levels and argue that natural levels of gene flow between the two subspecies should be restored. Allowing gene flow (~4 migrants per generation) from gippslandicus into cassidix (i.e. genetic rescue), in combination with continued annual release of captive-bred cassidix (i.e. demographic rescue), should lead to positive demographic and genetic outcomes. Although we consider the risk of outbreeding depression to be low, we recommend that genetic rescue be managed within the context of the captive breeding programme, with monitoring of outcomes. PMID:26820991

  1. Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies though re-establishing natural gene flow with another subspecies.

    PubMed

    Harrisson, Katherine A; Pavlova, Alexandra; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Rose, Rebecca; Bull, James K; Lancaster, Melanie L; Murray, Neil; Quin, Bruce; Menkhorst, Peter; Magrath, Michael J L; Sunnucks, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Genetic diversity is positively linked to the viability and evolutionary potential of species but is often compromised in threatened taxa. Genetic rescue by gene flow from a more diverse or differentiated source population of the same species can be an effective strategy for alleviating inbreeding depression and boosting evolutionary potential. The helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix is a critically endangered subspecies of the common yellow-tufted honeyeater. Cassidix has declined to a single wild population of ~130 birds, despite being subject to intensive population management over recent decades. We assessed changes in microsatellite diversity in cassidix over the last four decades and used population viability analysis to explore whether genetic rescue through hybridization with the neighbouring Lichenostomus melanops gippslandicus subspecies constitutes a viable conservation strategy. The contemporary cassidix population is characterized by low genetic diversity and effective population size (N(e) < 50), suggesting it is vulnerable to inbreeding depression and will have limited capacity to evolve to changing environments. We find that gene flow from gippslandicus to cassidix has declined substantially relative to pre-1990 levels and argue that natural levels of gene flow between the two subspecies should be restored. Allowing gene flow (~4 migrants per generation) from gippslandicus into cassidix (i.e. genetic rescue), in combination with continued annual release of captive-bred cassidix (i.e. demographic rescue), should lead to positive demographic and genetic outcomes. Although we consider the risk of outbreeding depression to be low, we recommend that genetic rescue be managed within the context of the captive breeding programme, with monitoring of outcomes.

  2. Functional Rescue of Trafficking-Impaired ABCB4 Mutants by Chemical Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Gordo-Gilart, Raquel; Andueza, Sara; Hierro, Loreto; Jara, Paloma; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3, ABCB4) is a hepatocellular membrane protein that mediates biliary secretion of phosphatidylcholine. Null mutations in ABCB4 gene give rise to severe early-onset cholestatic liver disease. We have previously shown that the disease-associated mutations p.G68R, p.G228R, p.D459H, and p.A934T resulted in retention of ABCB4 in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus failing to target the plasma membrane. In the present study, we tested the ability of two compounds with chaperone-like activity, 4-phenylbutyrate and curcumin, to rescue these ABCB4 mutants by assessing their effects on subcellular localization, protein maturation, and phospholipid efflux capability. Incubation of transfected cells at a reduced temperature (30°C) or exposure to pharmacological doses of either 4-PBA or curcumin restored cell surface expression of mutants G228R and A934T. The delivery of these mutants to the plasma membrane was accompanied by a switch in the ratio of mature to inmature protein forms, leading to a predominant expression of the mature protein. This effect was due to an improvement in the maturation rate and not to the stabilization of the mature forms. Both mutants were also functionally rescued, displaying bile salt-dependent phospholipid efflux activity after addition of 4-PBA or curcumin. Drug-induced rescue was mutant specific, given neither 4-PBA nor curcumin had an effect on the ABCB4 mutants G68R and A934T. Collectively, these data indicate that the functionality of selected trafficking-defective ABCB4 mutants can be recovered by chemical chaperones through restoration of membrane localization, suggesting a potential treatment for patients carrying such mutations. PMID:26900700

  3. Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

    2006-12-01

    In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of

  4. Medical problems requiring mountain rescues from 1985 to 2007 in Yu-Shan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Kuan, Jen-Tse; Chen, Jih-Chang; Kao, Wei-Fong; Chiu, Te-Fa; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Hang-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Wang, Shih-Hao(1,2) Tai-Yi Hsu,(1,2) Jen-Tse Kuan,(1,2) Jih-Chang Chen,(1,2) Wei-Fong Kao,(3) Te-Fa Chiu,(1,2) Yu-Cheng Chen,(1,2) and Hang-Cheng Chen.(1,2) Medical problems requiring mountain rescues from 1985 to 2007 in Yu-Shan National Park, Taiwan. High Alt. Med Biol. 10:77-82, 2009.-Medical problems requiring mountain rescue in densely populated and low-latitude locations like Taiwan have rarely been studied or discussed. The purpose of this research was to examine mountain-rescue operations that occurred in Yu-Shan National Park Taiwan from 1985 to 2007. Of 186 mountain-rescue operations, 128 involved medical problems (illnesses or injuries). Of the medical problems, 62% involved trauma and 41% involved illness. Ninety-nine ground rescues, 14 helicopter rescues, 38 combination ground and helicopter rescues, and 20 rescues using unclear methods were conducted, and the remaining 15 rescue operations did not involve visitors. In the 186 rescue operations, 330 visitors were rescued, 240 of them survived, 66 were dead, and 24 had an unclear outcome. Factors that affected the type of injury or the probability of survival included the activity, altitude, composition of the visitor group, weather, and occurrence of natural disasters. Mountain-rescue operations in which both ground and helicopter rescue were utilized were more successful. Our retrospective findings indicate that wilderness emergency services should have the capability of performing rescues in rugged terrain and be flexible in their approach to any situation arising in mountainous regions; proper training of onboard helicopter medical personnel is also necessary. In conclusion, we recommend setting up a standard system for reporting mountain- rescue operations, with statistics compiled annually.

  5. Afterloading: The Technique That Rescued Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aronowitz, Jesse N.

    2015-07-01

    Although brachytherapy had been established as a highly effective modality for the treatment of cancer, its application was threatened by mid-20th century due to appreciation of the radiation hazard to health care workers. This review examines how the introduction of afterloading eliminated exposure and ushered in a brachytherapy renaissance.

  6. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects.

  7. Partial rescue of memory deficits induced by calorie restriction in a mouse model of tau deposition.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Milene L; Joly-Amado, Aurelie; Azam, Sana; Elza, Mike; Selenica, Maj-Linda; Pappas, Colleen; Small, Brent; Engelman, Robert; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

    2014-09-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) was shown previously to improve cognition and decrease pathology in transgenic mouse models with Alzheimer-like amyloid deposition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CR on the Tg4510 model of tau deposition. Mice in the calorie restriction group had food intake gradually decreased until they reached an average of 35% body weight reduction. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the study. After being on their respective diets for 3 months, all animals were submitted to behavioral testing. Tg4510 mice fed ad libitum showed lower body weight than nontransgenic littermates despite their increased food intake. Additionally, Tg4510 showed increased locomotor activity in the open field regardless of diet. Calorie restricted Tg4510 mice performed significantly better than ad libitum fed mice in the novel object recognition test, suggesting improved short-term memory. CR Tg4510 mice also performed significantly better in contextual fear conditioning than mice fed ad libitum. However, in a modified version of the novelty test that allows for interaction with other mice instead of inanimate objects, CR was not able to rescue the deficit found in Tg4510 mice in this ethologically more salient version of the task. No treatment differences in motor performance or spatial memory were observed in the rotarod or radial arm water maze tests, respectively. Histopathological and biochemical assessments showed no diet-induced changes in total or phospho-tau levels. Moreover, increased activation of both astrocytes and microglia in Tg4510 mice was not rescued by calorie restriction. Taken together, our data suggests that, despite an apparent rescue of associative memory, CR had no consistent effects on pathological outcomes of a mouse model of tau deposition.

  8. Role of lys100 in human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase: mutagenesis studies and chemical rescue by external amines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Locke, G; Harpel, M R; Copeland, R A; Marcinkeviciene, J

    2000-07-11

    Chemical modification, mutagenesis, chemical rescue, and isotope effect studies are used to identify and probe the roles of several conserved amino acid groups in catalysis by human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Time- and pH-dependent inactivation of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase by trinitrobenzenesulfonate implicates at least one critical lysyl residue in catalysis. Of four highly conserved lysines, only the cognate of Lys255 was previously suggested to have catalytic functionality. We now show that replacement of either Lys184 or Lys186 by mutagenesis does not impact, whereas substitution of Lys100 abolishes, enzymatic activity. However, activity is partially restored to K100C (or K100A) by inclusion of exogenous primary amines in reaction mixtures. This rescued activity saturates with respect to numerous amines and exhibits a steric discrimination reflected in K(d,(amine)) values. For all amines, rescued k(cat) values were only approximately 10% of wild type and independent of amine basicity. K(M) values for dihydroorotate and coenzyme Q(0) were similar to wild type. Thus, exogenous amines (as surrogates for Lys100) apparently complement a chemical, not binding, step(s) of catalysis, which does not entail proton transfer. In support of this postulate, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis indicates that Lys100 stabilizes developing negative charge on the isoalloxazine ring of flavin mononucleotide during hydride transfer, as has been observed for a number of flavoprotein oxidoreductases. Ser215 of human dihydroarotate dehydrogenase (DHODase) was also studied because of its alignment with the putative active-site base Cys130 of Lactococcus lactisDHODase. Substantial retention of activity by S215C, yet complete loss of activity for S215A, is consistent with Ser215 serving as the active-site base in the human enzyme. PMID:10891080

  9. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  10. Can Rapoport's rule be rescued? Modeling causes of the latitudinal gradient in species richness

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Gaines, S.D.

    1999-12-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species richness, wherein species richness peaks near the equator and declines toward the poles, is a widely recognized phenomenon that holds true for many taxa in all habitat types. Understanding the causative mechanism of mechanisms that generate the latitudinal gradient in species richness (LGSR) has been a major challenge, and the gradient remains unexplained. A different latitudinal trend (named Rapoport's rule), in which the mean size of species geographical ranges tends to decline toward the equator, has been hypothesized by G.C. Stevens to play a key role in generating the LGSR when coupled with a version of the rescue effect, in which local populations toward the fringes of geographical ranges are sustained by immigration. The Stevens hypothesis is now commonly cited as a potential explanation for the LGSR and has provoked numerous empirical studies in macroecology and biogeography. However, important aspects of the hypothesis are not obvious in Steven's verbal model and may go unrecognized, despite their major implications for empirical work related to large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Here the authors present mathematical simulation models that test the logical structure of the Stevens hypothesis, examine effects on global patterns of species richness produced by the mechanisms (Rapoport's rule and the rescue effect) explicitly identified by Stevens, and investigate the additional effect of competition.

  11. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction. PMID:25558278

  12. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction. PMID:25558278

  13. Necrostatin-1 rescues mice from lethal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhentai; Epperly, Michael; Watkins, Simon C; Greenberger, Joel S; Kagan, Valerian E; Bayır, Hülya

    2016-04-01

    There is an emerging need in new medical products that can mitigate and/or treat the short- and long-term consequences of radiation exposure after a radiological or nuclear terroristic event. The direct effects of ionizing radiation are realized primarily via apoptotic death pathways in rapidly proliferating cells within the initial 1-2days after the exposure. However later in the course of the radiation disease necrotic cell death may ensue via direct and indirect pathways from increased generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluated radiomitigative potential of necrostatin-1 after total body irradiation (TBI) and the contribution of necroptosis to cell death induced by radiation. Circulating TNFα levels were increased starting on d1 after TBI and associated with increased plasmalemma permeability in ileum of irradiated mice. Necrostatin-1 given iv. 48h after 9.5Gy TBI attenuated radiation-induced receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) serine phosphorylation in ileum and improved survival vs. vehicle. Utilizing apoptosis resistant cytochrome c(-/-) cells, we showed that radiation can induce necroptosis, which is attenuated by RNAi knock down of RIPK1 and RIPK3 or by treatment with necrostatin-1 or -1s whereas 1-methyl-L-tryptophan, an indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit radiomitigative effect. This suggests that the beneficial effect of necrostatin-1 is likely through inhibition of RIPK1-mediated necroptotic pathway. Overall, our data indicate that necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, may play a significant role in cell death contributing to radiation disease and mortality. This study provides a proof of principle that necrostatin-1 and perhaps other RIPK1 inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for radiomitigation after TBI. PMID:26802452

  14. ROBOTICS: Rescue Droids Stumble in an Urban Jungle.

    PubMed

    Sincell, M

    2000-08-11

    AUSTIN, TEXAS--Here at the 17th Annual National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, four teams of engineers fielded mechanical contestants in the first annual urban ruin search-and-rescue competition--a simulated catastrophe created to test intelligent lifesaving robots that may one day lead rescuers to people trapped in the precarious rubble of collapsed buildings. The competition indicated that the technology still has a way to go.

  15. Experience with helicopter rescue missions for crevasse accidents.

    PubMed

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Kroesslhuber, Franz; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Lutz, Martin; Mair, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively studied incidence, patterns, and severity of injury and hypothermia in 95 victims of crevasse accidents. Fifteen (16%) victims were already dead when the rescue team arrived on the scene. Asphyxia (8 victims) was typically caused by snow burial owing to a collapse of snow bridges covering crevasses and was observed only during winter sports activities on glaciers. In 7 patients, death was caused by lethal trauma. Severe or critical multisystem trauma (ISS ≥ 16) was found in an additional 16 victims (17%). Severe or critical injuries were predominantly thoracic injuries and injuries of the extremities and/or pelvic region. Severe accidental hypothermia was observed in 9 of the 95 victims (10%). Three of these suffered from hypothermic sudden cardiac arrest during rescue and were immediately evacuated with ongoing CPR; all 3 made a full recovery after extracorporeal rewarming. More than two-thirds of all victims were still trapped in the crevasse when the rescue team arrived. However, the majority of them could be relatively easily extricated using standard mountaineering equipment and improvised rescue techniques. Prolonged and difficult extrication efforts were needed in less than 10% of victims. Summing up, trauma and asphyxia are the most important causes of mortality and acute life-threatening medical problems in this study, but asphyxia will be far less common in mountain regions offering fewer glacier sport activities in the winter months. Hypothermic sudden cardiac arrest could not be prevented during the difficult conditions of crevasse extrication in one-third of all hypothermic victims; however, prognosis was excellent with advanced life support at the scene and immediate helicopter evacuation to extracorporeal rewarming. PMID:21190506

  16. Emergency medicine and air rescue in India: future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, K S

    2000-01-26

    76.7% of Indian population lives in rural areas. About 160,000 primary health care centres and subcentres, established all over the country, are responsible for the emergency care in the countryside. A centre, manned by a qualified doctor, a nurse/midwife and paramedics, with basic equipment and facilities has to manage all types of medical emergencies in a population of 3000 - 5000. A patient who survives this emergency care has to be transferred to higher secondary / tertiary centre. In metropolitan areas there are larger hospitals some of them having well equipped casualty departments supervised by specialists, but the number of patients are so large that the management of emergency goes often haywire. Patient transport system is very inadequate. The ambulances are scarce and mostly not well equipped. Air rescue which is the most desired, because of the distances and road conditions, is only in a rudimentary state. Existing infrastructure more than 400 airports, airstrips and many helipads, well qualified flying personnel and well maintained small and large aircrafts is sufficient to have a well functioning Air Rescue system. But it is prohibitively expensive. Most individuals are neither able to afford Air Rescue on their own cost nor they are insured. With the growth of economy and ever increasing awareness of medical facilities, the demand of better standards of emergency medicine is going up. In next 20 years a different scenario is expected. Availability of information technology, privatization of insurance system and medical facilities and better transport system and roads in the coming years will facilitate a well functioning emergency medicine and air rescue in India.

  17. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A

    2011-03-01

    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range. PMID:21826834

  18. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A

    2011-03-01

    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  19. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens. PMID:26757807

  20. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens.

  1. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006 Philippine landslide.

    PubMed

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P; Rodolfo, Raymond S; Soria, Janneli Lea A; Baliatan, Eden G; Paguican, Engielle R; Ong, John Burtkenley T; Lapus, Mark R; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D; Quimba, Zareth P; Uichanco, Christopher L

    2008-09-01

    A rockslide-debris avalanche destroyed the remote village of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on 17 February 2006. Although search and rescue procedures were implemented immediately, the scale of the landslide and a lack of information about its nature resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early days of the operation. Technical support was only introduced five days after the event, provided by a team of volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists. By the time search and rescue operations were transferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of finding survivors trapped under the rubble had diminished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We emphasise here the need for a systematic and technically informed approach to search and rescue missions in large-scale landslide disaster contexts, and the formulation of better disaster management policies in general. Standard procedures must be developed and enforced to improve how civil authorities respond to natural calamities. PMID:18958912

  2. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2011-11-22

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  3. Analysis of side-looking airborne radar performance in the detection of search and rescue targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, N. C., Jr.; Mazour, T. J.; Hover, G. L.; Osmer, S. R.

    1980-03-01

    Since September 1978 side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) detection data has been gathered in conjunction with visual detection experiments conducted by the U.S.C.G. R D Center. These are the first in a series of experiments designed to improve search planning guidance contained in the National Search and Rescue Manual. HC-130 aircraft, equipped with either the Airborne Oil Surveillance System (AOSS) or SLAR/radar image processor (SLAR/RIP) configuration of the AN/APS-94D SLAR, conducted controlled searches for life rafts, small boats, and 41 to 95 foot Coast Guard vessels in Block Island Sound or open ocean. Through the use of a microwave ranging system and SLAR data, the positions of searchers and targets were accurately reconstructed to facilitate the verification of detections on SLAR films or video tape. These data were used to evaluate the effects of environmental and controllable parameters on SLAR detection of the various target types. While the size of the data base did not permit conclusive, quantitative assessment of the effect which each parameter had on SLAR detection performance, general trends, in system performance were identified. Of the 11 parameters which were investigated, preliminary indications are that wind speed, image background, sea state, precipitation, altitude, antenna polarization, target size/composition, and lateral range all may significantly influence SLAR detection of search and rescue targets. Further data collection and analysis is planned to quantify the effects of these and any other significant parameters on SLAR performance.

  4. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine.

  5. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine. PMID:26125158

  6. The Race to Save Lives: Demonstrating the Use of Social Media for Search and Rescue Operations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tomer; Adini, Bruria; El-Hadid, Mohammed; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    Importance: Utilizing social media in an emergency can enhance abilities to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively, and can contribute towards saving lives following a disaster, through better coordination and collaboration between search and rescue teams. Objective: An exercise was conducted in order to test a standard operating procedure (SOP) designed to leverage social media use in response to an earthquake, and study whether social media can improve joint Israeli-Jordanian search and rescue operations following a regional earthquake. Design: First responders from both Jordan and Israel were divided into two mixed groups of eight people each, representing joint (Israeli-Jordanian) EMS teams. Simulated patients were dispersed throughout the Ben-Gurion University Campus. The first search and rescue team used conventional methods, while the second team also used social media channels (Facebook and Twitter) to leverage search and rescue operations. Participants: Eighteen EMS and medical professionals from Israel and Jordan, which are members of the Emergency Response Development and Strategy Forum working group, participated in the exercise. Results: The social media team found significantly more mock casualties, 21 out of 22 (95.45%) while the no-media team found only 19 out of 22 (86.36%). Fourteen patients (63.63%) were found by the social media team earlier than the no-media team. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and evacuation proved to be significantly quicker in the group that had access to social media. The differences between the three injury severities groups' extraction times in each group were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for variance. Injury severity influenced the evacuation times in the social media team but no such difference was noted in the no-media team. Conclusions: Utilizing social media in an emergency situation enables to locate and evacuate casualties more

  7. Neuronal injury: folate to the rescue?

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Golo; Endres, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence indicates that derangement of single-carbon metabolism has detrimental effects for proper CNS functioning. Conversely, a role for folate supplementation in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, in an elegant series of experiments in rodents, Iskandar and colleagues demonstrate a crucial role of folate in the regeneration of afferent spinal neurons after injury. Probing sequential steps in folate metabolism, from cellular entry to DNA methylation, the authors show that axonal regeneration relies upon the integrity of DNA methylation pathways. These findings provide the first demonstration of an epigenetic mechanism contributing to neurorepair and suggest that manipulation of the methylation milieu may offer promising new therapeutic avenues to promote regeneration. PMID:20424316

  8. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Kinases That Suppress Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska-Daneluti, Agata M; Chen, Anthony; Nguyen, Leo; Murchie, Ryan; Jiang, Chong; Moffat, Jason; Pelletier, Lawrence; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508-CFTR, the most common disease-causing CF mutant, exhibits folding and trafficking defects and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. To identify signaling pathways involved in ΔF508-CFTR rescue, we screened a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) that target ∼750 different kinases and associated signaling proteins. We identified 20 novel suppressors of ΔF508-CFTR maturation, including the FGFR1. These were subsequently validated by measuring channel activity by the YFP halide-sensitive assay following shRNA-mediated knockdown, immunoblotting for the mature (band C) ΔF508-CFTR and measuring the amount of surface ΔF508-CFTR by ELISA. The role of FGFR signaling on ΔF508-CFTR trafficking was further elucidated by knocking down FGFRs and their downstream signaling proteins: Erk1/2, Akt, PLCγ-1, and FRS2. Interestingly, inhibition of FGFR1 with SU5402 administered to intestinal organoids (mini-guts) generated from the ileum of ΔF508-CFTR homozygous mice resulted in a robust ΔF508-CFTR rescue. Moreover, combination of SU5402 and VX-809 treatments in cells led to an additive enhancement of ΔF508-CFTR rescue, suggesting these compounds operate by different mechanisms. Chaperone array analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells harvested from ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR transplant patients treated with SU5402 identified altered expression of several chaperones, an effect validated by their overexpression or knockdown experiments. We propose that FGFR signaling regulates specific chaperones that control ΔF508-CFTR maturation, and suggest that FGFRs may serve as important targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CF.

  9. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  10. Trichostatin A Rescues the Disrupted Imprinting Induced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yanjun; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Mu, Yanshuang; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting disorders induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) usually lead to the abnormalities of cloned animals and low cloning efficiency. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to improve gene expression, genomic methylation reprogramming and the development of cloned embryos, however, the imprinting statuses in these treated embryos and during their subsequent development remain poorly studied. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of H19/Igf2 methylation and transcription in porcine cloned embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), and examined H19/Igf2 imprinting patterns in cloned fetuses and piglets. Our results showed that compared with the maintenance of H19/Igf2 methylation in fertilized embryos, cloned embryos displayed aberrant H19/Igf2 methylation and lower H19/Igf2 transcripts. When TSA enhanced the development of cloned embryos, the disrupted H19/Igf2 imprinting was largely rescued in these treated embryos, more similar to those detected in fertilized counterparts. Further studies displayed that TSA effectively rescued the disrupted imprinting of H19/Igf2 in cloned fetuses and piglets, prevented the occurrence of cloned fetus and piglet abnormalities, and enhanced the full-term development of cloned embryos. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that aberrant imprinting induced by SCNT led to the abnormalities of cloned fetuses and piglets and low cloning efficiency, and TSA rescued the disrupted imprinting in cloned embryos, fetuses and piglets, and prevented the occurrence of cloned fetus and piglet abnormalities, thereby improving the development of cloned embryos. This study would have important implications in improving cloning efficiency and the health of cloned animals. PMID:25962071

  11. Space safety and rescue 1979-1981: Worldwide disaster response, rescue and safety employing space-borne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Selected papers from the 1979, 1980, and 1981 IAA symposia on space safety and rescue and on worldwide disaster response, safety, and rescue employing spaceborne systems are presented. Available papers published elsewhere and those presented at the 1976, 1977, and 1978 symposia are presented in abstract form. Subjects discussed include man-made space debris, nuclear-waste disposal in space, space-station safety design, psychological training, the introduction of female crewmembers, analysis of the November 23, 1980 earthquake as a design basis for satellite emergency communication, disaster warning using the GOES satellite, and satellite communications for disaster relief operations. Three reviews of the application of space technology to emergency and disaster relief and prevention, given at other symposia in 1981, are presented in an appendix. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  12. Acute iron poisoning. Rescue with macromolecular chelators.

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J R; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Eaton, J W

    1989-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is a frequent, sometimes life-threatening, form of poisoning. Present therapy, in severe cases, includes oral and intravenous administration of the potent iron chelator, deferoxamine. Unfortunately, high dose intravenous deferoxamine causes acute hypotension additive with that engendered by the iron poisoning itself. To obviate this problem, we have covalently attached deferoxamine to high molecular weight carbohydrates such as dextran and hydroxyethyl starch. These macromolecular forms of deferoxamine do not cause detectable decreases in blood pressure of experimental animals, even when administered intravenously in very large doses, and persist in circulation much longer than the free drug. These novel iron-chelating substances, but not deferoxamine itself, will prevent mortality from otherwise lethal doses of iron administered to mice either orally or intraperitoneally. Further reflecting this enhanced therapeutic efficacy, the high molecular weight iron chelators also abrogate iron-mediated hepatotoxicity, suppressing the release of alanine aminotransferase. We conclude that high molecular weight derivatives of deferoxamine hold promise for the effective therapy of acute iron intoxication and may also be useful in other clinical circumstances in which control of free, reactive iron is therapeutically desirable. PMID:2794068

  13. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  14. 33 CFR 150.511 - What are the operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? 150.511 Section 150.511 Navigation and Navigable Waters... operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (a) Lifeboat and rescue boat... rescue boat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. (b) The test must be...

  15. 33 CFR 150.511 - What are the operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? 150.511 Section 150.511 Navigation and Navigable Waters... operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (a) Lifeboat and rescue boat... rescue boat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. (b) The test must be...

  16. 33 CFR 150.511 - What are the operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? 150.511 Section 150.511 Navigation and Navigable Waters... operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (a) Lifeboat and rescue boat... rescue boat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. (b) The test must be...

  17. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  18. Short peptides from leucyl-tRNA synthetase rescue disease-causing mitochondrial tRNA point mutations.

    PubMed

    Perli, Elena; Fiorillo, Annarita; Giordano, Carla; Pisano, Annalinda; Montanari, Arianna; Grazioli, Paola; Campese, Antonio F; Di Micco, Patrizio; Tuppen, Helen A; Genovese, Ilaria; Poser, Elena; Preziuso, Carmela; Taylor, Robert W; Morea, Veronica; Colotti, Gianni; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial (mt) genes coding for mt-tRNAs are responsible for a range of syndromes, for which no effective treatment is available. We recently showed that the carboxy-terminal domain (Cterm) of human mt-leucyl tRNA synthetase rescues the pathologic phenotype associated either with the m.3243A>G mutation in mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) or with mutations in the mt-tRNA(Ile), both of which are aminoacylated by Class I mt-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs). Here we show, by using the human transmitochondrial cybrid model, that the Cterm is also able to improve the phenotype caused by the m.8344A>G mutation in mt-tRNA(Lys), aminoacylated by a Class II aaRS. Importantly, we demonstrate that the same rescuing ability is retained by two Cterm-derived short peptides, β30_31 and β32_33, which are effective towards both the m.8344A>G and the m.3243A>G mutations. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that these peptides bind with high affinity wild-type and mutant human mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and mt-tRNA(Lys), and stabilize mutant mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)). In conclusion, we demonstrate that small Cterm-derived peptides can be effective tools to rescue cellular defects caused by mutations in a wide range of mt-tRNAs.

  19. Short peptides from leucyl-tRNA synthetase rescue disease-causing mitochondrial tRNA point mutations

    PubMed Central

    Perli, Elena; Fiorillo, Annarita; Giordano, Carla; Pisano, Annalinda; Montanari, Arianna; Grazioli, Paola; Campese, Antonio F.; Di Micco, Patrizio; Tuppen, Helen A.; Genovese, Ilaria; Poser, Elena; Preziuso, Carmela; Taylor, Robert W.; Morea, Veronica; Colotti, Gianni; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial (mt) genes coding for mt-tRNAs are responsible for a range of syndromes, for which no effective treatment is available. We recently showed that the carboxy-terminal domain (Cterm) of human mt-leucyl tRNA synthetase rescues the pathologic phenotype associated either with the m.3243A>G mutation in mt-tRNALeu(UUR) or with mutations in the mt-tRNAIle, both of which are aminoacylated by Class I mt-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs). Here we show, by using the human transmitochondrial cybrid model, that the Cterm is also able to improve the phenotype caused by the m.8344A>G mutation in mt-tRNALys, aminoacylated by a Class II aaRS. Importantly, we demonstrate that the same rescuing ability is retained by two Cterm-derived short peptides, β30_31 and β32_33, which are effective towards both the m.8344A>G and the m.3243A>G mutations. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that these peptides bind with high affinity wild-type and mutant human mt-tRNALeu(UUR) and mt-tRNALys, and stabilize mutant mt-tRNALeu(UUR). In conclusion, we demonstrate that small Cterm-derived peptides can be effective tools to rescue cellular defects caused by mutations in a wide range of mt-tRNAs. PMID:26721932

  20. Neural stem cells display an inherent mechanism for rescuing dysfunctional neurons.

    PubMed

    Ourednik, Jitka; Ourednik, Václav; Lynch, William P; Schachner, Melitta; Snyder, Evan Y

    2002-11-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that neural stem cells (NSCs) possess an intrinsic capacity to "rescue" dysfunctional neurons in the brains of aged mice. The study focused on a neuronal cell type with stereotypical projections that is commonly compromised in the aged brain-the dopaminergic (DA) neuron. Unilateral implantation of murine NSCs into the midbrains of aged mice, in which the presence of stably impaired but nonapoptotic DA neurons was increased by treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), was associated with bilateral reconstitution of the mesostriatal system. Functional assays paralleled the spatiotemporal recovery of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) activity, which, in turn, mirrored the spatiotemporal distribution of donor-derived cells. Although spontaneous conversion of donor NSCs to TH(+) cells contributed to nigral reconstitution in DA-depleted areas, the majority of DA neurons in the mesostriatal system were "rescued" host cells. Undifferentiated donor progenitors spontaneously expressing neuroprotective substances provided a plausible molecular basis for this finding. These observations suggest that host structures may benefit not only from NSC-derived replacement of lost neurons but also from the "chaperone" effect of some NSC-derived progeny. PMID:12379867

  1. PDE-4 inhibition rescues aberrant synaptic plasticity in Drosophila and mouse models of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Weisz, Eliana D; Bell, Aaron J; Chambers, Daniel B; Hinchey, Joseph; Choi, Richard J; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Gertner, Michael J; Ferrick, Neal J; Terlizzi, Allison M; Yohn, Nicole; Koenigsberg, Eric; Liebelt, David A; Zukin, R Suzanne; Woo, Newton H; Tranfaglia, Michael R; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E; Siegel, Steven J; Bolduc, Francois V; McDonald, Thomas V; Jongens, Thomas A; McBride, Sean M J

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of both intellectual disability and autism resulting from a single gene mutation. Previously, we characterized cognitive impairments and brain structural defects in a Drosophila model of FXS and demonstrated that these impairments were rescued by treatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium. A well-documented biochemical defect observed in fly and mouse FXS models and FXS patients is low cAMP levels. cAMP levels can be regulated by mGluR signaling. Herein, we demonstrate PDE-4 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate memory impairments and brain structural defects in the Drosophila model of fragile X. Furthermore, we examine the effects of PDE-4 inhibition by pharmacologic treatment in the fragile X mouse model. We demonstrate that acute inhibition of PDE-4 by pharmacologic treatment in hippocampal slices rescues the enhanced mGluR-dependent LTD phenotype observed in FXS mice. Additionally, we find that chronic treatment of FXS model mice, in adulthood, also restores the level of mGluR-dependent LTD to that observed in wild-type animals. Translating the findings of successful pharmacologic intervention from the Drosophila model into the mouse model of FXS is an important advance, in that this identifies and validates PDE-4 inhibition as potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of individuals afflicted with FXS.

  2. Suppression of galactocerebrosidase premature termination codon and rescue of galactocerebrosidase activity in twitcher cells.

    PubMed

    Luddi, Alice; Crifasi, Laura; Capaldo, Angela; Piomboni, Paola; Costantino-Ceccarini, Elvira

    2016-11-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) is a degenerative lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficiency of β-galactocerebrosidase activity. Over 100 mutations are known to cause the disease, and these usually occur in compound heterozygote patterns. In affected patients, nonsense mutations leading to a nonfunctional enzyme are often found associated with other mutations. The twitcher mouse is a naturally occurring model of KD, containing in β-galactocerebrosidase a premature stop codon, W339X. Recent studies have shown that selected compounds may induce the ribosomal bypass of premature stop codons without affecting the normal termination codons. The rescue of β-galactocerebrosidase activity induced by treatment with premature termination codon (PTC) 124, a well-characterized compound known to induce ribosomal read-through, was investigated on oligodendrocytes prepared from twitcher mice and on human fibroblasts from patients bearing nonsense mutations. The effectiveness of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) inhibitor 1 (NMDI1), a newly identified inhibitor of NMD, was also tested. Incubation of these cell lines with PTC124 and NMDI1 increased the levels of mRNA and rescued galactocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The low but sustained expression of β-galactocerebrosidase in oligodendrocytes was sufficient to improve the morphology of the differentiated cells. Our in vitro approach provides the basis for further investigation of ribosomal read-through as an alternative therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the quality of life in selected KD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638609

  3. Implementation and verification of an advancement to the Galileo system search and rescue service signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mo; Wu, Qiongzhi; Liu, Shaobo

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Sino-European cooperation in the Galileo satellite navigation system Search And Rescue(SAR) service, a multi-channel distress beacon signal simulator is presented here. The mathematic model and spectrum analysis of current 406 MHz distress beacons signals is presented which includes Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) for Maritime, Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) for land (road and rail), and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) for aeronautical applications. Based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) and digital IF techniques, the design of a SAR Signal Simulator (SAR-SS) is proposed, which can generate no less than 20 distress signals simultaneously. The Doppler shift and space propagation effect such as ionosphere delay, free space attenuation and etc, are simulated in SAR-SS, which provided a significant test and evaluation capability for SAR/Galileo project. The performance of SAR-SS is more accurate and stabile than the Cospas-Sarsat(C-S) requirement. SAR-SS will be a significant instrument for the Galileo system search and rescue project ground test.

  4. Spaced training rescues memory and ERK1/2 signaling in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    PubMed

    Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Kathleen; Yao, Yue Qin; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2014-11-25

    Recent studies have shown that short, spaced trains of afferent stimulation produce much greater long-term potentiation (LTP) than that obtained with a single, prolonged stimulation episode. The present studies demonstrate that spaced training regimens, based on these LTP timing rules, facilitate learning in wild-type (WT) mice and can offset learning and synaptic signaling impairments in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) model of fragile X syndrome. We determined that 5 min of continuous training supports object location memory (OLM) in WT but not Fmr1 KO mice. However, the same amount of training distributed across three short trials, spaced by one hour, produced robust long-term memory in the KOs. At least three training trials were needed to realize the benefit of spacing, and intertrial intervals shorter or longer than 60 min were ineffective. Multiple short training trials also rescued novel object recognition in Fmr1 KOs. The spacing effect was surprisingly potent: just 1 min of OLM training, distributed across three trials, supported robust memory in both genotypes. Spacing also rescued training-induced activation of synaptic ERK1/2 in dorsal hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice. These results show that a spaced training regimen designed to maximize synaptic potentiation facilitates recognition memory in WT mice and can offset synaptic signaling and memory impairments in a model of congenital intellectual disability.

  5. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  6. Designing Allosteric Control into Enzymes by Chemical Rescue of Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Deckert, Katelyn; Budiardjo, S. Jimmy; Brunner, Luke C.; Lovell, Scott; Karanicolas, John

    2012-08-07

    Ligand-dependent activity has been engineered into enzymes for purposes ranging from controlling cell morphology to reprogramming cellular signaling pathways. Where these successes have typically fused a naturally allosteric domain to the enzyme of interest, here we instead demonstrate an approach for designing a de novo allosteric effector site directly into the catalytic domain of an enzyme. This approach is distinct from traditional chemical rescue of enzymes in that it relies on disruption and restoration of structure, rather than active site chemistry, as a means to achieve modulate function. We present two examples, W33G in a {beta}-glycosidase enzyme ({beta}-gly) and W492G in a {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme ({beta}-gluc), in which we engineer indole-dependent activity into enzymes by removing a buried tryptophan side chain that serves as a buttress for the active site architecture. In both cases, we observe a loss of function, and in both cases we find that the subsequent addition of indole can be used to restore activity. Through a detailed analysis of {beta}-gly W33G kinetics, we demonstrate that this rescued enzyme is fully functionally equivalent to the corresponding wild-type enzyme. We then present the apo and indole-bound crystal structures of {beta}-gly W33G, which together establish the structural basis for enzyme inactivation and rescue. Finally, we use this designed switch to modulate {beta}-glycosidase activity in living cells using indole. Disruption and recovery of protein structure may represent a general technique for introducing allosteric control into enzymes, and thus may serve as a starting point for building a variety of bioswitches and sensors.

  7. miR-16 rescues F508del-CFTR function in native cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Bhattacharyya, S; Peters, K W; Glover, M L; Sen, A; Cox, R T; Kundu, S; Caohuy, H; Frizzell, R A; Pollard, H B; Biswas, R

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to mutations in the CFTR gene, which prevents correct folding, trafficking and function of the mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The dysfunctional effect of CFTR mutations, principally the F508del-CFTR mutant, is further manifested by hypersecretion of the pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 into the airway lumen, which further contributes to morbidity and mortality. We have hypothesized that microRNA (miR)-based therapeutics could rescue the dysfunctional consequences of mutant CFTR. Here we report that a miR-16 mimic can effectively rescue F508del-CFTR protein function in airway cell lines and primary cultures, of differentiated human bronchial epithelia from F508del homozygotes, which express mutant CFTR endogenously. We also identify two other miRs, miR-1 and miR-302a, which are also active. Although miR-16 is expressed at basal comparable levels in CF and control cells, miR-1 and miR-302a are undetectable. When miR mimics are expressed in CF lung or pancreatic cells, the expression of the F508del-CFTR protein is significantly increased. Importantly, miR-16 promotes functional rescue of the cyclic AMP-activated apical F508del-CFTR chloride channel in primary lung epithelial cells from CF patients. We interpret these findings to suggest that these miRs may constitute novel targets for CF therapy.

  8. Trimethylangelicin promotes the functional rescue of mutant F508del CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis airway cells.

    PubMed

    Favia, Maria; Mancini, Maria T; Bezzerri, Valentino; Guerra, Lorenzo; Laselva, Onofrio; Abbattiscianni, Anna C; Debellis, Lucantonio; Reshkin, Stephan J; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio; Casavola, Valeria

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) carrying the F508del mutation is retained in endoplasmic reticulum and fails to traffic to the cell surface where it functions as a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated chloride channel. Pharmacological correctors that rescue the trafficking of F508del CFTR may overcome this defect; however, the rescued F508del CFTR still displays reduced chloride permeability. Therefore, a combined administration of correctors and potentiators of the gating defect is ideal. We recently found that 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), besides inhibiting the expression of the IL-8 gene in airway cells in which the inflammatory response was challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also potentiates the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of wild-type CFTR or F508del CFTR that has been restored to the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that long preincubation with nanomolar concentrations of TMA is able to effectively rescue both F508del CFTR-dependent chloride secretion and F508del CFTR cell surface expression in both primary or secondary airway cell monolayers homozygous for F508del mutation. The correction effect of TMA seems to be selective for CFTR and persisted for 24 h after washout. Altogether, the results suggest that TMA, besides its anti-inflammatory and potentiator activities, also displays corrector properties.

  9. A novel surveillance system for rescue and military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Yin Thu; Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Afzulpurkar, Nitin; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Htun, Hla Thar; Punyasai, Chumnarm

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel design of ultrasonic based surveillance system for rescue and military operations has been presented. The developed system consists of electronic module, transmitter, receiver, digital to analogue converter, liquid crystal display (LCD) and power supply. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab plate form. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequencies. The thin cloth, thin curtain, thick curtain, paper and transparent plastic have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection behind the obstacle.

  10. Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle OAT No. 1 Plugs in Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A test is described which demonstrates the compatibility of the Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle systems, the ground support equipment, and off-site support facilities by proceeding through a simulated launch countdown, liftoff, and flight. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, holddown arm release, service arm retraction, liftoff, and inflight separation are simulated. An external power source supplies transfer power to internal, and instrument unit commands are simulated by the digital command system. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, radio frequency matrix, and interface control chart.

  11. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed. PMID:22966472

  12. Power sources for search and rescue 406 MHz beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.; Perrone, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study directed at the selection of a commercially available, safe, low cost, light weight and long storage life battery for search and rescue (Sarsat) 406 MHz emergency beacons are presented. In the course of this work, five electrochemical systems (lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-carbon monofluoride, lithium-silver vanadium oxide, alkaline cells, and cadmium-mercuric oxide) were selected for limited experimental studies to determine their suitability for this application. Two safe, commercially available batteries (lithium-manganese dioxide and lithium-carbon monofluoride) which meet the near term requirements and several alternatives for the long term were identified.

  13. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action?

  14. [The rescue of the human in the patient who dies].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss briefly a proposal for the recovery of the essential content of the concept of human nature through the careful attention to ethics which must be received by a terminal ill person in the last phase of life. I propose palliative medicine as a way to rescue the human mind in the life of dying patients to whom the fullness of nature and human dignity belongs. It's about recovering the original medical ethos through the exercise of the virtues through which staff can be trained to recognize the weak, the sick, miserable, the dispossessed are important, are worthy of medicine, used for science: are human and quite valid.

  15. Wavenumber shift in search and rescue synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, George W.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Poehler, Paul L.; Rais, Houra

    1998-09-01

    The wavenumber shift is an important tool in multiple pass synthetic aperture radar interferometry. In addition to overcoming baseline decorrelation, it has proven to have additional benefits. Chief among these is the ability to filter out much of the decorrelated signal, leaving the coherent portion. In the presence of foliage induced temporal decorrelation, this corresponds to filtering out much of the foliage return while strengthening any coherent ground return. We will examine this and other benefits of the wavenumber shift within the context of the Search and Rescue SAR program. An example based on ERS 1/2 data is provided.

  16. Laser remote-sensing system analysis for search and rescue.

    PubMed

    Field, C T; Millar, P S

    1999-04-20

    We develop a general model of a laser remote-sensing system for search and rescue using targets marked with fluorescent dye. The dye fluoresces at a longer peak wavelength than the incident radiation, enabling a dye-covered target to be distinguished from the unshifted ground echo by the search system. The principal result is a simple expression derived for the average laser power required to search at a particular rate given a required ground energy density. A similar expression is applicable to imaging lidar systems. The example system shown indicates that active probing for lost planes may be practical. PMID:18319831

  17. Impacted and Fractured Biliary Basket: A Second Basket Rescue Technique.

    PubMed

    Benatta, Mohammed Amine; Desjeux, Ariane; Barthet, Marc; Grimaud, Jean Charles; Gasmi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman was treated with ERCP, ES, and biliary plastic stent, for large and multiple common bile duct stones. During a second ERCP basket extraction was impacted with a round entrapped stone. The basket handle was cut off; a metal sheath of extraendoscopic lithotriptor was advanced over the basket. The mechanical lithotripsy was complicated with basket traction wires fracturing, without breakage of the stone. A rescue standard basket was pushed until it caught the basket/stone complex. Using this method disengagement of the whole fractured basket/stone complex was achieved without need of surgery. It is the third case reported in the English literature. PMID:27293442

  18. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action? PMID:27269907

  19. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  20. Modulation of Rho GTPases rescues brain mitochondrial dysfunction, cognitive deficits and aberrant synaptic plasticity in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; de Bari, Lidia; Fiorentini, Carla; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Fabbri, Alessia; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Rho GTPases are molecules critically involved in neuronal plasticity and cognition. We have previously reported that modulation of brain Rho GTPases by the bacterial toxin CNF1 rescues the neurobehavioral phenotype in MeCP2-308 male mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). RTT is a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and a genetic cause of intellectual disability, for which no effective therapy is available. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to be involved in the mechanism of the disease pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulation of Rho GTPases by CNF1 rescues the reduced mitochondrial ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the condition which more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. In RTT mouse brain, CNF1 also restores the alterations in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes and of ATP synthase, the molecular machinery responsible for the majority of cell energy production. Such effects were achieved through the upregulation of the protein content of those MRC complexes subunits, which were defective in RTT mouse brain. Restored mitochondrial functionality was accompanied by the rescue of deficits in cognitive function (spatial reference memory in the Barnes maze), synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation) and Tyr1472 phosphorylation of GluN2B, which was abnormally enhanced in the hippocampus of RTT mice. Present findings bring into light previously unknown functional mitochondrial alterations in the brain of female mice modeling RTT and provide the first evidence that RTT brain mitochondrial dysfunction can be rescued by modulation of Rho GTPases.

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter crash and rescue information - Basic characteristics of the Space Shuttle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major fire and rescue activity procedures developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter are reproduced, together with diagrams of the Orbiter's ejection seat and of emergency egress-ingress hatches and blowout panels. Duties assigned to the Manager of the Fire, Crash and Rescue division of the Space Shuttle Program are discussed, including training of both ground and flight personnel in accordance with the Orbiter Crash Rescue Information manual. The special problem of providing a means of egress and rescue for the flight and ground crews of the Orbiter while it is in the piggyback configuration on top the Boeing 747 carrier was solved by use of a modified 85-foot articulated boom.

  2. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, F. Selcen; Monaghan, William D.; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  3. Establishment of a Rescue System for Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gassen, Uta; Collins, Fergal M.; Duprex, W. Paul; Rima, Bert K.

    2000-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been rescued from a full-length cDNA clone. Besides Measles virus (MV) and Rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. A plasmid p(+)CDV was constructed by sequential cloning using the Onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. The presence of a T7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic RNA by a T7 RNA polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia virus (MVA-T7). Plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid protein, the phosphoprotein, and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also under control of a T7 promoter, have been generated. Infection of HeLa cells with MVA-T7 and subsequent transfection of p(+)CDV plus the helper plasmids led to syncytium formation and release of infectious recombinant (r) CDV. Comparison of the rescued virus with the parental virus revealed no major differences in the progression of infection or in the shape and size of syncytia. A genetic tag, consisting of two nucleotide changes within the coding region of the L protein, has been identified in the rCDV genome. Expression by rCDV of all the major viral structural proteins has been demonstrated by immunofluorescence. PMID:11044118

  4. Rescue from dwarfism by thyroid function compensation in rdw rats.

    PubMed

    Furudate, Sen-ichi; Ono, Masao; Shibayama, Keiko; Ohyama, Yoshihide; Kuwada, Masahiro; Kimura, Toshimi; Kameya, Toru

    2005-10-01

    The rdw rat was initially reported as having hereditary dwarfism caused by pituitary dysfunction. Subsequent studies on the rdw rat, however, have demonstrated that the primary cause of rdw dwarfism is present in the thyroid gland but not in the pituitary gland. The primary cause of rdw rat disorders is a missense mutation of the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene by a one-point mutation. In the present study, we attempted to rescue the dwarfism of the rdw rats using a diet supplemented with thyroid powder (T-powder) and a thyroid graft (T-graft). The infants of the rdw rat were successfully raised to a mature stage body weight, accompanied by elevation of serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), by the T-powder. Furthermore, the T-graft successfully increased the body weight with fertility. The serum GH and PRL levels in the T-graft rdw rat significantly increased. The serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the T-graft rdw rat were significantly decreased but were significantly higher than those in the control rat. The GH and PRL mRNA expression in the rdw rat with the T-graft was virtually the same as that of the control, but the TSH beta mRNA differed from that of the control rats. Thus, the dwarfism in the rdw rat is rescued by thyroid function compensation, such as that afforded by T-powder and T-graft.

  5. New methods for gamete rescue from gonads of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Blottner, S; Lengwinat, T; Meyer, H H

    1997-01-01

    Methods for rescuing oocytes and spermatozoa post mortem are described, which were adapted from domestic cat as a model. Ovaries were mechanically processed for large-scale recovery of oocytes. Numbers of intact cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) per animal and of preantral follicles per ovary were 18 +/- 2 and 2892 +/- 665 in domestic cats, respectively. Similar results were obtained from 13 individuals of 6 nondomestic felids: 16 +/- 2 COCs and 1867 +/- 1144 follicles. Preantral follicles were cultured for at least 7 days. Intact COCs were maturated for 24 h and fertilized in vitro with homologous or heterologous (from domestic cat) spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from caudae epididymides (n = 11; five nondomestic species) and cryopreserved (n = 8) using a programmed freezer. The reproductive competence of oocytes collected post mortem was demonstrated by development to embryos (> or = 8 cells) in vitro. Spermatogenic efficiency of males was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of mitotic and meiotic testicular cells as well as by estimation of testosterone concentration in testes. The results demonstrate the possibility of retrospective assessment of male and female reproductive capacity. In conclusion, the described methods could be a useful part of gamete rescue programmes for endangered felids. PMID:9404269

  6. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  7. Multiple Renal Cyst Development but Not Situs Abnormalities in Transgenic RNAi Mice against Inv::GFP Rescue Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

  8. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  9. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  10. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair

    2010-01-01

    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  11. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  12. Rescue of NGF-deficient mice I: transgenic expression of NGF in skin rescues mice lacking endogenous NGF.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Susan M W; Davis, Brian M; Nishimura, Merry; Albers, Kathryn M; Jones, Marc E; Phillips, Heidi S

    2004-03-30

    Mice lacking a functional NGF gene (ngf-/- mice) have less than one third of the normal complement of sensory neurons, few sympathetic postganglionic neurons and die shortly after birth. We report here that transgenic expression of NGF under control of the K14 keratin promoter can rescue some elements of the peripheral nervous system and restore normal growth and viability to ngf-/- mice. While hybrid transgenic-ngf-/- mice (ngfTKOs) displayed marginal rescue of trigeminal ganglion neurons, the percentage of CGRP-positive neurons was restored to normal. Restoration of CGRP-positive terminals in skin and spinal cord was also found and accompanied by recovery of behavioral responses to noxious stimuli. ngfTKO mice displayed a normal number of superior cervical ganglion neurons and recovery of sympathetic innervation of skin. These results demonstrate that substitution of a functional NGF locus by a transgene directing expression largely to skin can result in normal growth and viability. Thus, the most vital functions of NGF are not dependent on faithful recapitulation of the normal spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. PMID:15010204

  13. Prenatal pharmacotherapy rescues brain development in a Down's syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Sandra; Stagni, Fiorenza; Bianchi, Patrizia; Ciani, Elisabetta; Giacomini, Andrea; De Franceschi, Marianna; Moldrich, Randal; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Mardon, Karine; Giuliani, Alessandro; Calzà, Laura; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2014-02-01

    dendritic development, cortical and hippocampal synapse development and brain volume. Importantly, these effects were accompanied by recovery of behavioural performance. The cognitive deficits caused by Down's syndrome have long been considered irreversible. The current study provides novel evidence that a pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine during embryonic development is able to fully rescue the abnormal brain development and behavioural deficits that are typical of Down's syndrome. If the positive effects of fluoxetine on the brain of a mouse model are replicated in foetuses with Down's syndrome, fluoxetine, a drug usable in humans, may represent a breakthrough for the therapy of intellectual disability in Down's syndrome.

  14. Resistance Training for Rescue Divers in the Sport Scuba Diving Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Constance M.; Kegeles, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the need for certified rescue divers increases as the diving industry grows. Rescue divers must be physically prepared to perform several dives in one day and to carry equipment on and off the boat. Physical recovery is also important, as they must be alert at all times to potential emergency situations. This require high levels of…

  15. 75 FR 18888 - Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and Transportation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Safety and Health Administration Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and... teams for underground coal mines on February 8, 2008. The United Mine Workers of America challenged the... revised its requirements for mine rescue teams for underground coal mines on June 17, 2009. The 2008...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.660 - What are the provisions for exempting emergency rescue equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: “EMERGENCY RESCUE EQUIPMENT—EXEMPT FROM EMISSION STANDARDS UNDER 40 CFR 1054.660.” Failure to properly label... emergency rescue equipment? 1054.660 Section 1054.660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD...

  17. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module XIV. Rescue Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide, one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (EMTs), focuses on the area of rescue techniques. Basic skills necessary for gaining access to, rescuing, and transporting a patient are listed along with suggestions for adapting training to the local situation. Fourteen…

  18. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency...

  20. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...