Science.gov

Sample records for air act citizen

  1. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  2. 75 FR 22787 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... the Clean Air Act and asking the court to enter judgment: (i) Declaring that EPA's failure to...

  3. 78 FR 43200 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard in the South Coast. 77 FR 12674 (March 1, 2012... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  4. 75 FR 16461 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... title V of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661 et seq., to RRI Energy Mid-Atlantic's Portland Generating Station...

  5. 77 FR 39493 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  6. 76 FR 25688 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... to a CAA Title V operating permit issued by the Southwest Clean Air Agency to Transalta...

  7. 77 FR 65684 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  8. 77 FR 47381 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  9. 78 FR 48161 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), notice is hereby given of a...

  10. 76 FR 45793 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C....

  11. 75 FR 67719 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is...

  12. 76 FR 51030 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  13. 76 FR 81930 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  14. 78 FR 40140 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  15. 75 FR 22786 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  16. 76 FR 75544 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  17. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  18. 78 FR 53143 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  19. 77 FR 56840 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  20. 77 FR 67814 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Pollution Affecting Visibility and Best Available Retrofit Technology Determinations,'' 76 FR 81,728 (Dec... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  1. 76 FR 56757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  2. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 2, 2011, EPA provided notice in accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as...

  3. 75 FR 24946 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  4. 75 FR 38520 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  5. 75 FR 9208 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Waterkeeper, Inc., Clean Water Action, and Chesapeake Climate Action Network (collectively ``Plaintiffs'')...

  6. 77 FR 46757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  7. 77 FR 66978 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  8. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  9. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  10. 77 FR 43074 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... decree to address a lawsuit filed by Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. v. EPA, No. 1:12-cv-00338-ESH (D.D.C). On or about March 2, 2012, Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. filed a complaint... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  11. 75 FR 74048 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is..., 42 U.S.C. 7410(k)(2), to take action on certain State Implementation Plan (``SIP'') submittals by...

  12. 76 FR 54465 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club et al. v. Jackson, No. 3:10-cv-04060-CRB (N.D. Cal.). On August 10, 2011, Plaintiffs filed......

  13. 75 FR 42085 - Proposed Settlement Agreements, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Recovery Council, the Fertilizer Institute, and the Utility Air Regulatory Group (collectively... EPA's final rule entitled ``Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases'', published at 75 FR 56,260...'' or ``the Act''). 75 FR 56,260 (October 30, 2009) (``2009 Final GHG Reporting Rule''). The 2009...

  14. 76 FR 12731 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau to Williams Four Corners LLC for the Sims (also spelled as ``Simms... CONTACT: Melina Williams, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S...; fax number (202) 564-5603; ] e-mail address: williams.melina@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  15. 76 FR 45562 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of the Huntington-Ashland area. The proposed consent decree establishes a deadline of March 30, 2012... National Ambient Air Quality Standard in the Kentucky portion of the Huntington- Ashland area...

  16. 77 FR 73029 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... promulgate emission standards for hazardous air pollutant emissions from brick and structural clay products manufacturing facilities and clay ceramics manufacturing facilities located at major sources by November 15... emissions from brick and structural clay products manufacturing facilities and clay ceramics...

  17. 75 FR 75672 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... related to the attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone in the Baton Rouge... regulations for the Baton Rouge area necessary to implement CAA requirements for ozone nonattainment areas... implementation plan addressing certain elements of a severe area 1-hour ozone SIP for Baton Rouge. In 2003,...

  18. 77 FR 45605 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... submitted 1997 annual particulate matter (``PM2.5'') National Ambient Air Quality Standard (``NAAQS... online at www.regulations.gov without change, unless the comment contains copyrighted material, CBI, or... electronic public docket. EPA's policy is that copyrighted material, including copyrighted material...

  19. 78 FR 2260 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... litigation in question. 77 FR 73029. This notice extends the public comment period on the proposed consent decree until January 14, 2013. Please see the notice published at 77 FR 73029 (Dec. 7, 2012) for... air pollutant emissions from brick and structural clay products manufacturing facilities and...

  20. 78 FR 60280 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file... Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed consent decree if the comments... inconsistent with the requirements of the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that...

  1. 77 FR 14785 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ..., between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD... parties or intervenors to the litigation in question. EPA or the Department of Justice may withdraw or... the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that consent to this consent decree...

  2. 75 FR 82392 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    .... and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be... Industrial-Commercial- Institutional Steam Generating Units,'' 71 FR 9866 (Feb. 27, 2006) (the ``Final Rule... that EPA had a legal obligation to act promptly to comply with the requirements of Section 111....

  3. 76 FR 58507 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM... Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed settlement agreement if the comments... inconsistent with the requirements of the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that...

  4. 78 FR 23560 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM... parties or intervenors to the litigation in question. EPA or the Department of Justice may withdraw or... the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that consent to this consent decree...

  5. 75 FR 1770 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC, between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal... of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed consent decree if the comments disclose... inconsistent with the requirements of the Act. Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that...

  6. A Citizen's Guide to Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed as a manual to help citizens participate in air quality control processes. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 are explained, the first steps in determining a community's air pollution problems are outlined, the basic components of an implementation plan are specified, national and state standards of performance and…

  7. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  8. Enhanced Clean Air Act enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Faletto, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 added new enforcement authorities which will change the way the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the States and environmental groups litigate enforcement actions. EPA, the States and ordinary citizens now have at their disposal an extensive array of enforcement options to deter or penalize those who violate requirements of the Clean Air Act or State Implementation Plans (SIPs). These new enforcement authorities take on even greater significance for major sources covered by the Title V Operating Permit Program.

  9. Your Right to Clean Air, A Manual for Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    This manual provides the citizen with basic information for taking action against air pollution. A summary of the effects of various concentrations of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, and hydrocarbons is presented. Suggestions are made for obtaining information about community air pollution problems, and how…

  10. Polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures: Effective use or improper abuse of citizen suits under the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, recognizing the cumbersome and often ineffective enforcement mechanisms in existing federal water and air pollution statutes, Congress passed the first citizen suit provision. This provision of the Clean Water Act was the subject of intense debate and underwent several transitions before it was finally adopted. With the advent of citizen suits in environmental legislation, Congress opened the courts to the public. Citizen suit provisions allowed private citizens to serve as watch-dogs of both industry and government, creating an additional check in the enforcement schemes established by Congress. But the provisions allowed only for enforcement, not for the right to sue for damages. The remedies available to citizen-plaintiffs were injunctive relief and, in the case of the Clean Water Act, civil penalties payable to the US Treasury. Focusing on the Clean Water Act, this Comment explores the use of alternative payments as settlement of Clean Water Act citizen suits: polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures. As established through consent decrees, these expenditures go to local cleanup, research, and educational projects in the area of Clean Water Act violations, in lieu of or in addition to civil penalties. While the US Department of Justice has objected to the use of such settlements, one apellate court has ratified their use. This essay postulates that environmentally beneficial expenditures established through consent decrees are an important and effective use of the Clean Water Act's citizen suit provision, serving the dual goals of deterring polluters and mitigating the effects of past violations.

  11. Enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, E.A.; Davis, H.P.

    1994-12-31

    In discussing the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the authors focus on the following: EPA enforcement, including criminal and administrative civil penalties; NJDEPE enforcement authority, including criminal and administrative civil penalties, as well as economic benefit and judicial enforcement; citizens enforcement; and evidence of non compliance.

  12. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  13. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  14. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Quality Assurance Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities in the United States are potentially impacted by a wide variety of environmental pollution sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages communities to advocate for environmental and public health mitigations and to raise awareness of air pol...

  15. Proposed Clean Air Act reform draws fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A Congressional hearing on the accomplishments of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments turned into a squabble about whether Bush administration efforts to reform the act would improve or undermine air quality regulations.At the 1 May hearing of the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, a key sticking point concerned whether an emissions "cap-and-trade" program, which was proposed as part of President George W. Bush's 14 February Clear Skies initiative, would effectively meet air quality standards. The program would provide market-based incentives to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury. Another point of contention was whether such a program would make some current regulations, including new source review of upgraded utility plants, redundant and unnecessary.

  16. Philosophy of Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 in India: An Appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Runa Mehta

    2012-09-01

    When the winds of change blow all around and new situations and conditions emerge, this necessitate newer responses conducive to achieve the broad national goal. There has been a steady rise in the population of older persons in India, because of an appreciable increase in the life expectancy. But with the increase in population the traditional norms and status of the senior citizens have deteriorated. The result of withering of the joint family system, industrialization, globalization etc. is that a large number of parents are not being maintained by their children, as was the normal social practice. Consequently, the elders are now exposed to emotional neglect and to lack of physical and financial support. They are facing a lot of problems in the absence of adequate social security. Keeping in view these facts, to ensure that the children perform their moral obligation towards their parents and to eliminate the agony and sufferings of this vulnerable section of society, legislation for the welfare of the Parents and Senior Citizens in pursuance of the provisions of Article 41 read with Entry 23 of the Concurrent List (Schedule VIII) of the Constitution of India has been enacted and titled as The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.

  17. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  18. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project GoalDevelop tools Citizen Scientists can use to assist them in conducting environmental monitoringResearch PlanIdentify a citizen science project as a potential pilot study locationEstablish their pollutant monitoring interestsDevelop a sensor package to meet their needs ...

  19. 77 FR 16548 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection... appointment to its Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). Applications are due by May 1, 2012 and...

  20. Clean Air Act: Senate mulls revision bill

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-12-13

    Senator Lauch Faircloth (R., NC) has circulated a draft summary of possible revisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Chemical industry sources say the proposal would provide some regulatory relief but fear that supporting Faircloth could jeopardize their relationship with EPA. Faircloth`s proposal addresses various controversial aspect of CAA`s Title V permit program including the monitoring and permit modification provisions. The proposal would also define a facility`s {open_quotes}potential to emit,{close_quotes} upon which Title V permits are based. In the past year EPA has substantially revised its Title V program to address complaints from industry, the states, and Congress that the monitoring and modification provisions were too burdensome.

  1. Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents a discussion framework for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The author focuses on both an analysis of the problem of air pollution and an examination of the politics that went in to crafting the Clean Air Act Amendments. The book is intended for those not familiar with the problem.

  2. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood. PMID:23631940

  3. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood.

  4. The Air Sensor Citizen Science Toolbox: A Collaboration in Community Air Quality Monitoring and Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research in Action: Collect air quality data to characterize near-road/near-source hotspots; Determine potential impact on nearby residences & roadways; Case study of successful use of such data; Relationship between distance to roadways and industrial sources, exposure to...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  10. Clean Air Act Amendments of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-02-04

    03/04/2010 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution from livestock operations and perceived annoyance among citizens.

    PubMed

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Suh, Helen; Nadimi, Esmaeil S; Løfstrøm, Per; Ellermann, Thomas; Andersen, Helle V; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that residential exposure to livestock odors can affect the health and wellbeing of rural citizens. However, exposure-response models for this relationship have not been developed. One of the main challenges is to identify a compound that can be used as proxy for livestock odor exposure. In this paper we developed models that describe the relationship between long-term averaged outdoor residential ammonia (NH(3)) exposures and livestock odor annoyance experienced by rural residents, and investigated person-related variables associated with annoyance responses. We used emission-based atmospheric dispersion modeling data to estimate household-specific outdoor concentrations and survey data to characterize the study subjects. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions were used for model development. Residential NH(3) exposure was positively associated with moderate, high and extreme odor annoyance (adjusted odds ratio=10.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.35-83.13, for each unit increase in Log(e)NH(3) exposure). Specific characteristics of the exposed subjects (i.e., age, time per week spent at home, presence of children at home and job) act as co-determinants of odor annoyance responses. Predictive models showed classification accuracies of 67-72%. The results suggest that NH(3) exposure in the residential outdoor environment can be used as a predictor of livestock odor annoyance in population studies.

  12. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  13. Institutional assessment of the implementation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act: Florida case study. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.F.; Innes, R.C.

    1980-10-15

    This report examines and evaluates the capabilities and effectiveness of the institutions charged with enforcing the Clean Air Act requirements in the state of Florida. Among the sections of the Act addressed are those dealing with Federal grants (Sections 105 and 175), designation and planning (Sections 107 and 110), enforcement issues (Sections 113, 114 and 120), and citizen suits (Section 304). The Title I, Part D requirements for nonattainment areas are reviewed extensively. This evaluation is part of a larger effort to aid the National Commission on Air Quality in assessing the ability of various levels of government to develop, implement, and enforce air quality management strategies in response to the requirements of the Act. Case studies are also underway in Puget Sound, Washington; Houston, Texas; the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Youngstown, Ohio area; and the Eastern Tennessee River Valley of Alabama and Tennessee. A summary report will integrate the findings of these five studies.

  14. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  15. Long-term ambient air pollution exposure and risk of high blood pressure among citizens in Nis, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk for high blood pressure (BP). The aim of our study is to evaluate any effects in BP in citizens exposed to long-term ambient air pollution. The subjects are 1136 citizens, aged 18-70 years, living for more than 5 years in the same home in the areas with a different level of air pollution. The air concentrations of black smoke and sulfur dioxide were determined in the period from 2001 to 2011. We measured systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Alcohol consumption had the greatest influence on the incidence of hypertension as a risk factor (RR: 3.461; 95% CI: 1.72-6.93) and age had the least (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.183-1.92). Exposure to air pollution increases risk for developing hypertension 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.46-4.49). Physical activity has proved to be statistically significant protective factor for the development of hypertension. Long-term exposure to low levels of main air pollutants is significantly associated with elevated risk of hypertension.

  16. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users' aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators' and citizens' perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application. PMID:27007375

  17. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-03-19

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users' aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators' and citizens' perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application.

  18. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  19. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  20. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users’ aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators’ and citizens’ perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application. PMID:27007375

  1. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the... U.S.C. 6901 to 6992k; Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f to 300j-26;...

  2. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, except for those...

  3. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure...

  4. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  5. State air pollution permit program under subchapter 5 of the Clean Air Act as of August 8, 1995. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 imposed the requirement for a comprehensive set of state air pollution permit programs on a nationwide basis for the first time. Prior to the passage of this law, there were about thirty-five state permit programs, and they were not subject to Federal supervision. During the debate in the House of Representives it was stated that the purpose of the permit program was to clarify and make more enforceable a source`s pollution control requirements. In addition, the Congress wanted to encourage public involvement in the process so that interested citizens will be able to review and help enforce a source`s obligations under the Act.

  6. Forces Acting on a Ball in an Air Jet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Zendri, G.; Oss, S.

    2011-01-01

    The forces acting on a ball in an air jet have been measured using simple equipment. Such measurements allow quite a precise, non-ambiguous description and understanding of the physical mechanism which explains the famous levitating ball experiment. (Contains 7 figures.)

  7. Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

    2010-12-01

    hikers to date, the ratio of resource expenditures in recruiting volunteers and QA/QCing their data for actual research application has been high. Mountain Watch staff are now refining the program to achieve education and research goals a manner that is sustainable into the future with limited fiscal and staff resources. The quality of our citizen phenology observations, in comparison to staff monitoring, has lead to refinements including directing general audience hikers to well-defined trailside observation stations, growing our more skilled amateur botanist volunteer base, and use of remote cameras for quality controls and better temporal coverage. Visibility monitoring at four mountain vistas has recently been analyzed in the context of policy applications. Refinements will be presented that will further inform natural resource management of air quality in relation to Clean Air Act Air Quality Related Values and a potential visibility focused particulate matter secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Overall lessons learned, regarding audience considerations, resource needs, and long-term sustainability, from our 5-year field based geoscience programs will be discussed.

  8. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  9. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  10. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) A Appendix A to Subpart A... Engaging in Limited Coastwise Trade Pt. 68, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) A Appendix A to Subpart A... Engaging in Limited Coastwise Trade Pt. 68, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) A Appendix A to Subpart A... Engaging in Limited Coastwise Trade Pt. 68, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) A Appendix A to Subpart A... Engaging in Limited Coastwise Trade Pt. 68, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath...

  14. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) A Appendix A to Subpart A... Engaging in Limited Coastwise Trade Pt. 68, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath...

  15. Applying the Clean Air Act to municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, D.R.; Romzick, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    On March 12, 1996, the EPA promulgated the new Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills, the first federal air regulation specifically for MSW landfills. Landfills subject to this regulation which exceeded the threshold design capacity also became subject to the Title V operating permit program. This began the application of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to most of these nontraditional air sources. Unlike landfills, typical air sources have easily defined input capacities that correspond to potential emissions while the process creates a product or output. All these concepts are difficult and confusing to apply to MSW landfills. Applicability of the following CAA regulations are specifically addressed in this paper: NSPS for MSW landfills; new Source Review (NSR)/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD); landfill Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT); 112(g) Modification of Major Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(r) Accidental Release Prevention; and Title V. Along with summarizing the potential applicability of each, the main issues are presented along with the current information on the regulations.

  16. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2011 program....

  17. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2010 program....

  18. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  19. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  20. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  1. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  2. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  3. A breath of fresh air: EPA`s more flexible approach to the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Curreri, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This article highlights the changes in the Clean Air Act rules as defined by the USEPA. The major changes discussed include the following: definition of a `major source`; streamlined Title V Permits; less detailed descriptions; permit revisions may be reduced; periodic and enhanced monitoring; more practical requirements; case-by-case MACT standards.

  4. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  5. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  6. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  7. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  8. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  9. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  10. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  11. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  12. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  14. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  15. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  16. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  17. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  1. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  2. 75 FR 80809 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Authority's Paradise Fossil Plant in Drakesboro, Kentucky. Under the terms of the proposed consent decree... Tennessee Valley Authority's Paradise Fossil Plant in Drakesboro, Kentucky. Under the terms of the proposed....regulations.gov to submit or view public comments, access the index listing of the contents of the...

  3. 78 FR 51186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... 112(f)(2), 42 U.S.C. 7412(f)(2), for petroleum refineries under 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart CC and 40 CFR... the emission standards in 40 CFR Part 63, Subparts CC and UUU under CAA section 112(d)(6), 42 U.S.C. 7412(d)(6), or sign a proposed determination that revision of Subparts CC and UUU is not...

  4. 77 FR 5010 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Management, Inc.--Nucor Steel Louisiana for a pig iron manufacturing process in St. James Parish, Louisiana... permit for the aforementioned pig iron manufacturing process and a Title V permit for a direct reduced iron manufacturing process in St. James Parish, Louisiana. Under the terms of the proposed...

  5. 78 FR 18979 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Quality to Consolidated Environmental Management, Inc.-- Nucor Steel Louisiana for a pig iron manufacturing process and for a direct reduced iron manufacturing process in St. James Parish, Louisiana. Under... Environmental Quality to Consolidated Environmental Management, Inc.--Nucor Steel Louisiana for a pig...

  6. 77 FR 14784 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    .... Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word.... See 76 FR 12860; 76 FR 60373. On September 30, 2011, the State of Kentucky withdrew its previously..., EPA approved the emissions inventory in the Cincinnati-Hamilton SIP. See 76 FR 77903. The...

  7. 78 FR 30919 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM... question. EPA or the Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed consent decree... Justice determines that consent to this consent decree should be withdrawn, the terms of the decree...

  8. 75 FR 80808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...., Washington, DC, between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on... litigation in question. EPA or the Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed... Department of Justice determines that consent to this consent decree should be withdrawn, the terms of...

  9. 76 FR 77226 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. Comments on a disk or CD... intervenors to the litigation in question. EPA or the Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent.... Unless EPA or the Department of Justice determines that consent to this consent decree should...

  10. 75 FR 24947 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Register of April 30, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-10149, on page 22786, in the second and third columns...-0751 (W.D. WI). The document did not include the docket identification number for this action....

  11. 75 FR 51267 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Illinois Environmental Protection Agency to U.S. Steel Corporation's Granite City Works facility. Under the... to U.S. Steel Corporation's Granite City Works facility. Under the terms of the proposed...

  12. 77 FR 48980 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...'s Granite City Works facility. Under the terms of the proposed consent decree, EPA would agree to... Environmental Protection ] Agency for U.S. Steel Corporation's Granite City Works facility. Under the terms...

  13. 76 FR 45564 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Resources to Carmeuse Lime & Stone, a lime kiln facility in Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Under the proposed consent... permit issued by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to Carmeuse Lime & Stone, a lime...

  14. 75 FR 54873 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... to the Luke paper Company, a subsidiary of New Page Corporation (``Luke Paper'') for a pulp and paper... permit issued by the Maryland Department of the Environment to Luke Paper for a pulp and paper mill in... that public comments, whether submitted electronically or in paper, will be made available for...

  15. 77 FR 50506 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... ``exceptional events'' and thus excluded from regulatory determinations. 75 FR 39,366 (July 8, 2010). The... significantly in terms of meteorology, sources, or conditions from the events that were at issue in...

  16. 75 FR 71125 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors within the San Joaquin Valley for purposes of... nonattainment SIP includes measures intended to control emissions of fine particulate matter and its...

  17. 78 FR 26028 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Columbia: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 12-cv- 00347 (D.D.C.). On May 24, 2012, Plaintiff filed a second... Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The EPA Docket Center Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to...

  18. 77 FR 41186 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 12-cv- 00013-RWR (D. D.C.). Plaintiff filed a complaint and a first amended... requirement for the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area. 77 FR 24382. On May 4... nonattainment area. 77 FR 26441. On May 18, 2012, EPA took final action to approve the SIP submittals...

  19. 77 FR 19013 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...:11-cv-0315 (W.D. WI). Plaintiff filed a complaint alleging that EPA has failed to satisfy a non... open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone...

  20. 75 FR 39014 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... the Western District of Wisconsin: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-0127 (W.D. Wis.). Plaintiff filed...., Washington, DC. The EPA Docket Center Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday...

  1. 75 FR 71126 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... District of California: Sierra Club, et al. v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-01954 VRW (N.D. CAO.). On May 6, 2010, Plaintiffs filed a complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform a mandatory duty under section 110(k)(2) of... EPA on November 16, 2007. The proposed consent decree establishes a deadline for EPA to take...

  2. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... proposed consent decree, to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, Civil Action No. 1:10-cv- 01672-RPM (D. CO). On or about July 14, 2010, WildEarth Guardians filed a..., WildEarth Guardians filed a first amended complaint alleging that EPA Administrator Jackson failed...

  3. 76 FR 34983 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address lawsuits filed by WildEarth Guardians, National... United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians, et al. v. Jackson, No....

  4. 75 FR 67967 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-01218-...

  5. 76 FR 56756 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... proposed consent decree to resolve a lawsuit filed by the WildEarth Guardians (``Plaintiff'') in the United States District Court for the District of New Mexico: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 1:11-cv-...

  6. 76 FR 54463 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians and Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: WildEarth...

  7. 76 FR 17416 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth...: WildEarth Guardians et al. v. Jackson, No. 3:10-cv-04603-WHA (ND CA). On October 12, 2010,...

  8. 77 FR 46756 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 12-cv-00754-RPM-MEH (D....

  9. 77 FR 5518 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... given of a proposed consent decree to settle a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, Case No. 1:11-cv-...

  10. 76 FR 34982 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe v. Jackson, No. 4:11-cv-02205-SI... hereby given of a proposed consent decree, between Petitioners: WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth...

  11. 76 FR 79172 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 2:11-cv-01661-...

  12. 76 FR 71027 - Proposed Settlement Agreements, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... hereby given of two proposed settlement agreements to resolve two cases filed by the WildEarth Guardians... Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (WildEarth Guardians v. EPA, No. 11-9527) challenging...

  13. 78 FR 16667 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Preserve Pepe'ekeo Health and Environment in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii: Preserve Pepe'ekeo Health and Environment v. EPA, No. CV 12 00520 ACK-RLP (D. HI). On September 19, 2012, Preserve Pepe'ekeo Health and...

  14. 75 FR 11886 - Proposed Settlement Agreement and Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... address a lawsuit filed by Wildearth Guardians: Wildearth Guardians v. Jackson, Civil Action No. 09-cv... Court for the District of Colorado (Civil Action No. 09-cv-02148-REB- MJW). In the amended...

  15. 77 FR 4320 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... rule approving in part and disapproving in part the 2009 RACT SIP. See 77 FR 1417 (January 10, 2012... District of California: Sierra Club, et al. v. Jackson, No. C11-cv- 03106-JSW (N.D. CA). On June 23,...

  16. 77 FR 46759 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... CAA SIPs for improving visibility in mandatory Federal Class I areas. 74 FR 2392. Plaintiffs filed a... in accordance with section 113(g) of the CAA. 76 FR 75544 (Dec. 2, 2011). Following its review of the... haze. 77 FR 31240 (May 25, 2012). The proposed consent decree requires EPA to sign for publication...

  17. 78 FR 23562 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... docket system is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity, email... EPA's electronic public docket, EPA's electronic mail (email) system is not an ``anonymous access..., online at www.regulations.gov (EPA's preferred method); by email to oei.docket@epa.gov ; mailed to...

  18. 75 FR 40827 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...) Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities (40 CFR part 63, subpart GG); (13) Mineral Wool Production (40...) Ferroalloys Production: Ferromanganese and Silicomanganese (40 CFR part 63, subpart XXX); ] (16)...

  19. The Citizen Science Toolbox: A One-Stop Resource for Air Sensor Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air sensor technology market is exploding with new sensors in all kinds of forms. Developers are putting sensors in wristbands, headphones, and cell phone add-ons. Small, portable and lower-cost measurement devices using sensors are coming on the market with a wide variety of...

  20. Clean Air. It's Up to You, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Opportunities for citizen participation in federal environmental decisions relative to air pollution and its control are assessed in this booklet. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the federal agency charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act, offers guidelines for responsible citizen action. Designed for groups already organized…

  1. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... proposed determination that the reduction in expenditures of non-Federal funds for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of...

  2. Highlights of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    1991-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act provide for operating permits for stationary sources of pollution, marking a change that is comparable to federal water pollution regulations. The bill addresses acid rain emissions and will phase out production of chemicals contributing to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. A major new concept incorporated into the emission limits established by law is a system of tradeable emissions credits. If a facility reduces emissions below the standard or ahead of the timetable set by law, emissions credits are earned that can be applied to future emissions or sold to another facility. The bill also provides strict deadlines for the EPA to meet in promulgating the regulations. These deadlines will seriously strain the personnel and financial resources of the agency. Perhaps the most significant of the miscellaneous items in the law is a provision for extended unemployment benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act for workers who lose their jobs because of the law's provisions. However, this is contingent on the displaced workers' seeking job retraining.

  3. 77 FR 14830 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a... against Spectro Alloys Corporation pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b... results in emissions of regulated air pollutants, including dioxins and furans, hydrogen...

  4. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  5. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  6. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  7. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.9 EPA review of tribal Clean Air... boundaries of a reservation or tribal jurisdiction over non-reservation areas shall apply to all future...

  9. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  10. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given... injunctive relief under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for failure to... earthmoving, failure to operate a water application system while conducting earthmoving, and failure...

  11. Seeing Through Smoke: Sorting through the Science and Politics in the Making of the 1956 British Clean Air Act (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1952 “Killer Smog” left over 4000 citizens of Greater London dead in a single week. It was a highly visible environmental disaster, which pinned the British government with responsibility over factory and domestic coal smoke pollution. Within four years of the Smog, the British parliament passed the 1956 Clean Air Act, which was designed primarily to prevent the release of dark smoke from the chimneys of private dwellings and factories. This act is considered a significant turning point in the history of environmental regulation. Through the analysis of confidential documents from government ministries and Members of Parliament, my research has focused on how decisions were made following this man-made environmental catastrophe. The primary focus of this presentation will be to explore why the British government appeared lethargic in the face of its long-standing coal pollution problem and why it finally passed the first clean air act in the world. In this case, establishing responsibility and organizing research were the major time constraints on policy action. In the months following the 1952 Smog, government departments passed off responsibility and quarreled over jurisdiction in the smog matter. Ministries held responsible for air pollution jointly established the Committee on Air Pollution to find a solution to urban smog. In the years following, the Committee on Air Pollution compiled research on the health effects and economic impact of air pollution, deriving its information from a variety of sources. In its 1954 final report, the committee named smoke and sulfur dioxide the most likely culprits of the 1952 deaths, and it recommended the elimination of smoke-producing coal from the British market, a major change to how the British fueled their homes and factories. The resulting 1956 Clean Air Act was the product of numerous compromises over the economic, political, and social issues present in Great Britain at the time. The British government

  12. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  13. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  14. Citizen Hydrology and Compressed-Air Hydropower for Rural Electrification in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    At the present time, only one in eight residents of Haiti has access to electricity. Two recent engineering and statistical innovations have the potential for vastly reducing the cost of installation of hydropower in Haiti and the rest of the developing world. The engineering innovation is that wind, solar and fluvial energy have been used to compress air for generation of electricity for only 20 per megawatt-hour, in contrast to the conventional World Bank practice of funding photovoltaic cells for 156 per megawatt-hour. The installation of hydropower requires a record of stream discharge, which is conventionally obtained by installing a gaging station that automatically monitors gage height (height of the water surface above a fixed datum). An empirical rating curve is then used to convert gage height to stream discharge. The multiple field measurements of gage height and discharge over a wide range of discharge values that are required to develop and maintain a rating curve require a manpower of hydrologic technicians that is prohibitive in remote and impoverished areas of the world. The statistical innovation is that machine learning has been applied to the USGS database of nearly four million simultaneous measurements of gage height and discharge to develop a new classification of rivers so that a rating curve can be developed solely from the stream slope, channel geometry, horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest upstream and downstream confluences, and two pairs of discharge - gage height measurements. The objective of this study is to organize local residents to monitor gage height at ten stream sites in the northern peninsula of Haiti over a one-year period in preparation for installation of hydropower at one of the sites. The necessary baseline discharge measurements and channel surveying are being carried out for conversion of gage height to discharge. Results will be reported at the meeting.

  15. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    PubMed

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  16. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    PubMed

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  17. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  18. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  19. The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

  20. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  1. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  2. Geosciences Acting Out: Using Theatre to Understand Citizen Values and Concerns with Respect to Marcellus Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orland, B.; Doan, W. J.; Russell, S. B.; Belser, A.

    2014-12-01

    Marcellus shale gas is being developed with unprecedented speed. The highly capitalized energy industry has influenced major changes in the regulatory framework at federal and state levels and entered into mineral lease agreements 100-fold bigger that previously seen in Northern Pennsylvania. At the same time, the technical and scientific issues at play from geology and hydrology through ecology and sociology effectively block local citizens from fully understanding and participating in decision-making about their own futures. The Marcellus Community-Based Performance Program engages adult residents, landowners, and local decision makers in knowledge-generating performances made collectively with those most impacted by shale gas development. Unlike traditional proscenium stage theatre, community-based performance is a collaborative means for exploring a collectively significant issue or circumstance. The choice to use a community-based theatre method, which engages the spectators in the performance itself as a way of making meaning, was based on the following goals to achieve good debate; to engage community participants in discussion through the exchange of ideas, argument and counter-argument, in an effort to further the education of all; to facilitate the perspectives of citizens in communities where different responses to the risk issues exist because of local economies and legacies with resource extraction. The plays and performances, developed around the broad theme of Living with Risk and Uncertainty, use existing research, reports, newspaper articles, and interviews to present the range of perceptions, facts, and issues surrounding the environmental risks associated with natural gas drilling and focused on developing scientific understanding. Performances have been assessed by seeking direct feedback from participants through pre-performance surveys, post-performance dialogues (talk-backs), and exit interviews. Participants have reported the highest levels

  3. 75 FR 51483 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...' violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7411 et seq., and the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Act, N.J.S... to the Consent Decree. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment... at the stated address. Maureen Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section,...

  4. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged... Processed Meats, Inc. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Air Act (CAA), 42 U.S.C....

  5. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  6. The Role of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, With Emphasis on the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board - 12482

    SciTech Connect

    Santistevan, Menice B.

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is comprised of eight Citizens' Advisory Boards, chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the EM SSAB is to provide the DOE with recommendations regarding Environmental Management issues from legacy waste produced at major sites across the DOE Complex. The Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB) is the site specific advisory board to the DOE on issues of environmental monitoring, remediation, waste management and long-term stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The other boards are located at: Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Paducah, Portsmouth, Oak Ridge and Savannah River. Using broad citizen outreach and input, the SSAB provides an official mechanism for the citizenry at each of these sites to monitor current activities affecting the region and also to have input into the prioritization of future activities. 'The mission of the EM SSAB is to more directly involve stakeholders in EM Planning and decision-making processes for the nuclear weapons complex cleanup. DOE has various means of involving the public in its planning and decision-making processes; the EM SSAB is only one component of EM's public participation program, and is not intended to be an exclusive means of public participation. It is the policy of DOE and EM to conduct it programs in an open and responsive manner, thereby encouraging and providing the opportunity for public participation in its planning and decision-making processes. EM SSAB members are appointed to a two year term and may serve up to three terms. During this time, members are able to hear many presentation from subject matter experts, attend several site tours at their site and across the DOE complex and are able to express their concerns and give input to the prioritization of clean up at each site. It is an

  7. Analysis of S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

  8. 75 FR 62421 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... that on September 30, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Dakota Ethanol... Dakota Ethanol, LLC pursuant to Sections 111 and 502(a) of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C... violations of the Act. Dakota Ethanol, LLC owns and operates an ethanol production facility in Lake...

  9. Analysis of S. 485, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, and S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    On July 30, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested the Energy Information Administration to undertake analyses of S.843, The Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper, and S.485, Clear Skies Act of 2003. Senator Inhofe also asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze S. 485 without the mercury provisions and S. 843 without the mercury and carbon dioxide provisions. This service report responds to both requests.

  10. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  11. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  12. An Analysis of Citizen Participation Programs Relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500): Case Studies of the Washington County Project; State of Wisconsin; and Dane County, Wisconsin Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Elizabeth E.

    The thesis, which presents an analysis of three Wisconsin citizen participation programs relating to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), has identified the adult education role in teaching and applying skills, promoting growth in governmental understanding, assisting in public planning and…

  13. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  14. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  15. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  16. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  17. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program...

  18. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  19. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  20. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  1. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  2. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  3. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Pollution Control Act. As used in this clause “facilities” shall have the meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4... contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein. (c) A condition of award of...

  4. 76 FR 76762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Clean Air Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b) and 7477. Defendant produces nitric acid, which is used in the production of ammonium nitrate and other fertilizers and explosives. The nitric acid process results in the emissions of regulated air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (``NO X ''). The...

  5. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  6. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  7. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  9. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  10. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  11. Trials and tribulations implementing the Clean Air Act Title V in fourteen air districts

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.

    1998-12-31

    Santa Fe pacific Pipeline Partners, L.P. (SFPP) is a refined petroleum pipeline operating in six states in the western United States. Sixteen terminals are subject to the Title V permit to operate requirements. There are many obstacles to overcome, not only when preparing applications for Title V operating permits, but in the implementation phase of the project as well. Each Air District has its own set of rules and regulations that must be adhered to in preparing the application. For example, some districts required the insignificant sources to be documented and included in compliance plans and some do not. The format required for the application varies from stringent forms that must be completed to no forms at all. In preparing the Title V application for SFPP, the author quickly realized if this confusion was transferred to the implementation phase, compliance would be a failure. Therefore, early on the environmental manager instituted a training program. Beginning with a pilot program in one district the author began training managers and supervisors. This program quickly was expanded to include senior vice presidents and technicians. This training session was a one hour of general overview to visually describe how the Title V process would affect the facilities. As a result of this training, virtually every employee became familiar with how the Title V program was affecting the facilities. Engineering and Customer Service is instructed to notify the manager of any and every new project so it could undergo a review to determine if it affected a Title V facility. The field acts as a check of the system. Any change or modification at any facility is immediately under scrutiny for Title V implications. Another obstacle to overcome is to help the facility deal with something that is new and basically a different way of operating.

  12. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') and Federal regulations promulgated thereunder, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (``ME DEP'') submitted a request for approval to implement and enforce the amended ``Chapter 125: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner Regulation'' (Maine Dry Cleaner Rule) as a partial substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for......

  13. The enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act - not the same old Section 113

    SciTech Connect

    Benthul, H.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) of 1990 was in many respects a major overhaul of the previous versions of the Clean Air Act although it retained most of the preexisting major programs such as the basic National Ambient Air Quality Standards ({open_quotes}NAAQS{close_quotes}) scheme, PSD, new source performance standards, regulation of toxic air pollutants, and the like. The 1990 Act strengthened the enforcement provisions of the Act by enhancing the enforcement powers of the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) of {section}113. For example, the criminal enforcement provisions of {section}113 are expanded both in the range of punishment and in the kinds of activities which are subject to criminal enforcement. Moreover, the Act now contains a number of additional enforcement provisions in addition to those found in {section}113. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the {section}113 provision and as well, identify those enforcement provisions found outside {section}113. The latter provisions will be taken up first and addressed by Titles of the Act. The discussion of specific sections and subsections of the CAA are necessarily brief and in the nature of highlighting of particular features; like the rest of the CAA, careful reading and analysis is a requirement for full understanding.

  14. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for.... ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Director of the EPA Region III Air Protection Division... Reliant Energy Mid-Atlantic Power Holdings, LLC, for its Portland Generating Station in Northampton...

  15. 77 FR 5009 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... object to a Clean Air Act (Act) Title V operating permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  16. 76 FR 43684 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Energy (Xcel)--Pawnee Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act or CAA... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Pawnee Power Station AGENCY: Environmental...

  17. 76 FR 12730 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel-Granite.... Steel--Granite City Works (USS). Sections 307(b) and 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act) provide that...

  18. 75 FR 19968 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for... April 1, 2009 title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Hayden Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act), Petitioners may seek...

  19. Citizens Protection Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Massie, Thomas [R-KY-4

    2013-01-03

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. The effect of the clean air act of Erie County, New York on restaurant employment.

    PubMed

    Hyland, A; Vena, C; Cummings, K M; Lubin, A

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of the Erie County, New York, Clean Air Act on the restaurant industry by examining restaurant employment and payroll statistics. Monthly county-specific data were compared between 1996 (before the law), 1997 (after phase 1, which required 80% of indoor restaurant seating to be smoke-free), and 1998 (after phase 2 which prohibited smoking in 100% of indoor restaurant seating). Erie County's Clean Air Act had no adverse economic impact on its restaurant industry. PMID:18019963

  1. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  2. 77 FR 58988 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... (Petition), submitted under title V of the Clean Air Act (Act) by WildEarth Guardians (Petitioner), to.... EPA received a petition from WildEarth Petitioner dated August 4, 2011, requesting that EPA object...

  3. 77 FR 15125 - Notice of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a proposed Second Consent Decree in United States and the State of Kansas v. Coffeyville... matter at its oil refinery located in Coffeyville, Kansas. Under the proposed Second Consent Decree...

  4. 77 FR 61641 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Rico in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Suiza Dairy Corporation, Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-01810... Dairy Corporation, to resolve alleged violations of Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act at dairies in... the two dairies; (2) perform supplemental environmental projects (``SEPs'') that will...

  5. 76 FR 52692 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... on August 17, 2011, a Consent Decree in United States of America v. Erie Coke Corporation, Civil... Pennsylvania. In this action, the United States sought injunctive relief and penalties against Erie Coke Corporation (``Erie Coke'') pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for...

  6. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... to Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act (76 FR 30782). In... section 307(d). (See 76 FR 30782: ``The Administrator determined that this action is subject to the... for the data. (See 76 FR 30782, 30784, 30815 (May 26, 2011); see also 75 FR 39094, 39098,...

  7. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny, Moe & Jack, and Baja, Inc.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Pep Boys... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny,...

  8. Report on the First APCA Government Affairs Seminar "The Clean Air Act."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Williamina, T.

    1973-01-01

    A summary of 18 speeches and sessions from the Government Affairs Seminar is given. Topics featured were emission standards for mobile sources, implementation strategies for stationary sources, non-degradation of air quality standards, and technology assessment and the National Environmental Policy Act. (BL)

  9. 76 FR 45618 - Notice of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 25, 2011, a proposed Joint Stipulation to Modify the Sixth Amendment to the Consent Decree entered in United States v. BP Exploration and Oil Co., et al., (Civil No. 2:96 CV 095 RL) (``Joint Stipulation''),...

  10. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  11. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of charter renewal. The charter for the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  12. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States and Allegheny County Health Department v. Eastman... County Health Department for violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., alleged in a Complaint filed on September 28, 2011. In the Complaint, the United States and the Allegheny County...

  13. 77 FR 28897 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. American Sugar Refining, Inc., Civil... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action against American Sugar Refining, Inc. (``ASR... environmental violations at ASR's sugar refinery in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to the payment of a...

  14. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.301 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this... proposed standard or limitation: (A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on...

  15. 78 FR 1883 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... alleges that Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (``WPS'') failed to comply with certain requirements of... regulations. The complaint alleges that WPS failed to obtain appropriate permits and failed to install and... resolve past Clean Air Act violations and would require WPS to reduce harmful emissions of sulfur...

  16. HAVE U.S. SURFACE WATERS RESPONDED TO THE 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set target reductions for sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the acidity in deposition. One of the intended effects of the reductions was to decrease the acidity of low alkalinity wate...

  17. 76 FR 22918 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Terra Industries Inc. et al., Civ. A. No. 5... and injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') by Terra Industries Inc. (``Terra Industries''), Terra International (Oklahoma) Inc. (``Terra Oklahoma''), Terra Nitrogen, Limited...

  18. 75 FR 32210 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/ Cleveland Scrap, Civil.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/Cleveland Scrap (``Defendant'') relating to Defendant's Cleveland, Ohio...

  19. 77 FR 53235 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., a proposed consent decree in United States of America and Mecklenburg County v. Emerald Carolina... penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of Clean Air Act regulations at Emerald Carolina... applicable to certain equipment at the plant. The proposed consent decree requires Emerald Carolina...

  20. 76 FR 28026 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open ] meeting on Wednesday June 8, 2011 from 8 a... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and Regulatory...

  1. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Addresses: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold its next open meeting on May 27, 2010 from 8 a.m. to 4... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and ] Regulatory...

  2. 75 FR 56530 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open meeting on Wednesday, October 6, 2010 from 8... and Regulatory Innovations subcommittee will meet on Tuesday, October 5, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 12...

  3. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  4. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  5. 75 FR 68093 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Protection Agency Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent; Decision of the Administrator...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application...

  6. 75 FR 55791 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Alliant Energy--WPL Edgewater Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final order on petition to object to Clean Air Act operating permit. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 77 FR 59186 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2011, and submitted by the Environmental Integrity Project and the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...: Pursuant to Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 505(b)(2), the EPA Administrator signed an Order, dated August...

  8. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  9. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  10. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except for continuous web cleaning machines... General Definitions Rule in place of the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP for organic solvent cleaning...

  11. Proactive industrial strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

    PubMed

    Ruch, R B; Howell, J S

    1991-07-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 was signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990. These amendments potentially will have a major impact on virtually every industrial and many commercial facilities throughout the country. The regulations developed to implement this legislation will encompass new approaches to nonattainment, air toxics, accidental releases, acid rain, permits and enforcement. Because of the impact of this legislation the regulations will be implemented over a ten-year period. This paper is an overview of the amendments and recommended proactive strategies for industry.

  12. Citizen Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess

    2015-01-01

    Scientists and engineers constantly face new challenges, despite myriad advances in computing. More sets of data are collected today from earth and sky than there is time or resources available to carefully analyze them. Some problems either don't have fast algorithms to solve them or have solutions that must be found among millions of options, a situation akin to finding a needle in a haystack. But all hope is not lost: advances in technology and the Internet have empowered the general public to participate in the scientific process via individual computational resources and brain cognition, which isn't matched by any machine. Citizen scientists are volunteers who perform scientific work by making observations, collecting and disseminating data, making measurements, and analyzing or interpreting data without necessarily having any scientific training. In so doing, individuals from all over the world can contribute to science in ways that wouldn't have been otherwise possible.

  13. Citizen's dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Klemic, Gladys; Bailey, Paul; Breheny, Cecilia

    2008-09-02

    The present invention relates to a citizen's dosimeter. More specifically, the invention relates to a small, portable, personal dosimetry device designed to be used in the wake of a event involving a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND), or other event resulting in the contamination of large area with radioactive material or where on site personal dosimetry is required. The card sized dosimeter generally comprises: a lower card layer, the lower card body having an inner and outer side; a upper card layer, the layer card having an inner and outer side; an optically stimulated luminescent material (OSLM), wherein the OSLM is sandwiched between the inner side of the lower card layer and the inner side of the upper card layer during dosimeter radiation recording, a shutter means for exposing at least one side of the OSLM for dosimeter readout; and an energy compensation filter attached to the outer sides of the lower and upper card layers.

  14. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  16. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  17. 75 FR 42084 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for JP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... petition to object to Clean Air Act (Act) operating permit. SUMMARY: This document announces that the EPA Administrator has granted a petition from the Sierra Club asking EPA to object to a Title V operating permit for...: The Act affords EPA a 45-day period to review, and object, as appropriate, to Title V...

  18. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  19. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act. PMID:9721251

  20. Citizen Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Gilles, Sébastien; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In science, projects which involve volunteers for observations, measurements, computation are grouped under the term, Citizen Science. They range from bird or planet census to distributing computing on volonteers's computer. Over the last five years, the EMSC has been developing tools and strategy to collect information on earthquake's impact from the first persons to be informed, i.e. the witnesses. By extension, it is named Citizen Seismology. The European Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC), a scientific not-for-profit NGO, benefits from the high visibility of its rapid earthquake information services (www.emsc-csem.org) which attract an average of more than half a million visits a month from 160 countries. Witnesses converge to its site within a couple of minutes of earthquake's occurrence to find out information about the cause of the shaking they have just been through. The convergence generates brutal increases of hit rate which can be automatically detected. They are often the first indication about the occurrence of a felt event. Witnesses' locations are determined from their IP addresses. Localities exhibiting statistically significant increase of traffic are mapped to produce the "felt map". This map available within 5 to 8 minutes of the earthquake's occurrence represents the area where the event was felt. It is the fastest way to collect in-situ information on the consequences of an earthquake. Widespread damage region are expected to be mapped through a significant lack or absence of visitors. A second tool involving the visitors is an online macroseismic questionnaire available in 21 languages. It complements the felt maps as it can describes the level of shaking or damage, but is only available in 90 to 120 minutes. Witnesses can also share their pictures of damage. They used it also to provide us exceptional pictures of transient phenomena. With the University of Edinburgh, we are finalising a prototype named ShakemApple, linking Apple

  1. 76 FR 34811 - Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... United States Mint Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage... 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC) public... CONTACT: Greg Weinman, Acting United States Mint Liaison to the CCAC; 801 9th Street, NW.; Washington,...

  2. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  3. 76 FR 14427 - Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .../Notices/page 13208). Maureen Katz, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

  4. An overview of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as related to engineering and maintenance aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Y.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Titles I and III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will regulate nonattainment-area pollutants (ozone, CO, PM-10, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and lead) and hazardous air pollutants, respectively. These regulations will have a significant impact on existing and new pulp and paper facilities. Several states have already addressed Title I requirements in their State Implementation Plans. As for Title III, the Environmental Protection Agency plans to propose emission standards for chemical pulping/bleaching facilities by Oct. 1993, with promulgation by Sept. 1995. This report summarizes the anticipated requirements and highlights their impact on the pulp and paper industry. The new regulations will require many facilities to modify existing equipment and/or install new pollution-control devices.

  5. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  6. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  7. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  8. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  12. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.5 Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act... request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air Act for which it would...

  13. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  14. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  15. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND... Indian tribe's authority to regulate air quality. For applications covering areas within the exterior... Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450, et seq.), the Indian...

  16. 77 FR 27054 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Kulluk Conical Drilling Unit AGENCY: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Title V air quality operating permit to Shell Offshore, Inc. (``Shell'') for operation of the...

  17. Development of a Clean Air Act Title V permit application for Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, G.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 instituted major changes in the way that air emission sources are regulated and permitted. Along with being a major research and development laboratory owned by the US Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is also classified as a major source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in the Chicago metropolitan area which has been designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as severe (17) for ozone. As a major source ANL is therefore required under Title V of CAAA to apply for a federally enforceable permit for all sources of air emissions at the facility. While the ANL Boiler House represents the most significant emission source at the Laboratory, there are, nevertheless, a large number of other emission sources, some of which are currently permitted by the State of Illinois and others of which are exempt from state permitting requirements. A large number of R & D related sources are of relatively small magnitude. The ability to identify, inventory, characterize and classify all sources under the various titles of CAAA constitutes a major challenge for R & D laboratories of this size.

  18. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  19. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maibodi, M. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO{sub 2} allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO{sub 2} emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO{sub 2} removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies.

  20. Clean Air Act Title IV: Lessons learned from Phase I; getting ready for Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required significant reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants in the US. This paper examines some of the key technical lessons learned in Phase I following retrofit of low NO{sub x} systems, FGD systems, and continuous emissions monitors. Some of the key problems encountered have been waterwall wastage as a result of low NO{sub x} burner retrofits; high LOI (carbon) ash as a result of low NO{sub x} operation; high O&M costs associated with CEMs; and the heat rate discrepancy which has arisen between CEMs and conventional heat rate calculations. As Phase II approaches, EPRI and the electric utility industry are investigating improvements in FGD systems (e.g., clear liquor scrubbing), advances in NO{sub x} control technologies, more robust CEM systems, and tools to help in the technology decision-making process.

  1. Escaping the regulatory dust bowl: fugitive dust and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, G.L.; Becker, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory program, as it relates to particulates, is overly complicated. In attempting to accommodate statutory language insensitive to particulate differences, after becoming aware of the varying effects of different-sized particles, EPA has developed an unworkable program. Although agricultural, recreational, transportation, and industrial activities contribute to the airborne dust (or, in the Clean Air Act vernacular, fugitive dust), this article focuses on mining activities. Surface mining inevitably stirs up considerable fugitive dust, and a description of mining activities in arid conditions, and how they fit in with a developing regulatory program, reveals a story of a national program that fails to provide for rational policy and regional flexibility. The article also recommends some regulatory and statutory solutions that could relatively easily correct EPA's fugitive dust program.

  2. "Let us help them to raise their children into good citizens": the Lone-Parent Families Act and the wages of care-giving in Israel.

    PubMed

    Helman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Based on the assumption that the construction of meaning in the process of policy-making is crucial if we wish to understand the gender outcomes of social policy, this article analyzes the parliamentary debates that preceded and accompanied the legislation of the Israeli Mono-Parental Families Act, 1992. It focuses on the enunciation of gender roles and relations in the discourses that framed and justified the Act as well as on how the capacity to establish and maintain autonomous households was constructed and legitimized. Two sets of discourses emerged during the deliberations over the Act, each of which endeavored to interpret the needs, identities, and capacities for action among lone-parent families. The article shows how a specific version of the capacity to establish and maintain autonomous households—that of caregivers who happen to be workers—was privileged in the policy paradigm underlying the Act. The alternative vision—that of workers with caregiving responsibilities—was marginalized and eventually disregarded in the final wording and implementation of the Act. The article concludes with an analysis of the socio-political processes that underlie the prioritization of the version, which was ultimately expressed in the implementation of the Act. It is suggested that a state-level collective identity project shaped by demographic concerns and geo-political factors and changes in the political economy combined to define the needs, identities, and capacities for action of lone-parent families in terms of a model of motherhood in which care-giving trumped paid work.

  3. "Let us help them to raise their children into good citizens": the Lone-Parent Families Act and the wages of care-giving in Israel.

    PubMed

    Helman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Based on the assumption that the construction of meaning in the process of policy-making is crucial if we wish to understand the gender outcomes of social policy, this article analyzes the parliamentary debates that preceded and accompanied the legislation of the Israeli Mono-Parental Families Act, 1992. It focuses on the enunciation of gender roles and relations in the discourses that framed and justified the Act as well as on how the capacity to establish and maintain autonomous households was constructed and legitimized. Two sets of discourses emerged during the deliberations over the Act, each of which endeavored to interpret the needs, identities, and capacities for action among lone-parent families. The article shows how a specific version of the capacity to establish and maintain autonomous households—that of caregivers who happen to be workers—was privileged in the policy paradigm underlying the Act. The alternative vision—that of workers with caregiving responsibilities—was marginalized and eventually disregarded in the final wording and implementation of the Act. The article concludes with an analysis of the socio-political processes that underlie the prioritization of the version, which was ultimately expressed in the implementation of the Act. It is suggested that a state-level collective identity project shaped by demographic concerns and geo-political factors and changes in the political economy combined to define the needs, identities, and capacities for action of lone-parent families in terms of a model of motherhood in which care-giving trumped paid work. PMID:21692244

  4. 21 CFR 10.30 - Citizen petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE..., Department of Health and Human Services, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Citizen Petition... ___ (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act or any other statutory provision...

  5. 21 CFR 10.30 - Citizen petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE..., Department of Health and Human Services, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Citizen Petition... ___ (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Public Health Service Act or any other statutory provision...

  6. Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO): Web-Based Tool for Researchers and Citizen Scientists to Explore their Air Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of air measurements in real-time on moving platforms, such as wearable, bicycle-mounted, or vehicle-mounted air sensors, is becoming an increasingly common method to investigate local air quality. However, visualizing and analyzing geospatial air monitoring data re...

  7. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments on distributions of visual impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Camp, J.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) focus on emission policies designed to reduce the amount of deposition of acidifying pollutants, particularly in the Northeast. The primary strategy is a significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions, with lesser reductions scheduled for NO{sub {times}} emissions. However, lessening of acid deposition is not the only important benefit of the emission control strategy. Decreasing SO{sup {minus}} and NO {sup {minus}} emissions will decrease atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate particles, which account for much of the visibility reduction associated with regional haze. Although one can get a qualitative sense of how visibility might improve by examining historical large-scale trends in regional emission totals and regional visibility, quantification of the expected improvement requires model simulations. One must model the spatial and temporal patterns of emissions reductions; the relevant pollutant transport, transformation, and removal processes in the atmosphere; and the changes in particulate loading. For this initial examination of the visibility improvement at Shenandoah National Park associated the the Phase I and Phase II SO{sub 2} emission reductions, we have linked emission trend projections taken from ongoing analysis of the 1990 CAAA at Argonne National Laboratory, regional transport modeling with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and visual impairment modeling with the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM).

  8. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  9. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  10. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities' energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities' sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  11. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities` energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-12-31

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities` sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  12. State reactions to Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 represents a bold step in application of environmental regulation. By setting up a national free market in sulfur dioxide emission allowances, Congress has adopted the position that environmental protection and good economics are not necessarily in opposition. In fact, by carefully crafting legislation these two goals may work in aide of each other. Title IV is intended to achieve a significant reduction in the incidence of acid rain at minimal cost for the nation as a whole. On the other hand, states have traditionally had the greater responsibility for direct regulation of electric utility operations. A national free market in pollution is not welcomed by many state regulatory agencies. Some states are concerned about losing in-state markets for coal; others are unwilling to {open_quotes}import{close_quotes} pollution through the purchase of allowances. A number of states have reacted by passing regulations which limit utilities` choices in developing compliance plans. The Illinois Coal Act, for example, specifically requires two of the largest Illinois coal-fired power plants to install scrubbers and prohibits any plant from reducing its use of Illinois-mined coal by more than 10 percent per year. In December of 1993 the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois ruled, in the case of Alliance for Clean Coal v. Craig, that the Illinois Coal Act violates the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution and permanently enjoined the Illinois Commerce Commission from enforcing it. The state appealed that decision but in January of 1995 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit upheld the District Court`s opinion. This paper will show that the argument that should be of particular interest from an economics perspective. Finally, the paper will attempt to draw conclusions regarding how state regulators may legitimately integrate the trading of emission allowances into their current regulatory schemes.

  13. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  14. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  15. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  16. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  17. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  18. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  19. Accountability analysis of title IV phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Richard D; Harrington, Winston; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we sought to assess what portion, if any, of the reductions in ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM*) < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) that occurred in the United States between the years 1999 and 2006 can be attributed to reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from implementation of Phase 2 of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To this end, a detailed statistical model linking sources and monitors over time and space was used to estimate associations between the observed emissions reductions and improvements in air quality. Overall, it turned out to be quite feasible to use relatively transparent statistical methods to assess these outcomes of the Phase 2 program, which was designed to reduce long-range transport of emissions. Associations between changes in emissions from individual power plants and monitor-specific estimates of changes in concentrations of PM2.5, our indicator pollutant, were highly significant and were mostly of the expected relative magnitudes with respect to distances and directions from sources. Originally estimated on monthly data for a set of 193 monitors between 1999 and 2005, our preferred model performed equally well using data for the same 193 monitors for 2006 as well as for an additional 217 monitors not in the original set in 2006. Although substantial model uncertainty was observed, we were able to estimate that the Title IV Phase 2 emissions reduction program implemented between 1999 and 2005 reduced PM2.5 concentrations in the eastern United States by an average of 1.07 microg/m3 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.11 microg/m3) compared with a counterfactual case defined as there having been no change in emission rates per unit of energy input (1 million British thermal units [BTUs]). On a population-weighted basis, the comparable reduction in PM2.5 was 0.89 microg/m3. Compared with the air quality fate and transport models used by the

  20. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  1. S. 782: A bill to amend the Clean Air Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A bill was introduced in the Senate to amend the Clean Air Act by providing the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency with the authority to regulate air pollution on and over the Outer Continental Shelf.

  2. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  3. 76 FR 66285 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Valmont Power Station AGENCY: Environmental..., 2010, title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Valmont...

  4. 76 FR 66286 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Cherokee Power Station AGENCY: Environmental... 1, 2010, title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy...

  5. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to Department of Justice policy, notice is hereby given that, on February 4, 2010, a proposed First Material... equipment to capture and recycle the vast majority of the hot water that is condensed from its use of...

  6. 77 FR 7148 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Gulf of Mexico, Inc., and Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Discoverer Drillship AGENCY: United States Environmental...) permit applications, one from Shell Gulf of Mexico, Inc., for operation of the Discoverer drillship...

  7. 78 FR 15739 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On February 22... Unit 4); (5) to the installation of 200 MW of renewable energy; (6) to provide the State...

  8. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... permit issued by the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) on January 22, 2009 to Luke Paper... to the issuance of the proposed title V permit for Luke Paper Company because of, (1)...

  9. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  10. 75 FR 36069 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to a Federal Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to a Federal Operating Permit for Waste Management of Louisiana L.L.C., Woodside Landfill and Recycling Center (WLRC), Walker,...

  11. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  12. The 1990 Clean Air Act and the implicit price of sulfur in coal - article no. 41

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    Prior to implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many estimates of the marginal cost of SO{sub 2} abatement were provided to guide policy makers. Numerous studies estimated the marginal cost of abatement to be between $250 and $760 per ton, though permits initially traded well below $200 and remained below $220 until 2004. We use a fixed effects estimator and a hedonic price model of coal purchases in order to determine the implicit price of sulfur. Data on contract coal purchases are divided into regulatory regimes based on when the contract was signed or re-negotiated. We find that purchases by Phase I plants made under contracts signed or re-negotiated after the passage of the 1990 CAAA show an implicit price of SO{sub 2} of approximately $50 per ton, an amount much closer to the eventual permit price. The implicit market price of sulfur seems to have revealed better information than did the calculations of industry experts.

  13. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  14. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.; Lurie, G.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G. ); Fox, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the market for SO{sub 2} emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO{sub 2}/MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs.

  15. Public Utility Commission implementation of the Clean Air Act's allowance trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), Acid Deposition Control,' will reduce by the year 2000 annual sulfur dioxide emissions by 10 million tons below the 1980 level, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 2 million tons. Emissions of sulfur dioxide will then be limited to 8.95 million tons per year after 2000. To control sulfur dioxide emissions, Title IV created a new regulatory instrument -- an emission allowance or credit -- that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Electric utilities and others will be allowed to buy and sell the emission allowances in an allowance trading system. Cost estimates of implementing Title IV provisions put the cost 50 to 75 percent higher than with the allowance trading system. Estimates of this potential savings vary from 1 to 3 billion dollars annually. This report discusses the administrative roles of various agencies in implementing Title IV and allocating the emission allowance. The cost of compliance and the effect of compliance on the utilities industry is discussed.

  16. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  17. Home-Grown Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah; Gurnee, Anne

    2016-01-01

    While the purpose of K-12 education is largely to train students for college and career, free education in a democratic society has another purpose: to prepare citizens to rule themselves. In this article, Anderson and Gurnee explain how place-based learning equips students to be active citizens in their communities. In this model, school localize…

  18. Citizen Science and Emerging Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will discuss challenges and opportunities associated with citizen science and how emerging technologies can support citizen science activities. In addition, the session will provide an overview of low-cost environmental monitors and sensors and introduce the Citizen...

  19. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  20. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  1. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  3. An analysis of SO sub 2 emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC's of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

  4. An analysis of SO{sub 2} emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

    1992-07-01

    The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC`s of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

  5. Who's Minding the Shore? A Citizens' Guide to Coastal Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Roger; And Others

    This citizen's guide is designed to illustrate the ways that citizens can participate in their state's development of a coastal management program. The Provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act are discussed and the requirements of an effective management program are considered. Some background information outlining the ecological factors…

  6. Toward Clean Water: A Guide to Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outen, Ronald, Ed.; Lawson, Simpson, Ed.

    This guide identifies the major opportunities for participation under the 1976 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments for citizens concerned with the improvement of water quality. The book is aimed primarily at fulfilling the direct needs of citizens at all levels. In addition to an explanation of the law and implementing regulations, this…

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. 49.5... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as... for which it would be inappropriate to treat tribes in general in the same manner as States....

  9. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  14. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective... the non-selective reductions made to address reductions in revenue due to adverse economic conditions... public hearing, determines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a non-selective...

  15. Superfund guide: Clean Air Act hazardous air pollutants added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The fact sheet identifies the 52 CAA hazardous air pollutants that have been added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances and that are now subject to CERCLA requirements; describes the reporting requirements and exemptions under CERCLA; and examines reporting exemptions in relation to releases of ethylene glycol.

  16. Title III (SARA and Clean Air Act Amendments) Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and accidental release prevention consolidated chemical list (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and chemicals listed under section 112(r) of Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. It will also help firms determine wether they will be subject to accident prevention regulations under CAA section 112(r). Separate lists are also provided of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). These lists should be used as a reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information. Compliance information for EPCRA is published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 40 CFR Parts 302, 355, and 372. Compliance information for CAA section 112(r) will be published in 40 CFR Part 68. This revision reflects regulatory changes through December 1994. The chemicals on the consolidated list are ordered by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry number. Categories of chemicals, which do not have CAS registry numbers, but which are cited under CERCLA, EPCRA section 313, and the CAA, are placed at the end of the list. For reference purposes, the chemicals (with their CAS numbers) are ordered alphabetically following the CAS-order list. Long chemical names may have been truncated to facilitate printing of this list. The list includes chemicals referenced under five federal statutory provisions.

  17. 77 FR 43859 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Cellulose Products Manufacturing, and for violations of the Defendant's State-issued operating permit at its cellulose products manufacturing facility in Hopewell, Virginia....

  18. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  19. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  20. 75 FR 78733 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Benzene Waste Operations (the ``Benzene NESHAP''), 40 CFR part 61, Subpart FF, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... in supplemental environmental projects; (3) enhance U.S. Oil's Benzene NESHAP compliance program;...

  1. Citizens' Right to Know Act of 2016

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2016-09-13

    09/26/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Air quality impacts of increased use of ethanol under the United States’ Energy Independence and Security Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Rich; Phillips, Sharon; Houyoux, Marc; Dolwick, Pat; Mason, Rich; Yanca, Catherine; Zawacki, Margaret; Davidson, Ken; Michaels, Harvey; Harvey, Craig; Somers, Joseph; Luecken, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, "criteria" pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of increased ethanol use on ozone and air toxics under a potential implementation scenario resulting from mandates in the U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The assessment of impacts was done for calendar year 2022, when 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be used. Impacts were assessed relative to a baseline which assumed ethanol volumes mandated by the first renewable fuels standard promulgated by U. S. EPA in early 2007. This assessment addresses both impacts of increased ethanol use on vehicle and other engine emissions, referred to as "downstream" emissions, and "upstream" impacts, i.e., those connected with fuel production and distribution. Air quality modeling was performed for the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), version 4.7. Pollutants included in the assessment were ozone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Results suggest that increased ethanol use due to EISA in 2022 will adversely increase ozone concentrations over much of the U.S., by as much as 1 ppb. However, EISA is projected to improve ozone air quality in a few highly-populated areas that currently have poor air quality. Most of the ozone improvements are due to our assumption of increases in nitrogen oxides (NO x) in volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited areas. While there are some localized impacts, the EISA renewable fuel standards have relatively little impact on national average ambient concentrations of most air toxics, although ethanol concentrations increase substantially. Significant uncertainties are associated with all results, due to limitations in available data. These uncertainties are

  3. Title III List of Lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as amended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and chemicals listed under Section 112(r) of Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 314 or SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. It also will also help firms determine whether they will be subject to accident prevention regulations under CAA section 112(r).

  4. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  5. 77 FR 43614 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... hazardous air pollutants, 40 CFR Part 63, Subparts A, H and CC, at an asphalt petroleum refinery owned and..., although the plant has not refined asphalt since 2008, Chevron agrees to implement an enhanced LDAR...

  6. 76 FR 66718 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ..., please contact Pat Childers, Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA (202) 564-1082, FAX (202) 564-1352 or...-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov . To request accommodation of a disability, please contact Mr....

  7. 76 FR 35238 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... plant to reduce its emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds into the air. The Department of Justice will... check, payable to the U.S. Treasury, in the amount of $9.50 (25 cents per page reproduction cost),...

  8. Title III list of lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as amended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and chemicals listed under section 112(r) of Title III the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. Separate lists are also provided of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). These lists should be used as reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information. The chemicals on the consolidated list are ordered by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry number. Categories of chemicals, which do not have CAS registry numbers, but which are cited under CERCLA, EPCRA section 313, and the CAA, are placed at the end of the list. More than one chemical name may be listed for one CAS number, because the same chemical may appear on different lists under different names.

  9. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  10. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  11. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  12. 77 FR 52328 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ..., Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA (202) 564-1082, Fax (202) 564-1352 or by mail at U.S. EPA, Office... disabilities, please contact Mr. Pat Childers at (202) 564-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov . To...

  13. 75 FR 79369 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA (202) 564-1082, FAX (202) 564-1352 or by mail at U.S. EPA, Office of... Childers at (202) 564-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov . To request accommodation of a disability,...

  14. 77 FR 20395 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA (202) 564-1082, Fax (202) 564-1352 or by mail at U.S. EPA, Office... individuals with disabilities, please contact Mr. Pat Childers at (202) 564-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov ....

  15. 78 FR 9388 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...) 564-1082, FAX (202) 564-1352 or by mail at U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation (Mail code 6102 A... Childers at (202) 564-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov . To request accommodation of a disability,...

  16. 75 FR 10794 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) Request for Nominations to the CAAAC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... 564-1082, F: 202 564- 1352, e-mail childers.pat@epa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION concerning the CAAAC, please contact Pat Childers, Office of Air and Radiation, US EPA (202) 564-1082, FAX (202) 564-1352 or...

  17. 75 FR 1379 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA (202) 564-1082, FAX (202) 564-1352 or by mail at U.S. EPA, Office of... Childers at (202) 564-1082 or childers.pat@epa.gov . To request accommodation of a disability,...

  18. Federal operating permits program under Title V of the Clean Air Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    ;Table of Contents: Introduction; Transition Between Parts 70 and 71; Title V Obligations and Applicability; Synthetic Minors, Potential to Emit, and Transition Policy; Permit Application Step and Content; Flexible Permit Approaches; Hazardous Air Pollution Program Requirements for Title V; Information Sources; Appendix A. EPA Memoranda; and Appendix B. Seminar Overhead Transparencies.

  19. 76 FR 22095 - Clean Air Act: Opportunity To Comment, Activities Required by Federal Facilities Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... companion Consent Agreement and Final Order (CAFO), Docket No. CAA-04-2010-1528(b), that TVA failed to... perform substantially the same relief as required by the Compliance Agreement. Neither the CAFO nor the... emissions of various air pollutants from units at the plants identified above. The CAFO assesses a...

  20. 75 FR 73076 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Clean Air Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... responsibility for the development and implementation of CAA programs. The regulation, Indian Tribes: Air Quality... Delivery: EPA Docket Center, Public Reading Room, EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW... 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. The EPA/DC Public Reading Room is open from 8...

  1. 77 FR 39262 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Pollution Control District v. Cottage Bakery, Inc. and Ralcorp Frozen Bakery Products, Inc., case number 2.... The Decree resolves the claims of the United States and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... operated a commercial bakery in Lodi, California without appropriate permits and pollution...

  2. 75 FR 8994 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc... penalty against Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc. (``Belson''), pursuant to section 113(b) of the Clean Air... (``CFC'') removal equipment, (2) have properly trained operators evacuate CFCs from scrap...

  3. 78 FR 62661 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... (``Defendants'' or ``ConAgra'') for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1321, and Spill Prevention... Petroleum Institute's (``API'') formal standard 653. ConAgra will be required to submit a report annually to..., P.O. Box 7611, Washington, DC 20044-7611. During the public comment period, the Consent Decree...

  4. 76 FR 64055 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011). B. Paperwork Reduction Act The correction to 40 CFR part 2... relates to existing state programs, please see Section II of the preamble to the final part 98 rule (74...

  5. Housewife data: Citizen science and the case of Love Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicaise, Nolan M.

    Citizen science is defined as members of the public acting to produce science outside of their normal working lives in order to enhance or preserve their health, environment, knowledge, or capital. It is a science by the people. Over the last several decades, it has emerged as a powerful force for the democratization of science. In response to this growing trend in citizen science, this thesis addresses the question: What is citizen science? Citizen science is discussed through the development of a definition, its historical and political context, the benefits of its use, and some frameworks for understanding. Later, the thesis explores a case study of citizen science, the Love Canal environmental crisis, and offers commentary on its methods and findings.

  6. Educating Digital Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…

  7. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  8. "Good Citizen" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placer Hills Union Elementary School District, Meadow Vista, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The "Good Citizen" Program was developed for many reasons: to keep the campus clean, to reward students for improvement, to reward students for good deeds, to improve the total school climate, to reward students for excellence, and to offer staff members a method of reward for positive…

  9. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Any tribe may request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air...

  10. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and industry; Title I non-attainment areas

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G.L. ); Laznow, J. )

    1991-10-01

    The signing into law of the CAA Amendments of 1990 will bring sweeping changes affecting significantly the way industry is regulated. This paper reports that the Amendments address a wide range of issues, including non- attainment areas, toxic air pollutants, acid rain, operating permits and fees, and regulatory enforcement. Regulations to be promulgated under the Amendments will stand in stark contrast to those promulgated after CAA was last amended in 1977. Many of the issues addressed by the 1990 Amendments have accumulated for years, waiting for legislation consideration. Title I of the Amendments sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for several criteria pollutants. The standard for ozone is of greatest general interest for stationary sources, along with requirements for control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and VOCs.

  11. 78 FR 57175 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    .... R. Civ. P. 20(a)(2)(A)), Civil Action No. 4:13-CV-01522-RBH. This Decree represents a settlement of... Carolina Safe Drinking Water Act. The publication of this notice opens a period for public comment on the... of Florence. Case No. 4:13-CV-01522-RBH, D.J. Ref. No. 90-5-1-1-09597. All comments must be...

  12. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants compliance verification plan for the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1986-07-28

    This documentation was prepared for submittal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to meet the requirements of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This document will emphasize the control of radioactive emissions from the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. The TSCA Incinerator is a dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator that is under construction at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to destroy radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the TSCA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated at the facilities managed by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO). Destruction of the PCBs and the hazardous organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. The incinerator will thermally destroy the organic constituents of the liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incinerator, an extensive off-gas treatment facility is being constructed to remove particulate and acidic gas air emissions.

  13. The Future of Citizen Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah; Bryan, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging trend of democratizing science and schooling within science education that can be characterized as citizen science. We explore the roots of this movement and some current projects to underscore the meaning of citizen science in science and schooling. We show that citizen science, as it is currently conceptualized, does not go…

  14. Citizen(s') Science. A Response to "The Future of Citizen Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese Barton, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science is fundamentally about participation within and for communities. Attempts to merge citizen science with schooling must call not only for a democratization of schooling and science but also for the democratization of the ways in which science is taken up by, with, and for citizen participants. Using this stance, along with critical…

  15. H. R. 4197: Clean Air Act Research Amendments of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 6, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A bill, H.R.4197, has been introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States to amend the Clean Air Act with respect to research and development activities. This Act provides for conducting a program of research, testing, and development of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling of air pollutants, including precursors of acid deposition. A research program shall be conducted on the short- and long-term effects of air pollutants on human health, including the effects of acid rain. A research program shall be conducted to improve understanding of the causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems damage from air pollutants, including acid rain. In addition, a research program will be established to develop strategies and technologies for air pollution prevention, including the prevention of acid rain.

  16. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  17. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Contact sheet recording with a self-acting negative air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muftu , Sinan (Inventor); Hinteregger, Hans F (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A flat head and a tape transport arrangement impart a wrap angle to the tape at the upstream corner of the head. The wrap angle, corner sharpness and tape stiffness are sufficient to cause a moving tape to form a hollow bump at the upstream corner, thereby creating a hollow into which entrained air can expand, causing a subambient pressure within and downstream of the bump. This pressure keeps the tape in contact with the head. It is created without the need for a groove or complex pressure relief slot(s). No contact pressure arises at the signal exchange site due to media wrap. The highest contact pressures are developed at a wrapped upstream corner. For a tape drive, traveling in both forward and reverse, the wrap can be at both the upstream and downstream (which is the reverse upstream) corners. Heads that are not flat can also be used, if the wrap angle relative to a main surface is sufficient and not too large. The wrapped head can also be used with rotating media, such as disks (floppy and hard) and rotating heads, such as helical wound heads for video recording. Multiple flat tape bearing surfaces can be separated by grooves and/or angles. Each flat can carry heads along one or more gap lines. Multiple adjacent narrow tracks can thus be written for extreme high track density recording.

  19. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  20. Pollution prevention incentives and disincentives created by the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, C.F.; Wolffe, G.S.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner which allows the consideration of pollution prevention alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently EPA has been making strides to re-interpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage pollution prevention projects which do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance when conducting control technology evaluations such as Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options which accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs which promise to make P2 projects much more cost effective. Several traditional command and control programs of the CAA also promote P2 projects. For instance emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V Facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detailed understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and Risk Management Plans. However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select pollution prevention alternatives. This paper will discuss incentives and disincentives for using P2 alternatives to comply with the CAA and discuss some of the recent changes designed to encourage P2.

  1. Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Babst, C.R. III

    1993-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

  2. Citizen Science and Citizen Space Exploration: Potentials for Professional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, E.

    2012-12-01

    Citizens in Space is a project of the United States Rocket Academy, with the goal of promoting citizen science and citizen space exploration. This goal is enabled by the new reusable suborbital spacecraft now under development by multiple companies in the US. For the first phase of this project, we have acquired a contract for 10 flights on the Lynx suborbital spacecraft, which is under construction by XCOR Aerospace in Mojave, CA. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the largest single bulk purchase of suborbital flights to date. Citizens in Space has published an open call for experiments to fly on these missions, which we expect will begin in late 2013 or early 2014. We will be selecting approx. 100 small experiments and 10 citizen astronauts to fly as payload operators. Although our primary goal is to encourage citizen science, these flight opportunities are also open to professional researchers who have payloads that meet our criteria. We believe that the best citizen-science projects are collaborations between professional and citizen scientists. We will discuss various ways in which professional scientists can collaborate with citizen scientists to take advantage of the flight opportunities provided by our program. We will discuss the capabilities of the Lynx vehicle, the 1u- and 2u-CubeSat form factor we are using for our payloads, and general considerations for payload integration. As an example of the payloads we can accommodate, we will discuss a NASA-inspired experiment to collect particles from the upper atmosphere.;

  3. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  4. 75 FR 2140 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to Federal Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... American Electric Power Service Corporation, Southwest Electric Power Company AGENCY: Environmental... Administrator has responded to a citizen petition asking EPA to object to the American Electric Power Service Corporation, Southwest Electric Power Company (AEP) operating permit issued by the Arkansas Department...

  5. 76 FR 77827 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: This document announces that the EPA Administrator has...) issued by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ). Specifically, the Administrator has... Clinic on behalf of Concerned Citizens Around Murphy (Petitioners). The petition asked the...

  6. Perspectives in Marine Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science can be defined as the process by which any non-scientist collects data or uses the scientific method under the guidance or mentorship of a scientist. This article presents an overview of several marine citizen-science projects as practiced by three non-profit organizations. PMID:27047591

  7. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Permitting Obligation § 62.14480 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Permitting Obligation § 62.14480 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Permitting Obligation § 62.14480 Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  18. Acid deposition in Maryland. Summary of research and monitoring results compiled through 1991 and a discussion of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Report for 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.; Mountain, D.

    1992-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report submitted under Maryland legislative requirements. The report focuses on more than a decade of acid deposition research conducted in Maryland. In addition, the report discusses Title IV - Acid Deposition Control of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and its potential impacts on Maryland.

  19. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  1. A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for Manganese 2016A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)William K BoyesBackground. In the 1990’s, the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enh...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  3. Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Watkins, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

  4. Brooktrout Lake case study: biotic recovery from acid deposition 20 years after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, James W; Acker, Frank W; Bloomfield, Jay A; Boylen, Charles W; Charles, Donald F; Daniels, Robert A; Eichler, Lawrence W; Farrell, Jeremy L; Feranec, Robert S; Hare, Matthew P; Kanfoush, Sharon L; Preall, Richard J; Quinn, Scott O; Rowell, H Chandler; Schoch, William F; Shaw, William H; Siegfried, Clifford A; Sullivan, Timothy J; Winkler, David A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2015-03-01

    The Adirondack Mountain region is an extensive geographic area (26,305 km(2)) in upstate New York where acid deposition has negatively affected water resources for decades and caused the extirpation of local fish populations. The water quality decline and loss of an established brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchill]) population in Brooktrout Lake were reconstructed from historical information dating back to the late 1880s. Water quality and biotic recovery were documented in Brooktrout Lake in response to reductions of S deposition during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s and provided a unique scientific opportunity to re-introduce fish in 2005 and examine their critical role in the recovery of food webs affected by acid deposition. Using C and N isotope analysis of fish collagen and state hatchery feed as well as Bayesian assignment tests of microsatellite genotypes, we document in situ brook trout reproduction, which is the initial phase in the restoration of a preacidification food web structure in Brooktrout Lake. Combined with sulfur dioxide emissions reductions promulgated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, our results suggest that other acid-affected Adirondack waters could benefit from careful fish re-introduction protocols to initiate the ecosystem reconstruction of important components of food web dimensionality and functionality.

  5. Brooktrout Lake case study: biotic recovery from acid deposition 20 years after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, James W; Acker, Frank W; Bloomfield, Jay A; Boylen, Charles W; Charles, Donald F; Daniels, Robert A; Eichler, Lawrence W; Farrell, Jeremy L; Feranec, Robert S; Hare, Matthew P; Kanfoush, Sharon L; Preall, Richard J; Quinn, Scott O; Rowell, H Chandler; Schoch, William F; Shaw, William H; Siegfried, Clifford A; Sullivan, Timothy J; Winkler, David A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2015-03-01

    The Adirondack Mountain region is an extensive geographic area (26,305 km(2)) in upstate New York where acid deposition has negatively affected water resources for decades and caused the extirpation of local fish populations. The water quality decline and loss of an established brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchill]) population in Brooktrout Lake were reconstructed from historical information dating back to the late 1880s. Water quality and biotic recovery were documented in Brooktrout Lake in response to reductions of S deposition during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s and provided a unique scientific opportunity to re-introduce fish in 2005 and examine their critical role in the recovery of food webs affected by acid deposition. Using C and N isotope analysis of fish collagen and state hatchery feed as well as Bayesian assignment tests of microsatellite genotypes, we document in situ brook trout reproduction, which is the initial phase in the restoration of a preacidification food web structure in Brooktrout Lake. Combined with sulfur dioxide emissions reductions promulgated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, our results suggest that other acid-affected Adirondack waters could benefit from careful fish re-introduction protocols to initiate the ecosystem reconstruction of important components of food web dimensionality and functionality. PMID:25621941

  6. 77 FR 59185 - Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental... Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App.2, the Gulf of Mexico Citizen Advisory Committee (GMCAC) is a necessary... Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LaKeshia Robertson, Designated Federal Officer, Gulf of...

  7. The application of genetic information for regulatory standard setting under the clean air act: a decision-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alison C; Corrales, Mark A; Kramer, C Bradley; Faustman, Elaine M

    2008-08-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released an "Interim Policy on Genomics," stating a commitment to developing guidance on the inclusion of genetic information in regulatory decision making. This statement was followed in 2004 by a document exploring the potential implications. Genetic information can play a key role in understanding and quantifying human susceptibility, an essential step in many of the risk assessments used to shape policy. For example, the federal Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants at levels to protect even sensitive populations from adverse health effects with an adequate margin of safety. Asthmatics are generally regarded as a sensitive population, yet substantial research gaps in understanding genetic susceptibility and disease have hindered quantitative risk analysis. This case study assesses the potential role of genomic information regarding susceptible populations in the NAAQS process for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) under the CAA. In this initial assessment, we model the contribution of a single polymorphism to asthma risk and mortality risk; however, multiple polymorphisms and interactions (gene-gene and gene-environment) are known to play key roles in the disease process. We show that the impact of new information about susceptibility on estimates of population risk or average risk derived from large epidemiological studies depends on the circumstances. We also suggest that analysis of a single polymorphism, or other risk factor such as health status, may or may not change estimates of individual risk enough to alter a particular regulatory decision, but this depends on specific characteristics of the decision and risk information. We also show how new information about susceptibility in the context of the NAAQS for PM(2.5) could have a large impact on the estimated distribution of individual risk. This would occur if a group were

  8. Science and the Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific American, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents discussions of several topics of interest to the public including world population trends, SAT scores, the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act, direct-current electrical technology, brain modules, environmental impact of meteorite craters, and the battleship, Maine. (MA)

  9. American Students Abroad Can't Be "Global Citizens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemach-Bersin, Talya

    2008-01-01

    A student shares experiences of her semester-long Tibetan-studies program in India, Nepal, and Tibet. Informed by both home university and program provider that by going abroad and immersing herself in a foreign culture, she would become a "global citizen," she was encouraged to "act like the locals," "be a resident," and "become a member" of my…

  10. Guide to Citizen Action in Radio and TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowitt, Marsha O'Bannon

    The Federal Communications Act of 1934 states that broadcast stations must operate "in the public interest, convenience, and necessity." Seeing that they do so is largely the responsibility of citizen groups. The purpose of this guide is to show how to counter broadcaster violations concerning extremist propaganda, commercials, personal attacks on…

  11. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  12. Advertising Citizen Science: A Trailer for the Citizen Sky Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Price, A.

    2012-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star epsilon Aurigae. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component, introducing participants to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. As a means of generating interest in the project, the California Academy of Sciences produced a six-minute "trailer” formatted for both traditional and fulldome planetariums as well as HD and web applications. This talk will review the production process for the trailer as well as the methods of distribution via planetariums, social media, and other venues_along with an update on the Citizen Sky Project as a whole. We will show how to use a small, professionally-produced planetarium trailer to help spread word on a citizen science project. We will also show preliminary results on a study about how participation level/type in the project affects science learning.

  13. H.R. 474: A Bill to repeal provisions of the Clean Air Act dealing with acid rain. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The text of this proposed legislation reads as follows: `Section 1. Repeal of Clean Air Act provisions relating to Acid Rain. Title IV of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 and following), relating to acid deposition control, is hereby repealed.`

  14. Data Mining Citizen Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discovery from big data is enabled through multiple channels, including data mining (through the application of machine learning algorithms) and human computation (commonly implemented through citizen science tasks). We will describe the results of new data mining experiments on the results from citizen science activities. Discovering patterns, trends, and anomalies in data are among the powerful contributions of citizen science. Establishing scientific algorithms that can subsequently re-discover the same types of patterns, trends, and anomalies in automatic data processing pipelines will ultimately result from the transformation of those human algorithms into computer algorithms, which can then be applied to much larger data collections. Scientific discovery from big data is thus greatly amplified through the marriage of data mining with citizen science.

  15. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  16. 75 FR 80452 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings and Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980 AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB or Board). ACTION... concerning applications for fees and expenses under the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA). The NTSB is... update rules that may be outdated, in the interest of modernizing the rules to accommodate...

  17. A Taxonomy of Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracey, Georgia; Gay, P. L.; Raddick, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science, the process of volunteers collaborating with professional scientists in authentic research, is an area which has undergone great expansion and development over the last decade. As the internet and new media facilitate easier and more widespread communication as well as access to a variety of data sets, the number and variety of citizen science projects will continue to increase. Current projects such as the AAVSO's variable star observing, Citizen Sky, Galaxy Zoo, and SETI@Home utilize a variety of data types including direct observations, images, and computer simulations. Another variation in these projects is the level of involvement offered to the volunteer, with some projects having very little that the volunteer needs to do, and others allowing a volunteer to be involved at a very high level. For educators who are considering using citizen science as part of their curriculum, the possible level of involvement may be a critical factor in their choice of project. In this poster, we present a taxonomy of volunteer involvement in astronomy-related citizen science projects. Five different levels of involvement are arranged in a pyramid diagram with minimal involvement at the lower levels and increasing involvement towards the top. Each level is described and operationally defined. We also give examples of projects that facilitate each type of involvement. Finally, we give some possible implications of this taxonomy on the educational potential of these projects.

  18. The Citizen Sky Planetarium Trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R.; Price, A.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Citizen Sky is a multi-year, citizen science project focusing on the bright variable star e Aurigae. We have developed a six-minute video presentation describing eclipsing binary stars, light curves, and the Citizen Sky project. Designed like a short movie trailer, the video can be shown at planetariums before their regular, feature shows or integrated into a longer presentation. The trailer is available in a wide range of formats for viewing on laptops all the way up to state-of-the-art planetariums. The show is narrated by Timothy Ferris and was produced by the Morrison Planetarium and Visualization Studio at the California Academy of Sciences. This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  19. 78 FR 40968 - Notice of Extension of Deadline to Commence Construction Under Clean Air Act Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... (76 FR 55799). In November 2011, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit received... advance to arrange a visit. Dated: June 26, 2013. Deborah Jordan, Director, Air Division, Region...

  20. 76 FR 36917 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...) The Title V permit failed to provide for the control of carbon dioxide emissions, an air contaminant... for the control of carbon dioxide emissions or for mercury emissions; and (V) The Title V...

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  2. [The pharmacist: health professional and citizen].

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Suely

    2008-04-01

    This text was presented at the V Congress on Pharmacy Care/Riopharma with the intent to approach some aspects important for discussing the role of the pharmacist as health professional and citizen capable of acting in society. To this purpose we decided to recall some of the cornerstones of the Brazilian health reform; the pressure of the industry on health professionals and regulatory agencies; the inequity in the distribution of medicaments among the different social classes. Some of the changes proposed in this paper are: to widen the role the pharmacist plays in pharmacotherapy; to prohibit drug advertising; a global and independent evaluation of the national regulatory agency; inclusion of information about medicament consumption during hospitalizations in the national databases. PMID:21936158

  3. Citizen Science and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects have grown in number, scale and scope in recent years. Such projects engage members of the public in working with professional scientists in a diverse range of practices. Yet there has been little educational exploration of such projects to date. In particular, there has been limited exploration of the educational…

  4. The Making of a Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Shirley; Frank, Charlotte

    1987-01-01

    Classroom activities to help children learn about and celebrate the bicentennial anniversary of the United States Constitution are described, including making up a class constitution, teaching about becoming a United States citizen, and researching details of a specific state's ratification of the Constitution. (CB)

  5. Citizen Science Data and Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Wasser, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is rapid growth in the collection of environmental data by non experts. So called ';citizen scientists' are collecting data on plant phenology, precipitation patterns, bird migration and winter feeding, mating calls of frogs in the spring, and numerous other topics and phenomena related to environmental science. This data is generally submitted to online programs (e.g Project BudBurst, COCORaHS, Project Feederwatch, Frogwatch USA, etc.)and is freely available to scientists, educators, land managers, and decisions makers. While the data is often used to address specific science questions, it also provides the opportunity to explore its utility in the context of ecosystem scaling. Citizen science data is being collected and submitted at an unprecedented rate and is of a spatial and temporal scale previously not possible. The amount of citizen science data vastly exceeds what scientists or land managers can collect on their own. As such, it provides opportunities to address scaling in the environmental sciences. This presentation will explore data from several citizen science programs in the context of scaling.

  6. Citizen Science International Pellet Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohrenwend, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Like Tokyo, other cities, both small and large, typically have numerous universities with dedicated faculties of scientists. By using portals such as Citizen Science and SciStarter, teachers can reach beyond the four walls of their classroom. The incredible experience of forging a relationship with a local scientist can easily begin via a cordial…

  7. Citizen's Guide to Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter H., Ed.

    This book is intended as a working guide for the citizen interested in understanding global environmental issues and taking action to confront them. Fourteen "issue" chapters document major changes resulting from the rapid growth of human numbers and their impacts on Earth's resources. Each chapter concludes with a resource section that contains…

  8. Information Technology and Citizen Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    This paper explores the claims of technology's ability to enhance citizen participation, with particular attention focused on the Internet. The claims are grounded within the larger context of political theory, specifically the tension between representative and direct forms of democracy. Sections of the paper are: Introduction; "What's Wrong with…

  9. Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2015-08-01

    We review the expanding, internet-enabled, and rapidly evolving field of citizen astronomy, focusing on research projects in stellar, extragalactic, and planetary science that have benefited from the participation of members of the public. These volunteers contribute in various ways: making and analyzing new observations, visually classifying features in images and light curves, exploring models constrained by astronomical data sets, and initiating new scientific enquiries. The most productive citizen astronomy projects involve close collaboration between the professionals and amateurs involved and occupy scientific niches not easily filled by great observatories or machine learning methods: Citizen astronomers are motivated by being of service to science, as well as by their interest in the subject. We expect participation and productivity in citizen astronomy to increase, as data sets get larger and citizen science platforms become more efficient. Opportunities include engaging citizens in ever-more advanced analyses and facilitating citizen-led enquiry through professional tools designed with citizens in mind.

  10. Trends in visibility, PM{sub 2.5}, and deposition expected from the Acid Rain Provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Hanson, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) are designed to reduce the deposition of SO{sub 2} and sulfate and, to a lesser extent, the deposition of NO{sub x} and nitrate through reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. However, other important benefits are anticipated from the emission control strategies, including improvement of regional visibility and reductions in concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5). In this study, the authors coupled utility emissions forecasts with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) to calculate and compare the relative improvements by 2010 in visual impairment, PM2.5 concentrations, and sulfate wet deposition at selected sites in the eastern United States.

  11. An analysis of the effects on precipitation chemistry of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.; Bowersox, V.C.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on the authors analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, they conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  12. Overview and discussion of the key regulatory issues in implementing the electric utility provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Title 4 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expand in order to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system created by the CAAA will be grafted onto an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. How public utility commissions (PUCs) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulate these allowances will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and, therefore, the cost of compliance to ratepayers. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  14. 26 CFR 20.2209-1 - Certain residents of possessions considered nonresidents not citizens of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... solely by reason of his birth in the Virgin Islands (section 306 of the Immigration and Nationality Act... nonresidents not citizens of the United States. As used in this part, the term “nonresident not a citizen of... time of his death, was domiciled in a possession of the United States and was a United......

  15. 26 CFR 20.2209-1 - Certain residents of possessions considered nonresidents not citizens of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... solely by reason of his birth in the Virgin Islands (section 306 of the Immigration and Nationality Act... nonresidents not citizens of the United States. As used in this part, the term “nonresident not a citizen of... time of his death, was domiciled in a possession of the United States and was a United......

  16. 26 CFR 20.2209-1 - Certain residents of possessions considered nonresidents not citizens of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solely by reason of his birth in the Virgin Islands (section 306 of the Immigration and Nationality Act... nonresidents not citizens of the United States. As used in this part, the term “nonresident not a citizen of... time of his death, was domiciled in a possession of the United States and was a United......

  17. 26 CFR 20.2209-1 - Certain residents of possessions considered nonresidents not citizens of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solely by reason of his birth in the Virgin Islands (section 306 of the Immigration and Nationality Act... nonresidents not citizens of the United States. As used in this part, the term “nonresident not a citizen of... time of his death, was domiciled in a possession of the United States and was a United......

  18. 76 FR 35471 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ..., Indiana facility by installing new equipment to recover and re-use certain condensed waste water streams... substitute projects at the Decatur facility--in lieu of the waste water recovery project--that are expected to yield greater air pollutant emission reductions: (1) A project to recover waste heat from...

  19. 76 FR 28223 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Tennessee Valley Authority--Paradise Fossil Fuel Plant; Muhlenberg County, KY AGENCY: Environmental... by the Kentucky Division for Air Quality to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for its Paradise Fossil... regarding the Paradise Fossil Fuel Plant on January 9, 2010, requesting that EPA object to the CAA title...

  20. 78 FR 13055 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...://www.epa.gov/region07/air/title5/petitiondb/petitions/sandow_response2011.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Luminant Generation Company--Sandow 5 Generating Plant AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... on August 18, 2011, to Luminant Generation Company, for the operation of the Sandow 5...

  1. 77 FR 38830 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... ``Act'') at its thirteen portland cement production facilities in the United States. Specifically, the... Second Amendment affects only three of the thirteen cement plants addressed in the Consent Decree: the Roberta, Alabama; Harleyville, South Carolina; and Atlanta, Georgia cement plants. The...

  2. 77 FR 6760 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... concerning the NTSB procedural rules codified at 49 CFR parts 821 and 826. 75 FR 80452. The NTSB specifically... (published on July 11, 2000 (64 FR 42637), initially implementing section 716 of the Act) resulting in the adoption, in the Final Rule (published on April 29, 2003 (68 FR 22623)), of the standard of review found...

  3. 77 FR 50504 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Action on Petition for Objection to State Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... for Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... permit issued by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) to Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products (Georgia- Pacific). Sections 307(b) and 505(b)(2) of the Act provide that a petitioner may ask...

  4. Developing Citizen Leaders through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This is an account of a programmer utilizing the application of action learning to the development of capacities of citizens. The Citizen Leadership for Democratic Governance is designed to equip citizens with the skills to get involved and handle the difficult tasks of governance in their communities in South Africa. After a history of apartheid…

  5. Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

  6. Title III list of lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as ammended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. It will also help firms determine whether they will be subject to accident prevention regulations under CAA section 112(r). Separate lists are also provided of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). These lists should be used as a reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information.

  7. Impending impacts of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerch, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The coal industry has already begun to feel the affects of the acid deposition title, particularly in Illinois. Two challenges to the producers and sellers of coal; i.e., (1) Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants and what is in store for customers, and (2) Title V, Operating Permits, which may affect production facilities are discussed. The utilities are temporarily exempted from Title III. The Great Waters report suggests that mercury will be regulated, and it looks like risk assessments will be based on coal analysis rather than on actual emission measurements. Stack sampling is difficult, expensive and slow. Coal cleaning is important in reducing trace elements. Electrostatic precipitators also remove trace elements. ESPs are less effective for mercury and selenium because they are emitted in the gas phase. FGD can remove hazardous air pollutants, but it is not well documented.

  8. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation Part 3. Design and development of an air classifier family for the Novolizer multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the design of a multifarious classifier family for different applications is described. The main design and development steps are presented as well as some special techniques that have been applied to achieve preset objectives. It is shown by increasing the number of air supply channels to the classifier chamber (from 2 to 8), that the fine particle losses from adhesion onto the classifier walls can be reduced from 75% to less than 5% of the real dose for soft (spherical) agglomerates. By applying a bypass flow that is arranged as a co-axial sheath of clean air around the aerosol cloud from the classifier, the airflow resistance of the classifier can be controlled over a relatively wide range of values (0.023-0.041 kPa(0.5) min l(-1)). This, without affecting the fine particle dose or increasing the fine particle losses in the inhaler. Moreover, the sheath flow can be modelled to reduce the depositions in the induction port to the cascade impactor or in the patient's mouth, which are the result of back flows in these regions. The principle of powder induced pressure drop reduction across a classifier enables assessment of the amount of powder in the classifier at any moment during inhalation, from which classifier loading (from the dose system) and discharge rates can be derived. This principle has been applied to study the residence time of a dose in the classifier as function of the carrier size fraction and the flow rate. It has been found that this residence time can be controlled in order to obtain an optimal balance between the generated fine particle fraction and the inhalation manoeuvre of the patient. A residence time between 0.5 and 2 s at 60 l/min is considered favourable, as this yields a high fine particle dose (depending on the type of formulation used) and leaves sufficient inhaled volume for particle transport into the deep lung. PMID:16442248

  9. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  10. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  11. H. R. 3708: A Bill to amend the Title III of the Clean Air Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, November 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R.3708, a bill to amend the Clean Air Act, was introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States on November 17, 1989. The main purpose of the bill is to control air pollution from sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. Attention is focused on air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities, such as oil or gas exploration or development on tidal waters and power generation located on shore.

  12. Start-stop testing of two self-acting air-lubricated spiral groove thrust bearing coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunfee, J. D.; Shapiro, W.

    1974-01-01

    Start-stop tests were conducted on air-lubricated spiral-groove thrust bearings. Application of a matrix-bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) coating over a porous chrome oxide coating resulted in significantly lower friction, compared to bearings coated with chrome oxide only. The MoS2 coated bearing sustained 15,000 start-stop cycles at a maximum of 3600 rpm. Each cycle was 15 seconds on, 30 seconds off. The chrome oxide coated bearing failed by local welding after 2030 cycles. Both types of coatings exhibited early failures under higher thrust loads when operating films were insufficient to sustain the load without overheating.

  13. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  14. Evaluation of chromium oxide and molybdenum disulfide coatings in self-acting stops of an air-lubricated Rayleigh step thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1974-01-01

    Two coatings for a Rayleigh step thrust bearing were tested when coasting down and stopping under self-acting operation in air. The thrust bearing had an outside diameter of 8.9 cm (3.5 in.), an inside diameter of 5.4 cm (2.1 in.), and nine sectors. The load was 73 N (16.4 lbf). The load pressure was 19.1 kN/per square meter (2.77 lbf/per square inch) on the total thrust bearing area. The chromium oxide coating was good to 150 stops without bearing deterioration, and the molybdenum disulfide coating was good for only four stops before bearing deterioration. The molybdenum disulfide coated bearing failed after nine stops.

  15. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  16. Respect States' and Citizens' Rights Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DeGette, Diana [D-CO-1

    2013-03-05

    04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Examination of utility Phase 1 compliance choices and state reactions to Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; Elliott, T.J.; Carlson, L.J.; South, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (N{sub x}) from electric power plants. The act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program deaned in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. A compilation of SO{sub 2} compliance activities by the 110 utility plants affected by Phase I is summarized in this report. These compliance plans are presented in a tabular form, correlated with age, capacity, and power pool data. A large number of the Phase I units (46%) have chosen to blend or switch to lower sulfur coals. This choice primarily is in response to (1) prices of low-sulfur coal and (2) the need to maintain SO{sub 2} control flexibility because of uncertain future environmental regulations (e.g., air toxics, carbon dioxide) and compliance prices. The report also discusses the responses of state legislatures and public utility commissions to the compliance requirements in Title IV. Most states have taken negligible action regarding the regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance activities. To protect mine employment, states producing high-sulfur coal have enacted regulations encouraging continued use of that coal, but for the most part, this response has had little effect on utility compliance choices.

  18. Citizen groups: a creative force

    SciTech Connect

    Stoel, T.

    1981-02-01

    The role of citizen groups is as important as that of government agencies when it comes to environmental policy in a democracy. These groups spend little money, yet they have initiated the major US environmental legislation of the past two decades. They are a recent, but effective, force in developing countries even though adversarial approaches are not often appropriate. The methods used by US environmental groups range from lobbying to confrontation in court. Groups outside the US tend to use consensus in democracies and information gathering in developing countries. While the groups' primary concerns are national in scope, international awareness and cooperation are growing. (DCK)

  19. Citizen empowerment: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, C H

    Since the late 1970s, the notion of empowerment has appeared with increasing frequency in discussion of preventive social and community intervention. While the idea of empowerment is intuitively appealing both for theory and practice, its applicability has been limited by continuing conceptual ambiguity. Based on a small N study of emerging citizen leaders in grassroots organizations, this article proposes a view of empowerment as a necessarily long-term process of adult learning and development. In this framework, empowerment is further described as the continuing construction of a multi-dimensional participatory competence. This conception encompasses both cognitive and behavioral change. Implications for practice are also addressed.

  20. Amateur knowledge: public art and citizen science.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The science studies literatures on amateurs and citizen science have remained largely unconnected despite similarities between the two categories. The essay connects amateur knowledge and citizen science through examples from public art. Through an analysis of the use of the term "amateur" by contemporary artists working to engage the public in critiques of science, connections in the ideals of democratic knowledge making by amateurs and citizen scientists are further explored.

  1. A COMPARISON OF DOSE RESULTS FROM THE CLEAN AIR ACT ASSESSMENT PACKAGE-1988, PERSONAL COMPUTER (CAP88-PC), VERSION 3 TO PREVIOUS VERSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra F.; Staven, Lissa H.

    2013-08-01

    EPA-approved computer software packages, including CAP88-PC, are used by Department of Energy sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. The most recent update, CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by EPA in February 2006 for use by Department of Energy facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. Total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions for parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at Department of Energy facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides are lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides would be higher.

  2. A comparison of dose results from the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988, personal computer (CAP88-PC), version 3 to previous versions.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra; Staven, Lissa

    2013-08-01

    Computer software packages approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), including CAP88-PC, are used by U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by the U.S. EPA in February 2006 for use by U.S. DOE facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. For parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains, total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at U.S. DOE facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides were lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides increased relative to the previous versions.

  3. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title V operating permit program requirements for the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    Title V of the Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes a new permit program requiring major sources and sources subject to Title III (Hazardous Air Pollutants) to obtain a state operating permit. Historically, most states have issued operating permits for individual emission units. Under the Title V permit program, a single permit will be issued for all of the emission units at the facility much like the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The permit will specify all reporting, monitoring, and record-keeping requirements for the facility. Sources required to obtain permits include (a) major sources that emit 100 tons per year or more of any criteria air contaminant, (b) any source subject to the HAP provisions of Title III, (c) any source subject to the acid rain provisions of Title IV, (d) any source subject to New Source Performance Standards, and (e) any source subject to new source review under the nonattainment or Prevention of Significant Deterioration provisions. The State of Tennessee Title V Operating Permit Program was approved by EPA on August 28, 1996. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title V Operating Permit Program. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the ETTP conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. Each of the three DOE Facilities is considered a major source under Title V of the CAA.

  4. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

  5. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  6. Wastewater-based epidemiological evaluation of the effect of air pollution on short-acting beta-agonist consumption for acute asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Davoli, Enrico; Castiglioni, Sara; Bosetti, Cristina; Re Depaolini, Andrea; Marzona, Irene; Zuccato, Ettore; Fanelli, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and a leading cause of hospitalization among children, has been associated with outdoor air pollution. We applied the wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach to study the association between the use of salbutamol, a short-acting beta-agonist used to treat acute bronchospasm, and air pollution in the population of Milan, Italy. Composite 24-h samples of untreated wastewater were collected daily and analyzed for human metabolic residues of salbutamol by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Corresponding daily outdoor concentrations of particular matter up to 10µm (PM10) and 2.5µm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and benzene were collected from the public air monitoring network. Associations at different lag times (0-10 days) were assessed by a log-linear Poisson regression model. We found significant direct associations between defined daily doses (DDD) of salbutamol and mean daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 up to nine days of lag time. The highest rate ratio, and 95% confidence interval (CI), of DDD of salbutamol was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.12) at seven days of lag time and for an increase of 10 μg/m(3) of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Reducing the mean daily PM10 concentration in Milan from 50 to 30μg/m(3) means that 852 (95% CI: 483-1504) daily doses of salbutamol per day would not be used. These results confirm the association between asthma and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 and prove the potential of the WBE approach to quantitatively estimate the relation between environmental exposures and diseases. PMID:27281687

  7. Project Citizen: Promoting Action-Oriented Citizen Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie; Medina-Jerez, William

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, citizen science projects have emerged as a means to involve students in scientific inquiry, particularly in the fields of ecology and environmental science. A citizen scientist is "a volunteer who collects and/or processes data as part of a scientific inquiry" (Silverton 2009, p. 467). Participation in citizen science fosters an…

  8. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was

  9. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  10. The Question Each Citizen Must Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Educating students to be good, informed citizens remains a core purpose of K-12 schools. The purposes of civic education, however, are contested, notes Levine, director of the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. Levine argues that a citizen is someone who seriously asks, "What should we do?"--someone who…

  11. 24 CFR 1003.604 - Citizen participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation. 1003.604... Requirements § 1003.604 Citizen participation. (a) In order to permit residents of Indian tribes and Alaska.... Meetings shall be scheduled in ways and at times that will allow participation by residents. (3)...

  12. Breaking Barriers through Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Traces the development of peace-oriented experiential philosophy in both its Western and Soviet contexts, suggesting that adventure-based citizen diplomacy is a valuable means to build bridges between them. Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy projects are working to decrease the cultural, sociopolitical, and psychological barriers that remain in the…

  13. [Citizens: allies of the health system].

    PubMed

    Venne, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Many international declarations recognize citizen participation as an important driver of success for health policy; however, in most countries the implementation of this principle has been delayed. Yet well-known phenomena, like ageing and incurred costs, should motivate decision makers to rely more on citizens and make them allies of the system, giving them power and responsibility. Citizens can first exercise this responsibility within the areas of prevention and health promotion. This responsibility then expands to include mutual assistance between community members. It is called upon in the definition of new social norms. It is recognized by the participation of citizens in health care decision-making bodies. Lastly, this responsibility applies when the time comes to choose which health services will be covered by the public system and which will be sent on to private insurers. The reasons to create a space for citizens are many. The methods to do it exist. What is needed is political willpower and means.

  14. Detailed cloud resolving model simulations of the impacts of Saharan air layer dust on tropical deep convection - Part 1: Dust acts as ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Min, Q.; Li, R.; Teller, A.; Joseph, E.; Morris, V.

    2010-05-01

    Observational studies suggest that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), an elevated layer (850-500 hPa) of Saharan air and mineral dust, has strong impacts on the microphysical as well as dynamical properties of tropical deep convective cloud systems along its track. In this case study, numerical simulations using a two-dimensional Detailed Cloud Resolving Model (DCRM) were carried out to investigate the dust-cloud interactions in the tropical deep convection, focusing on the dust role as Ice Nuclei (IN). The simulations showed that mineral dust considerably enhanced heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at temperatures warmer than -40 °C, resulting in more ice hydrometeors number concentration and reduced precipitating size of ice particles. Because of the lower in the saturation over ice as well as more droplet freezing, total latent heating increased, and consequently the updraft velocity was stronger. On the other hand, the increased ice deposition consumed more water vapor at middle troposphere, which induces a competition for water vapor between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing and nucleation. As a result, dust suppressed the homogeneous droplet freezing and nucleation due to the heterogeneous droplet freezing and the weakened transport of water vapor at lower stratosphere, respectively. These effects led to decreased number concentration of ice cloud particles in the upper troposphere, and consequently lowered the cloud top height during the stratus precipitating stage. Acting as IN, mineral dust also influenced precipitation in deep convection. It initiated earlier the collection because dust-related heterogeneous nucleation and freezing at middle troposphere occur earlier than homogeneous nucleation at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the convective precipitation was suppressed by reduced collection of large graupel particles and insufficient fallout related to decreased sizes of precipitating ice hydrometeors. On the contrary, dust increased the

  15. Public Involvement and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax, Sally K.

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is based largely on assumptions about bureaucratic ineptitude as the cause of environmental degradation and citizen involvement as the cure. These assumptions and the procedural requirements of the NEPA process have severly undercut the limited contributions which citizen involvement can make to…

  16. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  17. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  18. Involving citizens and patients in health research.

    PubMed

    Venuta, Rosa; Graham, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research's (CIHR), Canada's premier health research funding agency, is moving forward in realizing a more systematic, ongoing integration of citizens' input in priority setting, governance and funding programs and tools. In 2008, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) developed a Framework for Citizen Engagement. This Framework establishes guidelines for implementing a more systematic approach to consulting and engaging citizens, such as in assessing the merit and relevance of research applications, developing strategic plans, setting research priorities and for strengthening their role on CIHR's governance committees. This paper describes the current context for public consultation in Canada's federal health care system, the new CIHR citizen engagement framework and discusses citizen engagement activities and efforts undertaken by CIHR institutes and branches. It reviews the methods used by CIHR to engage citizens in four key focus areas: 1. Representation on CIHR's Boards and Committees; 2. Corporate and Institute strategic plans, priorities, policies, and guidelines; 3. Research priority setting and integrated knowledge translation; 4. Knowledge dissemination and public outreach. In discussing CIHR's experiences, the paper identifies some of the challenges and benefits of engaging citizens in CIHR's research processes, including participating in decision making and informing strategic priorities. PMID:20539148

  19. Citizen Science in the Internet Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan

    2008-09-01

    The development of new web technologies has led to new opportunities in citizen science, a way of working in which non-professional "citizen scientists" contribute to authentic science research in a meaningful way. Citizen science has been around for a long time - members of the American Association of Variable Star Observers have been collecting and interpreting high-quality scientific data since the organization's founding in 1911. The most famous citizen science project of the computer age was SETI@home, in which volunteers installed a screen saver to process data from the SETI project. Over the last few years, "crowdsourcing" - sending work to large groups of online volunteers - allows previously intractable computer problems such as image classification and language translation to be solved by humans. Application of crowdsourcing methods to citizen science problems has led to programs like Clickworkers (in which volunteers identify Martian craters), Stardust@home (in which volunteers search for tracks of dust impacts), and the project I work on, Galaxy Zoo (in which volunteers classify galaxies as spiral or elliptical). In this talk, I will trace the evolution of citizen science, share some conclusions and lessons learned from the development of Galaxy Zoo, and propose future projects and research directions for citizen science.

  20. EIA's role in the analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the development of the National Allowance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Beamon, J.A.; Linders, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Throughout 1990 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provided continuous data and analytic support to Congress during its deliberations on Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA). Congress requested the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to review and analyze the sections that would affect electric utilities, specifically those relating to acid deposition (Title IV). By providing knowledgeable and impartial analysis, EIA clarified the likely effects of the various legislative proposals and helped Congress finalize the amendments. Even though the CAA is now law, EIA's efforts have not ended. During the analysis of the various proposals, EIA and EPA created a National Allowance Database (NAD). Now, under an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a new version of the NAD is being developed to facilitate the implementation of the acid deposition provisions of the CAA. This article describes the analyses undertaken, points out where EIA's efforts led to improved understanding of the likely impacts of the CAA, and outlines EIA's continued efforts to assist EPA in the implementation of the amendments. 6 tabs.

  1. Synergies and conflicts in multimedia pollution control related to utility compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; Loeb, A.P.; Formento, J.W.; South, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Most analyses of utility strategies for meeting Title IV requirements in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have focused on factors relating directly to utilities` sulfur dioxide control costs; however, there are a number of additional environmental requirements that utilities must meet at the same time they comply with the acid rain program. To illuminate the potential synergies and conflicts that these other regulatory mandates may have in connection with the acid rain program, it is necessary to conduct a thorough, simultaneous examination of the various programs. This report (1) reviews the environmental mandates that utilities must plant to meet in the next decade concurrently with those of the acid rain program, (2) evaluates the technologies that utilities may select to meet these requirements, (3) reviews the impacts of public utility regulation on the acid rain program, and (4) analyzes the interactions among the various programs for potential synergies and conflicts. Generally, this report finds that the lack of coordination among current and future regulatory programs may result in higher compliance costs than necessary. Failure to take advantage of cost-effective synergies and incremental compliance planning will increase control costs and reduce environmental benefits.

  2. 78 FR 42592 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 23 and 24, 2013, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... and discussion of candidate designs for the 2014 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Commemorative Coin Program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee July 23 and 24, 2013,...

  3. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... for naturalization under section 319(b) of the Act, the alien spouse of a United States citizen must... the time of examination on the application for naturalization, be......

  4. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... for naturalization under section 319(b) of the Act, the alien spouse of a United States citizen must... the time of examination on the application for naturalization, be......

  5. 8 CFR 319.1 - Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably... eligible for naturalization under section 319(a) of the Act, the spouse of a United States citizen must...) Has resided continuously within the United States, as defined......

  6. 8 CFR 319.1 - Persons living in marital union with United States citizen spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United... eligible for naturalization under section 319(a) of the Act, the spouse of a United States citizen must...) Has resided continuously within the United States,......

  7. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... for naturalization under section 319(b) of the Act, the alien spouse of a United States citizen must... the time of examination on the application for naturalization, be......

  8. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... for naturalization under section 319(b) of the Act, the alien spouse of a United States citizen must... the time of examination on the application for naturalization, be......

  9. 8 CFR 319.2 - Person whose United States citizen spouse is employed abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and favorably disposed... for naturalization under section 319(b) of the Act, the alien spouse of a United States citizen must... the time of examination on the application for naturalization, be......

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(j)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3306(j)-1 Section 31.3306(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(j)-1...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(j)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3306(j)-1 Section 31.3306(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(j)-1...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3306(j)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3306(j)-1 Section 31.3306(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(j)-1...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3306(j)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3306(j)-1 Section 31.3306(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(j)-1...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(j)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3306(j)-1 Section 31.3306(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(j)-1...

  15. 26 CFR 20.2106-2 - Estates of nonresidents not citizens; deductions for expenses, losses, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citizen of the United States at the time of his death, deductions are allowed under sections 2053 and 2054... his death bears to the value of the decedent's entire gross estate wherever situated. It is immaterial... estate, and expenses of administration filed under any applicable foreign death duty act. If no...

  16. 26 CFR 20.2106-2 - Estates of nonresidents not citizens; deductions for expenses, losses, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citizen of the United States at the time of his death, deductions are allowed under sections 2053 and 2054... his death bears to the value of the decedent's entire gross estate wherever situated. It is immaterial... estate, and expenses of administration filed under any applicable foreign death duty act. If no...

  17. 26 CFR 20.2106-2 - Estates of nonresidents not citizens; deductions for expenses, losses, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citizen of the United States at the time of his death, deductions are allowed under sections 2053 and 2054... his death bears to the value of the decedent's entire gross estate wherever situated. It is immaterial... estate, and expenses of administration filed under any applicable foreign death duty act. If no...

  18. Breath of Fresh Air Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jackson Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2014-02-27

    06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Breath of Fresh Air Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2012-08-02

    09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water…