Science.gov

Sample records for air activation products

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hatayama, Takahiro; Jiangxu, Dong; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Endo, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key cytokine that exacerbates allergic and fibrotic reactions. Several microbes and virus components have been shown to induce TSLP production, mainly in epithelial cells. TLR4 activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce TSLP production in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enhanced by IL-1β and LPS in the PAM212 cells. These results demonstrated that TNF-α and IL-1β, which are partly produced by LPS-activated leukocytes, contribute to TSLP production via TLR4 activation in vivo. PMID:27271511

  2. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  3. Reporting air emissions from animal production activities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Patel, Parag G

    2010-04-01

    Major releases of airborne ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the decomposition of animal waste have the American public concerned about the health of persons near farms. Emissions of these hazardous substances are regulated by the US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Moreover, federal regulatory provisions delineate thresholds for reporting hazardous pollutants being released into the air. In 2008, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a reporting exemption under which all farms were exempted from reporting air emissions under CERCLA and small farms were exempted under EPCRA. The US EPA's exemption poses questions about whether the rule is contrary to congressional mandates. Environmental and industry groups have challenged this exemption in federal circuit court, and the judiciary will need to decide whether the agency had authority to adopt the rule. To accord protection to humans from hazardous airborne emissions from farms producing livestock, state agencies may want to adopt scientifically-justified ambient air quality standards. PMID:20056277

  4. AIRS Level 2 Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Standard Retrieval Product consists of retrieved cloud and surface properties; profiles of retrieved temperature, water vapor, and ozone; and a flag indicating the presence of cloud ice or water. They contain quality assessment flags in addition to retrieved quantities and are generated for all locations where atmospheric soundings are taken. An AIRS granule consists of 6 minutes of data. This corresponds to approximately 1/15 of an orbit but exactly 45 scan lines of AMSU-A data or 135 scan lines of AIRS and HSB data.

  5. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  6. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(С3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2]  >  10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron–ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t  =  1–30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  7. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  8. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  9. Air Force seal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1994-01-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Brush seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to reduce leakage at the required conditions. Likewise, challenges in engine mainshaft air/oil seals are also being addressed. Counter-rotating intershaft applications within the IHPTET initiative involve very high rubbing velocities. This viewgraph presentation briefly describes past and current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engine testing.

  10. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  11. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  12. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  14. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  15. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    PubMed

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far. PMID:18999734

  16. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  17. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  19. The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities.…

  20. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  1. VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Products for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The air quality community uses satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) for a variety of applications, including daily air quality forecasting, retrospective event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. AOD is suitable for ambient air quality applications because is related to particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) concentrations in the atmosphere; higher values of AOD correspond to higher concentrations of particulate matter. AOD is useful for identifying and tracking areas of high PM2.5 concentrations that correspond to air quality events, such as wildfires, dust storms, or haze episodes. Currently, the air quality community utilizes AOD from the MODIS instrument on NASA's polar-orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites and from NOAA's GOES geostationary satellites (e.g, GASP). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi-NPP satellite is making AOD measurements that are similar to MODIS AOD, but with higher spatial resolution. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750 m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6 km resolution Environmental Data Record (EDR) product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. These VIIRS AOD products offer a substantial increase in spatial resolution compared to the MODIS AOD 3 km and 10 km AOD products, respectively. True color (RGB) imagery is also available from VIIRS as a decision aid for air quality applications. It serves as a complement to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke, haze, and blowing dust in the atmosphere. Case studies of VIIRS AOD and RGB data for recent air quality events will be presented, with a focus on wildfires, and the relative pros and cons of the VIIRS AOD IP and EDR for air quality applications will be discussed in comparison to MODIS AOD products. Improvements to VIIRS aerosol products based on user feedback as part of the NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG) will be outlined, and an overview of future

  2. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  3. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  4. Impact of room fragrance products on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, Erik; Schulz, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Everyday life can no longer be imagined without fragrances and scented products. For the consumer, countless products exists which are solely or partly intended to give off a certain scent in sufficient concentrations to odorize a complete room. Sprays, diffusers and evaporators, scented candles and automatic devices for the distribution of fragrance liquids are typical examples of such products. If the consumer uses such products, his consent to the release of certain chemicals in his home can be implied, however, he may not know what kind of fragrance substances and solvents will be present in which concentrations. In this study, we determined the volatile emissions of a number of fragrance products in detail. Measurements were carried out under controlled conditions in test chambers. The products were tested in a passive (unused) and an active state, wherever applicable. Following a defined test protocol, the release of volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles and NOx was monitored for each product. The potential for forming secondary organic aerosols under the influence of ozone was studied, and for a selection of products the long-term emission behavior was assessed. A remarkable variety of fragrance substances was found and more than 100 relevant compounds were identified and quantified. While it is the intended function of such products to release fragrance substances, also considerable amounts of non-odorous solvents and by-products were found to be released from several air fresheners. Emissions rates exceeding 2 mg/(unit*h) were measured for the five most common solvents.

  5. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Frederick S; Contescu, Cristian I; Tsouris, Costas; Burchell, Timothy D

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  6. A Home Production Activity Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Owen, Alma J.

    1980-01-01

    The family is examined as a focal unit of production and a home production activity model is developed. An interdisciplinary approach is used which puts the broad range of family activities on a continuum from production to consumption. (Author/SK)

  7. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  8. The AIRE -230Y Polymorphism Affects AIRE Transcriptional Activity: Potential Influence on AIRE Function in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Lovewell, Thomas R. J.; McDonagh, Andrew J.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Azzouz, Mimoun; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is expressed in the thymus, particularly in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), and is required for the ectopic expression of a diverse range of peripheral tissue antigens by mTECs, facilitating their ability to perform negative selection of auto-reactive immature T-cells. The expression profile of peripheral tissue antigens is affected not only by AIRE deficiency but also with variation of AIRE activity in the thymus. Method and Results Therefore we screened 591bp upstream of the AIRE transcription start site including AIRE minimal promoter for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and identified two SNPs -655R (rs117557896) and -230Y (rs751032) respectively. To study the effect of these variations on AIRE promoter activity we generated a Flp-In host cell line which was stably transfected with a single copy of the reporter vector. Relative promoter activity was estimated by comparing the luciferase specific activity for lysates of the different reporter AIRE promoter-reporter gene constructs including AIRE-655G AIRE-230C, AIRE-655G AIRE-230T and AIRE-655A AIRE-230C. The analysis showed that the commonest haplotype AIRE-655G AIRE-230C has the highest luciferase specific activity (p<0.001). Whereas AIRE-655G AIRE-230T has a luciferase specific activity value that approaches null. Both AIRE promoter polymorphic sites have one allele that forms a CpG methylation site which we determined can be methylated in methylation assays using the M.SssI CpG methyltransferase. Conclusion AIRE-230Y is in a conserved region of the promoter and is adjacent to a predicted WT1 transcription factor binding site, suggesting that AIRE-230Y affects AIRE expression by influencing the binding of biochemical factors to this region. Our findings show that AIRE-655GAIRE-230T haplotype could dramatically alter AIRE transcription and so have an effect on the process of negative selection and affect susceptibility to autoimmune conditions. PMID

  9. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  10. Antiproton Production by CR on Air Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskalenko, I. V.; Mashnik, S. G.

    2003-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) antiproton flux have been shown to challenge existing CR propagation models. In particular, the conventional reacceleration model designed to match secondary/primary nuclei ratios produces too few antiprotons. Recently there appear some indications that the atmospheric contribution to antiproton production is considerably underestimated, which implies that antiproton CR flux might be lower. This may be the primary reason of the discrepancy discovered in CR propagation. We use the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM together with available data on antiproton production on nuclei to analyse the accuracy of existing parameterizations of antiproton production cross section. The LAQGSM model has been shown to reproduce well nuclear reactions and hadronic data in the range 0.01-800 GeV/nucleon.

  11. Effects of air velocity on broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent improvements in poultry genetics have resulted in increased growth rates (Havenstein et al., 2003) and total heat production (Chepete and Xin, 2001; Xin et al., 2001). In addition, market weights have also increased with white the meat demand of the U.S. resulting in birds being marketed at ...

  12. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  13. Particles Production in Extensive Air Showers: GEANT4 vs CORSIKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Watts, J. W.; Christl, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Air shower simulations are essential tools for the interpretation of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The reliability of these codes is evaluated by comparisons with equivalent simulation calculations, and with experimental data (when available). In this work, we present GEANT4 calculations of particles production in EAS induced by primary protons and Iron in the PeV (1015 eV) energy range. The calculations, using different hadronic models, are compared with the results from the well-known air shower simulation code CORSIKA, and the results of this comparison will be discussed. Air shower simulations are essential tools for the interpretation of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The reliability of these codes is evaluated by comparisons with equivalent simulation calculations, and with experimental data (when available). In this work, we present GEANT4 calculations of particles production in EAS induced by primary protons and Iron in the PeV (1015 eV) energy range. The calculations, using different hadronic models, are compared with the results from the well-known air shower simulation code CORSIKA, and the results of this comparison will be discussed. This work is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  14. PARALLEL EVALUATION OF AIR- AND OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To provide data on the relative merits of air and oxygen in the activated sludge process, two 1900-cu m/day (0.5-mgd) activated sludge pilot plant, one air and one oxygen system, were operated side-by-side at the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, California. Both of th...

  15. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  16. Air quality impact analysis in support of the new production reactor environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D L

    1991-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this air quality impact analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this work was to provide Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the required estimates of ground-level concentrations of five criteria air pollutants at the Hanford Site boundary from each of the stationary sources associated with the new production reactor (NPR) and its supporting facilities. The DOE proposes to provide new production capacity for the primary production of tritium and secondary production of plutonium to support the US nuclear weapons program. Three alternative reactor technologies are being considered by DOE: the light-water reactor, the low-temperature, heavy-water reactor, and the modular high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor. In this study, PNL provided estimates of the impacts of the proposed action on the ground-level concentration of the criteria air pollutants for each of the alternative technologies. The criteria pollutants were sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, and particulates with a diameter of less than 10 microns. Ground-level concentrations were estimated for the peak construction phase activities expected to occur in 1997 and for the operational phase activities beginning in the year 2000. Ground-level concentrations of the primary air pollutants were estimated to be well below any of the applicable national or state ambient air quality standards. 12 refs., 19 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  18. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  19. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of the development of composite materials for air separation based on molecular sieving properties and magnetic fields effects, several molecular sieve materials were tested in a flow system, and the effects of temperature, flow conditions, and magnetic fields were investigated. New carbon materials adsorbents, with and without pre-loaded super-paramagnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized; all materials were packed in chromatographic type columns which were placed between the poles of a high intensity, water-cooled, magnet (1.5 Tesla). In order to verify the existence of magnetodesorption effect, separation tests were conducted by injecting controlled volumes of air in a flow of inert gas, while the magnetic field was switched on and off. Gas composition downstream the column was analyzed by gas chromatography and by mass spectrometry. Under the conditions employed, the tests confirmed that N2 - O2 separation occurred at various degrees, depending on material's intrinsic properties, temperature and flow rate. The effect of magnetic fields, reported previously for static conditions, was not confirmed in the flow system. The best separation was obtained for zeolite 13X at sub-ambient temperatures. Future directions for the project include evaluation of a combined system, comprising carbon and zeolite molecular sieves, and testing the effect of stronger magnetic fields produced by cryogenic magnets.

  20. Confined combustion of TNT explosion products in air

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, J; Ferguson, R E; Forbes, J; Kuhl, A L; Oppenheim, A K; Spektor, R

    1998-08-31

    Effects of turbulent combustion induced by explosion of a 0.8 kg cylindrical charge of TNT in a 17 m3 chamber filled with air, are investigated. The detonation wave in the charge transforms the solid explosive (C7H5N3O6) to gaseous products, rich (~20% each) in carbon dust and carbon monoxide. The detonation pressure (~210 kb) thereby engendered causes the products to expand rapidly, driving a blast wave into the surrounding air. The interface between the products and air, being essentially unstable as a consequence of strong acceleration to which it is subjected within the blast wave, evolves into a turbulent mixing layer-a process enhanced by shock reflections from the walls. Under such circumstances rapid combustion takes place where the expanded detonation products play the role of fuel. Its dynamic effect is manifested by the experimental measurement of ~3 bar pressure increase in the chamber, in contrast to ~1bar attained by a corresponding TNT explosion in nitrogen. The experiments were modeled as a turbulent combustion in an unmixed system at infinite Reynolds, Peclet and DamkGhler numbers. The CFD solution was obtained by a high-order Godunov scheme using an AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) to trace the turbulent mixing on the computational grid in as much detail as possible. The evolution of the mass fraction of fuel consumed by combustion thus determined exhibited the properties of an exponential decay following a sharp initiation. The results reveal all the dynamic features of the exothermic process of combustion controlled by fluid mechanic transport in a highly turbulent field, in contrast to those elucidated by the conventional reaction-diffusion model.

  1. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  2. Air-Adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans Shows High Methane Production and Develops Resistance against Oxygen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Belmont-Díaz, Javier; Encalada, Rusely; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4–1% O2 (atmospheric) for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells). In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i) the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii) the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide) and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days) of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens. PMID:25706146

  3. Numerical models for afterburning of TNT detonation products in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.; Ripley, R. C.

    2013-11-01

    Afterburning occurs when fuel-rich explosive detonation products react with oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. This energy release can further contribute to the air blast, resulting in a more severe explosion hazard particularly in confined scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the products equation of state (EOS) on the prediction of the efficiency of trinitrotoluene (TNT) afterburning and the times of arrival of reverberating shock waves in a closed chamber. A new EOS is proposed, denoted the Afterburning (AB) EOS. This EOS employs the JWL EOS in the high pressure regime, transitioning to a Variable-Gamma (VG) EOS at lower pressures. Simulations of three TNT charges suspended in a explosion chamber were performed. When compared to numerical results using existing methods, it was determined that the Afterburning EOS delays the shock arrival times giving better agreement with the experimental measurements in the early to mid time. In the late time, the Afterburning EOS roughly halved the error between the experimental measurements and results obtained using existing methods. Use of the Afterburning EOS for products with the Variable-Gamma EOS for the surrounding air further significantly improved results, both in the transient solution and the quasi-static pressure. This final combination of EOS and mixture model is recommended for future studies involving afterburning explosives, particularly those in partial and full confinement.

  4. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  5. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  6. MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF IRRADIATED TOLUENE/NOX/H2O/AIR MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irradiated mixtures of toluene/NOx/H2O/air were brought to a steady-state distribution of reactants and products in a 22.7 cu. m. flow-mode smog chamber, and the effluent was tested for mutagenic activity by exposing Salmonella typhimurum strains TA100 and TA98 to it. Two differe...

  7. Improving AirNow Air Quality Products with NASA Near-Real-Time Remote Sensing Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; Pasch, A. N.; DeWinter, J. L.; Haderman, M.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program provides the public with real-time and forecasted air quality conditions. Millions of people each day use it to protect their health. The AirNow program (http://www.airnow.gov), reports ground-level ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in a standardized index called the Air Quality Index (AQI). AirNow aggregates information from over 130 state, local, and federal air quality agencies and provides tools for over 2,000 agency staff responsible for monitoring, forecasting, and communicating local air quality. Each hour, AirNow systems generate thousands of maps and products. This presentation will describe how AirNow is benefiting from NASA's remote sensing data. We will describe two applications of NASA near-real-time remote sensing data within AirNow through case studies, focusing specifically on days when large spatial gradients in AQI and wildfire smoke impacts were observed. The first case study will show how AirNow is merging satellite-estimated PM2.5 concentrations into the AQI maps via the AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP). AirNow derives these satellite estimates using NASA/NOAA satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals and GEOS-Chem modeled ratios of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD. The second case study will show how NASA's Global Image Browse Services (GIBS) provides a near-real-time satellite product in AirNow-Tech for agency users to quickly identify smoke plumes and access air quality conditions in data-sparse areas during wildland fires.

  8. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  9. The Jar Magic--Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass,…

  10. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  11. Level-1C Product from AIRS: Principal Component Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Jiang, Yibo; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis A.; Hannon, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, is a grating spectrometer with 2378 channels in the range 3.7 to 15.4 microns. In a grating spectrometer each individual radiance measurement is largely independent of all others. Most measurements are extremely accurate and have very low noise levels. However, some channels exhibit high noise levels or other anomalous behavior, complicating applications needing radiances throughout a band, such as cross-calibration with other instruments and regression retrieval algorithms. The AIRS Level-1C product is similar to Level-1B but with instrument artifacts removed. This paper focuses on the "cleaning" portion of Level-1C, which identifies bad radiance values within spectra and produces substitute radiances using redundant information from other channels. The substitution is done in two passes, first with a simple combination of values from neighboring channels, then with principal components. After results of the substitution are shown, differences between principal component reconstructed values and observed radiances are used to investigate detailed noise characteristics and spatial misalignment in other channels.

  12. Radon-222 concentrations and decay-product equilibrium in dwellings and in the open air.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Folkerts, K H

    1984-09-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the activity concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived decay products and the 212Pb/212Bi concentrations in more than 200 dwellings in West Germany and in the open air. For more than 130 measurements of the equilibrium factor F in dwellings the median value was found to be 0.3. Measurements of F in the open air under various conditions resulted in a mean value of about 0.4. The results of the investigations showed that indoors F depends only slightly on ventilation, indoor 222Rn concentration and other parameters. The equilibrium factor F in the open air, however, was found to depend on meteorological conditions. Empirical correlations from the data obtained for the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios were derived to provide relations for the prediction of the individual daughter product concentrations at a measured 222Rn level. It was established that the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios for indoor air do not change within the range of 222Rn concentrations investigated (1-370 Bq X m-3). These relations, however, are not valid for the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios in outdoor air. The correlations derived further suggest that the individual daughter product concentrations may be assessed with sufficient accuracy by only measuring the 222Rn concentrations. Thus the daughter ratios obtained in this way should enable good estimates of the lung dose for members of the public due to inhalation of the short-lived 222Rn daughters and the dose contribution of the individual 222Rn-daughter products. PMID:6094394

  13. Geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A.; Randall, C. E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rozanov, E.; Rodger, C. J.

    2009-10-01

    Here we use the ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature data sets from 1957 to 2006 to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the A p index. Previous modeling work has suggested that NO x produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in surface air temperatures (SATs). We find that during winter months, polar SATs in years with high A p index are different than in years with low A p index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, depending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are excluded. We take into account solar irradiance variations, unlike previous analyses of geomagnetic effects in ERA-40 and operational data. Although we cannot conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating wintertime surface air temperatures. We tested our SAT results against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode, and we cannot robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature variability and geomagnetic activity.

  14. Radiation impact caused by activation of air from the future GSI accelerator facility fair.

    PubMed

    Gutermuth, F; Wildermuth, H; Radon, T; Fehrenbacher, G

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is planning a new accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Two future experimental areas are regarded to be the most decisive points concerning the activation of air. One is the area for the production of antiprotons. A second crucial experimental area is the so-called Super Fragment Separator. The production of radioactive isotopes in air is calculated using the residual nuclei option of the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The results are compared with the data for the activation of air given by Sullivan and in IAEA report 283. The resulting effective dose is calculated using a program package from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, the Bundesamt für Stranlenschutz. The results demonstrate that a direct emission of the total radioactivity produced into the air will probably conflict with the limits of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Special measures have to be planned in order to reduce the amount of radioactivity released into the air. PMID:16381762

  15. 76 FR 2904 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Stationary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Stationary Source Compliance and...: (202) 501-0411. Mail: Air Stationary Source Compliance and Enforcement Information, Environmental... this action are State, District, ] Local, and Commonwealth governments. Title: Air Stationary...

  16. New Courses: Unlock the Mysteries of Productivity, Air Quality, and the Indoor Environment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiford, Regina

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between indoor air quality and productivity and a three-year research project to measure productivity within an educational setting. Also discusses research showing the impact of good indoor air quality on increasing productivity. Ten ways to manage asthma in a school environment are highlighted. (GR)

  17. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in this report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjuntion with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. xcessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed l...

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  19. Economic Activity and Trends in Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data with which to characterize past exposure levels. Objectives Given the availability of long-term economic data, we relate economic activity levels to patterns in vehicle-related particulate matter (PM) over a 30-year period in New Jersey, USA, to provide insight into potential historical surrogate markers of air pollution. Methods We used statewide unemployment and county-level trucking industry characteristics to estimate historical coefficient of haze (COH), a marker of vehicle-related PM predominantly from diesel exhaust. A total of 5,920 observations were included across 25 different locations in New Jersey between 1971 and 2003. Results A mixed-modeling approach was employed to estimate the impact of economic indicators on measured COH. The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in COH as estimated by the overall R2 value. Peaks and lows in unemployment tracked negatively with similar extremes in COH, whereas employment in the trucking industry was positively associated with COH. Federal air quality regulations also played a large and significant role in reducing COH levels over the study period. Conclusions This new approach outlines an alternative method to reconstruct historical exposures that may greatly aid epidemiologic research on specific causes of health effects from urban air pollution. Economic activity data provide a potential surrogate marker of changes in exposure levels over time in the absence of direct monitoring data for chronic disease studies, but more research in this area is needed. PMID:20056563

  20. Improved Products for Assimilation and Model Validation from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS acquires hyperspectral infrared radiances in the 3.7-15.4 micrometer spectral region with spectral resolution of better than 1200. Key channels from the AIRS Level 1B calibrated radiance product are currently assimilated into operational weather forecasts at NCEP and other international agencies. Additional Level 2 products for assimilation include the AIRS cloud cleared radiances and the geophysical retrieved temperature and water vapor profiles. The AIRS products are also used to validate climate model vertical and horizontal biases and transport of water vapor and key trace gases including Carbon Dioxide and Ozone. The wide variety of products available from the AIRS make it well suited to study processes affecting the interaction of these products.

  1. Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

    2000-12-01

    of E&P wastes. Additional emission measurements were made at the Bateman Island facility within cells over a range of ''ages'', from those most recently loaded with E&P wastes to cells that have not received wastes for 9 months or more. As expected the greatest chance for emissions when the cell is most recently loaded. Again, measured fluxes did not produce air concentrations that were of concern. As expected, the highest fluxes were observed in the cells that had recently received wastes and older cells had very low emissions. Measurements of emissions of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) were also conducted at these two facilities. Levels of emissions were similar to the xange observed in the literature for natural salt marshes that surround these facilities. Production of sulfide within the cells was also measured by the most sensitive techniques available and measured sulfide production rates were low in the samples tested. The only potential concern at the facility with regards to sulfide was the levels of sulfide emitted from the sumps. The facility logbook at Bourg was analyzed to determine a time sequence of activities over 1998-1999. The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality conducted a time-series of air concentrations for hazardous air pollutants during this period at the fenceline of the Bourg facility. These data were characterized by periods of static concentrations interspersed with peaks. A series of peaks were analyzed and compared with logbook records for the activities occurring at the time. In reverse fashion, a set of activities documented by the logbook was examined and the concentrations of benzene that developed from these activities were documented. No direct correlation could be made with the observed peaks and any activities suggesting that concentrations of benzene at the fenceline may be the result of a complex suite of activities including onsite activities not documented in the logbook (loading of the cells by truck haulers) and

  2. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huixia; Xiu, Zhilong; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-06-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation.

  3. The Jar Magic -- Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-12-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass, amazingly, no water spills out. Further, one may also use balloons and plastic bottles as the components in another experiment. Place a balloon in a plastic bottle and spread the balloon's mouth over the bottle's rim. Inflate the balloon by blowing into it. Students will be astonished at the fact that the balloon remains inflated even though its mouth is open. Making suction cups "stick" to the wall is also an instance of proving how air pressure works.

  4. Highly durable and active non-precious air cathode catalyst for zinc air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhu; Choi, Ja-Yeon; Wang, Haijiang; Li, Hui; Chen, Zhongwei

    The electrochemical stability of non-precious FeCo-EDA and commercial Pt/C cathode catalysts for zinc air battery have been compared using accelerated degradation test (ADT) in alkaline condition. Outstanding oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) stability of the FeCo-EDA catalyst was observed compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The FeCo-EDA catalyst retained 80% of the initial mass activity for ORR whereas the commercial Pt/C catalyst retained only 32% of the initial mass activity after ADT. Additionally, the FeCo-EDA catalyst exhibited a nearly three times higher mass activity compared to that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst after ADT. Furthermore, single cell test of the FeCo-EDA and Pt/C catalysts was performed where both catalysts exhibited pseudolinear behaviour in the 12-500 mA cm -2 range. In addition, 67% higher peak power density was observed from the FeCo-EDA catalyst compared with commercial Pt/C. Based on the half cell and single cell tests the non-precious FeCo-EDA catalyst is a very promising ORR electrocatalyst for zinc air battery.

  5. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  6. TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS: ONE APPROACH TO DEVELOPING WIDELY ACCEPTED PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an approach to developing widely acce ted products for testing indoor air products. [NOTE: Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a partner in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program with responsibil...

  7. Hadronic multiparticle production at ultrahigh energies and extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Unger, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Studies of the nature of cosmic ray particles at the highest energies are based on the measurement of extensive air showers. Most cosmic ray properties can therefore be obtained only from the interpretation of air shower data and are thus dependent on predictions of hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energies. We discuss different scenarios of model extrapolations from accelerator data to air shower energies and investigate their impact on the corresponding air shower predictions. To explore the effect of different extrapolations by hadronic interaction models we developed an ad hoc model. This model is based on the modification of the output of standard hadronic interaction event generators within the air shower simulation process and allows us to study the impact of changing interaction features on the air shower development. In a systematic study we demonstrate the resulting changes of important air shower observables and also discuss them in terms of the predictions of the Heitler model of air shower cascades. It is found that the results of our ad hoc modifications are, to a large extent, independent of the choice of the underlying hadronic interaction model.

  8. Air emissions assessment from offshore oil activities in Sonda de Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Miranda, A; López-Salinas, E

    2005-10-01

    Air emission data from offshore oil platforms, gas and oil processing installations and contribution of marine activities at the Sonda de Campeche, located at the Gulf of Mexico, were compiled and integrated to facilitate the study of long range transport of pollutants into the region. From this important region, roughly 76% of the total Mexican oil and gas production is obtained. It was estimated that the total air emissions of all contaminants are approximately 821,000 tons per year. Hydrocarbons are the largest pollutant emissions with 277,590 tons per year, generated during flaring activities, and SOx in second place with 185,907 tons per year. Marine and aviation activities contribute with less than 2% of total emissions. Mass of pollutants emitted per barrel of petroleum produced calculated in this work, are in the range reported by similar oil companies. PMID:16240194

  9. Oxygen enrichment of room air to improve well-being and productivity at high altitude.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    1999-01-01

    Increasingly, commercial activities, such as mines, and scientific facilities, such as telescopes, are being placed at very high altitudes, up to 5,000 m. Frequently workers commute to these locations from much lower altitudes, or even from sea level. In addition, large numbers of people permanently live and work at high altitudes. The hypoxia of high altitude impairs sleep quality, mental performance, productivity, and general well-being. Recently it has become feasible to raise the oxygen concentration of room air by injecting oxygen into the air conditioning. This is remarkably effective at reducing the equivalent altitude. For example, increasing the oxygen concentration by 1% (e.g., from 21% to 22%) reduces the equivalent altitude by about 300 m. In other words, a room at an altitude of 4,500 m containing 26% oxygen is effectively at an altitude of 3,000 m. Oxygen enrichment has now been tested in several studies and shown to improve sleep quality and cognitive function. The fire hazard is less than in air at sea level. This innovative technique promises to improve productivity and well-being at high altitude. PMID:10441257

  10. Surface deposition of 222Rn decay products with and without enhanced air motion.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, S N; Maher, E F

    1986-09-01

    The effectiveness of fan-induced air motion in reducing airborne activities of short-lived 222Rn decay products was evaluated in a 78.5-m3 chamber. Observed reductions were as high as 50% for 218Po (RaA), 79% for 214Pb (RaB), and 86% for 214Bi (RaC). Activity measurements of these nuclides on chamber and fan surfaces, along with airborne activities, were used to calculate material balances. Greater than about 90% of deposited activity was found on chamber surfaces, although areal activity densities were higher on fan surfaces. Deposition velocities for decay products not attached to particles were 2.3 mm s-1 when no fans were in operation and 9.2 to 13 mm s-1 when fans were used. Mean boundary layer thicknesses for unattached decay products were estimated to be about four times the recoil distance of a 214Pb atom when no fans were used and about equal to the recoil distance when fans were used. PMID:3744829

  11. Surface deposition of 222Rn decay products with and without enhanced air motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, S.N.; Maher, E.F.

    1986-09-01

    The effectiveness of fan-induced air motion in reducing airborne activities of short-lived /sup 222/Rn decay products was evaluated in a 78.5-m3 chamber. Observed reductions were as high as 50% for 218Po (RaA), 79% for /sup 214/Pb (RaB), and 86% for /sup 214/Bi (RaC). Activity measurements of these nuclides on chamber and fan surfaces, along with airborne activities, were used to calculate material balances. Greater than about 90% of deposited activity was found on chamber surfaces, although areal activity densities were higher on fan surfaces. Deposition velocities for decay products not attached to particles were 2.3 mm s-1 when no fans were in operation and 9.2 to 13 mm s-1 when fans were used. Mean boundary layer thicknesses for unattached decay products were estimated to be about four times the recoil distance of a /sup 214/Pb atom when no fans were used and about equal to the recoil distance when fans were used.

  12. EVALUATION OF FULL SCALE ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS UTILIZING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON ADDITION WITH WET AIR REGENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to activated sludge systems is a proven method of wastewater treatment. Of eleven POTWs in the U.S. that were designed for PAC use, ten included wet air regeneration (WAR) for the destruction of secondary sludge solids and recovery ...

  13. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  14. Linking geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppala, Annika

    ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature (SAT) data sets from 1957 to 2006 were used to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the Ap index. Previous modelling work has suggested that NOx produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in polar SATs. We find that during winter months, ERA-40 and ECMWF polar SATs in years with high Ap index are different than in years with low Ap index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, de-pending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings are excluded. Solar irradiance variations were taken into account in the analysis. Although using the re-analysis and operational data sets it was not possible to conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating polar wintertime surface air temperature patterns. The SAT results were tested against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode n (SAM). The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and we could not robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature (SST) variability and geomagnetic activity. Examining the physical link between geomagnetic activity and polar surface temperature variability patterns using atmospheric models is an ongoing task.

  15. Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Wahlqvist, Mark L; He, Guoqing; Yang, Min; Li, Duo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review paper was to summarise some commonly available natural products and their anti-inflammatory activity. We have collected data from MEDLINE, Current Contents and scientific journals, which included 92 publications. There are numerous natural products detailed in this literature; however we have summarized a few of the most commonly available and potent ones. In this paper, the natural products with anti-inflammatory activity including curcumin, parthenolide, cucurbitacins, 1,8-cineole, pseudopterosins, lyprinol, bromelain, flavonoids, saponins, marine sponge natural products and Boswellia serrata gum resin were reviewed. Natural products play a significant role in human health in relation to the prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, safety and long term side effect of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with food and drug components. PMID:16672197

  16. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  17. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  18. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  19. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  20. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  1. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  2. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  3. DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR TESTING INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a framework for testing products used indoors for appropriate environmental attributes, as part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. Test protocols are being established for products that fit into three categories: ...

  4. Activated carbon adsorbents from waste tires for air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Hsi, H.C.

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluates methodologies for utilizing waste tire rubber to produce carbonaceous adsorbents for use in air quality control operations. Such an approach provides a two-fold environmental and economic benefit. A recycling path is developed for waste tire rubber and new adsorbents are produced from a low cost feedstock for use in environmentally-related operations. Bench-scale and pilot-scale quantities of tire-derived activated carbon (TDAC) were produced from waste tire rubber. Raw tire rubber samples and devolatilized tire char were obtained from several US vendors. The raw samples were analyzed using proximate, ultimate, and elemental analyses. Batches of activated carbon samples were prepared using a bench-scale fixed-tubular reactor to prepare {approximately}10 g samples and a fluidized-bed reactor to prepare {approximately}100 g quantities. About 25 kg of activated carbon was also produced at a pilot-scale commercial facility. The resulting TDACs were then characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. The sample surface areas were determined by the BET method, and the pore size distribution (PSD) was evaluated using the BJH model, and a 3-D PSD model. Performance of the TDACs was evaluated in their ability to remove gaseous mercury species from simulated power-plant flue-gas streams, and for the removal of organic compounds (e.g., acetone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) from flowing gas streams.

  5. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  6. Nde of Lumber and Natural Fiber Based Products with Air Coupled Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Utrata, David; Kuo, Monlin

    2010-02-01

    Due to the porous nature of wood and natural fiber based products, conventional fluid or gel coupled ultrasonic inspection is unsuitable. Air-coupled ultrasonic transmission scanning, being non-contact, is ideally suited for inspecting lumber, wood and natural fiber based products. We report here several successful applications of air-coupled ultrasound for the inspection of wood. Air-coupled ultrasonic scan at 120 kHz can easily detect "sinker-stock" lumber in which bacterial damage of ray tissue cells had occurred during anaerobic pond storage. Channels in ash lumber board caused by insect bore were imaged in transmission scan. Delamination and material inhomogeneities were mapped out in manufactured wood and natural fiber products including medium density fiberboards, compression molded shredded waste wood with formaldehyde resin, and acoustic panels molded with kenaf fibers. The study has demonstrated some of the capabilities of air-coupled ultrasound in the NDE of forest products.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  8. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  9. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongbo; Ciuraru, Raluca; Dupart, Yoan; Passananti, Monica; Tinel, Liselotte; Rossignol, Stéphanie; Perrier, Sebastien; Donaldson, D James; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian

    2015-07-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  10. Differential Instructional Productivity Indices. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.

    A set of weighting factors on student credit hour production by discipline was developed so that instructional productivity could be equitably compared across disparate disciplines and within disciplines. The new statistical methodology was applied to 3 years of teaching load data from 21 major public universities (the Southern University Group…

  11. Experimental and numerical study of open-air active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fifi, Salman Amsari

    The topic of my thesis is Experimental and Numerical Study of Open Air Active Cooling. The present research is intended to investigate experimentally and Numerically the effectiveness of cooling large open areas like stadiums, shopping malls, national gardens, amusement parks, zoos, transportation facilities and government facilities or even in buildings outdoor gardens and patios. Our cooling systems are simple cooling fans with different diameters and a mist system. This type of cooling systems has been chosen among the others to guarantee less energy consumption, which will make it the most favorable and applicable for cooling such places mentioned above. In the experiments, the main focus is to study the temperature domain as a function of different fan diameters aerodynamically similar in different heights till we come up with an empirical relationship that can determine the temperature domain for different fan diameters and for different heights of these fans. The experimental part has two stages. The first stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of airspeed and profile for three different fan diameters and for different heights without mist, while the second stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of temperature and profile for the three different diameter fans and for different heights with mist. The computational study is devoted to built an experimentally verified mathematical model to be used in the design and optimization of water mist cooling systems, and to compare the mathematical results to the experimental results and to get an insight of how to apply such evaporative mist cooling for different places for different conditions. In this study, numerical solution is presented based on experimental conditions, such dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, operating pressure and fan airspeed. In the computational study, all experimental conditions are kept the same for the three fans except the fan airspeed

  12. Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes: A Three Dimensional View

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Jagjit; Allu, Srikanth; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Dudney, Nancy J; Pannala, Sreekanth; Veith, Gabriel M; Voisin, Sophie; Walker, Lakeisha MH; Archibald, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Using neutron tomographic imaging we report for the first time three dimensional spatial distribution of lithium product distribution in electrochemically discharged Lithium-Air cathodes. Neutron imaging finds a non-uniform lithium product distribution across the electrode thickness; the lithium species concentration being higher near the edges of the Li-air electrode and relatively uniform in the center of the electrode. The experimental neutron images were analyzed in context of results obtained from 3D modeling of the spatial lithium product distribution using a kinetically coupled diffusion based transport model that accounts for the dynamical reaction rate dependence on the discharge product formation, porosity changes and mass transfer.

  13. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  14. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  15. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 5 Multi-Phase Extraction And Product Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  16. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  17. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  18. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  19. Ozone production by a dc corona discharge in air contaminated by n-heptane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial purposes of ozone such as elimination of odours, harmful bacteria and mildew can be used for transportation of food, fruits and vegetables with the aim to extend their storage life. To date the main technique used for this purpose in the transportation of these commodities, e.g. by trucks, was cooling. Here a combination of cooling together with the supply of ozone into containers with these commodities is considered. For these purposes we studied the effect of air contamination by n-heptane (part of automotive fuels) and humidity on ozone production by a dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge. We found that, for both polarities of the needle electrode, addition of n-heptane to air (a) decreases ozone production; (b) causes discharge poisoning to occur at lower current than for air; (c) does not substantially influence the current for which the ozone production reaches the maximum. Finally the maximum ozone production for the discharge in air occurs for the same current as the maximum ozone production for the discharge contaminated by n-heptane. We also found that humidity decreases ozone production from air contaminated by n-heptane irrespective of the polarity of the coronating needle electrode. This dependence is stronger for the discharge with the needle biased positively.

  20. Sum Product Networks for Activity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mohamed R; Todorovic, Sinisa

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses detection and localization of human activities in videos. We focus on activities that may have variable spatiotemporal arrangements of parts, and numbers of actors. Such activities are represented by a sum-product network (SPN). A product node in SPN represents a particular arrangement of parts, and a sum node represents alternative arrangements. The sums and products are hierarchically organized, and grounded onto space-time windows covering the video. The windows provide evidence about the activity classes based on the Counting Grid (CG) model of visual words. This evidence is propagated bottom-up and top-down to parse the SPN graph for the explanation of the video. The node connectivity and model parameters of SPN and CG are jointly learned under two settings, weakly supervised, and supervised. For evaluation, we use our new Volleyball dataset, along with the benchmark datasets VIRAT, UT-Interactions, KTH, and TRECVID MED 2011. Our video classification and activity localization are superior to those of the state of the art on these datasets. PMID:26390445

  1. Finch, Pruyn cleans air and water while increasing steam production

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.; Bauer, P.; Makansi, J.

    1981-11-01

    It is shown how a paper manufacturing company in Glens Falls, NY, employs primary and secondary water-treatment plants, chemical recovery from SO/sub 2/ -laden flue gas, a bark boiler, and waste-liquor boilers to balance the conflicting demands of a changing market, increasing power needs, stringent, pollution regulations, higher fuel costs, and limited production space.

  2. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  3. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., EPA published a list of section 112(c)(6) categories (63 FR 17838, April 10, 1998). At that time... Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to Source Category List for Standards... Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production Area Source Category and Addition to...

  4. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of...

  5. Proctor & Gamble: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy & Improves Production at a Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    In 2002, Procter & Gamble applied a system-level strategy to optimize a compressed air system at its paper products mill in Mehoopany, Pennsylvania. The project improved production, improved system performance, and saved 7.6 million kWh per year and $309,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  6. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  7. Air quality monitoring during building demolition activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.A.; Ley, T.J.; Edson, H.; Edrich, J.A.; Huston, K.H.; Kutchenreiter, M.C.; Lucas, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is a former production site for chemical and incendiary munitions as well as industrial chemicals, including pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides. Several contaminated areas, including former production facilities and many support buildings, currently remain on this 27-square-mile facility located just northeast of Denver, Colorado. From February 1, 1995, through June 1, 1995, a feasibility study for building demolition at RMA was conducted. This study, the Pilot Building Demolition Project (PBDP), was completed to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of selected building remediation, emission control, and demolition techniques that may be utilized in the future during full-scale site remediation. Four buildings were demolished using a variety of strategies and techniques. The US Army conducted intensive ambient air monitoring in the vicinity of demolition activity throughout the PBDP. Monitoring was conducted for total suspended particulates (TSP), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM-10), heavy metals, mercury, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Mobile sampling platforms were placed in the four cardinal directions around each demolition area to provide intensive close-in monitoring coverage. Additional samplers, which are part of a larger, RMA-wide monitoring network, were also used to provide more distant sampling locations in the vicinity of each area. The objective of the monitoring program was to characterize the effects of demolition activities on the surrounding air quality.

  8. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-06-17

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

  9. Turbokon scientific and production implementation company—25 years of activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskii, O. N.; Leont'ev, A. I.; Milman, O. O.

    2016-05-01

    The main results of studies performed at ZAO Turbokon NPVP in cooperation with leading Russian scientific organizations during 25 years of its activity in the field of development of unique ecologically clean electric power and heat production technologies are described. They include the development and experimental verification using prototypes and full-scale models of highly efficient air-cooled condensers for steam turbines, a high temperature gas steam turbine for stationary and transport power engineering, a nonfuel technology of electric power production using steam turbine installations with a unit power of 4-20 MW at gas-main pipelines and industrial boiler houses and heat stations. The results of efforts in the field of reducing vibroactivity of power equipment for transport installations are given. Basic directions of further research for increasing the efficiency and ecological safety of home power engineering are discussed.

  10. Activation product transport in fusion reactors. [RAPTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products will enter the coolant and/or tritium breeding material of fusion reactor power plants and experiments and cause personnel access problems. Radiation levels around plant components due to these products will cause difficulties with maintenance and repair operations throughout the plant. Similar problems are experienced around fission reactor systems. The determination of the transport of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products through the system is achieved using the computer code RAPTOR. This code calculates the mass transfer of a number of activation products based on the corrosion and sputtering rates through the system, the deposition and release characteristics of various plant components, the neturon flux spectrum, as well as other plant parameters. RAPTOR assembles a system of first order linear differential equations into a matrix equation based upon the reactor system parameters. Included in the transfer matrix are the deposition and erosion coefficients, and the decay and activation data for the various plant nodes and radioactive isotopes. A source vector supplies the corrosion and neutron sputtering source rates. This matrix equation is then solved using a matrix operator technique to give the specific activity distribution of each radioactive species throughout the plant. Once the amount of mass transfer is determined, the photon transport due to the radioactive corrosion and sputtering product sources can be evaluated, and dose rates around the plant components of interest as a function of time can be determined. This method has been used to estimate the radiation hazards around a number of fusion reactor system designs.

  11. Impacts of air pressure on the evolution of nanosecond pulse discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Lu; He, Li-Ming; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qian; Du, Chun

    2013-05-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium plasma dynamics of air discharge, a dynamic model of zero-dimensional plasma is established by combining the component density equation, the Boltzmann equation, and the energy transfer equation. The evolution properties of nanosecond pulse discharge (NPD) plasma under different air pressures are calculated. The results show that the air pressure has significant impacts on the NPD products and the peak values of particle number density for particles such as O atoms, O3 molecules, N2(A3) molecules in excited states, and NO molecules. It increases at first and then decreases with the increase of air pressure. On the other hand, the peak values of particle number density for N2(B3) and N2(C3) molecules in excited states are only slightly affected by the air pressure.

  12. The EOSDIS Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center for physical oceanography and air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Collins, Donald J.; Nichols, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will support scientists specializing in physical oceanography and air-sea interaction. As part of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System Version 0 the DAAC will build on existing capabilities to provide services for data product generation, archiving, distribution and management of information about data. To meet scientist's immediate needs for data, existing data sets from missions such as Seasat, Geosat, the NOAA series of satellites and the Global Positioning Satellite system will be distributed to investigators upon request. In 1992, ocean topography, wave and surface roughness data from the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter mission will be archived and distributed. New data products will be derived from Topex/Poseidon and other sensor systems based on recommendations of the science community. In 1995, ocean wind field measurements from the NASA Scatterometer will be supported by the DAAC.

  13. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-07-09

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations--a college dormitory and a research laboratory--during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pilot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air.

  14. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  15. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  16. Level 1B products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, H. H.; Overoye, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. A discussion is given of the objectives of the AIRS experiment, including requirements on the data products. We summarize the instrument characteristics, including sensitivity, noise, and spectral response, and preflight calibration results leading to the estimate of the calibration accuracy. The Level 1B calibration algorithm is presented as well as the results of in-flight stability and sensitivity measurements.

  17. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  18. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  19. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  20. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  1. Current natural products with antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ren-Ren; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Jin-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Natural products have been an important source of new drugs, which also played a dominant role in the discovery and research of new drugs for the treatment of hypertension. This review article reviews the recent progress in the research and development of natural lead compounds with antihypertensive activity, including alkaloids, diterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids, and peptides. We summarized their structures, sources, as well as the antihypertensive mechanisms. These information provides instructive reference for the following structural modifications and optimization. PMID:26481372

  2. Design for manufacturability production management activity report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Norihiko; Sato, T.; Honma, M.; Yoshioka, N.; Hosono, K.; Onodera, T.; Itoh, H.; Suzuki, H.; Uga, T.; Kadota, K.; Iriki, N.

    2006-05-01

    Design For Manufacturability Production Management (DFM-PM) Subcommittee has been started in succession to Reticle Management Subcommittee (RMS) in Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Committee for Japan (SMTCJ) from 2005. Our activity focuses on the SoC (System On Chip) Business, and it pursues the improvement of communication in manufacturing technique. The first theme of activity is the investigation and examination of the new trends about production (manufacturer) technology and related information, and proposals of business solution. The second theme is the standardization activity about manufacture technology and the cooperation with related semiconductors' organizations. And the third theme is holding workshop and support for promotion and spread of the standardization technology throughout semiconductor companies. We expand a range of scope from design technology to wafer pattern reliability and we will propose the competition domain, the collaboration area and the standardization technology on DFM. Furthermore, we will be able to make up a SoC business model as the 45nm node technology beyond manufacturing platform in cooperating with the design information and the production information by utilizing EDA technology.

  3. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  4. Characterization and validation of methane products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaozhen; Barnet, Chris; Maddy, Eric; Sweeney, Colm; Liu, Xingpin; Zhou, Lihang; Goldberg, Mitch

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the characterization and validation of retrievals of atmospheric methane (CH4) vertical profiles by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua platform. AIRS channels near 7.6 μm are used for CH4 retrieval, and they are most sensitive to the middle to upper troposphere, i.e., about 200-300 hPa in the tropics and 400-500 hPa in the polar region. The atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, surface skin temperature, and emissivity required to derive CH4 are obtained from retrievals using separate AIRS channels and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). Comparison of AIRS retrieved profiles with some in situ aircraft CH4 profiles implied that the forward model used in the AIRS retrieval system V4.0 required a 2% increase in methane absorption coefficients for strong absorption channels, and this bias adjustment was implemented in the AIRS retrieval system V5.0. As a new operational product in V5.0, AIRS CH4 were validated using in situ aircraft observations at 22 sites of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL/GMD), ranging from the Arctic to the tropical South Pacific Ocean, but their altitudes are usually above 300 hPa. The results show the bias of the retrieved CH4 profiles for this version is -1.4˜0.1% and its RMS difference is about 0.5-1.6%, depending on altitude. These validation comparisons provide critical assessment of the retrieval algorithm and will continue using more in situ observations together with future improvement to the retrieval algorithm. AIRS CH4 products include not only the CH4 profile but also the information content. As examples, the products of AIRS CH4 in August 2004 and the difference of CH4 in May and September 2004 are shown. From these results a few features are evident: (1) a large AIRS CH4 plume southwest of the Tibetan plateau that may be associated with deep convection during the Asian summer monsoon; (2) high mixing ratios of AIRS CH4 in

  5. Air pollution upregulates endothelial cell procoagulant activity via ultrafine particle-induced oxidant signaling and tissue factor expression.

    PubMed

    Snow, S J; Cheng, W; Wolberg, A S; Carraway, M S

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular events triggered by clot formation. Endothelial activation and initiation of coagulation are pathophysiological mechanisms that could link inhaled air pollutants to vascular events. Here we investigated the underlying mechanisms of increased endothelial cell procoagulant activity following exposure to soluble components of ultrafine particles (soluble UF). Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were exposed to soluble UF and assessed for their ability to trigger procoagulant activity in platelet-free plasma. Exposed HCAEC triggered earlier thrombin generation and faster fibrin clot formation, which was abolished by an anti-tissue factor (TF) antibody, indicating TF-dependent effects. Soluble UF exposure increased TF mRNA expression without compensatory increases in key anticoagulant proteins. To identify early events that regulate TF expression, we measured endothelial H2O2 production following soluble UF exposure and identified the enzymatic source. Soluble UF exposure increased endothelial H2O2 production, and antioxidants attenuated UF-induced upregulation of TF, linking the procoagulant responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Chemical inhibitors and RNA silencing showed that NOX-4, an important endothelial source of H2O2, was involved in UF-induced upregulation of TF mRNA. These data indicate that soluble UF exposure induces endothelial cell procoagulant activity, which involves de novo TF synthesis, ROS production, and the NOX-4 enzyme. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:24752501

  6. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  7. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  8. AIRS Products Confirm and Explain Recent Negative Trends of OLR as Observed by CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Anomalies and trends of OLR serve as important indicators of climate change. Several satellite based instruments currently provide information related to OLR. CERES, on board the EOS Aqua and Terra satellites, contains broad band radiometers that measure total flux and short-wave flux, from which OLR is determined. AIRS is a high spectral resolution IR sounder on EOS Aqua that measures IR radiances covering most of the spectral interval 650/cm to 2670/cm. These observations enable the determination of detailed information about atmospheric temperature, moisture, and ozone profiles, as well as surface skin temperatures and cloud parameters. The AIRS OLR product is the total flux over the spectral interval 2/cm to 2750/cm computed for the surface and atmospheric state determined from AIRS observations. We compared spatial anomalies and trends of OLR, over the seven year period September 2002 through August 2009, as observed by CERES and computed using Version-5 AIRS products. These two sets of OLR anomalies and trends, obtained in very different ways, agree with each other almost perfectly in essentially every detail. This important finding shows that a very stable high spectral infra-red sounder such as AIRS corroborates the anomalies and trends of OLR obtained from CERES. More significantly, anomalies and trends of the individual geophysical parameters derived from AIRS explain the detailed causes of the anomalies and trends of CERES OLR. Both sets of results show that global mean OLR has been decreasing at a rate of 0.12 W/sq m/yr over the seven year time period under study. Both also confirm that the primary cause of this is due to changes in the tropics, in which OLR has been decreasing at a rate of 0.27 W/sq m/yr. AIRS products show that the decrease of tropical OLR is a result of increasing tropical atmospheric water vapor and cloud cover over that time period studied, which in turn is responding to a very strong La Nina; a event starting in late 2007

  9. Air pollution information activities at state and local agencies--United States, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-08

    Because air pollution is a pervasive environmental health problem in the United States, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to increase from 49.7% to 85.0% the proportion of persons who live in counties that have not exceeded any air quality standard during the previous 12 months (1). Public support for air pollution control efforts is critical if this national health objective is to be achieved. To characterize public health information activities related to air pollution, in 1992, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), with the assistance of CDC, conducted a survey of state and local air pollution control agencies. This report summarizes the findings of that survey.

  10. Air Pollution and Weather: Activities and Demonstrations for Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Henry S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a number of concepts (turbulence, dispersion, vertical temperature distribution, atmospheric stability and instability, and inversions) which are prerequisite to understanding how weather affects air quality. Describes classroom demonstrations effective in introducing these concepts to students at the elementary, secondary and college…

  11. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  12. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  13. 76 FR 72507 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Reporting Tool FR Federal Register gr/dscf grains per dry standard cubic foot HAP hazardous air pollutants...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP) (54 Federal Register (FR) 38044, September 14, 1989). The first... is no higher than approximately one in 10 thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54...

  14. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) FORMATION UNDER PYROLYTIC AND STARVED AIR CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive program of laboratory studies based on the non-flame mode of thermal decomposition produced much data on PIC (Products of Incomplete Combustion) formation, primarily under pyrolytic and starved air conditions. Most significantly, laboratory results from non-flame ...

  15. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  16. Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  17. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  18. Air-activated chemical warming devices: effects of oxygen and pressure.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, G; Rivard, R; Fabus, S

    2005-01-01

    Air-activated chemical warming devices use an exothermic chemical reaction of rapidly oxidizing iron to generate heat for therapeutic purposes. Placing these products in a hyperbaric oxygen environment greatly increases the supply of oxidant and thus increases the rate of reaction and maximum temperature. Testing for auto-ignition and maximum temperatures attained by ThermaCare Heat Wraps, Playtex Heat Therapy, and Heat Factory disposable warm packs under ambient conditions and under conditions similar to those encountered during hyperbaric oxygen treatments in monoplace and multiplace hyperbaric chambers (3 atm abs and > 95% oxygen) revealed a maximum temperature of 269 degrees F (132 degrees C) with no spontaneous ignition. The risk of thermal burn injury to adjacent skin may be increased significantly if these devices are used under conditions of hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:16509287

  19. AIRS Version 6 Products and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Theobald, M. L.; Vollmer, B.; Esfandiari, E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 11th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the Version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. Among the most substantial advances are: improved soundings of Tropospheric and Sea Surface Temperatures; larger improvements with increasing cloud cover; improved retrievals of surface spectral emissivity; near-complete removal of spurious temperature bias trends seen in earlier versions; substantially improved retrieval yield (i.e., number of soundings accepted for output) for climate studies; AIRS-Only retrievals with comparable accuracy to AIRS+AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) retrievals; and more realistic hemispheric seasonal variability and global distribution of carbon monoxide. The GES DISC is working to bring the distribution services up-to-date with these new developments. Our focus is on popular services, like variable subsetting and quality screening, which are impacted by the new elements in Version 6. Other developments in visualization services, such as Giovanni, Near-Real Time imagery, and a granule-map viewer, are progressing along with the introduction of the new data; each service presents its own challenge. This presentation will demonstrate the most significant improvements in Version 6 AIRS products, such as newly added variables (higher resolution outgoing longwave radiation, new cloud property products, etc.), the new quality control schema, and improved retrieval yields. We will also

  20. Active-passive bistatic surveillance for long range air defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M. R. B.

    1992-06-01

    A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital signal processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks.

  1. Active-passive bistatic surveillance for long range air defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M.R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital signal processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks. 20 refs.

  2. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  3. 76 FR 56750 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., on-road mobile, and non-road mobile sources of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, carbon... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions... submitting comments. E-mail: a-and-r-docket@epa.gov . Fax: (202) 566-1741. Mail: Air Emissions...

  4. Livestock Air Treatment Using PVA-Coated Powdered Activated Carbon Biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ideal biofilter media provide surface for attachment of microorganisms responsible for removing air-born contaminants while facilitating passage of air. This study evaluated the efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated powdered activated carbon particles as a biofiltration medium. This material e...

  5. Understanding the Differences Between AIRS, MODIS and ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S.; Hulley, G.

    2008-12-01

    One of the key Earth Science Data Records identified by NASA is Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E). LST&E data are key parameters in global climate change studies that involve climate modeling, ice dynamic analyses, surface-atmosphere interactions and land use, land cover change. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, are strongly dependent on using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions where the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. LST&E standard products are available from spaceborne sensors such as AIRS, MODIS and ASTER at varying spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. Although these emissivity products represent the same measure, there are frequently discrepancies between the products associated with different scientific approaches used that need to be better understood. For example, ASTER provides LST&E data with the highest spatial resolution (90 m), compared with AIRS (50 km) and MODIS (1 and 5 km). AIRS has the highest spectral sampling and both AIRS and MODIS acquire data at much higher temporal frequencies (every 2-3 days) compared with ASTER (16 days). In this paper we present validation and intercomparisons of AIRS, MODIS and ASTER gridded emissivity products over North America. MODIS and ASTER data will be upsampled to the AIRS spatial resolution, and then compared to laboratory measured emissivities of in-situ rock/sand samples collected at ten validation sites in the Western USA during 2008. The directional hemispherical reflectance of the in-situ samples are measured in the laboratory using a Nicolet Fourier Transform Interferometer (FTIR), converted to emissivity using Kirchoff's law, and convolving to the appropriate sensor's spectral response functions. We present here some of the first

  6. H2 production by Anabaena variabilis mutant in computer controlled two-stage air-lift tubular photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hall, D. O.; Rao, K. K.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Sveshnikov, D. A.

    2000-06-01

    A 4.34 liter two-stage air-lift photobioreactor incorporating Anabaena variabilis ATCC29413 mutant PK84 was used to study H2 production. Results showed that H2 production increased with increasing light intensity from 47 μE/(m2·s) up to 190 μE/(m2·s), but that further increase of light intensity decreased the H2 production because of the inhibition due to the high pO2. The data also indicated that longer argon gas charge resulted in more H2 produced due to the increase of nitrogenase activities and heterocyst frequency, and that more than 1.3 L net H2 was produced from this computer controlled photobioreactor.

  7. The use of MODIS data and aerosol products for air quality prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Smith, Solar; Faruqui, Shazia

    2004-09-01

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) is exploring new approaches to integrate data collected by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flown on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, into a real-time prediction methodology to support operational air quality forecasts issued by the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Air pollution is a widespread problem in the United States, with over 130 million individuals exposed to levels of air pollution that exceed one or more health-based standards. Texas air quality is under assault by a variety of anthropogenic sources associated with a rapidly growing population along with increases in emissions from the diesel engines that drive international trade between the US and Central America. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency are further impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside its borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an earlier study, CSR demonstrated the value of MODIS imagery and aerosol products for monitoring ozone-laden pollution that originated in the central US before migrating into Texas and causing TCEQ to issue a health alert for 150 counties. Now, data from this same event are re-analyzed in an attempt to predict air quality from MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations. The results demonstrate a method to forecast air quality from remotely sensed satellite observations when the transient pollution can be isolated from local sources. These pollution sources can be separated using TCEQ's network of ground-based Continuous Air quality Monitoring (CAM) stations.

  8. Differences between the activity size distributions of the different natural radionuclide aerosols in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründel, M.; Porstendörfer, J.

    The results of the activity size distribution of the short-lived ( 218Po, 214Bi/ 214Po) and long-lived ( 210Pb, 210Po) radon decay product aerosols, the thoron decay product aerosols ( 212Pb, 212Po) and 7Be of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. The results were obtained from measurements averaged over an extended period (4 weeks) and were carried out with a low-pressure On-Line Alpha Cascade Impactor (OLACI). The size distributions of the radionuclides were obtained from the same measurement run with the OLACI, so that the size classification technique and the atmospheric and weather conditions for all radionuclides were identical. This measurement technique made it possible to measure the correct differences between the size distributions of the different natural radionuclides in the environmental air. The differences between the activity size distributions of the long- and short-lived radionuclides could be explained by coagulation with aerosol particles of the atmosphere as for instance 210Pb was shown.

  9. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  10. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  11. Activated Corrosion Product Analysis. Analytical Approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Busby, Jeremy T; Stoller, Roger E

    2010-01-01

    The presence of activated corrosion products (ACPs) in a water cooling system is a key factor in the licensing of ITER and affects nuclear classification, which governs design and operation. The objective of this study is to develop a method to accurately estimate radionuclide concentrations during ITER operation in support of nuclear classification. A brief overview of the PACTITER numerical code, which is currently used for ACP estimation, is presented. An alternative analytical approach for calculation of ACPs, which can also be used for validation of existing numerical codes, including PACTITER, has been proposed. A continuity equation describing the kinetics of accumulation of radioactive isotopes in a water cooling system in the form of a closed ring has been formulated, taking into account the following processes: production of radioactive elements and their decay, filtration, and ACP accumulation in filter system. Additional work is needed to more accurately assess the ACP inventory in the cooling water system, including more accurate simulation of the Tokamak cooling water system (TCWS) operating cycle and consideration of material corrosion, release, and deposition rates.

  12. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1994-09-13

    A process for the preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  13. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  14. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers

    SciTech Connect

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO{sub 2} fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m{sup 2}/g and 32.3 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers.

  15. AirNow Information Management System - Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Processor for Real-Time Air Quality Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Dye, T. S.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Pasch, A. N.; Miller, D. S.; Chan, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Built upon the success of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program (www.AirNow.gov), the AirNow-International (AirNow-I) system contains an enhanced suite of software programs that process and quality control real-time air quality and environmental data and distribute customized maps, files, and data feeds. The goals of the AirNow-I program are similar to those of the successful U.S. program and include fostering the exchange of environmental data; making advances in air quality knowledge and applications; and building a community of people, organizations, and decision makers in environmental management. In 2010, Shanghai became the first city in China to run this state-of-the-art air quality data management and notification system. AirNow-I consists of a suite of modules (software programs and schedulers) centered on a database. One such module is the Information Management System (IMS), which can automatically produce maps and other data products through the use of GIS software to provide the most current air quality information to the public. Developed with Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability in mind, IMS is based on non-proprietary standards, with preference to formal international standards. The system depends on data and information providers accepting and implementing a set of interoperability arrangements, including technical specifications for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared data, metadata, and products. In particular, the specifications include standards for service-oriented architecture and web-based interfaces, such as a web mapping service (WMS), web coverage service (WCS), web feature service (WFS), sensor web services, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds. IMS is flexible, open, redundant, and modular. It also allows the merging of data grids to create complex grids that show comprehensive air quality conditions. For example, the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

  16. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  17. Evaluation of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) air temperature data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is a high demand for agro-hydrologic models to use gridded surface air temperature data as the model input for estimating regional and global water budget and cycle. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) developed by combining simulation models with observations provides a long-term gridded meteorological dataset at the global coverage. However, the GLDAS air temperature products have not been comprehensively evaluated, although the accuracy of the products was assessed in limited areas. In this study, we compared the daily 0.25° resolution GLDAS air temperature data with two reference datasets: (1) 1-km resolution gridded Daymet data (2002 and 2010) for the Conterminous United States, and (2) global meteorological observations (2000 - 2011) archived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN). The comparison of the GLDAS datasets with the GHCN datasets including 13,511 weather stations indicates a fairly high accuracy of the GLDAS data for daily maximum temperature [bias is 1.2 C°, root mean square error (RMSE) is 3.9 C°, and R2 is 0.92] and daily minimum temperature (bias is -1.4 C°, RMSE is 5.4 C°, and R2 is 0.82). The quality of the GLDAS air temperature data, however, is not always consistent in different regions of the world; for example, some areas in Africa and South America show relatively low accurate estimates. Spatial and temporal analyses reveal a high agreement between GLDAS and Daymet daily air temperature datasets, although spatial details in high mountainous areas are not sufficiently estimated by the GLDAS data. Our evaluation of the GLDAS data demonstrates that the air temperature estimates are generally accurate, but cautions should be taken when the data are used in mountainous areas or places with sparse weather stations.

  18. Selected demonstration and educational products/activities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Mann, H.C.

    1992-07-01

    The information in this paper was assembled for several informal presentations to a variety of visitor groups during the summer of 1992. A number of staff members at TVA`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) found it useful as a quick overview for their use and for their sharing with external colleagues and customers. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive list or explanation of all products and services available from NFERC. However, the authors believe it will give a flavor and tenor of some of the ongoing activities of the Center, especially those activities relating to the retail fertilizer dealer. Programs over the years have focused on key aspects of nutrient efficiency and management. TVA is uniquely positioned to assist the fertilizer industry and US agriculture in protecting the environment from potential adverse environmental impacts of agriculture, especially for fertilizer and the attendant agrichemicals. TVA has the technical base and an ongoing working relationship with the fertilizer industry in technology development and introduction. Dealer education is very important in TVA programs in two aspects: (1) education for the dealer in meeting new environmental stewardship challenges from an operational perspective; and (2) education for the dealer in meeting the site-specific information needs of the farmer.

  19. Production of radioisotopes by direct electron activation.

    PubMed

    Weeks, K J; O'Shea, P G

    1998-04-01

    High-energy electrons bombarded on materials can induce radioactivity by either directly knocking out neutrons or by first converting a fraction of the electron kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy, with subsequent neutron emission induced by the photons produced. The purpose of this paper was to develop a calculation method for estimating neutron emission and radionuclide production by high-energy (15-25 MeV) electrons directly interacting with a nucleus. The reaction (e,n) is considered using the method of virtual photons. The cross section for electron bombardment of lead, tantalum, rhenium, and tungsten targets is calculated. The electron cross sections are roughly 100 times less than the corresponding photon cross sections. The cross section increases monotonically with incident energy. A traveling wave linear accelerator was used for a qualitative test of the magnitude and energy dependence of the calculated cross sections. Tantalum was bombarded with electrons and the resultant emission of neutrons was inferred from the induced activation of 180Ta. The energy dependence and magnitude of the calculated electron cross sections agree with experiment within experimental uncertainties. It is concluded that accurate estimates of electron activation via the direct process is possible. PMID:9571615

  20. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase

  1. Exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth in an air-lift bioreactor using Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Maeng, Jeung-Moo; Ding, Ji-Lu; Cha, Wol-Suk

    2007-08-01

    For effective exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth by a liquid culture of Fomitopsis pinicola in an air-lift bioreactor, the culture temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, and mineral source were initially investigated in a flask. The optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 25degrees C and 6.0, respectively. Among the various carbon sources tested, glucose was found to be the most suitable carbon source. In particular, the maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were achieved in 4% glucose. The best nitrogen sources were yeast extract and malt extract. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract and malt extract were 0.5 and 0.1%, respectively. K2HPO4 and MgSO4 x 7H2O were found to be the best mineral sources for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production. In order to investigate the effect of aeration on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in an air-lift bioreactor, various aerations were tested for 8 days. The maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 7.9 g/l and 2.6 g/l, respectively, at 1.5 vvm of aeration. In addition, a batch culture in an air-lift bioreactor was carried out for 11 days under the optimal conditions. The maximum mycelial growth was 10.4 g/l, which was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that of basal medium. The exopolysaccharide production was increased with increased culture time. The maximum concentration of exopolysaccharide was 4.4 g/l, which was about 3.3-fold higher than that of basal medium. These results indicate that exopolysaccharide production increased in parallel with the growth of mycelium, and also show that product formation is associated with mycelial growth. The developed model in an air-lift bioreactor showed good agreement with experimental data and simulated results on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in the culture of F pinicola. PMID:18051607

  2. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  3. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  4. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  5. Evaluation of various activated carbons for air cleaning - Towards design of immune and sustainable buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Pant, Bhuvan; Bolourani, Golnoush; Lakdawala, Ness; Bastani, Arash

    There are increased demands for security, sustainability and indoor air quality in today's building design, construction, operation and maintenance. Installation of air cleaning systems can improve the indoor air quality by reducing the air pollution levels, and enhance the building security against sudden release of chemical and/or biological agents. At the same time, air cleaning techniques may reduce the building energy consumption by reducing the outdoor air supply rate, hence lowering the needs for conditioning of outdoor air. While the air filtration of particulate matter is well standardized, the standards against which the performance of air cleaning for gaseous contaminants is measured or classified are still under development. This study examined the performance of various granular activated carbons (GACs) for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mechanically ventilated buildings. Eight different GACs (three virgin and five impregnated) were tested against toluene using a dynamic test system. The virgin GACs showed better performance than impregnated ones, the percentage and the type of impregnation affected the removal efficiencies. Tests were also conducted with selected GACs against toluene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate at relative humidity (RH) values of 30%, 50% and 70%. The effect of humidity was dependant on the VOC used. Both for toluene and cyclohexane, the removal efficiency decreased as RH increased. However, higher humidity showed a positive impact on the removal of ethyl acetate.

  6. Influence of the air Layer Between the Conductor and the Layer Ofinsulating Material in Cable Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Evgenia V.; Yashutina, Olga S.; Shidlovskiy, Stanisla V.

    2016-02-01

    There are developed mathematical model of physical and chemical processes of polymerization adhesive coating stranded cable. There are shown difference in the temperature distribution along the radius of the finished product in the presence of an air gap between the conductor and the rubber sheath. Also, due to the need to change process parameters with possible loose contacts inside the cable. Such as the temperature of the heating surface, feeding speed and dwell time in the oven.

  7. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  8. Propagation of gamma rays and production of free electrons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Granatstein, V. L.; Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.

    2012-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of production of free electrons in air by gamma-rays leaking from radioactive materials. A model based on the Klein-Nishina scattering theory is used to calculate scattering cross sections and approximate the electron production rate. The model includes the effects of primary gamma-quanta radiated by the source as well as that scattered in air. Comparison of the model with the mcnpx kinetic code (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) in a sample problem shows excellent agreement. The motivation for this research comes from the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. The concept is based on the breakdown in air at the focal point of a high-power beam of electromagnetic waves produced by a THz gyrotron with a 10-20 {mu}s pulse. The presence of a radioactive material can greatly exceed the production rate of free electrons over the natural background rate. Additional electrons act as seeds to initiate the breakdown and create sufficiently dense plasma at the focal region. The dense plasma can then be remotely detected as an unambiguous effect of the concealed radioactive material.

  9. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Citation Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and $45,000. With a total project cost of $67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  10. Citation Corporation: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and$45,000. With a total project cost of$67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  11. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  12. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  13. Environmental degradation of Air Products` Vinex, Airflex and Airvol polymers through composting

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M.A.; O`Brien, N.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the growing public concern for environmental awareness, it has become increasingly important to market products which are considered environmentally friendly, i.e., non-toxic, recyclable or compostable. This concern, in part, represents a need to reduce waste streams currently entering landfills. Most compost facilities now in operation deal mainly with grass, leaves, yard waste and wastewater treatment plant sludges or other specific industrial waste streams. However, there are a growing number of experimental compost operations that are attempting to integrate a larger variety of waste streams, including plastics, into large scale compost operations. This study marks the first time that a full scale composting study has been used at Air Products to evaluate and demonstrate the degradation of Vinex thermoplastic PVOH resins and Airflex and Airvol emulsion binders. Results here have served to differentiate the Vinex product line for research and development, product application and marketing.

  14. Measurement of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air by beta counting using end-window Geiger-Muller counter.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Daróczy, S

    1997-04-01

    A new grab sampling method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air. It is based on direct beta counting of filtered aerosol sample over successive time intervals by end-window Geiger-Muller counter. Defined solid angle absolute counting was used to evaluate the efficiencies for the decay products one by one. Absolute activity concentrations can be determined with less than 10% systematic error. Glass-fiber filter, high sampling flow rate, and long duration of sampling can be used, as a result of which the detection limits are about 0.1, 0.2, and 0.01 Bq m(-3) for 214Pb, 214Bi, and 212Pb, respectively. Indoor saturated activity concentrations were measured in 86 buildings in Ajka town, Hungary, where industrial wastes rich in uranium had been used as building materials. Elevated radon decay product levels were found in houses built before 1960. Radon gas concentration was also measured simultaneously in 26 cases and the minimum, maximum, and average values of the equilibrium factor were 0.17, 0.73, and 0.40, respectively. PMID:9119685

  15. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor…

  16. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  17. Comparison of Methane Data Products from the TES and AIRS Infrared Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T. J.; Pagano, T. S.; Worden, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas with a highly positive radiative forcing of 0.48 W/m2 (IPCC 2013). Global concentrations of methane have been steadily increasing since 2007 (Bruhwiler 2014), raising concerns about methane's impact on the future global climate. For about the last decade, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft has been detecting several trace gas species in the troposphere including methane. The goal of this study is to compare TES methane retrievals to that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua spacecraft so that scientific investigations may be transferred from TES to AIRS. The two instruments fly in the afternoon constellation (A-Train), providing numerous coincident measurements for comparison. In addition, they also have a similar spectral range, (3.3 to 15.4 µm) for TES (Beer, 2006) and (3.7 to 15.4 µm) for AIRS (Chahine, 2006), making both instruments sensitive to the mid and upper troposphere. This makes them ideal candidates to compare methane data products. However, because AIRS spectral resolution is lower than that of the TES, there may be a difference in vertical sensitivity. In addition, the retrieval techniques and error characteristics are different for the two data sets. The current state of validation for these data products will be presented. To identify conditions in which the data sets agree and dis agree, we present global maps of methane concentrations from monthly level 3 (L3) data products. We also investigate the temporal stability between the two datasets by comparing global zonal averages derived from L3 over the last decade. Finally, we compare L2 retrieval profiles from representative granules in the tropical, mid-latitude and northern latitudes.

  18. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  19. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of air-classified corn bran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of extracting free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities from air classified corn bran was evaluated by various extracting methods. The free phenolic contents and antioxidant activities decreased significantly with the increasing particle sizes for all methods us...

  20. SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

    2012-01-01

    Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011

  1. Influence of fission products on ruthenium oxidation and transport in air ingress nuclear accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vér, N.; Matus, L.; Kunstár, M.; Osán, J.; Hózer, Z.; Pintér, A.

    2010-01-01

    In separate effect tests at 1000-1200 °C Ru oxidation rate and content of Ru in escaping air flow have been studied with special emphasis on effects of other fission product elements on the Ru oxidation and transport. The results showed that in the decreasing temperature section (1100-600 °C) most of the RuO3 and RuO4 (≈95%) decomposed and formed RuO2 crystals; while the partial pressure of RuO4 in the escaping air was in the range of 10-6 bar. The re-evaporation of deposited RuO2 resulted in about 10-6 bar partial pressure in the outlet gas as well. Measurements demonstrated the importance of surface quality in the decreasing temperature area on the heterogeneous phase decomposition of ruthenium oxides to RuO2. On the other hand water or molybdenum oxide vapour in air appears to decrease the surface catalyzed decomposition of RuOx to RuO2 and increases RuO4 concentration in the escaping air. High temperature reaction with caesium changed the form of the released ruthenium and caused a time delay in appearance of maximum concentration of ruthenium oxides in the ambient temperature escaping gas, while reaction with barium and rare earth oxides extended Ru escape from the high temperature area.

  2. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  3. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  4. Air Pollution Upregulates Endothelial Cell Procoagulant Activity Via Ultrafine Particle-Induced Oxidant Signaling and Tissue Factor Expression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular events triggered by clot formation. Endothelial activation and initiation of coagulation are pathophysiological mechanisms that could link inhaled air pollutants to vascular events. Here we investigated the underlying mecha...

  5. Effect of plateout, air motion and dust removal on radon decay product concentration in a simulated residence.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, S N; Hinds, W C; Maher, E F; First, M W

    1983-08-01

    The effectiveness of increased air motion and dust removal in reducing radon decay product concentration in residences subject to radon intrusion was evaluated in a 78-m3 room under steady-state conditions for air infiltration rates between 0.2 and 0.9 air changes per hour. Room-size, portable electrostatic precipitators and high-efficiency fibrous filters were tested as typical residential air cleaning devices; a portable box fan and a ceiling fan were employed as typical residential air movers. Reductions in working levels of 40-90% were found. The fate of radon decay products, with and without mixing fans, was determined by direct measurement. When mixing fans were used, most of the nonairborne potential alpha-energy was plated out on the room surfaces; less than 10% was deposited on the fan blades or housing. Results were compared to a mathematical model based on well-mixed room air, and good agreement was obtained. PMID:6885451

  6. Discharge product morphology versus operating temperature in non-aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Shyy, W.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, Z. H.; An, L.

    2015-03-01

    During the discharge process of non-aqueous lithium-air batteries, a solid product, Li2O2, forms in the pores of the porous cathode, and eventually causes the discharge process to cease. During the charge process, solid Li2O2 needs to be electrochemically oxidized. The morphology of the discharge product is, therefore, critically related to the capacity and reversibility of the battery. In this work, we experimentally show that for a given design of the cathode, the shape of the discharge product Li2O2 at a given discharge current density remains almost unchanged with a change in the operating temperature, but the size decreases with an increase in the temperature. We also demonstrate that the product shape varies with the discharge current density at a given temperature. The practical implication of these findings is that the capacity, charge voltage, and cyclability of a given non-aqueous lithium-air battery are affected by the operating temperature.

  7. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  8. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes. PMID:27414751

  9. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  10. Exposure of organic extracts of air particulates to sunlight leads to metabolic activation independence for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    al-Khodairy, F; Hannan, M A

    1997-06-13

    Air particulates were collected on Whatman, GFA glass fibre filters using a RADECO constant-flow air sampler from a car-parking basement and an open roadside adjacent to the basement. While the basement was not exposed to sunlight, the roadside from where air samples were collected was exposed to regular daylight in the month of July (peak summer month). The filters were soaked and sonicated in acetone to dislodge the particulates and then a residue was obtained after evaporation of acetone. The residues were either held in dark or exposed to natural sunlight or germicidal UV light before being tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella tester strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The results showed that the addition of S9 mix resulted in only a slight increase in the frequency of histidine revertants/plate in the case of daylight-exposed roadside air samples. On the other hand, a considerable increase in mutagenicity was observed in the case of the basement air samples, particularly at higher concentrations of the organic extracts when S9 mix was added. However, a pre-exposure of the organic extract of air from the basement to sunlight abrogated the need for S9 mix for showing mutagenic activity. A pre-exposure of the same extracts to germicidal UV light failed to produce a similar effect. These results suggested that long wavelengths of natural sunlight could be responsible for the conversion of certain promutagens in air particulates into direct-acting mutagens. The environmental impact of solar radiation as a modifier of air particulate mutagens in high-sun countries like Saudi Arabia needs to be carefully considered for assessment of air pollution-related health risks. PMID:9219550

  11. Recombination of Hydrogen-Air Combustion Products in an Exhaust Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, Erwin A.; Lancashire, Richard B.

    1961-01-01

    Thrust losses due to the inability of dissociated combustion gases to recombine in exhaust nozzles are of primary interest for evaluating the performance of hypersonic ramjets. Some results for the expansion of hydrogen-air combustion products are described. Combustion air was preheated up to 33000 R to simulate high-Mach-number flight conditions. Static-temperature measurements using the line reversal method and wall static pressures were used to indicate the state of the gas during expansion. Results indicated substantial departure from the shifting equilibrium curve beginning slightly downstream of the nozzle throat at stagnation pressures of 1.7 and 3.6 atmospheres. The results are compared with an approximate method for determining a freezing point using an overall rate equation for the oxidation of hydrogen.

  12. Reducing air pollutant emissions from solvent multi-base propellant production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, M.R.; Lateulere, M.; Maloney, S.W.

    1999-08-01

    The Radford Army Ammunition Plant, Virginia, is the multi-base propellant manufacturing facility for the Department of Defense (DoD). Solvent multi-base propellant production, however, emits large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pollutant stream also contains low concentrations of nitroglycerine (NG). The NG content prohibits the use of traditional air pollution control technologies because of safety concerns. This report summarizes the research of CERL and others into alternative air pollution control technologies. Bench-scale tests of sulfuric acid scrubbing, sorptive slurry biodegradation, and ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation were conducted. The results of the UV photocatalytic oxidation tests showed the most promise based on safety, economic, and operational considerations and the remaining research effort focused on this technology. UV photocatalytic oxidation was tested on a larger scale to determine its effectiveness. This report describes the results of the larger scale testing and presents a demonstration protocol that can be applied to future full-scale work.

  13. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  14. Characterisation of occupational exposure to air contaminants in a nitrate fertiliser production plant.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Kristin H; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Skyberg, Knut; Skogstad, Marit; Bakke, Berit

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise personal exposures to dust, acid vapours, and gases among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser production plant, as part of an ongoing epidemiological study. In total, 178 inhalable and 179 thoracic aerosol mass fraction samples were collected from randomly chosen workers (N = 141) from three compound fertiliser departments (A, B and C), a calcium nitrate fertiliser production department, nitric acid- and ammonia-production departments, and a shipping department. The overall median inhalable and thoracic aerosol mass concentrations were generally low (1.1 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.93-45) and 0.21 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.085-11), respectively). Workers at the compound fertiliser departments B and C had significantly higher inhalable aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser department A; however, the difference between the compound fertiliser department C and calcium nitrate department was slightly above the significant level. Workers at the compound fertiliser department A had significantly higher thoracic aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser departments B and C. The results indicate that the extrathoracic aerosol fraction of the aerosol compared to the thoracic fraction dominated in most departments. Measurement of the main constituents Ca, K, Mg, and P in the water-soluble and water-insoluble aerosol mass fractions showed that the air concentrations of these elements were low. There is, however, a shift towards more water-soluble species as the production goes from raw material with phosphate rock towards the final product of fertilisers. Overall, the arithmetic mean of water-soluble Ca in the thoracic mass fraction was 51% (min-max: 1-100). A total of 169 personal samples were analysed for HNO(3) vapour and HF. The highest median concentration of HNO(3) (0.63 mg m(-3)) was in the

  15. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production from 24 to 27 weeks under simulated evaporatively cooled conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  16. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  17. Preliminary examination of the impacts of repository site characterization activities and facility construction and operation activities on Hanford air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-04-01

    Air quality impacts that would result from site characterization activities and from the construction and operation of a high-level nuclear wste repository at Hanford are estimated using two simple atmospheric dispersion models, HANCHI and CHISHORT. Model results indicate that pollutant concentrations would not exceed ambient air quality standards at any point outside the Hanford fenceline or at any publicly accessible location within the Hanford Site. The increase in pollutant concentrations in nearby communities due to site activities would be minimal. HANCHI and CHISHORT are documented in the appendices of this document. Further study of the repository's impact on air quality will be conducted when more detailed project plans and work schedules are available.

  18. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  19. Muon Production Height investigated by the Air-Shower Experiment KASCADE-Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, P.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.; KASCADE-Grande Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    A large area (128 m2) Muon Tracking Detector (MTD), located within the KASCADE experiment, has been built with the aim to identify muons ( E>0.8 GeV) and their directions in extensive air showers by track measurements under more than 18 r.l. shielding. The orientation of the muon track with respect to the shower axis is expressed in terms of the radial- and tangential angles. By means of triangulation the muon production height H is determined. By means of H, a transition from light to heavy cosmic ray primary particles with increasing shower energy E from 1-10 PeV is observed.

  20. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells. PMID:2131646

  1. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Brasquet, C.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-12-31

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic models are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rate within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. Theses original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  2. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon - applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-10-01

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic model`s are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity. and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rare within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. These original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  3. Activation product release from fusion structural materials in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maya, I.; Montgomery, F.; Trester, P.; Burnette, R.; Johnson, W.; Schultz, K.

    1985-08-01

    The release and transport of activated materials-of-construction in a fusion reactor during an accident scenario involving overheating and ingress of oxidants is an important area of safety research. This investigation quantified material release characteristics which result from surface oxide spallation and vaporization for the steel alloys PCA and HT-9 in impure helium and air environments.

  4. Can you help create the next generation of Land Surface Air Temperature products?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Peter; Venema, Victor

    2013-04-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative comprises a group of multi-disciplinary researchers constituted in 2010 with the remit of creating a suite of open, transparent Land Surface Air Temperature products suitable for meeting 21st Century science and societal needs and expectations. Since instigation significant progress has been made in the creation of an improved set of 'raw' Land Surface Air Temperature data holdings (to be released in first version in February 2013), constituting in excess of 30,000 stations many going back over a Century, and towards the creation of a rigorous benchmarking framework. What is now requested is that multiple independent groups take up the challenge of creating global and regional products from the databank and submit their algorithms to the benchmarking framework. Key here is to rigorously assess structural uncertainty - it is not sufficient to assume because one group has tackled the problem it is in any meaningful sense mission accomplished. There undoubtedly exist a myriad of issues in the raw data and it is of vital importance to see how sensitive data homogenization is to the set of processing choices independent groups will undertake. This uncertainty will almost certainly be larger at the station or regional level - yet as we move into the 21st Century it is these scales that are of increasing import to end users. It is essential that we serve the right data in the right way with the correct caveats. This can only be achieved if a sufficient number of groups take up the challenge of creating new products from the raw databank. This poster will outline progress to date in the creation of the databank and global benchmarks and outline how investigators and groups can now get involved in creating products from the databank and participate in the benchmarking exercise. Further details upon the Initiative and its aims can be found at www.surfacetemperatures.org and http://surfacetemperatures.blogspot.com/

  5. Exploration of OMI Products for Air Quality Applications Through Comparisons with Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Ziemke, J.; Bucsela, E.; Gleason, J.; Marufu, L.; Dickerson, R.; Mathur, R.; Davidson, P.; Duncan, B.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA s Aura satellite was launched in July 2004, and is now providing daily global observations of total column ozone, NO2, and SO2, as well as aerosol information. Algorithms have also been developed to produce daily tropospheric ozone and NO2 products. The tropospheric ozone product reported here is a tropospheric residual computed through use of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone profile data to quantify stratospheric ozone. We are investigating the applicability of OMI products for use in air quality modeling, forecasting, and analysis. These investigations include comparison of the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 products with global and regional models and with lower tropospheric aircraft observations. Large-scale transport of pollution seen in the OM1 tropospheric O3 data is compared with output from NASA's Global Modeling Initiative global chemistry and transport model. On the regional scale we compare the OMI tropospheric O3 and NO2 with fields from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA/EPA) operational Eta/CMAQ air quality forecasting model over the eastern United States. This 12-km horizontal resolution model output is roughly of equivalent resolution to the OMI pixel data. Correlation analysis between lower tropospheric aircraft O3 profile data taken by the University of Maryland over the Mid-Atlantic States and OMI tropospheric column mean volume mixing ratio for O3 will be presented. These aircraft data are representative of the lowest 3 kilometers of the atmosphere, the region in which much of the locally-generated and regionally-transported ozone exists.

  6. COST ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON VERSUS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR REMOVING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m3/s indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) vs. photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.3 mg/m3. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming t...

  7. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  8. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost. PMID:27295924

  9. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. PMID:25712493

  10. Microbial production of sensory-active miraculin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keisuke; Asakura, Tomiko; Morita, Yuji; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Koizumi, Ayako; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Terada, Tohru; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2007-08-24

    Miraculin (MCL), a tropical fruit protein, is unique in that it has taste-modifying activity to convert sourness to sweetness, though flat in taste at neutral pH. To obtain a sufficient amount of MCL to examine the mechanism involved in this sensory event at the molecular level, we transformed Aspergillus oryzae by introducing the MCL gene. Transformants were expressed and secreted a sensory-active form of MCL yielding 2 mg/L. Recombinant MCL resembled native MCL in the secondary structure and the taste-modifying activity to generate sweetness at acidic pH. Since the observed pH-sweetness relation seemed to reflect the imidazole titration curve, suggesting that histidine residues might be involved in the taste-modifying activity. H30A and H30,60A mutants were generated using the A. oryzae-mediated expression system. Both mutants found to have lost the taste-modifying activity. The result suggests that the histidine-30 residue is important for the taste-modifying activity of MCL. PMID:17592723

  11. Microoxic Niches within the Thylakoid Stroma of Air-Grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Protect [FeFe]-Hydrogenase and Support Hydrogen Production under Fully Aerobic Environment.

    PubMed

    Liran, Oded; Semyatich, Rinat; Milrad, Yuval; Eilenberg, Haviva; Weiner, Iddo; Yacoby, Iftach

    2016-09-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is catalyzed by two [FeFe]-hydrogenase isoforms, HydA1 and HydA2, both irreversibly inactivated upon a few seconds exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Until recently, it was thought that hydrogenase is not active in air-grown microalgal cells. In contrast, we show that the entire pool of cellular [FeFe]-hydrogenase remains active in air-grown cells due to efficient scavenging of oxygen. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, (18)O2 isotope, and various inhibitors, we were able to dissect the various oxygen uptake mechanisms. We found that both chlororespiration, catalyzed by plastid terminal oxidase, and Mehler reactions, catalyzed by photosystem I and Flavodiiron proteins, significantly contribute to oxygen uptake rate. This rate is considerably enhanced with increasing light, thus forming local anaerobic niches at the proximity of the stromal face of the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, we found that in transition to high light, the hydrogen production rate is significantly enhanced for a short duration (100 s), thus indicating that [FeFe]-hydrogenase functions as an immediate sink for surplus electrons in aerobic as well as in anaerobic environments. In summary, we show that an anaerobic locality in the chloroplast preserves [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity and supports continuous hydrogen production in air-grown microalgal cells. PMID:27443604

  12. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    PubMed Central

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly. PMID:22523488

  13. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  14. Mutagenic activity of disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Cognet, L; Courtois, Y; Mallevialle, J

    1986-01-01

    Data on raw water quality, disinfection treatment practices, and the resulting mutagenic properties of the treated water were compiled from pilot- and full-scale treatment experiments to evaluate that parameter which might produce variability in the results of a mutagenic study. Analysis of the data and comparison of treatment practices indicated that the measured mutagenic activity is strongly related to the characteristics of the organic matter in the raw water, the methodology used to sample and detect mutagens, the scale of the study both in terms of treatment flow and period of study, and the point at which and the conditions under which oxidants are added during treatment. Conclusions regarding disinfection systems in full-scale water treatment plants include the following: When raw water is pretreated and high concentrations of organics are present in the raw water, both ozonation and chlorination increased mutagenic activity. However, no significant difference in mutagenicity was found between the two oxidants. Both in the case of a nitrified groundwater and a clarified surface water, the mutagenic activity of the water after ozonation was related to its mutagenic activity before ozonation. With ozonation, mutagenic activity decreased after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Thus, when GAC filtration follows ozone disinfection, early addition of oxidants may not be deleterious to the finished water quality. When chlorine or chlorine dioxide is added after GAC filtration, chlorine dioxide was found to produce a less mutagenic water than chlorine. Although these conclusions suggest means of controlling mutagenic activity during treatment, it must be stressed that the measurement of mutagenicity is a presumptive index of contamination level. PMID:3816721

  15. Variability in AIRS CO2 during active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon.

    PubMed

    Revadekar, J V; Ravi Kumar, K; Tiwari, Yogesh K; Valsala, Vinu

    2016-01-15

    Due to human activities, the atmospheric concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been rising extensively since the Industrial Revolution. Indian summer monsoon (ISM) has a dominant westerly component from ocean to land with a strong tendency to ascend and hence may have role in CO2 distribution in lower and middle troposphere over Indian sub-continent. A substantial component of ISM variability arises from the fluctuations on the intra-seasonal scale between active and break phases which correspond to strong and weak monsoon circulation. In view of the above, an attempt is made in this study to examine the AIRS/AQUA satellite retrieved CO2 distribution in response to atmospheric circulation with focus on active and break phase. Correlation analysis indicates the increase in AIRS CO2 linked with strong monsoon circulation. Study also reveals that anomalous circulation pattern during active and break phase show resemblance with high and low values of AIRS CO2. Homogeneous monsoon regions of India show substantial increase in CO2 levels during active phase. Hilly regions of India show strong contrast in CO2 and vertical velocity during active and break phases. PMID:26476061

  16. Foreshock activity related to enhanced aftershock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.; Bouchon, M.; Dublanchet, P.

    2014-10-01

    Foreshock activity sometimes precedes the occurrence of large earthquakes, but the nature of this seismicity is still debated, and whether it marks transient deformation and/or slip nucleation is still unclear. We here study at the worldwide scale how foreshock occurrence affects the postseismic phase and find a significant positive correlation between foreshock and aftershock activities: earthquakes preceded by accelerating seismicity rates produce 40% more aftershocks on average, and the length of the aftershock zone after 20 days is 20% larger. These observations cannot be reproduced by standard earthquake clustering models that predict the accelerating pattern of foreshock occurrence but not its impact on aftershock activity. This strongly suggests that slow deformation transients, possibly related to episodic creep, could initiate prior to the main shock and extend past the coseismic phase, resulting in compound ruptures that include a very long period (up to tens of days) component.

  17. What You Need to Know About the OMI NO2 Data Product for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Brinksma, E.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product, produced from measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), are publicly available online from the NASA GESDISC facility. Important data fields include total and tropospheric column densities, as well as collocated data for cloud fraction and cloud top height, surface albedo and snow/ice coverage, at the resolution of the OMI instrument (12 km x 26 km, at nadir). The retrieved NO2 data have been validated, principally under clear-sky conditions. The first public-release version has been available since September 2006. An improved version of the data product, which includes a number of new data fields, and improved estimates of the retrieval uncertainties will be released by the end of 2007. This talk will describe the standard NO2 data product, including details that are essential for the use of the data for air quality studies. We will also describe the principal improvements with the new version of the data product.

  18. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  19. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    , air quality warnings by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This talk will provide an overview of VIIRS algorithms, aerosol product validation, and examples of various applications with a discussion on the relevance of product accuracy.

  20. Kupffer Cell Activation by Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure May Exacerbate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Fiel, M. Isabel; Sun, Qinghua; Guo, Jinsheng; Gordon, Ronald E.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Friedman, Scott L.; Odin, Joseph A.; Allina, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. NAFLD is considered a component of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of disorders that also includes diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis as well as lung disease, but its effect on NAFLD is unknown. PM2.5 induces pulmonary dysfunction via toll-like receptor activation on alveolar macrophages. Toll-like receptor activation of Kupffer cells, resident hepatic macrophages, and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production have been shown to play a key role in NAFLD progression. We hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for progression of NAFLD. Thus, following exposure of male C57BL/6 mice fed high fat chow to concentrated air particulate matter (CAPs) or filtered air for 6 wk, progression of NAFLD was evaluated by standardized histological assessment of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In mice fed high fat chow, the hepatic inflammatory grade (3.00 ± 0.00 vs. 1.50 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and fibrosis stage (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.60 ± 0.52, p = 0.023) were both significantly higher in mice exposed to CAPs versus filtered air, respectively. Increased numbers of Kupffer cells contained PM in CAPs-exposed mice (2.00 ± 0.94 vs. 0.20 ± 0.42, respectively, p < 0.001). PM exposure increased IL-6 secretion up to seven fold in a dose-dependent manner by isolated wild-type but not TLR4−/− Kupffer cells (p < 0.050). Conclusion: Ambient PM2.5 exposure may be a significant risk factor for NAFLD progression. PMID:19908945

  1. Validation and Verification of the Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under

  2. Catalytic activity trends of oxygen reduction reaction for nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chun; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-11-30

    We report the intrinsic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline palladium, platinum, ruthenium, gold, and glassy carbon surfaces in 0.1 M LiClO(4) 1,2-dimethoxyethane via rotating disk electrode measurements. The nonaqueous Li(+)-ORR activity of these surfaces primarily correlates to oxygen adsorption energy, forming a "volcano-type" trend. The activity trend found on the polycrystalline surfaces was in good agreement with the trend in the discharge voltage of Li-O(2) cells catalyzed by nanoparticle catalysts. Our findings provide insights into Li(+)-ORR mechanisms in nonaqueous media and design of efficient air electrodes for Li-air battery applications. PMID:22044022

  3. The effects of outdoor air supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, P; Wyon, D P; Sundell, J; Clausen, G; Fanger, P O

    2000-12-01

    Perceived air quality, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity were studied in a normally furnished office space (108 m3) ventilated with an outdoor airflow of 3, 10 or 30 L/s per person, corresponding to an air change rate of 0.6, 2 or 6 h-1. The temperature of 22 degrees C, the relative humidity of 40% and all other environmental parameters remained unchanged. Five groups of six female subjects were each exposed to the three ventilation rates, one group and one ventilation rate at a time. Each exposure lasted 4.6 h and took place in the afternoon. Subjects were unaware of the intervention and remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing. They assessed perceived air quality and SBS symptoms at intervals, and performed simulated normal office work. Increasing ventilation decreased the percentage of subjects dissatisfied with the air quality (P < 0.002) and the intensity of odour (P < 0.02), and increased the perceived freshness of air (P < 0.05). It also decreased the sensation of dryness of mouth and throat (P < 0.0006), eased difficulty in thinking clearly (P < 0.001) and made subjects feel generally better (P < 0.0001). The performance of four simulated office tasks improved monotonically with increasing ventilation rates, and the effect reached formal significance in the case of text-typing (P < 0.03). For each two-fold increase in ventilation rate, performance improved on average by 1.7%. This study shows the benefits for health, comfort and productivity of ventilation at rates well above the minimum levels prescribed in existing standards and guidelines. It confirms the results of a previous study in the same office when the indoor air quality was improved by decreasing the pollution load while the ventilation remained unchanged. PMID:11089327

  4. Biofiltration of benzene contaminated air streams using compost-activated carbon filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Kocher, W.M.; Abumaizar, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    Three laboratory-scale biofilter columns were operated for 81 days to investigate the removal of benzene from a waste gas stream. The columns contain a mixture of yard waste and sludge compost as biomedia. Different amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) are mixed with the compost in two of the three columns to evaluate the extent to which biofilter performance can be enhanced. The effects of different operating conditions on the performance of the removal of benzene from air were evaluated. More than 90% removal efficiency was observed for an influent benzene concentration of about 75 ppm and an air flow rate of 0.3 L/min. in all 3 columns under steady-state conditions. Under most cases of shock loading conditions, such as a sudden increase in the air flow rate, or the benzene concentration in the influent, the biofilters containing GAC provided higher removal efficiencies and more stable operation than the biofilter containing compost only.

  5. The flare productivity of active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, N.; Christe, S.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the flare frequency distribution is consistent with a power-law. Furthermore, studies have shown that regions of higher magnetic complexity produce more large flares. This may imply that the flare frequency distribution is harder for magnetically complex active regions. However, the relationship between source active regions' magnetic complexity and the flare size distribution has not been extensively studied. We present a new study of 25,000 microflares detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) from March 2002 to February 2007. For each flare, we have obtained the two classifications of magnetic complexity, the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, from the Solar Region Summary prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), and compared them with the RHESSI flare size distribution as observed in the 12 to 25 keV energy range. We investigate the relationship between the slope of the microflare size distribution and the magnetic properties of source active regions. For each flare we obtain the relevant MDI magnetogram to determine properties such as the area of the source active region and total unsigned magnetic flux. These properties are then compared to properties of the associated microflares such as peak flux and microflare size distribution. We find that, for both the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, the slopes of the microflare size distribution tend to get harder as a function of magnetic complexity. For example, in Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification the slope for α regions was 1.66 and the slope for βγδ region was 1.51.This suggests that βγδ regions are 50 % more likely to produce X class flares than α regions.

  6. Comparison of dissolved-organic-carbon residuals from air- and pure-oxygen-activated-sludge sequencing-batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, Mario; Fox, Peter; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Literature shows that full-scale pure-oxygen activated sludge (O2-AS) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generate effluents with higher dissolved-organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and larger high-molecular-weight fractions compared to air-activated-sludge (Air-AS) WWTP effluents. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate how gas supplied (air vs. pure oxygen) to sequencing-batch reactors affected DOC transformations. The main conclusions of this paper are (a) O2-AS effluent DOC is more refractory than air-AS effluent DOC; and (b) O2-AS systems may have higher five-day biochemical oxygen demand removals than air-AS systems; however, in terms of COD and DOC removal, air-AS systems are better than O2-AS systems. Analysis of a database from side-by-side O2- and air-AS pilot tests from literature supported these observations. PMID:16629273

  7. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  8. Effects of Confinement on Combustion of TNT Explosion Products in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Ferguson, R.E.; Reichenback, H.; Neuwald, P.

    2000-02-05

    Turbulent combustion fields established by detonative explosions of TNT in confinements of different sizes are studied by high-resolution numerical simulation, using AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) method. The chambers are filled with nitrogen or air at NPT conditions. In the second case, the detonation products, rich in C and CO, act, upon turbulent mixing with air, as fuel in an exothermic process of combustion, manifested by a distinct pressure rise. It is the evolution in space and time of this dynamic process that formed the principal focus of this study. Our results demonstrate a dominating influence of the size of the enclosure on the burning rate--an effect that cannot be expressed in terms of the classical burning speed. Under such circumstances, combustion is of considerable significance, since it is associated with a calorific value (''heat release'') of an order of 3500 Cal/gm, as compared to 1100 Cal/gm of TNT detonation. The numerical simulations provide considerable insight into the evolution of combustion fields dominated by shock-turbulence interactions. Fuel consumption histories, extracted from the simulations, reveal the dynamic features of the system, represented by the rate of combustion (akin to velocity) and its change (akin to acceleration). Time profiles of the mass fraction consumed fuel are expressed, with a remarkable accuracy, by bi-parametric life functions, whereby the trajectories of these parameters, obtained by differentiation, can be evaluated with precision commensurate with their commanding role in the identification of the dynamic nature of the system.

  9. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  10. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  11. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  12. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  13. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  15. A comparison of radon and its decay products' behaviour in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, R; Cardellini, F; Leonardi, F; Vargas Trassierra, C; Franci, D

    2014-11-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon decay products (RDP) yields the greatest contribution to the natural radiation exposure. This paper deals with a study carried out to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of RDPs, their interaction with particulates and the plateout during the time. The tests confirmed that a high aerosol particle concentration increases the probability that an ion sticks to aerosol and remains long in the air, leading to both an increase of F and a decrease of fp, as reported in the literature. The same experimental protocol applied in a small radon chamber showed a strong reduction of the equilibrium factor (an average of ∼10 %), because in a small environment the plateout phenomenon prevails on the attachment to particulate. PMID:25061128

  16. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    PubMed Central

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D’Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  17. RADIOLOGICAL RELEASES DUE TO AIR AND SILICA DUST ACTIVATION IN EMPLACEMENT DRIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tang

    2003-05-07

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the quantity and significance of annual Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface normal radiological releases due to neutron activation of air and silica dust in emplacement drifts. This calculation includes the following items: (1) Calculate activation of ventilation airflow through emplacement drifts to quantify radioactive gaseous releases; and (2) Calculate the bounding potential activated silica dust concentration and releases. The sources of silica dust may arise from air supply to emplacement drifts as well as host rock around emplacement drifts. For this calculation, the source of dust is conservatively assumed to be the host rock (Assumption 3.6), which is subject to long-term neutron exposure resulting in saturated radioactivity. The scope of this calculation is limited to releases from activated air and silica dust only, excluding natural radioactive releases such as radon or releases from defective waste packages (breached or contaminated). This work supports the repository ventilation system design and Preclosure Safety Analysis. This includes MGR items classified as Quality Level 1, for example, the Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Operation Contractor] 1999a, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE [U.S. Department of Energy] 2003). The performance of the calculation and development of this document are carried out in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculation and Analyses'' and LP-3.30Q-BSC, ''Hazards Analysis System''.

  18. Heat transfer and pressure distributions on hemisphere-cylinders in methane-air combustion products at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured over the surfaces of three hemisphere-cylinder models tested at a nominal Mach number of 7 in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel which uses methane-air products of combustion as a test medium. The results showed that the heat-transfer and pressure distributions over the surface of the models were in good agreement with experimental data obtained in air and also with theoretical predictions.

  19. Assessment of air quality at neighbor residences in the vicinity of swine production facilities.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Lee, Joung Ae; Thu, Kendall; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Air sampling was completed on the front lawn of 35 homes neighboring swine farms in three different regions in the Upper Midwest of the United States. One region was dominated by large scale, swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFO's) noted as swine confinement area (SCA). The second area was dominated by smaller scale operations utilizing hoop structure facilities (HA). The third area was basically devoid of livestock, dominated by row-crop production, and served as the control area (CA). The time weighted average concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (8.42 ppb) was higher (p = 0.047) in SCA area than the control (3.48 ppb). However, carbon dioxide (449.6 ppm), ammonia (12.78 ppb) and PM10 (42.25 microg/m3) were higher in the hoop structure area than the other areas. Swine population density, distance between the homes and swine facilities, and wind direction had an interactive effect on the average levels of ammonia (p = 0.04). The contaminant levels at the homes were relatively low compared to typical concentrations inside animal buildings. However, exceedences of federal recommended limits for hydrogen sulfide in outdoor air were observed in the swine CAFO area. Concentration of hydrogen sulfide exceeded the recommended limits of the ATSDR (30 ppb) for chronic exposure at two of the 12 homes in the CAFO area (17%). Average hydrogen sulfide concentration exceeded the EPA recommended community standards (0.7 ppb) in all three areas assessed (SCA, HA, and CA). As chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide may be present in areas of production agriculture, a potential health risk may be present. Further studies to provide additional information regarding exposures to hydrogen sulfide in rural environments are warranted. PMID:19274894

  20. RBSE: Product development team research activity deliverables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GHG Functions and Extensions to be added to the NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) 1.1 product are described. These functions will implement the 'output request' capability within the Object Browser. The functions will be implemented in two parts. The first part is a code to be added to the Object Browser (X version) to implement menus allowing the user to request that objects be copied to specific media, or that objects be downloaded to the user's system following a specific protocol, or that the object be printed to one of the printers attached to the host system. The second part is shell scripts which support the various menu selections. Additional scripts to support functions within the GHG shell (X version) will also be created along with the X version of the GHG Shell as initial capability for the 27 Mar. prototype. The scripts will be composed of C shell routines that will accept parameters (primary file pathways). Certain limitations in functionality will invoke Mail instead of Oracle Mail since that has yet to be delivered and the NELS invocation will default to the X-Windows version instead of the ASCII version.

  1. Influence of air ions on brain activity induced by electrical stimulation in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivereau, J. M.; Lambert, J. F.; Truong-Ngoc, A.

    1981-03-01

    The brain induced activity was studied in 18 rats wearing chronically skull implanted electrodes. The stimulating factor was various electrical stimulations of the mesencephalic reticular activating formation, given during the slow wave state of sleep. The results of 300 stimulations were measured by amplitude and frequency changes in the EEG simultaneously recorded. Animals previously exposed to positive air ions (3 weeks 80,000 ions/ml) exhibited lowered excitability of the reticulocortical system. Significantly higher stimulations were necessary to induce arousal. Negative air ions induced more intricate effects: brain excitability was lowered when tested with weak stimulations, but normal when evaluated with medium high level stimilations. Sleep seems first more stable but as stimulation increases, arousal is soon as effective as in controls. These results are in agreement with others findings in behavioral fields and partly explains them.

  2. Air Oxidation of Activated Carbon to Synthesize a Biomimetic Catalyst for Hydrolysis of Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, Abhijit; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Oxygenated carbon catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass by utilizing the weakly acidic functional groups on its surface. Here we report the synthesis of a biomimetic carbon catalyst by simple and economical air-oxidation of a commercially available activated carbon. Air- oxidation at 450-500 °C introduced 2000-2400 μmol g(-1) of oxygenated functional groups on the material with minor changes in the textural properties. Selectivity towards the formation of carboxylic groups on the catalyst surface increased with the increase in oxidation temperature. The degree of oxidation on carbon catalyst was found to be proportional to its activity for hydrolysis of cellulose. The hydrolysis of eucalyptus in the presence of carbon oxidized at 475 °C afforded glucose yield of 77 % and xylose yield of 67 %. PMID:27115288

  3. The Utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 in Air Quality Decision-Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss a novel and practical application of the OMI HCHU and NO2 data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. In addition, the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may be used to define new emission control strategies as the photochemical environments of urban areas evolve over time. I will demonstrate the utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 over the U.S. for air quality applications with support from simulations with both a regional model and a photochemical box model. These results support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. However, I'm attending the meeting as the Aura Deputy Project Scientist, so I don't technically need to present anything to justify the travel.

  4. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  5. Isocoumarins, miraculous natural products blessed with diverse pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer

    2016-06-30

    Isocoumarins are lactonic natural products abundant in microbes and higher plants. These are considered an amazing scaffold consecrated with more or less all types of pharmacological applications. This review is complementary to the earlier reviews and aims to focus the overlooked aspects of their fascinating chemistry with special emphasis on their classification and diverse biological activities with some SAR conclusions. The most recent available literature on the structural diversity and biological activity of these natural products has been reviewed. PMID:27155563

  6. EDI Data Products in the Cluster Active Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, E.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Vaith, H.; Chutter, M.; Quinn, J.; Paschmann, G.; Torbert, R.

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) contribution to the Cluster Active Archive (CAA) is described. Presented are descriptions of the EDI instrument, the various CAA/EDI data products, the CAA ingestion schedule and the current EDI status. An example of a science application is given for one of the main EDI data products available in the CAA.

  7. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  8. [Demographic dynamics, migrants from bordering countries and economic activity in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Lattes, A E; Bertoncello, R

    1997-04-01

    The growth and changes--by age, sex, and place of birth--in the structure of the total population of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and of the subpopulation over 15 years of age and economically active are analyzed for the decade of the 1980s. Study of the economic participation of migrants and its possible influence on levels of employment or unemployment should be carried out within the framework of changes in the population's structure and economic participation. The 1981 and 1991 censuses and the Permanent Survey of Households were the sources of data. Immigration to Argentina has declined considerably in recent years, but it is still a factor in the population growth of metropolitan Buenos Aires. Between the 1981 and 1991 censuses, the population aged 15 and over grew by 10.9/1000, or a total of 827,806 people. Migrants from bordering countries increased in number (by 85,109, or 10.3%) and in proportion to the total population (from 3.9% to 4.6%). Migrant women increased at the highest rate (30.1/1000). The greatest growth occurred among men aged 40 and over and among women aged 35 and over. The growth of the economically active population over age 15 for different groups of national origin, sex, and age showed much greater heterogeneity. In 1991, women from bordering countries represented 3.8% of all women in metropolitan Buenos Aires but 5.7% of the total economically active female population and nearly 7% of the economically active female population aged 35 and over. Women from neighboring countries were responsible for 10.3% of the growth in the economically active female population aged 30-34 and 40-44 between 1981 and 1991. The absolute and relative increases in migrants from neighboring countries and their greater economic participation tend to increase the general level of economic activity. PMID:12321684

  9. Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.

  10. Comparison of air kerma area product and air kerma meter calibrations for X-ray radiation qualities used in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourdakis, C. J.; Csete, I.; Daures, J.; Jarvinen, H.; Mihailescu, L.-C.; Sochor, V.; Novak, L.; Pedersen, M.; Kosunen, A.; Toroi, P.; Denoziere, M.; Büermann, L.; Megzifene, A.; Einarsson, G.; Ferrari, P.; dePooter, J.; Bjerke, H.; Brodecki, M.; Cardoso, J.; Bercea, S.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Compel, J.; Glavič-Cindro, D.; Ginjaume, M.; Persson, L.; Grindborg, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    The EURAMET #1177 project, identified as EURAMET RI(I) - S9 comparison, was the first EURAMET wide scale supplementary comparison in the field of diagnostic radiology for air kerma area product, PKA, and air kerma, K. It was conducted with the goal of testing the measurement and calibration capabilities for PKA and K, as well as of supporting the relevant CMCs of the participating laboratories. Two commercial KAP meters and an ionization chamber were selected as transfer instruments and circulated between the 22 European participants. The measurements were performed from April 2011 until July 2012. The stability and the performance of the transfer instruments were tested by the pilot laboratory (IRCL/GAEC-EIM) and few other laboratories as well. The test results revealed that the energy (radiation quality), Q, irradiation area, A, and air kerma rate, dot K dependences of response of the transfer KAP meters influence the comparison of the results when different measurement conditions were pertained and therefore, appropriate correction factors were obtained and applied to the reported calibration results of the laboratories, when necessary. The comparison reference values (CRVs) for each instrument were determined as the weighted mean of the calibration coefficients of the three participating primary laboratories. The relative standard uncertainty of the CRVs were in the range of (0.4 - 1.6)% depending on the transfer instruments and beam qualities. The comparison result as the ratio of the corrected calibration coefficient of participant and the respective CRV, and its uncertainty were calculated for all beam qualities and transfer instruments. The informative degrees of equivalence (DoE) were calculated for the refrence RQR 5 beam quality. In case of air kema area product measurements the results for the RADCAL PDC KAP meter were used. The 216 KAP meter calibration results of the two different transfer instruments in terms of air kerma area product were consistent

  11. Fluctuation analysis-based risk assessment for respiratory virus activity and air pollution associated asthma incidence.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chio, Chia-Pin

    2011-08-15

    Asthma is a growing epidemic worldwide. Exacerbations of asthma have been associated with bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections and air pollution. We correlated the asthma admission rates with fluctuations in respiratory virus activity and traffic-related air pollution, namely particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM₁₀), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and ozone (O₃). A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed based on a detrended fluctuation analysis to predict future respiratory virus and air pollutant associated asthma incidence. Results indicated a strong association between asthma admission rate and influenza (r=0.80, p<0.05) and SO₂ level (r=0.73, p<0.05) in Taiwan in the period 2001-2008. No significant correlation was found for asthma admission and PM₁₀, O₃, NO₂, and CO. The proposed fluctuation analysis provides a simple correlation exponent describing the complex interactions of respiratory viruses and air pollutants with asthma. This study revealed that there was a 95% probability of having exceeded 2987 asthma admissions per 100,000 population. It was unlikely (30% probability) that the asthma admission rate exceeded 3492 per 100,000 population. The probability of asthma admission risk can be limited to below 50% by keeping the correlation exponent of influenza to below 0.9. We concluded that fluctuation analysis based risk assessment provides a novel predictor of asthma incidence. PMID:21663946

  12. Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shrey; Jindal, Aman; Maurya, Shivam P.; Jain, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ) and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG) and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel) and counterrotating (V-shape) are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG. PMID:23935422

  13. A thunderstorm cell-lightning activity analysis: The new concept of air mass catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Tamás; Horváth, Ákos; Ács, Ferenc

    2016-03-01

    Thunderstorm cell-lightning activity is discussed in terms of analysing a thunderstorm's lightning frequency-equipotential temperature relationship. Thunderstorms were tracked using Doppler radars in five-minute time steps. Lightning is assigned to the nearest thunderstorm cell, it is characterised by lightning frequency data using LINET. Equipotential temperature is not directly estimated, instead the notion of air mass catchment is introduced to represent it. It is shown in this paper that the thunderstorm cell with maximum lightning frequency in the current time step is almost always the so-called leading storm cell. The lightning frequency activity of the non-leading storm cells is not significant.

  14. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-01

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery. PMID:26277938

  15. Assessment of air and water contamination by disinfection by-products at 41 indoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Robert; Catto, Cyril; Haddad, Sami; Simard, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the profiles (occurrence and speciation) of disinfection by-product (DBP) contamination in air and water of a group of 41 public indoor swimming pools in Québec (Canada). The contaminants measured in the water included the traditional DBPs [i.e., four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs)] but also several emergent DBPs [i.e., halonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloketones and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)]. Those measured in the air comprised THMs and chloramines (CAMs). Overall, extremely variable DBP levels were found from one pool to another (both quantitatively and in terms of speciation). For instance, in water, among the four THMs, chloroform was usually the most abundant compound (37.9±25.7µg/L). Nevertheless, the sum of the three other brominated THMs represented more than 25% of total THMs at almost half the facilities visited (19 cases). In 13 of them, the levels of brominated THMs (66±24.2µg/L) even greatly outweighed the levels of chloroform (15.2±6.31µg/L). Much higher levels of HAAs (294.8±157.6µg/L) were observed, with a consistent preponderance of brominated HAAs in the swimming pools with more brominated THMs. NDMA levels which were measured in a subset of 8 pools ranged between 2.8ng/L and 105ng/L. With respect to air, chloroform was still the most abundant THM globally (119.4±74.2µg/m(3)) but significant levels of brominated THMs were also observed in various cases, particularly in the previously evoked group of 13 swimming pools with preponderant levels of brominated THMs in water. CAM levels (0.23±0.15mg/m(3)) varied highly, ranging from not detected to 0.56mg/m(3). Overall, the levels were generally relatively high compared to current guidelines or reference values from several countries, and they point to a relatively atypical presence of brominated compounds, and to significant levels of emergent DBPs for which health risk is less documented. PMID:27131795

  16. MERCURY AND AIR TOXIC ELEMENT IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    2003-07-01

    On April 3, 2003, a project kickoff meeting was held at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. As a result of this meeting and follow-up communications, a final work plan was developed, and a schedule of laboratory tasks was developed. Work for the remainder of the second quarter of this project focused on sample collection, initiating laboratory tests, and performing literature searchers. The final project partner, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, signed its contract for participation in the project. This effort will focus on the evaluation of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) for their potential to release mercury and other air toxic elements under different controlled laboratory conditions and will investigate the release of these same air toxic elements in select disposal and utilization field settings to understand the impact of various emission control technologies. The information collected will be evaluated and interpreted together with past Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data and similar data from other studies. Results will be used to determine if mercury release from CCBs, both as currently produced and produced with mercury and other emission controls in place, is a realistic environmental issue. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxics on the disposal and/or utilization of CCBs. The project will provide data on the environmental acceptability of CCBs expected to be produced in systems with emission controls for typical disposal and utilization scenarios. The project will develop baseline information on release mechanisms of select elements in both conventional CCBs and modified or experimental CCBs. The modified or experimental CCBs will be selected to represent CCBs from systems that have improved emission controls. Controlling these emissions has high potential to change the chemical characteristics and environmental performance of CCBs. Development of reliable

  17. [Cytogenetic activity of the butylcaptax defoliant transformation product].

    PubMed

    Vesmanova, O Ia; Semykina, E E; Koblov, R K; Ergashev

    1989-01-01

    Cytogenetical activity of the product of metabolitic butylcaptax transformations in cells of cotton plants G. barbadense has been studied. It is shown that butylcaptax, with a significant mutagenicity, looses its mutagenic activity, metabolizing in low mutagenic 2-oxyamylthiobenzthiazole. Low water solubility prevents its concentration to exceed 0.005% in tissue liquids and to exert a mutagenic action on cotton plants. PMID:2773061

  18. OH-Radical Oxidation of Surface-Active cis-Pinonic Acid at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke

    2016-05-26

    Gaseous biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are immediately oxidized by gaseous oxidants to form BVOC-acids that rapidly condense onto aqueous aerosol phase and thus contribute to the growth of atmospheric particles. Because BVOC-acids are highly hydrophobic and hence surface-active in nature, it seems critical to study the oxidation by gaseous hydroxyl radical (·OH(g)) at the air-water interface. Here we report on the fast (≤10 μs) oxidation of aqueous cis-pinonic acid (C10H16O3, CPA, cis-pinonate anion's m/z = 183), a representative BVOC-acid, by ·OH(g) at the air-water interface for the first time. We find that cis-pinonate anion is more enriched at the air-water interface by ∼4 and ∼14 times than n-octanoate anion at 10 and 100 μM, respectively, as revealed by an interface-specific mass spectrometry of the equimolar mixture of microjets. Exposure of aqueous CPA microjets to ·OH(g) pulses from the 266 nm laser photolysis of O3(g)/O2(g)/H2O(g)/N2(g) mixtures yields pinonic peroxyl radicals (m/z = 214) that lead to the functionalization products carbonyls (m/z = 197), alcohols (m/z = 199), and pinonic hydroperoxides (m/z = 215) in addition to smaller-mass products including carbonyls (m/z = 155 and 157). We confirmed the formation of the corresponding alcohols, aldehydes, and hydroperoxides in experiments performed in D2O solvent. The analysis of total mass balance implies a significant amount (>70%) of products would be emitted into the gas-phase during the heterogeneous ·OH-oxidations. Our results suggest ·OH-oxidations of amphiphilic BVOC-acids at the air-water interface may play a far more significant role in photochemical aging process of aqueous aerosols than previously assumed. PMID:27098046

  19. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  20. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  1. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  2. Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Transducers with Active Polypropylene Foam Matching Layers

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás E.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and characterization of air-coupled piezoelectric transducers using 1–3 connectivity piezocomposite disks with a stack of matching layers being the outer one an active quarter wavelength layer made of polypropylene foam ferroelectret film. This kind of material has shown a stable piezoelectric response together with a very low acoustic impedance (<0.1 MRayl). These features make them a suitable candidate for the dual use or function proposed here: impedance matching layer and active material for air-coupled transduction. The transducer centre frequency is determined by the λ/4 resonance of the polypropylene foam ferroelectret film (0.35 MHz), then, the rest of the transducer components (piezocomposite disk and passive intermediate matching layers) are all tuned to this frequency. The transducer has been tested in several working modes including pulse-echo and pitch-catch as well as wide and narrow band excitation. The performance of the proposed novel transducer is compared with that of a conventional air-coupled transducers operating in a similar frequency range. PMID:23666129

  3. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites. PMID:26351879

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements in Schools and Outreach Activities with Low-cost Air Quality Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Z.; Monks, P. S.; McKenzie, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing range of low cost air quality sensors entering the market-place or being developed in-house in the last couple of years has led to many possibilities for using these instruments for public outreach activities or citizen science projects. A range of instruments sent out into local schools for the children to interpret and analyse the data and put the air quality in their area into context. A teaching package with tutorials has been developed to bring the data to life and link in with curriculum.The instruments have also been positioned around the city of Leicester in the UK to help understand the spatial variations in air quality and to assess the impact of retro-fitting buses on a busy bus route. The data is easily accessible online on a near real time basis and the various instruments can be compared with others around the country or the world from classrooms around the world.We will give an overview of the instrumentation with a comparison with commercial and cutting edge research instrumentation, the type of activities that were carried out and the public outreach forums where the data can be used.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROJECT - INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS PILOT (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to verify environmental claims of products used in the indoor environment. Testing protocols will be developed and approved by a stakeholder group. To ensure wide acceptability and comparability of data, the protocols will (1) include strong qua...

  6. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications. PMID:20022170

  7. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Products to Enhance and Evaluate the AIRPACT Regional Air Quality Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamb, B. K.; Jaffe, D. A.; Wigder, N. L.; Chung, S. H.; Zhang, R.; Woelfle, M.; Vaughan, J. K.; Leung, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The WSU AIRPACT air quality modeling system for the Pacific Northwest forecasts hourly levels of aerosols and atmospheric trace gases for use in determining potential health and ecosystem impacts by air quality managers. AIRPACT uses the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling framework, derives dynamic boundary conditions from MOZART-4 forecast simulations with assimilated MOPITT CO, and uses the BlueSky framework to derive fire emissions. A suite of surface measurements and satellite-based remote sensing data products across the AIRPACT domain are used to evaluate and improve model performance. Specific investigations include anthropogenic emissions, wildfire simulations, and the effects of long-range transport on surface ozone. In this work we synthesize results for multiple comparisons of AIRPACT with satellite products such as IASI ammonia, AIRS carbon monoxide, MODIS AOD, OMI tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and MISR plume height. Features and benefits of the newest version of AIRPACT's web-interface are also presented.

  8. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) refers to a set of structurally diverse environmental chemicals, many with limited toxicity data, that have...

  9. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  10. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Tarasson, L.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN+PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models

  11. A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Peuch, V.-H.; Andersson, C.; Andersson, S.; Arteta, J.; Beekmann, M.; Benedictow, A.; Bergström, R.; Bessagnet, B.; Cansado, A.; Chéroux, F.; Colette, A.; Coman, A.; Curier, R. L.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Drouin, A.; Elbern, H.; Emili, E.; Engelen, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; Foret, G.; Friese, E.; Gauss, M.; Giannaros, C.; Guth, J.; Joly, M.; Jaumouillé, E.; Josse, B.; Kadygrov, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; Krajsek, K.; Kuenen, J.; Kumar, U.; Liora, N.; Lopez, E.; Malherbe, L.; Martinez, I.; Melas, D.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Moinat, P.; Morales, T.; Parmentier, J.; Piacentini, A.; Plu, M.; Poupkou, A.; Queguiner, S.; Robertson, L.; Rouïl, L.; Schaap, M.; Segers, A.; Sofiev, M.; Thomas, M.; Timmermans, R.; Valdebenito, Á.; van Velthoven, P.; van Versendaal, R.; Vira, J.; Ung, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACC-II (summer 2014). This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs and PAN + PAN precursors) over 8 vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performances of the system are assessed daily, weekly and 3 monthly (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the median ensemble to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The time period of this case study is also used to illustrate that the median ensemble generally outperforms each of the individual models and that it is still robust even if two of the seven models are missing. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10 and show an overall improvement over time. The change of the skills of the ensemble over the past two summers for ozone and the past two winters for PM10 are discussed in the paper. While the evolution of the ozone scores is not significant, there are improvements of PM10 over the past two winters

  12. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Arnold, D; Dombrowski, H; Laubenstein, M; Wieslander, E; Vermaercke, P; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Mlynar, J

    2010-10-01

    In ITER, α particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed. PMID:21058458

  13. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  14. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  15. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  16. Novel condensation products having high activity to insolubilize proteins and protein-insolubilized products

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnobajew, V.; Boeniger, R.

    1980-01-01

    According to the invention a substantially more active product with respect to the fixing or insolubilization pf proteins, including enzymes, is obtained when 1,3 phenylenediamine is condensed with glutardialdehyde. One application of the process is the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in milk products by lactase.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990... 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990... 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990... 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION...

  20. A mechanistic study of limonene oxidation products and pathways following cleaning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern since the 1970s, when the advent of stricter energy efficiency measures lead to increased reports of building related symptoms. Cleaning activities have been linked to adverse health effects indoors, although it is unclear which of the components of cleaning products cause these reported health effects. This paper uses a detailed chemical model for indoor air chemistry, to identify the species formed at the highest concentrations following use of a limonene-based cleaning product. The explicit nature of the chemical mechanism also permits the key pathways to their formation to be identified. The results show that the key species in terms of gas-phase concentration are multi-functional carbonyl species including limonaldehyde, 4-acetyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene and other dicarbonyl species. The particle-phase was dominated by peroxide species. The predicted gas-phase concentrations for three limonene-oxidation products were compared to recently published human reference values, but found not to be high enough to cause concern for typical indoor conditions, or under high indoor ozone conditions. However, cleaning products contain a range of terpenes other than limonene, which could also produce some of the secondary products identified here, as well as more common species such as formaldehyde, glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide. A mechanistic pathway analysis shows that the secondary products formed through limonene oxidation indoors depend critically on the competition between ozone and hydroxyl radicals, such that indoor pollutant concentrations and composition could vary widely in different locations for a nominally similar residence and indoor activities. Future studies should focus on aiming to measure multi-functional carbonyl species indoors to help validate models, whilst human reference values are needed for many more relevant species indoors.

  1. Review of the anticancer activities of bee products

    PubMed Central

    Premratanachai, Pongsathon; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Bee products have long been used in traditional medicine. The raw materials, crude extracts and purified active compounds from them have been found to exhibit interesting bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In addition, they have been widely used in the treatment of many immune-related diseases, as well as in recent times in the treatment of tumors. Bee product peptides induce apoptotic cell death in vitro in several transformed (cancer) human cell lines, including those derived from renal, lung, liver, prostate, bladder and lymphoid cancers. These bioactive natural products may, therefore, prove to be useful as part of a novel targeted therapy for some types of cancer, such as prostate and breast cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the in vivo and in vitro potential of selective bee products against tumor cells. PMID:25182716

  2. Atmospheric infrared sounder on AIRS with emphasis on level 2 products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric; Granger, Stephanie; Hearty, Thomas; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Manning, Evan M.; Olsen, Edward; Pagano, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard EOS Aqua in May of 2002. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with almost 2400 channels covering the 3.74 to 15.40 micron spectral region with a nominal spectral resolution ((nu)/(delta)(nu)) of 1200, with some gaps. In addition, AIRS has 4 channels in the NIR/VIS region. The AIRS operates in conjunction with the microwave sounders Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and Humidity Sounder of Brazil (HSB). The microwave sounders are mainly used for cloud clearing of IR radiances, or to remove the effect of cloud on the IR radiances.

  3. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization. PMID:26610539

  4. Performance Evaluation of Activated Carbon Nanofiber as Carbon Supports to Improve the Cyclability of Li-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Inyeong; Kim, Heeyun; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses the effects of the pore structures of carbon materials used as cathodes for non-aqueous lithium-air batteries on cycle life. Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbonization. The synthesized CNF was then converted to activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) under flowing CO2. The specific surface areas CNFs were increased on activation. ACNFs were arranged randomly to form a web-like structure providing both oxygen pathways and a means of discharging products. To examine the electrochemical properties of ACNF, charge-discharge tests were conducted using a Swagelok-type cell at a constant current density of 0.2 mA/cm2; impedance tests were also conducted. ACNF sheet electrodes had cycle lives of up to 50 cycles, which was attributed to high surface area and porosity, although overpotentials for both charge and discharge were high. This cycling performance showed that the pore structure of sheet ACNF is more suitable for the transport of oxygen and for the storage of discharge products than carbon powders. PMID:26726643

  5. Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Park, Hey Woong; Seo, Min Ho; Wang, Xiaolei; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-09-21

    A highly active and durable bifunctional electrocatalyst that consists of cobalt oxide nanocrystals (Co3 O4 NC) decorated on the surface of N-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNT) is introduced as effective electrode material for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. This active hybrid catalyst is synthesized by a facile surfactant-assisted method to produce Co3 O4 NC that are then decorated on the surface of N-CNT through hydrophobic attraction. Confirmed by half-cell testing, Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT demonstrates superior oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution catalytic activities and has a superior electrochemical stability compared to Pt/C and Ir/C. Furthermore, rechargeable zinc-air battery testing of Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT reveals superior galvanodynamic charge and discharge voltages with a significantly extended cycle life of over 100 h, which suggests its potential as a replacement for precious-metal-based catalysts for electric vehicles and grid energy storage applications. PMID:26373363

  6. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali A.; Pithawalla, Yezdi B.; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl A.; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  7. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali A; Pithawalla, Yezdi B; Liu, Jianmin; Oldham, Michael J; Wagner, Karl A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP) use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate), device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition), and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency). Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time. PMID:27537903

  8. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  9. N-doped pierced graphene microparticles as a highly active electrocatalyst for Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Wen-Ting; Song, Chuantao; He, Yu-Shi; Razal, Joselito M.; Ma, Zi-Feng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report a novel scalable strategy to prepare a lithium-air battery electrode from 3D N-doped pierced graphene microparticles (N-PGM) with highly active performance. This approach has combined the merits of spray drying technology and the hard template method. The pierced structured graphene microparticles were characterized physically and electrochemically. An x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and Raman spectra have revealed that the novel structure possesses a higher N-doping level than conventional graphene without the pierced structure. A much higher BET surface area was also achieved for the N-PGM than the conventional N-doped graphene microparticles (N-GM). Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the lithium-air battery with the N-PGM electrode has a better utilization for the graphene mass and a higher void volume for Li2O2 formation than that of the N-GM electrode. N-PGM also exhibits improved decomposition kinetics for Li oxide species yielded in the cathodic reaction. Charge and discharge measurements showed that the N-PGM lithium-air battery achieved an improved specific capacity and an enhanced cycle performance than when an N-GM electrode is used.

  10. Exposure to negatively charged-particle dominant air-conditions on human lymphocytes in vitro activates immunological responses.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mase, Akinori; Kotani, Muneo; Ami, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Megumi; Shirahama, Takashi; Lee, Suni; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yoshitome, Kei; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-12-01

    Indoor air-conditions may play an important role in human health. Investigation of house conditions that promote health revealed that negatively charged-particle dominant indoor air-conditions (NAC) induced immune stimulation. NAC was established using fine charcoal powder on walls and ceilings and utilizing forced negatively charged particles (approximate diameter: 20 nm) dominant in indoor air-conditions created by applying an electric voltage (72 V) between the backside of the walls and the ground. We reported previously that these conditions induced a slight and significant increase of interleukin-2 during 2.5 h stay, and an increase of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, when examining human subjects after a two-week night stay under these conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to NAC in vitro affects immune conditions. Although the concentrations of particles were different, an incubator for cell culture with NAC was set and cellular compositions and functions of various freshly isolated human lymphocytes derived from healthy donors were assayed in the NAC incubator and compared with those of cultures in a standard (STD) incubator. Results showed that NAC cultivation caused an increase of CD25 and PD-1 expressing cells in the CD4 positive fraction, enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity, production of interferon-y (IFNγ), and slight enhancement of regulatory T cell function. In addition, the formula designated as the "immune-index" clearly differed between STD and NAC culture conditions. Thus, NAC conditions may promote human health through slight activation of the immune system against cancer cells and virus infection as shown by this in vitro study and our previously reported human studies. PMID:26213096

  11. Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Markers of Inflammation, Coagulation, and Endothelial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hajat, Anjum; Allison, Matthew; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease, and systemic inflammation may mediate this effect. We assessed associations between long- and short-term concentrations of air pollution and markers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial activation. Methods We studied participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from 2000 to 2012 with repeat measures of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, D-dimer, soluble E-selectin, and soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1. Annual average concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), individual-level ambient PM2.5 (integrating indoor concentrations and time–location data), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon were evaluated. Short-term concentrations of PM2.5 reflected the day of blood draw, day prior, and averages of prior 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day periods. Random-effects models were used for long-term exposures and fixed effects for short-term exposures. The sample size was between 9,000 and 10,000 observations for CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and D-dimer; approximately 2,100 for E-selectin; and 3,300 for soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1. Results After controlling for confounders, 5 µg/m3 increase in long-term ambient PM2.5 was associated with 6% higher IL-6 (95% confidence interval = 2%, 9%), and 40 parts per billion increase in long-term NOx was associated with 7% (95% confidence interval = 2%, 13%) higher level of D-dimer. PM2.5 measured at day of blood draw was associated with CRP, fibrinogen, and E-selectin. There were no other positive associations between blood markers and short- or long-term air pollution. Conclusions These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution is related to some markers of inflammation and fibrinolysis. PMID:25710246

  12. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  13. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge. PMID:26071670

  14. Solid reaction products and aluminate solutions that form during the operation of an air-aluminum chemical power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okorokova, N. S.; Sevruk, S. D.; Suvorova, E. V.; Farmakovskaya, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A solution to the set of problems concerning the solid reaction products and the aluminate solutions that form during the operation of an aluminum-closed power supply system for self-contained objects is proposed. The system is based on a resource-saving technology using an aluminum energy carrier in an air-aluminum chemical power supply and related energy installations. The boundaries of the metastable and labile state regions of aluminate solutions and the real degrees of supersaturation that can be attained when aluminum is dissolved in an electrolyte during the operation of an air-aluminum chemical power supply are determined.

  15. Antioxidant activity of honey supplemented with bee products.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Socha, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of supplementation of multiflower honey with bee products on the phenolic compound content and on antioxidant activity. Average total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the multiflower honeys were 36.06 ± 10.18 mg GAE/100 g and 4.48 ± 1.69 mg QE/100 g, respectively. The addition of royal jelly did not affect significantly the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Supplementation of honey with other bee products, i.e. beebread, propolis, pollen, resulted in significant increase in the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and in antiradical activity and reducing power, with the largest effect found for addition of beebread. Significant linear correlations between the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and antiradical activity and reducing power were found. PMID:26153086

  16. Effects of anti-odor automobile air-conditioning system products on adherence of Serratia marcescens to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Drago, G K; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2002-12-01

    Sixteen commercial products for use in automobile air-conditioning systems (ACS), most designated for abatement of malodors presumably of microbial origin, were examined for their potential to inhibit attachment and to detach cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens on aluminum sections. Numbers of attached cells were appreciably reduced (>60%) following immersion in three alcohol-type and two acrylic-coating-type products. Several products had essentially no effect on the attached cells. Most of the products indicated for alleviation of associated microbial odors from ACS provided only short-term effects. When products were coated onto aluminum prior to exposure to the cells, water-insoluble coatings appeared to provide more consistent inhibition of primary adherence of S. marcescens. The differences in degrees of primary adherence of a selected strain of S. marcescens to variously treated aluminum provided a rapid and reproducible assessment of potential antimicrobial efficacy of ACS products. PMID:12483481

  17. Potential Air Emission Impacts of Cellulosic Ethanol Production at Seven Demonstration Refineries in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the estimated potential air emissions as found in air permits and supporting documentation for seven of the first group of pre-commercial or Ademonstration@ U.S. cellulosic ethanol refineries currently operating or planning to operate in the near future. Th...

  18. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  19. Measurement of HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce ({center_dot}OH and HO{sub 2} {center_dot}) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate was found to be (4.31{plus_minus}0.07) {times} 10{sup 5} HO{sub x}{center_dot} per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G{sub (HO{sub x}{center_dot})}-value, 7.86{plus_minus}0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO{sub x}{center_dot}] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO{sub x}{center_dot} produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for {center_dot}OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial {center_dot}OH produced from the photolysis of O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.

  20. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

  1. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups. PMID:21917640

  2. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  3. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  4. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  7. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  8. A Geostationary Satellite Constellation for Observing Global Air Quality: Status of the CEOS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary satellites in the 2017-2022 time frame to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors, which are important factors in understanding air quality and climate change. While a single geostationary satellite can view only a portion of the globe, it is possible for a minimum of three geostationary satellites, positioned to view Europe/Middle East/Africa, Asia/Australasia, and the Americas, to collectively provide near-global coverage. Harmonizing the planned geostationary missions to be contemporaneous and have common observing capabilities and data distribution protocols would synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition and of the implications for air quality and climate. Such activities would directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits. Over the past 2 years, the Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a white paper describing such collaboration and the benefits to be derived from it. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. Here we will present an update on collaborative activities and next steps. This presentation is envisioned to serve as an introduction to the oral sessions associated with Session A.25.

  9. An air-coupled actuator array for active modal control of timpani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollow, Douglas; Sparrow, Victor W.; Swanson, David C.

    2005-09-01

    The timbral characteristics of kettledrums can be described by a modal formulation of the vibration of a thin, air-loaded membrane. Modification of the modal time history can be brought about with the use of a control system which has independent influence on each structural mode. By replacing the usual kettle with a shallow chamber and a planar array of piston sources, a modal controller is created when driving the sources in appropriate linear combinations. A theoretical formulation of active control of structural vibration by means of fluid-coupled actuators is expressed, and a Boundary Element simulation provides insight to the coupled modes, independence of control, and constraints due to the geometry of the chamber. Advantages and limitations of this type of control source to general problems in actively controlled musical instruments are explored.

  10. Alcohol production from Jerusalem artichoke using yeasts with inulinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraud, J.P.; Daurelles, J.; Galzy, P.

    1981-07-01

    The obtaining of a fermentable extract from Jerusalem artichoke is simple. Yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol with good profitability. This method makes it possible to obtain 25 to 65 hl ethanol/ha with by-products usable as feed. (Refs. 19).

  11. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  12. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  14. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  15. Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Taeho; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Hyosun; Lieberman, Paul M; Kang, Hyojeung

    2013-10-01

    More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies. PMID:24173639

  16. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    PubMed

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species. PMID:26891763

  17. Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality

  18. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number

  19. Microfluidic Chip for the Photocatalytic Production of Active Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Sait; Ambroz, Filip; Chugh, Dipankar; Nann, Thomas

    2016-05-17

    Active chlorine is the most powerful microbicidal reagent in swimming pools, potable water, hospitals, and medical surgeries. Its production mainly relies on reactive inorganic intermediates and electrochemical methods that involve undesired waste products and high energy as well as material costs. In this study, we fabricated a low-cost chip based on sputter-coated thin films of silver (Ag) that acted as recyclable and effective photoelectrode for the photocatalytic production of active chlorine (HOCl) from aqueous media and artificial sunlight. The photoelectrode was electrochemically activated to AgCl at low overpotentials between 0.2 and 0.4 V vs Ag|AgCl (3 M KCl) and photocatalytically reduced to Ag(0) for 15 consecutive cycles, showing the electrode still being active. However, because of poor adhesion properties on the selected substrates, degradation effects were observed over time. Furthermore, the Ag@AgCl photoelectrode was integrated into a microfluidic chip, and we showed for the first time a light-driven microfluidic chip generating a constant stream of active chlorine. PMID:27115714

  20. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  1. 78 FR 22512 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225-Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Production Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of... notification of proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of General Dynamics Ordnance...

  2. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  3. Deoxygedunin, a natural product with potent neurotrophic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-Wuk; Liu, Xia; Chan, Chi Bun; France, Stefan A; Sayeed, Iqbal; Tang, Wenxue; Lin, Xi; Xiao, Ge; Andero, Raul; Chang, Qiang; Ressler, Kerry J; Ye, Keqiang

    2010-01-01

    Gedunin, a family of natural products from the Indian neem tree, possess a variety of biological activities. Here we report the discovery of deoxygedunin, which activates the mouse TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling cascades. Deoxygedunin is orally available and activates TrkB in mouse brain in a BDNF-independent way. Strikingly, it prevents the degeneration of vestibular ganglion in BDNF -/- pups. Moreover, deoxygedunin robustly protects rat neurons from cell death in a TrkB-dependent manner. Further, administration of deoxygedunin into mice displays potent neuroprotective, anti-depressant and learning enhancement effects, all of which are mediated by the TrkB receptor. Hence, deoxygedunin imitates BDNF's biological activities through activating TrkB, providing a powerful therapeutic tool for treatment of various neurological diseases. PMID:20644624

  4. Impacts on ambient air quality due to flaring activities in one of Oman's oilfields.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Ali, Sappurd; Sardar, Sabir; Irfan, Naseem

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the impacts on workplace and ambient air quality due to release of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) into the atmosphere at Al-Noor production station, located in southern desert of Sultanate of Oman. The SO(2) is released because of oxidation of H(2)S to SO(2) on flaring of H(2)S rich off gas at the Al-Noor. In the first phase of the study, CALPUFF modeling system was used to predict the ground level concentrations of SO(2) emissions from the flare stacks. The evaluation of the modeling system was carried out by comparing the predicted results with that of the measured. In the second stage of the study, the estimated results were compared with the air quality standards/guidelines set by Omani regulatory authorities as well as by World Health Organization (WHO). It was concluded on the basis of current study that the sensitive individuals in the workplace of the Al-Noor could experience adverse health effects due to short-term exposure of SO(2). PMID:22315930

  5. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  6. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  7. Aerobic activated sludge transformation of methotrexate: identification of biotransformation products.

    PubMed

    Kosjek, Tina; Negreira, Noelia; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the biotransformation of cytostatic and immunosuppressive pharmaceutical methotrexate. Its susceptibility to microbiological breakdown was studied in a batch biotransformation system, in presence or absence of carbon source and at two activated sludge concentrations. The primary focus of the present study are methotrexate biotransformation products, which were tentatively identified by the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole--Orbitrap-MS. Data-dependent experiments, combining full-scan MS data with product ion spectra were acquired, in order to identify the molecular ions of methotrexate transformation products, to propose the molecular formulae and to elucidate their chemical structures. Among the identified transformation products 2,4-diamino-N10-methyl-pteroic acid is most abundant and persistent. Other biotransformation reactions involve demethylation, oxidative cleavage of amine, cleavage of C-N bond, aldehyde to carboxylate transformation and hydroxylation. Finally, a breakdown pathway is proposed, which shows that most of methotrexate breakdown products retain the diaminopteridine structural segment. In total we propose nine transformation products, among them eight are described as methotrexate transformation products for the first time. PMID:24835159

  8. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  9. Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolutionary novelties often appear by conferring completely new functions to pre-existing structures or by innovating the mechanism through which a particular function is performed. Sound production plays a central role in the behavior of frogs, which use their calls to delimit territories and attract mates. Therefore, frogs have evolved complex vocal structures capable of producing a wide variety of advertising sounds. It is generally acknowledged that most frogs call by moving an air column from the lungs through the glottis with the remarkable exception of the family Pipidae, whose members share a highly specialized sound production mechanism independent of air movement. Results Here, we performed behavioral observations in the poorly known African pipid genus Pseudhymenochirus and document that the sound production in this aquatic frog is almost certainly air-driven. However, morphological comparisons revealed an indisputable pipid nature of Pseudhymenochirus larynx. To place this paradoxical pattern into an evolutionary framework, we reconstructed robust molecular phylogenies of pipids based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear protein-coding genes that coincided in placing Pseudhymenochirus nested among other pipids. Conclusions We conclude that although Pseudhymenochirus probably has evolved a reversal to the ancestral non-pipid condition of air-driven sound production, the mechanism through which it occurs is an evolutionary innovation based on the derived larynx of pipids. This strengthens the idea that evolutionary solutions to functional problems often emerge based on previous structures, and for this reason, innovations largely depend on possibilities and constraints predefined by the particular history of each lineage. PMID:21524293

  10. ACTIVITY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Caradonia, F; Gianferro, M; Molinu, M G; Battaglia, V

    2014-01-01

    The requirement of environmental protection and food safety is perceived with always major interest by public opinion and it is consistent with European Union legislation on the sustainable use of pesticides (Directive 2009/128/EC). This directive requires member states to promote low pesticide-input, giving priority to non-chemical methods and low risk plant protection products. In order to contribute to the achievement of these objectives antifungal activity of natural substances, characterized by a good toxicological and ecotoxicological profile, was tested. Essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum and extract from Mimosa tenuiflora were tested against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (races 1 and 2). In vitro tests involved determination of radial growth of the colonies of fungi in the presence of varying concentrations of tested products in agar media and determination of germination percentage in the presence of tested product at various concentrations. The products based on essential oil of M. alternifolia were also tested in vivo on tomato fruits wounded and artificially inoculated with A. alternata or with B. cinerea. The in vitro tests showed the antifungal activity of both essential oils instead the extract from M. tenuiflora exhibited poor antifungal activity and only against A. alternata and B. cinerea. The results on tomato fruits showed inhibition of grey mould and black mould by essential oil of M. alternifolia. The antifungal activity increased with increasing concentrations. In conclusion, the obtained results in the present study showed promising prospects for the utilisation of investigated products to reduce the using of antifungal chemicals and to achieve a more sustainable use of pesticides. PMID:26080478

  11. Phospholipid Ozonation Products Activate the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zemski Berry, Karin A; Murphy, Robert C

    2016-08-15

    Ozone is a highly reactive environmental toxicant that can react with the double bonds of lipids in pulmonary surfactant. This study was undertaken to investigate the proinflammatory properties of the major lipid-ozone product in pulmonary surfactant, 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (16:0/9al-PC), with respect to eicosanoid production. A dose-dependent increase in the formation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products was observed in murine resident peritoneal macrophages (RPM) and alveolar macrophages (AM) upon treatment with 16:0/9al-PC. In contrast, the production of cyclooxygenase (COX) derived eicosanoids did not change from basal levels in the presence of 16:0/9al-PC. When 16:0/9al-PC and the TLR2 ligand, zymosan, were added to RPM or AM, an enhancement of 5-LO product formation along with a concomitant decrease in COX product formation was observed. Neither intracellular calcium levels nor arachidonic acid release was influenced by the addition of 16:0/9al-PC to RPM. Results from mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor studies and direct measurement of phosphorylation of MAPKs revealed that 16:0/9al-PC activates the p38 MAPK pathway in RPM, which results in the activation of 5-LO. Our results indicate that 16:0/9al-PC has a profound effect on the eicosanoid pathway, which may have implications in inflammatory pulmonary disease states where eicosanoids have been shown to play a role. PMID:27448436

  12. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  13. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  14. Products of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli inhibit lymphocyte activation and lymphokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Klapproth, J M; Donnenberg, M S; Abraham, J M; Mobley, H L; James, S P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether products of enteric bacteria are able to regulate lymphocyte activation and cytokine production. Whole bacteria and bacterial lysates from different strains of Escherichia coli were tested for their ability to inhibit cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by reverse transcription-PCR, Northern (RNA) blotting of cellular RNA, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cytokine protein. Lysates from two pathogenic strains of E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, inhibited mitogen-stimulated expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, and gamma interferon. IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and Rantes mRNA expression was not affected. The inhibitory activity was dose dependent, protease and heat sensitive, nondialyzable, and not due to cellular toxicity. The inhibitory activity remained in EPEC strains having mutations in known virulence factors. Nonpathogenic E. coli HB101 transformed with a 22-kb cosmid clone derived from EPEC chromosomal DNA expressed the inhibitory activity. Thus, certain strains of pathogenic E. coli express a protein or proteins encoded by chromosomal genes that selectively inhibit lymphocyte activation and lymphokine production. Therefore, immunosuppressive factors produced by pathogenic bacteria could be important in modifying gastrointestinal immune responses in enteric bacterial infections or gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases. PMID:7768605

  15. Removal of ammonia from air on molybdenum and tungsten oxide modified activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Petit, Camille; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2008-04-15

    Microporous coconut-based activated carbon was impregnated with solutions of ammonium metatungstate or ammonium molybdate and then calcined in air in order to convert the salts into their corresponding oxides. The surface of those materials was characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The results indicated a significant increase in surface acidity related to the presence of tungsten or molybdenum oxides. On the materials obtained, adsorption of ammonia from either dry or moist air was carried out. The oxides distributed on the surface provided Lewis and/or Brønsted centers for interactions with ammonia molecules or ammonium ions. Water on the surface of carbon or in the gas phase increased the amount of ammonia adsorbed via involvement of Brønsted-type interactions and/or by leading to the formation of molybdate or tungstate salts on the surface. Although the amount of ammonia adsorbed is closely related to the number of moles of oxides and their acidic centers, the carbon surface also contributes to the adsorption via providing small pores where ammonia can be dissolved in the water film. PMID:18497162

  16. Complement activation in divers after repeated air/heliox dives and its possible relevance to DCS.

    PubMed

    Hjelde, A; Bergh, K; Brubakk, A O; Iversen, O J

    1995-03-01

    Plasma levels of the anaphylatoxin C5a were measured in 19 divers performing repeated air dives. Blood samples were collected immediately before the first dive and 2 h after the first and the second or third dive. Serum obtained at the same times was subjected to complement activation in vitro by air bubbles. Six divers developed symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Most intravascular bubbles were observed in divers with the lowest plasma levels of C5a. Postdive plasma levels of C5a did not increase compared with predive levels, nor were postdive levels significantly different after two or three dives compared with the first dive. Repeated dives did not influence the amounts of C5a generated in vitro. Neither plasma levels of C5a nor C5a generated in vitro were significantly different in divers who experienced symptoms of DCS vs. divers without symptoms of DCS. We conclude that plasma level of C5a and measurement of C5a generation in vitro cannot be used to predict DCS. PMID:7775308

  17. Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Liangtao; Li, Kexun; Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Fu, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    The present work was to study silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon (AC) air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The treated cathodes were proved to be effective to enhance the performance of MFCs. The maximum power density of MFC with silver electrodeposition time of 50 s (Ag-50) cathode was 1080 ± 60 mW m-2, 69% higher than the bare AC air cathode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that zero-valent, monovalent and divalent silver were present to transform mutually, which illustrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode took place through four-electron pathway. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the electrodeposition method made the total resistance of the electrodes largely reduced. Meanwhile the deposited silver had no toxic effects on anode culture but inhibited the biofilm growth of the cathodes. This kind of antimicrobial efficient cathode, prepared with a simple, fast and economical method, was of good benefit to the performance improvement of MFCs.

  18. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  19. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  20. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  1. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Nina in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5degN - 20degS latitude extending eastward from 150degW - 30 E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Nino, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as we] l as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over this region are all shown to be highly correlated in time with those of an El Nino

  2. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  3. The effects of air temperature on office workers' well-being, workload and productivity-evaluated with subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Lian, Zhiwei; Pan, Li

    2010-12-01

    Productivity bears a close relationship to the indoor environmental quality (IEQ), but how to evaluate office worker's productivity remains to be a challenge for ergonomists. In this study, the effect of indoor air temperature (17 °C, 21 °C, and 28 °C) on productivity was investigated with 21 volunteered participants in the laboratory experiment. Participants performed computerized neurobehavioral tests during exposure in the lab; their physiological parameters including heart rate variation (HRV) and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also measured. Several subjective rating scales were used to tap participant's emotion, well-being, motivation and the workload imposed by tasks. It was found that the warm discomfort negatively affected participants' well-being and increased the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) of HRV. In the moderately uncomfortable environment, the workload imposed by tasks increased and participants had to exert more effort to maintain their performance and they also had lower motivation to do work. The results indicate that thermal discomfort caused by high or low air temperature had negative influence on office workers' productivity and the subjective rating scales were useful supplements of neurobehavioral performance measures when evaluating the effects of IEQ on productivity. PMID:20478555

  4. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Greg H.; Carroll, Susan A.; Bourcier, William L.; Singleton, Michael J.; Smith, Megan M.; Aines, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 105-fold increase in OH− concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH− initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  5. Effects of Asian air pollution transport and photochemistry on carbon monoxide variability and ozone production in subtropical coastal south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Harris, J. M.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Surface ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) measured from a relatively remote coastal station in Hong Kong are analyzed to study the effects of pollutant transport and associated ozone production on CO and ozone variations in the subtropical south China region. CO and ozone concentrations show a common minimum in summer and in the maritime air masses from the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. They have higher values in other seasons and in the continental air masses that have passed over mainland Asia and the East Asian coast. CO shows the maximum monthly median of 457-552 ppbv in winter while ozone shows a maximum of 40-50 ppbv in autumn and a distinct peak of 41-43 ppbv in spring. The CO concentrations especially in the continental air masses (median of 277 to 428 ppbv) are very high when compared with measurements in most parts of the world. This suggests that the south China region is under the strong influence of pollutant transport from the Asian continent and East Asian coast. Ozone and CO show strong positive correlations in the polluted maritime air masses and from late spring to early autumn (May-September) with the linear regression slopes of the ozone-CO plot from 0.08 to 0.22 (with respective standard errors from 0.01 to 0.03). The strong correlations and slopes plus the high CO levels indicate that there is substantial ozone production from pollution in the polluted maritime air masses and in the late spring to early autumn period.

  6. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  7. Acceleration of catalytic activity of calcium oxide for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ayato; Matsubara, Koh; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying the acceleration of the catalytic activity of calcium oxide (CaO) for developing an effective heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production by the transesterification of plant oil with methanol. CaO was activated by pretreatment with methanol and was used for the transesterification reaction. The activation and transesterification reaction conditions were examined. The obtained optimal reaction conditions were 0.1-g CaO, 3.9-g methanol, 15-g rapeseed oil, and 1.5-h activation time at room temperature that provided methyl ester in approximately 90% yield within a reaction time of 3h at 60 degrees C. The activation mechanism was also investigated, and the proposed mechanism is as follows. By pretreatment with methanol, a small amount of CaO gets converted into Ca(OCH(3))(2) that acts as an initiating reagent for the transesterification reaction and produces glycerin as a by-product. Subsequently, a calcium-glycerin complex, formed due to the reaction of CaO with glycerin, functions as the main catalyst and accelerates the transesterification reaction. PMID:18684617

  8. Overview of the Activities to Replace a Radioactive Air Emissions System

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.

    2002-07-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. This facility recently initiated replacement of its main stack's sample probe. The facility has historically handled and processed plutonium. When problems with intermittent continuous air monitor (CAM) alarms on the stack's sampling system were encountered, concerns with the integrity of the overall ventilation system were raised. Many activities were launched by PFP to resolve the issue, including an investigation of the sampling system, installation of a temporary shrouded probe for comparison sampling and replacement of the existing rake probe. To address concerns raised by the regulators (the Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Health) ongoing meetings were held. It was concluded that the probe should be replaced and the historical depositions analyzed.

  9. High glycolate oxidase activity is required for survival of maize in normal air.

    PubMed

    Zelitch, Israel; Schultes, Neil P; Peterson, Richard B; Brown, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    A mutant in the maize (Zea mays) Glycolate Oxidase1 (GO1) gene was characterized to investigate the role of photorespiration in C4 photosynthesis. An Activator-induced allele of GO1 conditioned a seedling lethal phenotype when homozygous and had 5% to 10% of wild-type GO activity. Growth of seedlings in high CO2 (1%-5%) was sufficient to rescue the mutant phenotype. Upon transfer to normal air, the go1 mutant became necrotic within 7 d and plants died within 15 d. Providing [1-14C]glycolate to leaf tissue of go1 mutants in darkness confirmed that the substrate is inefficiently converted to 14CO2, but both wild-type and GO-deficient mutant seedlings metabolized [1-14C]glycine similarly to produce [14C]serine and 14CO2 in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting that the photorespiratory pathway is otherwise normal in the mutant. The net CO2 assimilation rate in wild-type leaves was only slightly inhibited in 50% O2 in high light but decreased rapidly and linearly with time in leaves with low GO. When go1 mutants were shifted from high CO2 to air in light, they accumulated glycolate linearly for 6 h to levels 7-fold higher than wild type and 11-fold higher after 25 h. These studies show that C4 photosynthesis in maize is dependent on photorespiration throughout seedling development and support the view that the carbon oxidation pathway evolved to prevent accumulation of toxic glycolate. PMID:18805949

  10. Production and study of megawatt air-nitrogen plasmatron with divergent channel of an output electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakaev, E. H.; Chinnov, V. F.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Sargsyan, M. A.; Konovalov, P. V.

    2015-11-01

    Megawatt generator of high-enthalpy air plasma jet (H ≥ 30 kJ/g) is constructed. Plasmatron belongs to the class of plasma torches with thermionic cathode, tangential swirl flow and divergent channel of an output electrode-anode. Plasma torch ensures the formation of the slightly divergent (2α = 12°) air plasma jet with the diameter D = 50 mm. The current-voltage characteristics of the plasma torch has virtually unchanged voltage relative to its current with enhanced (compared with arcs in cylindrical channels) stable combustion zone. Preliminary analysis of the obtained air plasma spectra shows that at a current of 1500 A near-axis zone of the plasma jet is characterized by a temperature of up to 15000 K, and the peripheral radiating area has a temperature of 8000-9000 K.

  11. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  12. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  13. Impact of air pollution control costs on the cost and spatial arrangement of cellulosic biofuel production in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colin W; Parker, Nathan C

    2014-02-18

    Air pollution emissions regulation can affect the location, size, and technology choice of potential biofuel production facilities. Difficulty in obtaining air pollutant emission permits and the cost of air pollution control devices have been cited by some fuel producers as barriers to development. This paper expands on the Geospatial Bioenergy Systems Model (GBSM) to evaluate the effect of air pollution control costs on the availability, cost, and distribution of U.S. biofuel production by subjecting potential facility locations within U.S. Clean Air Act nonattainment areas, which exceed thresholds for healthy air quality, to additional costs. This paper compares three scenarios: one with air quality costs included, one without air quality costs, and one in which conversion facilities were prohibited in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. While air quality regulation may substantially affect local decisions regarding siting or technology choices, their effect on the system as a whole is small. Most biofuel facilities are expected to be sited near to feedstock supplies, which are seldom in nonattainment areas. The average cost per unit of produced energy is less than 1% higher in the scenarios with air quality compliance costs than in scenarios without such costs. When facility construction is prohibited in nonattainment areas, the costs increase by slightly over 1%, due to increases in the distance feedstock is transported to facilities in attainment areas. PMID:24467277

  14. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Manning, Evan; Lee, Sung-Yung; Fetzer, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Hyperspectral infrared sounders require accurate knowledge of the land surface emissivity (LSE) to retrieve important climate variables such as surface temperature, air temperature, and total water vapor from space. This study provides a method for validating and assessing the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 LSE product using high-spatial resolution data (90 m) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) which has five bands in the thermal infrared region (8-12 μm, 1250-833 cm-1) and high-spectral resolution laboratory measurements of sand samples collected over the Namib and Kalahari deserts in southern Africa. Results indicate that the mean, absolute daytime LSE difference between AIRS and the laboratory results for six wavelengths in window regions between 3.9 and 11.4 μm (2564-877 cm-1) was 2.3% over the Namib and 0.70% over the Kalahari, while the mean difference with ASTER was 2.3% over the Namib and 2.26% over the Kalahari for four bands between 8 and 12 μm. Systematic modeling and surface dependent AIRS LSE retrieval errors such as large discrepancies between day and nighttime shortwave LSE (up to 15%), unphysical values (LSE >1), and large daytime temporal variations in the shortwave region (up to 30%) are further discussed.

  15. 76 FR 60020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... institutions, industrial groups) use the ambient air quality data for many purposes. Some of the more prominent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Trinca, Air Quality Assessment Division, Environmental Protection... pollution control agencies, and tribal entities which collect and report ambient air quality data for...

  16. 66 FR 24370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Indoor Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-05-14

    ... Budget (OMB) for review and approval: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices in Schools Survey, The ICR... Guevin at EPA by phone at (202) 564-9055. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices... preventing, identifying, and solving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools and has developed...

  17. 65 FR 37971 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Indoor Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-06-19

    ... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval: Indoor Air Quality Practices in Large Buildings Survey. The... Salmon at EPA by phone at (202) 564-9451. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices... identifying and solving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and has developed guidance for that purpose....

  18. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM). E S Roberts1, R Jaskot2, J Richards2, and K L Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC a...

  19. Production of activated carbon and its catalytic application for oxidation of hydrogen sulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azargohar, Ramin

    Hydrogen sulphide is an environmentally hazardous gas which is present in many gas streams associated with oil and gas industry. Oxidation of H 2S to sulphur in air produces no bulky or waste material and requires no further purification. Activated carbon is known as a catalyst for this reaction. In this research, a coal-based precursor (luscar char) and a biomass-based precursor (biochar) were used for production of activated carbons by two common methods of activation: physical and chemical activation in which steam and potassium hydroxide (KOH), respectively, were used. Experiments were designed by the statistical central composite design method. Two models were developed for the BET surface area and reaction yield of each activation process. These models showed the effects of operating conditions, such as activation temperature, mass ratio of activating agent to precursor, activation time, and nitrogen flowrate on the BET surface area and reaction yield for each activation method for each precursor. The optimum operating conditions were calculated using these models to produce activated carbons with relatively large BET surface area (> 500 m2/g) and high reaction yield (> 50 wt %). The BET surface area and reaction yield for activated carbons produced at optimum operating conditions showed maximum 7 and 7.4% difference, respectively, comparing to the values predicted by models. The activated carbons produced at optimum operating conditions were used as the base catalysts for the direct oxidation of 1 mol % hydrogen sulphide in nitrogen to sulphur at the temperature range of 160-205°C and pressure of 700 kPa. Originally activated carbons showed a good potential for oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by their selectivity for sulphur product and low amount of sulphur dioxide production. To improve the performance of steam-activated carbons, the catalysts were modified by acid-treatment followed by thermal desorption. This method increased the break-through times for

  20. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental... products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North...

  1. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, John R; Ashley, David L; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M; Hinckley, Alison F; Singer, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre-water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and post-activity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. PMID:16002374

  2. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  3. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua: instrument stability and data products for climate observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, M.; Aumann, H.; Strow, L.; Broberg, S.; Gaiser, S.

    2003-01-01

    30th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (ISRSE) NASA Honolulu, Hawaii, USAThis paper discusses the stability of the AIRS instrument as measured pre-flight and in-orbit. In order differentiate instrument related changes with true changes in climate observations, the instrument stability must be demonstrated.

  4. 75 FR 28227 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2010, when EPA published the proposed rule (75 FR 22470). Several parties requested that EPA extend the... provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22470) Federal Register... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AP48 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants:...

  5. OZONE PRODUCTION FROM IRRADIATION OF ACETYLENE/CHLORINE MIXTURES IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of chlorine radicals with acetylene in air in the absence of oxides of nitrogen result In the formation of ozone. o ozone is observed when chlorine radicals react with methylacetylene or ethylacetylene under similar conditions. ormyl chloride is observed in all syste...

  6. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... voltage transformer used when testing coil-only residential central air conditioners and heat pumps, 75 FR... heat pumps, as required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(gg)(2)(A). 75 FR 31238-39. These proposals included testing... (parameter P2). 75 FR 31238-39. P1 and P2 are both expressed in units of watts. Since heat pumps are...

  7. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  8. Increased stability toward oxygen reduction products for lithium-air batteries with oligoether-functionalized silane electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Lu, J.; Assary, R. S.; Du, P.; Wang, H-H.; Sun, Y-K.; Qin, Y.; Lau, K. C.; Greeley, J.; Redfern, P. C.; Iddir, H.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  9. Increased Stability Toward Oxygen Reduction Products for Lithium-Air Batteries with Oligoether-Functionalized Silane Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Jun; Assary, Rajeev S.; Du, Peng; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qin, Yan; Lau, Kah Chun; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Redfern, Paul C.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2011-12-29

    The successful development of Li-air batteries would significantly increase the possibility of extending the range of electric vehicles. There is much evidence that typical organic carbonate based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries form lithium carbonates from reaction with oxygen reduction products during discharge in lithium-air cells so more stable electrolytes need to be found. This combined experimental and computational study of an electrolyte based on a tri(ethylene glycol)-substituted trimethylsilane (1NM3) provides evidence that the ethers are more stable toward oxygen reduction discharge species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FTIR experiments show that only lithium oxides and no carbonates are formed when 1NM3 electrolyte is used. In contrast XPS shows that propylene carbonate (PC) in the same cell configuration decomposes to form lithium carbonates during discharge. Density functional calculations of probable decomposition reaction pathways involving solvated oxygen reduction species confirm that oligoether substituted silanes, as well as other ethers, are more stable to the oxygen reduction products than propylene carbonate. These results indicate that the choice of electrolyte plays a key role in the performance of Li-air batteries.

  10. [Activity of hydrogen sulfide production enzymes in kidneys of rats].

    PubMed

    Mel'nyk, A V; Pentiuk, O O

    2009-01-01

    An experimental research of activity and kinetic descriptions of enzymes participating in formation of hydrogen sulfide in the kidney of rats has been carried out. It was established that cystein, homocystein and thiosulphate are the basic substrates for hydrogen sulfide synthesis. The higest activity for hydrogen sulfide production belongs to thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cysteine aminotransferase, less activity is characteristic of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathio-nine gamma-lyase. The highest affinity to substrate is registered for thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It is discovered that the substrate inhibition is typical of all hydrogen sulfide formation enzymes, although this characteristic is the most expressed thiosulfat-dithiolsulfurtransferase. PMID:20387629

  11. Production and characterization of activated carbons from cereal grains

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, A.; Walawender, W.P.; Fan, L.T.

    1996-12-31

    The term, activated carbon, is a generic name for a family of carbonaceous materials with well-developed porosities and consequently, large adsorptive capacities. Activated carbons are increasingly being consumed worldwide for environmental applications such as separation of volatiles from bulk gases and purification of water and waste-water streams. The global annual production is estimated to be around 300 million kilograms, with a rate of increase of 7% each year. Activated carbons can be prepared from a variety of raw materials. Approximately, 60% of the activated carbons generated in the United States is produced from coal; 20%, from coconut shells; and the remaining 20% from wood and other sources of biomass. The pore structure and properties of activated carbons are influenced by the nature of the starting material and the initial physical and chemical conditioning as well as the process conditions involved in its manufacture. The porous structures of charcoals and activated carbons obtained by the carbonization of kernels have been characterized.

  12. Biogenic Production of Reactive Bromocarbons: New Field Data and sea-air Fluxes in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunk, R. M.; Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Keely, B. J.; Poulton, A. J.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Biogenic bromine production by phytoplankton and macroalgae is thought to represent an important link between ocean biology, climate and atmospheric composition. Models of atmospheric bromine chemistry suggest that natural sources of bromocarbons such as CHBr3 and CH2Br2 may account for up to 30% of stratospheric and tropospheric O3 depletion. However, at present these models are limited by the accuracy to which the bromine source terms can be described. In particular, simultaneous measurements of ocean surface water and marine boundary layer bromocarbon concentrations are lacking, limiting the ability to estimate sea to air fluxes to a reasonable degree of accuracy. Furthermore, little is known regarding the factors that control biogenic bromine production, or the temporal and spatial variability of the bromine source term at the regional scale. We present new data from two research cruises during which we measured a range of bromocarbons, including CHBr3, CH2Br2 and CH2IBr, in both surface seawater and the marine boundary layer using two GC-MS systems. The first cruise was to the North Eastern Atlantic (latitudinal range 53-59°N) in summer 2006, while the second cruise was to the Tropical and Subtropical Atlantic and the Mauritanian Upwelling (latitudinal range 16-30°N) in spring 2007. Concentration data and resulting sea air fluxes generally decrease in the order coastal > shelf > upwelling ~ open ocean. Although a broad trend of elevated seawater concentrations in waters with high chlorophyll a (phytoplankton productivity proxy) is observed, the relationship is not simple. We explore this complex relationship between phytoplankton and bromocarbon production in more detail, examining changes in phytoplankton assemblage and health as indicated by cell counts and pigment distributions. We then use these relationships to present a revised regional estimate for the North Atlantic sea to air flux of biogenic bromine.

  13. Comparison of the genotoxic activities of extracts from ambient and forest fire polluted air. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Viau, C.J.; Lockard, J.M.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The genotoxicity of airborne organic particles from forest fire smoke was compared to that from nonsmoky (ambient) urban air using the Salmonella reversion assay and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in cultured human lymphocytes. Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were used with and without the addition of Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Each sample induced dose-related increases in mutagenicity and SCE. However, on the basis of the volume of air sampled, the smoke-filled air induced 12 to 14 times more bacterial reversions in TA 100 and 16-38 times more reversion in TA98 than ambient air. Similarly, on a volume basis smoky air induced 43 times more SCE in human lymphocytes than did ambient air. The results indicate that the increased mutagenicity was due not only to the heavier particulate load of the air, but also to the increased specific mutagenicity of the particles.

  14. Air-activated carbons from almond tree pruning: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gañán, J.; González, J. F.; González-García, C. M.; Ramiro, A.; Sabio, E.; Román, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work the results obtained in the preparation and characterization of carbons made from almond tree pruning by non-catalytic and catalytic gasification (using K and Co) with air are analyzed and discussed. The main aim was to obtain high quality activated carbons at the lowest possible cost. The variables studied have been the temperature (190-260 °C) and the time (1-10 h) in non-catalytic gasification and the influence of the catalyst type (K and Co, 1 wt.% referred to cation, at 190 °C and 1 h) and the time (1-4 h) in catalytic gasification with Co at 190 °C. The air flow rate used in all the series was 167 cm 3 min -1. In non-catalytic gasification the reaction normalized rate versus the conversion degree was maintained until a conversion value of 10% for the experiment made at 260 °C since, at lower temperatures, this rate drops quickly for low conversion values. The N 2 adsorption isotherms for the carbons of this series resemble type I, although there is an increase of N 2 adsorbed volume at relatively high pressures. A temperature rise produced an increase of the carbon porosity and BET specific surface (116-469 m 2 g -1). The activation time has a positive effect on the N 2 volume adsorbed by the carbons. The isotherms shapes were similar to those previously commented. A concentration equal to 1 wt.% was used to study the influence of the catalyst type. Under the studied experimental conditions, Co drives to a bigger porosity development than K, although with both catalysts a very similar pore size distribution is obtained. The activation time, in the gasifications catalyzed with Co, gives rise to a very important porosity development in the carbons. This produces a strong increase of the carbon specific surface area with very high values in the 4 h experiment, in which a BET specific surface of 959 m 2 g -1 was obtained.

  15. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  16. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  17. Intercomparison of Recent Anomaly Time-Series of OLR as Observed by CERES and Computed Using AIRS Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Loeb, Norman G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial and temporal anomaly time series of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the 7 year time period September 2002 through February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decrease of OLR, on the order of +/-0.1 W/sq m/yr, averaged over the globe, and very large spatial variations of changes in OLR in the tropics, with local values ranging from -2.8 W/sq m/yr to +3.1 W/sq m/yr. Global and Tropical OLR both began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Ni a in mid-2007. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El Ni o, with a corresponding change in sign of both Tropical and Global OLR anomalies. The spatial patterns of the 7 year short term changes in AIRS and CERES OLR have a spatial correlation of 0.97 and slopes of the linear least squares fits of anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions agree on the order of +/-0.01 W/sq m/yr. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments, determined in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used to compute OLR and furthermore indicates that anomaly time series of AIRS derived products can be used to explain the factors contributing to anomaly time series of OLR.

  18. Field validation of sound mitigation models and air pollutant emission testing in support of missile motor disposal activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Jensen, James A; Lindsay, Mitchell H

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense approved activities conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) include both operational readiness test firing of intercontinental ballistic missile motors as well as the destruction of obsolete or otherwise unusable intercontinental ballistic missile motors through open burn/open detonation (OB/ OD). Within the Utah Division of Air Quality, these activities have been identified as having the potential to generate unacceptable noise levels, as well as significant amounts of hazardous air pollutants. Hill Air Force Base, UT, has completed a series of field tests at the UTTR in which sound-monitoring surveillance of OB/OD activities was conducted to validate the Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) model. Using results generated by the SIPS model to support the decision to detonate, the UTTR successfully disposed of missile motors having an aggregate net explosive weight (NEW) of 56,500 lbs without generating adverse noise levels within populated areas. These results suggest that, under appropriate conditions, missile motors of even larger NEW may be detonated without exceeding regulatory noise limits. In conjunction with collecting noise monitoring data, air quality data was collected to support the development of air emission factors for both static missile motor firings and OB/OD activities. Through the installation of 15 ground-based air samplers, the generation of combustion fixed gases, hazardous air pollutants, and chlorides were monitored during the 56,500-lb NEW detonation event. Comparison of field measurements to predictions generated from the U.S. Navy's energetic combustion pollutant formation model, POLU4WN, indicated that, as the detonation fireball expanded from ground zero, organic compounds as well as carbon monoxide continued to oxidize as the hot gases reacted with ambient air. Hazardous air pollutant analysis of air samplers confirmed the presence of chloromethane, benzene, toluene, 1,2-propadiene, and

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION CO. D95084415, DMK 80-4404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 26-29, 1999, tests of Purolator Products Air Filtration Co's D95084415, DMK80-4404, and PB2424 paint overspray arrestors (POAs) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verificatio...

  20. Cluster Active Archive products and multipoint magnetospheric investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C.; Laakso, H.; Taylor, M.; Escoubet, P.

    2007-12-01

    The four-satellite Cluster mission investigates the small-scale structures (in three dimensions) of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. The Cluster Active Archive CAA (http://caa.estec.esa.int/) contains the entire set of Cluster high resolution data and other allied products in a standard format. The CAA currently has data from most of the Cluster instruments for at least the first three years of operations (2001-2003). The coverage and range of products is being continually improved with more than 200 datasets available from each spacecraft including high-resolution magnetic & electric DC fields and wave spectra; full 3D electron & ion distributions from a few eV to hundreds of keV; and various ancillary & browse products to help with spacecraft and event location. The data archived are (1) publicly accessible, (2) of the best quality achievable with the given resources, and (3) suitable for science use and publication by both the Cluster and broader scientific community. The presentation contains examples of user friendly services of the CAA for searching and accessing these data and ancillary products and of online capabilities of the system.

  1. Study on the Catalytic Activity of Noble Metal Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Oxygen Evolution Reactions in Lithium-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Jung, Hun-Gi; Kim, Jooho; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Curtiss, Larry; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-07-01

    Among many challenges present in Li-air batteries, one of the main reasons of low efficiency is the high charge overpotential due to the slow oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we present systematic evaluation of Pt, Pd, and Ru nanoparticles supported on rGO as OER electrocatalysts in Li-air cell cathodes with LiCF3SO3-tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME) salt-electrolyte system. All of the noble metals explored could lower the charge overpotentials, and among them, Ru-rGO hybrids exhibited the most stable cycling performance and the lowest charge overpotentials. Role of Ru nanoparticles in boosting oxidation kinetics of the discharge products were investigated. Apparent behavior of Ru nanoparticles was different from the conventional electrocatalysts that lower activation barrier through electron transfer, because the major contribution of Ru nanoparticles in lowering charge overpotential is to control the nature of the discharge products. Ru nanoparticles facilitated thin film-like or nanoparticulate Li2O2 formation during oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which decomposes at lower potentials during charge, although the conventional role as electrocatalysts during OER cannot be ruled out. Pt-and Pd-rGO hybrids showed fluctuating potential profiles during the cycling. Although Pt- and Pd-rGO decomposed the electrolyte after electrochemical cycling, no electrolyte instability was observed with Ru-rGO hybrids. This study provides the possibility of screening selective electrocatalysts for Li-air cells while maintaining electrolyte stability. PMID:26115340

  2. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting...

  3. 76 FR 65616 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) proposed amendments to the DOE test procedure for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (June 2010 NOPR) and in an April 2011 supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (April 2011 SNOPR). The amendments proposed in this subsequent SNOPR would change the off-mode laboratory test......

  4. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  5. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  6. Production of carboxylates from high rate activated sludge through fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, C; Coma, M; Vlaeminck, S E; Rabaey, K

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the key parameters affecting fermentation of high rate activated A-sludge to carboxylates, including pH, temperature, inoculum, sludge composition and iron content. The maximum volatile fatty acids production was 141mgCg(-1) VSSfed, at pH 7. Subsequently the potential for carboxylate and methane production for A-sludge from four different plants at pH 7 and 35°C were compared. Initial BOD of the sludge appeared to be key determining carboxylate yield from A-sludge. Whereas methanogenesis could be correlated linearly to the quantity of ferric used for coagulation, fermentation did not show a dependency on iron presence. This difference may enable a strategy whereby A-stage sludge is separated to achieve fermentation, and iron dosing for phosphate removal is only implemented at the B-stage. PMID:27020399

  7. Investigation of AIRS and AMSU sounding products in regional numerical weather simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shen-Cha; Liu, Chian-Yi; Kuo, Szu-Chen

    2016-05-01

    The initial and boundary conditions are critical to the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. It is known that satellite observations can overcome the limitations of the terrain, especially over the oceans where conventional observations are difficult to obtain. Therefore, the use of satellite data will expect to improve those regions where lack of traditional observation. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's EOS Aqua satellite, represent microwave and hyperspectral infrared observations, respectively. Both of them may provide atmospheric temperature and moisture soundings with complementary characteristics. For example, AMSU has the advantage to give cloudy retrievals while AIRS may retain the atmospheric gradient due to its finer high spatial resolution. Both data could estimate atmospheric thermodynamic state with substantial accuracy to improve high impact weather forecast In this study, we adopt the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to evaluate the use of AMSU/AIRS retrievals for severe precipitation at Taiwan. The front, UTC 2016/01/05 22Z, is selected to demonstrate the benefit of using sounding data. The preliminary results shows a positive impact on total precipitable water while the time slope may need further investigation.

  8. Natural products from cyanobacteria with antimicrobial and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzi, Fabiana Albani; Vaz, Marcelo G M V; Alvarenga, Danillo O; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an important source of structurally bioactive metabolites, with cytotoxic, antiviral, anticancer, antimitotic, antimicrobial, specific enzyme inhibition and immunosuppressive activities. This study focused on the antitumor and antimicrobial activities of intra and extracellular cyanobacterial extracts. A total of 411 cyanobacterial strains were screened for antimicrobial activity using a subset of pathogenic bacteria as target. The in vitro antitumor assays were performed with extracts of 24 strains tested against two murine cancer cell lines (colon carcinoma CT-26 and lung cancer 3LL). Intracellular extracts inhibited 49 and 35% of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacterial growth, respectively. Furthermore, the methanolic intracellular extract of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CYP011K and Nostoc sp. CENA69 showed inhibitory activity against the cancer cell lines. The extracellular extract from Fischerella sp. CENA213 and M. aeruginosa NPJB-1 exhibited inhibitory activity against 3LL lung cancer cells at 0.8 µg ml⁻¹ and Oxynema sp. CENA135, Cyanobium sp. CENA154, M. aeruginosa NPJB-1 and M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 presented inhibitory activity against CT26 colon cancer cells at 0.8 µg ml⁻¹. Other extracts were able to inhibit 3LL cell-growth at higher concentrations (20 µg ml⁻¹) such as Nostoc sp. CENA67, Cyanobium sp. CENA154 and M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4, while CT26 cells were inhibited at the same concentration by Nostoc sp. CENA67 and Fischerella sp. CENA213. These extracts presented very low inhibitory activity on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results showed that some cyanobacterial strains are a rich source of natural products with potential for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24372264

  9. Regional Air Quality Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Natural Gas Activity: Evidence from Ambient VOC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, T.; Ehrman, S.; Yao, S.; Dadzie, J.; Chittams, A.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, many anthropogenic pollutants have been successfully reduced, providing improved air quality. However, a new influx of emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing and natural gas operations could be counteracting some of these benefits. Using hourly measurements from Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) in the Baltimore, MD and Washington, D.C. areas, we observed that following a period of decline, daytime ethane concentrations have increased significantly since 2010. This trend appears to be linked with the rapid natural gas production in upwind, neighboring states, especially Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Furthermore, ethane concentrations failed to display this trend at a PAMS site outside of Atlanta, GA, a region without widespread natural gas operations. Year-to-year changes in VOCs were further evaluated by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to perform source apportionment on hourly observations in Essex, MD from 2005-2013. This process takes ambient measurements and attributes them to sources such as biogenic, natural gas, industrial, gasoline, and vehicle exhaust by using tracer species as identifiers. Preliminary PMF results also indicate an increasing influence of natural gas sources for this area.

  10. On the production of active nitrogen by thunderstorms over New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. A.; Dye, J. E.; Walega, J. G.; Zheng, J.; Grahek, F. E.; Rison, W.

    1996-09-01

    In July and August of 1989 the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Sabreliner jet aircraft was used to probe electrically active and inactive convective storms over west central New Mexico to examine the production of odd nitrogen in the middle and upper troposphere by thunderstorms. In the anvil outflow or cloud top region of active and nonactive storms, the majority of flights showed that O3 was reduced relative to the extracloud air owing to transport of ozone-poor air from lower altitudes. A similar result was found for active nitrogen (NOx) and total odd nitrogen (NOy) in nonelectrically active storms, but the reduction in NOy was also enhanced by removal of soluble constituents during convective transport. Examples of efficient removal from the gas phase are described. There was no evidence of O3 production by lightning discharges. Indeed, O3 was a good tracer over the lifetime (˜1 hour) of the storms. During the active-to-mature stage of air mass thunderstorms, large enhancements in active nitrogen were observed in the anvil altitude region (9-11.8 km) and, in one case, in the midlevel outflow (near 7 km) of a dissipating thunderstorm. Two thunderstorms allow good estimates of the NOx production by lightning within or transport to the upper altitude region (8-11.8 km). Thunderstorms of August 12 and August 19 yield amounts in the range of 253-296 kg(N) and 263-305 kg(N), respectively. If, as an exercise, these amounts are extrapolated to the global scale on the basis of the number of cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning flashes counted or estimated for each storm and a global flash frequency of 100 s-1 the result is 2.4-2.7 and 2.0-2.2 Tg(N)/yr. Alternatively, an estimate for the two storms made on the basis of the average number of thunderstorms that occur per day globally (44,000) yields amounts in the range of 4.1-4.7 and 4.2-4.9 Tg(N)/yr, respectively. These estimates only apply to the production or transport of lightning-generated NOx

  11. Quantifying the emissions and air quality co-benefits of lower-carbon electricity production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinski, Steven D.; Holloway, Tracey; Meier, Paul J.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Rrushaj, Arber; Oberman, Jacob T.; Duran, Phillip L.; Voigt, Caitlin L.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of air emissions from electricity generation depends on the spatial distribution of power plants and electricity dispatch decisions. Thus, any realistic evaluation of the air quality impacts of lower-carbon electricity must account for the spatially heterogeneous changes in associated emissions. Here, we present an analysis of the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with current, expected, and proposed energy efficiency and renewable energy policies in Wisconsin. We simulate the state's electricity system and its potential response to policies using the MyPower electricity-sector model, which calculates plant-by-plant reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions. We find that increased efficiency and renewable generation in a 2024 policy scenario substantially reduce statewide emissions of NOx and SO2 (55% and 59% compared to 2008, 32% and 33% compared to 2024 business-as-usual, BAU). PM2.5 is quantified across the Great Lakes region using the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for some emissions scenarios. We find that summer mean surface concentrations of sulfate and PM2.5 are less sensitive to policy changes than emissions. In the 2024 policy scenario, sulfate aerosol decreases less than 3% over most of the region relative to BAU and 3-13% relative to 2008 over most of Wisconsin. The lower response of these secondary aerosols arises from chemical and meteorological processing of electricity emissions, and mixing with other emission sources. An analysis of model performance and response to emission reduction at five sites in Wisconsin shows good model agreement with observations and a high level of spatial and temporal variability in sulfate and PM2.5 reductions. In this case study, the marginal improvements in emissions and air quality associated with carbon policies were less than the technology, renewable, and conservation assumptions under a business-as-usual scenario. However, this analysis for Wisconsin shows how

  12. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products. PMID:26184913

  13. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    PubMed

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  14. Neutron Activation Analysis and Product Isotope Inventory Code System.

    1990-10-31

    Version 00 NAC was designed to predict the neutron-induced gamma-ray radioactivity for a wide variety of composite materials. The NAC output includes the input data, a list of all reactions for each constituent element, and the end-of-irradiation disintegration rates for each reaction. NAC also compiles a product isotope inventory containing the isotope name, the disintegration rate, the gamma-ray source strength, and the absorbed dose rate at 1 meter from an unshielded point source. The inducedmore » activity is calculated as a function of irradiation and decay times; the effect of cyclic irradiation can also be calculated.« less

  15. Pomegranate-Inspired Design of Highly Active and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wang, Xiaolei; Fu, Jing; Li, Jingde; Park, Moon Gyu; Zhang, Yining; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-04-11

    Rational design of highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the design and development of composite electrocatalysts based on transition metal oxide nanocrystals embedded in a nitrogen-doped, partially graphitized carbon framework. Benefiting from the unique pomegranate-like architecture, the composite catalysts possess abundant active sites, strong synergetic coupling, enhanced electron transfer, and high efficiencies in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Co3O4-based composite electrocatalyst exhibited a high half-wave potential of 0.842 V for ORR, and a low overpotential of only 450 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for OER. A single-cell zinc-air battery was also fabricated with superior durability, holding great promise in the practical implementation of rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:26970076

  16. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  17. Natural Product Nitric Oxide Chemistry: New Activity of Old Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Bryan, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a therapy and preventative care measure for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may prove to be beneficial when used in conjunction with or in place of conventional medicine. However, the lack of understanding of a mechanism of action of many CAMs limits their use and acceptance in western medicine. We have recently recognized and characterized specific nitric oxide (NO) activity of select alternative and herbal medicines that may account for many of their reported health benefits. The ability of certain CAM to restore NO homeostasis both through enhancing endothelial production of NO and by providing a system for reducing nitrate and nitrite to NO as a compensatory pathway for repleting NO bioavailability may prove to be a safe and cost-effective strategy for combating CVD. We will review the current state of science behind NO activity of herbal medicines and their effects on CVD. PMID:22548122

  18. Organic and inorganic emissions from a production cupola equipped to use an afterburner or stack air. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.B.; Davis, J.W.

    1983-10-01

    Based on a careful analysis and evaluation of the data gathered in this research it can be stated conclusively that the use of a Stack Air device to replace the afterburner in a production cupola resulted in a lower mass of total particulates under all cupola operating procedures. There was no statistically significant change in the level of respirable or organic materials in the cupola effluent regardless of the method used to control the concentration of carbon monoxide in the cupola off-gases.

  19. Use of AIRS-derived Products in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis During the HS3 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garms, E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Plokhenko, Y.; Smith, W.; Weisz, E.; Revercomb, H. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high-resolution data collected during a field experiment is extremely valuable, but it is equally valuable to have observations that provide context for such in situ measurements. For this reason, satellite data coincident with observations taken from the Global Hawk UAVs during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment are vital to a gaining a more complete understanding of tropical cyclone (TC) processes. The primary data used in this study are calibrated hyperspectral infrared radiances obtained from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), onboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS measures upwelling Earth-emitted infrared spectra using more than 2300 IR channels between 3.7 and 15.4 microns. Several products derived from this high-spectral resolution data are used in this study. These products include a 3-D cloud amount vertical profile (CAVP) product as well as temperature and water vapor profiles retrieved using a Dual-Regression algorithm (DR), both of which were developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). The CAVP product will be used to measure the slope of the cloud tops of rainbands in a tropical cyclone. Observations from the UW Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), NASA Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), and NCAR dropsondes taken during the 2012 Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment will be used to validate the rainband slope analysis and the DR retrievals. The methodology behind the TC rainband slope analysis, which is hypothesized to correlate with TC intensity, will be discussed. This product will then be used to obtain a TC intensity estimate, which will be compared to other accepted intensity estimates like the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and Satellite Consensus (SATCON) estimates. Additionally, the DR product will be used to

  20. 78 FR 39254 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Subzone 7G; Schering-Plough Products, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Subzone 7G; Schering-Plough Products, L.L.C. (Pharmaceutical Products); Las Piedras, Puerto Rico Schering-Plough Products, L.L.C. (Schering-Plough), operator of Subzone 7G,...

  1. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... for additional consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to approve... Products and AIM Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA... resolves the issues raised in the June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33659) conditional approval of Illinois' rules....

  2. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...' consumer products and AIM rules into the State's SIP (77 FR 33659). In our June 7, 2012, rulemaking, we... that were affected by the rule as approved by EPA at 77 FR 33659), and July 1, 2012 (for product... Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  3. Air quality and land productivity in the northeastern United States, 1980-85

    SciTech Connect

    Westenbarger, D.; Frisvold, F.

    1992-12-01

    This study estimates the impact of ozone pollution and acid rain on agricultural land productivity. Sulfate depositions and ozone reduce productivity, while nitrate depositions increase it. The countervailing effects of sulfate and nitrate depositions cancel each other out. The net effect of acid depositions is negligible over the sample region.

  4. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  5. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72508), is being extended for 22 days to... Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  6. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential impacts of global climate change on crop productivity have drawn much attention in recent years. To investigate these impacts on grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] productivity, we calibrated the CERES-Sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT...

  7. The effect of inquiry science activity in educational productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kinya

    This is a study the effect of inquiry science activity on the science achievement of junior high school students. Since the post-sputnik curriculum improvement project, science educators have supported the effect of inquiry activities. In terms of the effect of laboratory activity, however, the literature review indicated that the controlled experimental studies have failed to present the effect of laboratory activities. For example, Blosser suggested more rigid experimental design, such as longer treatment and larger sample. On the other hand, some of the recent case studies of effect of laboratory are successful to support the effect and the other recent classroom ethnographic studies indicated that the laboratory activities are implemented in inappropriate situation. This study investigates the effect of inquiry activities by using the national survey to balance the internal and external validity. In order to control the environmental effect and student aptitude, the study adopted the structural model of science achievement suggested by Reynolds and Walberg in 1991. The study utilized the extensive student and teacher data reports from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) to examine these differences and interactions quantitatively. The study utilized two independent variables: (1) teachers' report of the degree of their teaching emphasis on inquiry skill, and (2) teachers' report of the frequency of hands-on method. The effects of these instructional qualities are estimated in terms of the science achievement score of their student. The study utilized path analysis techniques in order to understand the complex relationship among the nine productivity factors; which are (1) motivation, (2) prior ability, (3) development, (4) home environment, (5) peer environment, (6) media environment, (7) classroom environment, (8) instructional quantity, and (9) instructional quality. The result failed to support the effectiveness of the hands-on science teaching

  8. A novel carbon black graphite hybrid air-cathode for efficient hydrogen peroxide production in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; An, Jingkun; Zhou, Lean; Li, Tian; Li, Junhui; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Carbon black and graphite hybrid air-cathode is proved to be effective for H2O2 production in bioelectrochemical systems. The optimal mass ratio of carbon black to graphite is 1:5 with the highest H2O2 yield of 11.9 mg L-1 h-1 cm-2 (12.3 mA cm-2). Continuous flow is found to improve the current efficiency due to the avoidance of H2O2 accumulation. In the biological system, the highest H2O2 yield reaches 3.29 mg L-1h-1 (0.079 kg m-3day-1) with a current efficiency of 72%, which is higher than the abiotic system at the same current density. H2O2 produced in this system is mainly from the oxygen diffused through this air-cathode (>66%), especially when a more negative cathode potential is applied (94% at -1.0 V). This hybrid air-cathode has advantages of high H2O2 yield, high current density and no need of aeration, which make the synthesis of H2O2 more efficient and economical.

  9. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently. PMID:26270956

  10. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  11. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  12. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  13. EFFECT OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ON AMBIENT AIR DENSITIES OF AEROSOLS CONTAINING BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria and virus-containing aerosols were studied during late summer and fall in a U.S. midwestern suburb before and during the start up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of in...

  14. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

  15. Environmental Scanning Activities in Higher Education as Reported at the 1986 Annual Meetings of AAHE, AIR, and SCUP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    Environmental scanning activities in higher education were described in forums at the 1986 annual meetings of the American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), the Association for Institutional Research (AIR), and the Society of College and University Planning (SCUP). The forums were held to determine the extent of environmental scanning…

  16. Weyerhaeuser: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Sawmill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Weyerhaeuser Company, a U.S. Department of Energy Allied Partner in the Industrial Technologies Program, increased the efficiency of the compressed air system at its sawmill facility in Coburg, Oregon. This improved the system's performance and will save about 1.3 million kWh annually. Total project costs were $55,000; because annual energy cost savings were also $55,000, the simple payback period was only 1 year. Subsequent improvements at six other company plants and mills are yielding 6.8 million kWh in energy savings and reducing annual energy costs by $250,000.

  17. The production of drops by the bursting of a bubble at an air liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrozes, J. S.; Ligneul, P.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism arising during the bursting of a bubble at an air-liquid interface is described. A single bubble was followed from an arbitrary depth in the liquid, up to the creation and motion of the film and jet drops. Several phenomena were involved and their relative order of magnitude was compared in order to point out the dimensionless parameters which govern each step of the motion. High-speed cinematography is employed. The characteristic bubble radius which separates the creation of jet drops from cap bursting without jet drops is expressed mathematically. The corresponding numerical value for water is 3 mm and agrees with experimental observations.

  18. An Update on Natural Products with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological processes. They represent a typical example of enzyme convergent evolution, as six genetically unrelated families of such enzymes were described so far. It is more than 70 years that synthetic compounds, mainly sulfonamides, have been used in clinical practice as diuretics and systemic acting antiglaucoma drugs. Recent studies using natural product libraries and isolated constituents from natural sources (such as fungi and plants) have disclosed novel chemotypes possessing carbonic anhydrase inhibition activities. These natural sources offer new opportunities in the search for new and more effective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and may serve as new leads for the design and development of future drugs. This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring products and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Plant extracts are not considered in the present review. PMID:26654592

  19. Development of carbon free diffusion layer for activated carbon air cathode of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The fabrication of activated carbon air cathodes for larger-scale microbial fuel cells requires a diffusion layer (DL) that is highly resistant to water leakage, oxygen permeable, and made using inexpensive materials. A hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane synthesized using a simple phase inversion process was examined as a low cost ($0.9/m(2)), carbon-free DL that prevented water leakage at high pressure heads compared to a polytetrafluoroethylene/carbon black DL ($11/m(2)). The power density produced with a PVDF (20%, w/v) DL membrane of 1400±7mW/m(2) was similar to that obtained using a wipe DL [cloth coated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)]. Water head tolerance reached 1.9m (∼19kPa) with no mesh supporter, and 2.1m (∼21kPa, maximum testing pressure) with a mesh supporter, compared to 0.2±0.05m for the wipe DL. The elimination of carbon black from the DL greatly simplified the fabrication procedure and further reduced overall cathode costs. PMID:26342345

  20. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  1. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  2. Airborne Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Roiger, A.; Raut, J.; Rose, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Reiter, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Law, K.; Schlager, H.

    2013-12-01

    A rapid decline of Arctic sea ice is expected to promote hydrocarbon extraction in the Arctic, which in turn will increase emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To investigate impacts of different pollution sources on the Arctic atmosphere, an aircraft campaign based in northern Norway was conducted in July 2012, as a part of the EU ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change Economy and Society) project. One of the flights focused on measuring emissions from various oil/gas exploration and production facilities ~110 km south of the Arctic Circle in the Norwegian Sea. Fresh and aged (from 5 minutes to 2.5 hours old) exhaust plumes from oil/gas production platforms, drilling rigs and tankers were probed with extensive aerosol and trace gas instrumentations. It was found that different types of facilities emit plumes with distinct chemical compositions. For example, tanker plumes were characterized by high SO2 concentration and high fraction of non-volatile particles while plumes from oil/gas production platforms showed significant increase in the nucleation mode particle concentration. Drilling rigs were found to be high black carbon emitters. In addition to the fresh plumes, relatively aged plumes (1.5 - 2.5 hours old) from a facility under development were measured. Even in these aged plumes, total particle concentrations were more than 6 times higher than the background concentration. Therefore, emissions from oil and gas activities are expected to have a significant impact on local air quality and atmospheric composition. With the aid of FLEXPART-WRF (a Lagrangian dispersion model) simulations, the results of this study will be used to validate and improve current emission inventories. In the future, these improved emission inventories can be used in regional and global chemical transport models to more accurately predict future Arctic air pollution.

  3. Degree of conversion of simplified contemporary adhesive systems as influenced by extended air-activated or passive solvent volatilization modes.

    PubMed

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; Brandt, William C; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Montes, Marcos A J R; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five methods of solvent volatilization on the degree of conversion (DC) of nine one-bottle adhesive systems using Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) analysis. Nine adhesives were tested: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Adper Easy One (EO), One Up Bond F Plus (OUP), One Coat Bond SL (OC), XP Bond (XP), Ambar (AM), Natural Bond (NB), GO, and Stae. The adhesive systems were applied to a zinc-selenide pellet and 1) cured without solvent volatilization, 2) left undisturbed for 10 seconds before curing, 3) left undisturbed for 60 seconds before curing, 4) air-dried with an air stream for 10 seconds before curing, and 5) air-dried with an air stream for 60 seconds before curing. FTIR/ATR spectra were obtained, and the DC was calculated by comparing the aliphatic bonds/reference peaks before and after light activation for 10 seconds (FlashLite 1401). The DC means of each material were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p<0.05). The DC of GO and Stae adhesive systems was not affected by the five evaporation conditions. Air-drying for 60 seconds before curing yielded the highest DC for SB, EO, and OC. Extended solvent volatilization time (60 seconds) either with or without air-drying before curing provided the highest DC for AM, NB, XP, and OUP. Thus, the monomer conversion of adhesive systems was material dependent. In general, the 60-second passive or active air-drying modes to volatilize solvents before curing enhanced the degree of conversion for the one-bottle simplified adhesive systems. PMID:22313268

  4. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. PMID:23563183

  5. Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elena; Dziurowitz, Nico; Jäckel, Udo; Schäfer, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (< 1μm) at the NIOSH device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices

  6. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  7. Reference Quality Upper-Air Measurements: guidance for developing GRUAN data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, F. J.; Dykema, J.; Gardiner, T.; Whiteman, D. N.; Thorne, P. W.; Vömel, H.

    2010-09-01

    The accurate monitoring of climate change imposes strict requirements upon observing systems, in particular regarding measurement accuracy and long-term stability. Currently available data records of the essential climate variables (temperature-T, geopotential-p, humidity-RH, wind, and cloud properties) in the upper-air generally fail to fulfil such requirements. This raises serious issues about the ability to detect, quantify and understand recent climate changes and their causes. GCOS is currently implementing a Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) in order to fill this major void within the global observing system. As part of the GRUAN implementation plan we provide herein fundamental guidelines for establishing and maintaining reference quality atmospheric observations which are based on principal concepts of metrology, in particular traceability. It is argued that the detailed analysis of the uncertainty budget of a measurement technique is the critical step for achieving this goal. As we will demonstrate with an example, detailed knowledge of the calibration procedures and data processing algorithms are required for determining the uncertainty of each individual data point. Of particular importance is the careful assessment of the uncertainties introduced by correction schemes adjusting for systematic effects.

  8. Particulate Matter Air Quality Assessment using Integrated Surface, Satellite, and Meteorological Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Christopher, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent developments in satellite remote sensing of aerosols over land provide new tools for monitoring particulate matter air quality with high temporal and spatial resolution. Monitoring particulate matter air quality from space borne measurements is largely confined to relating columnar satellite retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) with ground measurements of PM2.5 mass concentration. However, vertical distribution of aerosols and meteorological effects such as wind speed, temperature, and humidity also play a major role in this AOT-PM2.5 relationship. In this study, using 3 years of coincident hourly PM2.5 mass concentration (PM2.5 or PM2.5), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived AOT, and rapid update cycle meteorological fields, we developed multiple regression equations and neural network models as function of season the continental United States. Our goal is to examine whether the use of meteorological fields will improve the relationship between PM2.5 and AOT. Our results indicate that there is up to threefold improvement in the correlation coefficients while using meteorological information through multiple regression methods compared to two variant regression (AOT versus PM2.5) equations. A 20-50% improvement in root-mean square error is observed when adding temperature and boundary layer height to the AOT-PM2.5 relationship. These results and analysis are useful to research and operational communities that seek to improve the use of satellite information for assessing surface PM2.5.

  9. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.; Molnar, G. I.; Iredell, L. F.; Sounder Research Team

    2010-12-01

    Joel Susskind, Gyula Molnar, and Lena Iredell NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team Abstract This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 - February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Niña in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5°N - 20°S latitude extending eastward from 150°W - 30°E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Niño, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as well as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover

  10. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  11. Enhanced anthocyanin production from grape callus in an air-lift type bioreactor using a viscous additive-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kousuke; Nagamori, Eiji; Omote, Mariko; Kato, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    An N-medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was applied to an air-lift type bioreactor culture of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bailey alicant A.) callus, and anthocyanin production was investigated. Grape callus grew well at an air flow rate of 80 ml/min and anthocyanin production was significantly increased in the N-medium, reaching 17 mg/l after 7 d of culture. The anthocyanin content of the N-medium was about two times higher than that of the conventional medium without CMC. The effect of air flow rate was also investigated within the range from 40 to 160 ml/min. A twofold increase in anthocyanin content was obtained at all the air flow rates tested in the N-medium. The distribution of grape callus size obtained after 7 d of the bioreactor culture was investigated. The average callus size was 490 mum which was 1.6 times larger than that obtained in the conventional medium. It was found that large calli with a relatively high anthocyanin pigment content were formed in the bioreactor culture using the N-medium. The fluid dynamics in the bioreactor was also investigated at three points (top, middle and bottom) in the bioreactor by laser doppler velocimetry. The average axial velocity of the circulated medium was 0.4 times lower than that of the conventional medium while their average radial velocities were almost the same (zero). The standard deviation of radial velocity fluctuation in the N-medium was also 0.4 times less than that in the conventional medium. These results suggest that turbulent flow occurred in the bioreactor culture using the conventional medium and the degree of turbulent flow decreased significantly when 0.8% CMC was added to the medium to prepare the N-medium. A change of the flow pattern is considered to be the cause of the decrease in hydrodynamic stress, resulting in enhanced pigment production due to the enlargement of the callus. PMID:16233283

  12. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  13. Source term estimates of radioxenon released from the BaTek medical isotope production facility using external measured air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Cameron, Ian M; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T

    2015-10-01

    BATAN Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies (99m)Tc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of (133)Xe in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The major xenon isotopes released from BaTek are also produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide if a specific measurement result could have originated from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84 × 10(13) Bq of (133)Xe. Concentrations of (133)Xe in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88 × 10(13) Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70 × 10(13) Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10% of each other. Unpublished production data and the release estimate from June 2013 yield a rough annual release estimate of 8 × 10(14) Bq of (133)Xe in 2014. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates based on atmospheric samplers. PMID:26093852

  14. Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L. (Editor); Ming, Doug W. (Editor); Henninger, Don (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Technical Memorandum is a compilation of presentations and discussions in the form of minutes from a workshop entitled 'Plant Production Systems for Microgravity: Critical Issues in Water, Air, and Solute Transport Through Unsaturated Porous Media' held at NASA's Johnson Space Center, July 24-25, 2000. This workshop arose from the growing belief within NASA's Advanced Life Support Program that further advances and improvements in plant production systems for microgravity would benefit from additional knowledge of fundamental processes occurring in the root zone. The objective of the workshop was to bring together individuals who had expertise in various areas of fluid physics, soil physics, plant physiology, hardware development, and flight tests to identify, discuss, and prioritize critical issues of water and air flow through porous media in microgravity. Participants of the workshop included representatives from private companies involved in flight hardware development and scientists from universities and NASA Centers with expertise in plant flight tests, plant physiology, fluid physics, and soil physics.

  15. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  16. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways. PMID:14968860

  17. Understanding High Wintertime Ozone Events over an Oil and Natural Gas Production Region from Air Quality Model Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R. M.; Brown, S. S.; Edwards, P. M.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Lerner, B. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Schnell, R. C.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Wild, R. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R. J.; Petron, G.; De Gouw, J. A.; Peischl, J.

    2014-12-01

    The huge increase in production of oil and natural gas has been associated with high wintertime ozone events over some parts of the western US. The Uinta Basin, UT, where oil and natural gas production is abundant experienced high ozone concentrations in winters of recent years, when cold stagnant weather conditions were prevalent. It has been very challenging for conventional air quality models to accurately simulate such wintertime ozone pollution cases. Here, a regional air quality model study was successfully conducted for the Uinta Basin by using the WRF-Chem model. For this purpose a new emission dataset for the region's oil/gas sector was built based on atmospheric in-situ measurements made during 2012 and 2013 field campaigns in the Uinta Basin. The WRF-Chem model demonstrates that the major factors driving high ozone in the Uinta Basin in winter are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) compared to nitrogen oxides emissions from the oil and natural gas industry, enhancement of photolysis rates and reduction of O3 dry deposition due to snow cover. We present multiple sensitivity simulations to quantify the contribution of various factors driving high ozone over the Uinta Basin. The emission perturbation simulations show that the photochemical conditions in the Basin during winter of 2013 were VOC sensitive, which suggests that targeting VOC emissions would be most beneficial for regulatory purposes. Shortcomings of the emissions within the most recent US EPA (NEI-2011, version 1) inventory are also discussed.

  18. Thrombin stimulates fibroblast procollagen production via proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R C; Dabbagh, K; McAnulty, R J; Gray, A J; Blanc-Brude, O P; Laurent, G J

    1998-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease that has a crucial role in blood coagulation. It is also a potent mesenchymal cell mitogen and chemoattractant and might therefore have an important role in the recruitment and local proliferation of mesenchymal cells at sites of tissue injury. We hypothesized that thrombin might also affect the deposition of connective tissue proteins at these sites by directly stimulating fibroblast procollagen production. To address this hypothesis, the effect of thrombin on procollagen production and gene expression by human foetal lung fibroblasts was assessed over 48 h. Thrombin stimulated procollagen production at concentrations of 1 nM and above, with maximal increases of between 60% and 117% at 10 nM thrombin. These effects of thrombin were, at least in part, due to increased steady-state levels of alpha1(I) procollagen mRNA. They could furthermore be reproduced with thrombin receptor-activating peptides for the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and were completely abolished when thrombin was rendered proteolytically inactive with the specific inhibitors d-Phe-Pro-ArgCH2Cl and hirudin, indicating that thrombin is mediating these effects via the proteolytic activation of PAR-1. These results suggest that thrombin might influence the deposition of connective tissue proteins during normal wound healing and the development of tissue fibrosis by stimulating fibroblast procollagen production. PMID:9639571

  19. Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Naidu, Shawna L.; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R.; Long, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (550 μmol mol−1) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (−34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  20. Lung protease/anti-protease network and modulation of mucus production and surfactant activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Descamps, Delphyne; Chignard, Michel; Touqui, Lhousseine; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Lung epithelium guarantees gas-exchange (performed in the alveoli) and protects from external insults (pathogens, pollutants…) present within inhaled air. Both functions are facilitated by secretions lining airway surface liquid, mucus (in the upper airways) and pulmonary surfactant (in the alveoli). Mucins, the main glycoproteins present within the mucus, are responsible for its rheologic properties and participate in lung defense mechanisms. In parallel, lung collectins are pattern recognition molecules present in pulmonary surfactant that also modulate lung defense. During chronic airways diseases, excessive protease activity can promote mucus hypersecretion and degradation of lung collectins and therefore contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. Importantly, secretion of local and systemic anti-proteases might be crucial to equilibrate the protease/anti-protease unbalance and therefore preserve the function of lung host defense compounds and airway surface liquid homeostasis. In this review we will present information relative to proteases able to modulate mucin production and lung collectin integrity, two important compounds of innate immune defense. One strategy to preserve physiological mucus production and collectin integrity during chronic airways diseases might be the over-expression of local 'alarm' anti-proteases such as SLPI and elafin. Interestingly, a cross-talk between lung collectins and anti-protease activity has recently been described, implicating the presence within the lung of a complex network between proteases, anti-proteases and pattern recognition molecules, which aims to keep or restore homeostasis in resting or inflamed lungs. PMID:20493919

  1. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies. PMID:25425137

  2. Systemic complement activation, lung injury, and products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P A; Till, G O; Hatherill, J R; Annesley, T M; Kunkel, R G

    1985-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that systemic activation of the complement system after intravenous injection of cobra venom factor (CVF) results in acute lung injury as reflected by increases in the vascular permeability of the lung as well as by morphologic evidence of damage to lung vascular endothelial cells. In using the vascular permeability of the lung as the reference, the current studies show a quantitative correlation between lung injury and the appearance in plasma of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes) as well as increased concentrations of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and one of its isoenzymes (LDH-4). After injection of CVF, extracts of lungs also showed elevated levels of conjugated dienes, whereas no elevations were found in extracts of liver, kidney, and spleen. There was no evidence in CVF-injected rats of renal or hepatic injury as reflected by the lack of development of proteinuria and the failure to detect increased serum levels of liver-related enzymes. Other peroxidation products identified in plasma of CVF-injected rats involved hydroperoxides and fluorescent compounds with features of Schiff bases. Not surprisingly, malondialdehyde was not found to be a reliable plasma indicator of lipid peroxidation associated with oxygen radical-mediated lung vascular injury. In using a model of oxygen radical-independent lung injury induced by oleic acid, although large amounts of LDH and LDH-4 were found in the plasma, no increases in plasma levels of conjugated dienes were detected. In CVF-injected animals treated with interventions protective against lung injury (neutrophil depletion, catalase, hydroxyl radical scavengers, or iron chelators), there were striking reductions in the plasma levels of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides, and fluorochromic products. Morphometric analysis of lung sections revealed that the protective interventions did not interfere with the accumulation of neutrophils in lung interstitial capillaries after systemic

  3. Evidence of rapid production of organic acids in an urban air mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.; Cochran, Anthony K.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; Holloway, John S.; Graus, Martin; Flynn, James; Lefer, Barry; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost

    2011-09-01

    Gas-phase acids (nitric, formic, acrylic, methacrylic, propionic, and pyruvic/butryic acid) were measured using negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS) in Pasadena, CA as part of the CalNex 2010 (Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) study in May-June 2010. Organic acid concentrations ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume (pptv) to several parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with the largest concentrations observed for formic and propionic acids. Photochemically processed urban emissions transported from Los Angeles were frequently sampled during the day. Analysis of transported emissions demonstrates a strong correlation of organic acid concentrations with both nitric acid and odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) showing that the organic acids are photochemically and rapidly produced from urban emissions.

  4. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

  5. Pulseless electrical activity arrest due to air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jacob; Parker, Calvin; Wang, James

    2015-01-01

    While most gastroenterologists are aware of the more common complications of endoscopy such as bleeding, infection and perforation, air embolism remains an under-recognised and difficult to diagnose problem due to its varying modes of presentation. This is the case of a 55-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain and imaging notable for cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis, who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). During the ERCP, and shortly after a sphincterotomy was performed, he became hypotensive and hypoxic, quickly decompensating into pulseless electrical activity. While advanced cardiac life support was initiated, the patient passed away. Autopsy revealed air in the pulmonary artery suggestive of a pulmonary embolism. While air embolism remains a rare complication of upper endoscopy, increased awareness and prompt recognition of signs that may point to this diagnosis may potentially save lives by allowing for earlier possible interventions. PMID:26462286

  6. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  7. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:25920952

  8. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed. PMID:27357404

  9. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  10. A solvent-free microbial-activated air cathode battery paper platform made with pencil-traced graphite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ban, Ju Yeon; Oh, Chung-Hun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2016-06-01

    We present the fabrication of an ultra-low cost, disposable, solvent-free air cathode all-paper microbial fuel cell (MFC) that does not utilize any chemical treatments. The anode and cathode were fabricated by depositing graphite particles by drawing them on paper with a pencil (four strokes). Hydrophobic parchment paper was used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to allow only H+ to pass. Air cathode MFC technology, where O2 was used as an electron acceptor, was implemented on the paper platform. The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H+, and O2 in the cathode. A fully micro-integrated pencil-traced MFC showed a fast start-time, producing current within 10 s after injection of bacterial cells. A single miniaturized all-paper air cathode MFC generated a maximum potential of 300 mV and a maximum current of 11 μA during 100 min after a single injection of Shewanella oneidensis. The micro-fabricated solvent-free air cathode all-paper MFC generated a power of 2,270 nW (5.68 mW/m2). The proposed solvent-free air cathode paper-based MFC device could be used for environmentally-friendly energy storage as well as in single-use medical power supplies that use organic matter.

  11. A solvent-free microbial-activated air cathode battery paper platform made with pencil-traced graphite electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ban, Ju Yeon; Oh, Chung-Hun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2016-01-01

    We present the fabrication of an ultra-low cost, disposable, solvent-free air cathode all-paper microbial fuel cell (MFC) that does not utilize any chemical treatments. The anode and cathode were fabricated by depositing graphite particles by drawing them on paper with a pencil (four strokes). Hydrophobic parchment paper was used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to allow only H+ to pass. Air cathode MFC technology, where O2 was used as an electron acceptor, was implemented on the paper platform. The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H+, and O2 in the cathode. A fully micro-integrated pencil-traced MFC showed a fast start-time, producing current within 10 s after injection of bacterial cells. A single miniaturized all-paper air cathode MFC generated a maximum potential of 300 mV and a maximum current of 11 μA during 100 min after a single injection of Shewanella oneidensis. The micro-fabricated solvent-free air cathode all-paper MFC generated a power of 2,270 nW (5.68 mW/m2). The proposed solvent-free air cathode paper-based MFC device could be used for environmentally-friendly energy storage as well as in single-use medical power supplies that use organic matter. PMID:27333815

  12. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  13. A solvent-free microbial-activated air cathode battery paper platform made with pencil-traced graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ban, Ju Yeon; Oh, Chung-Hun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2016-01-01

    We present the fabrication of an ultra-low cost, disposable, solvent-free air cathode all-paper microbial fuel cell (MFC) that does not utilize any chemical treatments. The anode and cathode were fabricated by depositing graphite particles by drawing them on paper with a pencil (four strokes). Hydrophobic parchment paper was used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to allow only H(+) to pass. Air cathode MFC technology, where O2 was used as an electron acceptor, was implemented on the paper platform. The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H(+), and O2 in the cathode. A fully micro-integrated pencil-traced MFC showed a fast start-time, producing current within 10 s after injection of bacterial cells. A single miniaturized all-paper air cathode MFC generated a maximum potential of 300 mV and a maximum current of 11 μA during 100 min after a single injection of Shewanella oneidensis. The micro-fabricated solvent-free air cathode all-paper MFC generated a power of 2,270 nW (5.68 mW/m(2)). The proposed solvent-free air cathode paper-based MFC device could be used for environmentally-friendly energy storage as well as in single-use medical power supplies that use organic matter. PMID:27333815

  14. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  15. Excess of ²¹⁰polonium activity in the surface urban atmosphere. Part (1) fluctuation of the ²¹⁰Po excess in the air.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of (210)Pb, (210)Bi, and (210)Po in the urban atmosphere of Lodz city were measured from February 2010 to May 2010 and from May 2011 to April 2012. The seasonal changes in the activity ratios for (210)Po/(210)Pb and (210)Bi/(210)Pb indicated that the observed fluctuations were independent of the concentration of tropospheric (210)Pb and its decay products, particularly (210)Po. A simple calculation method was proposed for the estimation of the excess of (210)Po in urban aerosols in relation to the fraction of its activity formed from (210)Pb. On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that a substantial part of the (210)Po in urban air did not come from the decay of atmospheric (222)Rn, but rather it was from artificial sources. The highest levels of measured total (210)Po activity were observed during the winter period. This observation suggests that the main source of (210)Po in the investigated region could be related to anthropogenic emissions from domestic heating systems and local coal power plants, rather than from other sources, such as soil resuspension or stratospheric air intrusion as usually suggested in the literature. PMID:25567523

  16. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  17. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  18. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3224] [FR Doc No: 2012-1222] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1042; FRL... rule (76 FR 78872). The comment period for the mineral wool production proposed rule was not extended..., Assistant Administrator. [FR Doc. 2012-1222 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  19. 76 FR 72769 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), (54 FR 38044, September 14, 1989), described in the next...., 100-in-1 million]'' (54 FR 38045). In the second step of the process, the EPA sets the standard at a... considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum individual lifetime cancer risk as being...

  20. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Production NESHAP was promulgated on March 23, 2000, (65 FR 15690) and codified as 40 CFR part 63, subpart... NESHAP) (54 FR 38044, September 14, 1989). The first step in this process is the determination of... risk determinations (EPA-453/R-99-001, p. ES-11). In the Benzene NESHAP, 54 FR at 38044-38045,...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE SPRAY DISPENSER TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water, and...

  2. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride can alter the reaction product to produce nitryl chlo...

  3. Assessing Faculty Productivity: An Issue for Decentralization. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Thomas R.

    A 1979 study conducted by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education to develop a plan for assessing and increasing faculty productivity is described. The central issue was the demand for individual faculty, departmental, and institutional autonomy versus demand by the political system for evidence that the faculty it funds produces adequate…

  4. 77 FR 33659 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... means to consumer products. See EPA's October 27, 2011, proposed approval at 76 FR 66663 for discussion.... On October 27, 2011, we proposed to approve 35 IAC Part 223 into the Illinois SIP (76 FR 66663). We... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  5. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  6. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 4: Solar air conditioning: Active, hybrid and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    The status of absorption cycle solar air conditioning and the Rankine cycle solar cooling system is reviewed. Vapor jet ejector chillers, solar pond based cooling, and photovoltaic compression air conditioning are also briefly discussed. Hybrid solar cooling by direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and dehumidification by desiccation are described and discussed. Passive solar cooling by convective and radiative processes, evaporative cooling by passive processes, and cooling with roof ponds and movable insulation are reviewed. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is discussed.

  7. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  8. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  9. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  10. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod)/sub 3/ is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous /sup 13/C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants.

  11. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  12. 78 FR 28190 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 134-Chattanooga, Tennessee; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Production Activity; Komatsu America Corporation (Construction and Forestry Equipment Production... of proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of Komatsu America Corporation (Komatsu... located within Site 14 of FTZ 134 (S-38- 2013, 4-2-2013). The facility is used for the production...

  13. Activation energies for phase transformations in electrospun titania nanofibers: comparing the influence of argon and air atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albetran, H.; O'Connor, B. H.; Low, I. M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on titania absolute phase level (amorphous, anatase, and rutile forms) changes in electrospun amorphous titania nanofibers from 25 to 900 °C in air and argon atmospheres. A novel method was developed to extract absolute levels of amorphous titania and crystalline anatase and rutile from the synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) data. This is a sequel to a relative phase concentrations study that has been reported previously by Albetran et al. (Appl Phys A 116:161 [2014]). Determination of absolute phase levels facilitated estimation of the activation energies for the amorphous-to-anatase transformation of 45(9) kJ/mol in argon and 69(17) in air, and for the anatase-to-rutile transformation energies of 97(7) kJ/mol for argon and 129(5) for air. An activation energy estimate for amorphous-to-crystalline titania in argon of 142(21) kJ/mol, achieved using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is consistent with the SRD results. The differences in phase transition and activation energies when the titania nanofibers are heated in argon is attributed to the presence of substantial oxygen vacancies in anatase. Estimates of anatase and rutile oxygen site occupancies from the SRD data show that anatase has discernible oxygen vacancies in argon, which correspond to stoichiometric TiO2- x with x < 0.4 that the anatase stoichiometry in air is TiO2. Rutile does not have significant oxygen vacancies in either argon or air.

  14. Experimental Behavior of Pentaborane-Air Combustion Products During Expansion in a Convergent Divergent Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; Setze, P. C.

    1958-01-01

    In order to evaluate the post combustion behavior of boric oxide, pentaborane-air mixtures, burned to completion at a combustor pressure of 3 atmospheres, were expanded through a 7.1-inch-long convergent-divergent nozzle having a 4-inch-diameter throat and an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.68. The experimentally determined thrust performance was in good agreement with the ideal equilibrium performance at stagnation temperatures of 3300 deg R and lower. The boric oxide vapor at the combustor exit required about 400 F deg supercooling before any condensed phase was observed. For a given thrust, fuel consumption was as much as 20 percent greater than predicted from vapor-pressure data for combustor outlet temperatures i n the vicinity of 3600 deg R. A similar result could be expected in full-scale engines, since the test combustor provided an unusually long dwell time and a highly turbulent environment. During the expansion process, the vapor (when present) did not condense to the extent predicted for an equilibrium expansion process. Moreover, condensation was observed only i n the form of small, abrupt phase changes i n the subsonic flow near the throat. Friction, due to liquid boric oxide films on the nozzle surfaces, was negligible when the surface temperature was above 800 F.

  15. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  16. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  17. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  19. Particulate matter air quality assessment using integrated surface, satellite, and meteorological products: 2. A neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, sparse, surface-based air quality monitoring has been improved by using wide-swath, satellite-derived aerosol products. However, satellites are sensitive to the entire aerosol column, not only the aerosol near the surface that impacts human health. In part 1 of this series, we used multiple regression to demonstrate how inclusion of meteorological analyses can help constrain the surface level proportion of the aerosol profile and improve the estimate of surface PM2.5. Here, instead of multiple regression technique, we describe an artificial neural network (ANN) framework that reduces the uncertainty of surface PM estimation from satellite data. We use 3 years of MODIS aerosol optical thickness data at 0.55 μm and meteorological analyses from the rapid update cycle to estimate surface level PM2.5 over the southeast United States (EPA region 4). As compared to regression coefficients obtained through simple correlation (R = 0.60) or multiple regression (R = 0.68) techniques, the ANN derives hourly PM2.5 data that compare with observations with R = 0.74. For estimating daily mean PM2.5, the ANN techniques results in correlation of R = 0.78. Although the degree of improvement varies over different sites and seasons, this study demonstrates the potential for using ANN for operational air quality monitoring.

  20. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. PMID:27409628

  1. Health Effects of a Mixture of Indoor Air Volatile Organics, Their Ozone Oxidation Products, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Lioy, Paul; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Junfeng; Ottenweller, John; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kipen, Howard

    2005-01-01

    In our present study we tested the health effects among women of controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with and without ozone (O3), and psychological stress. Each subject was exposed to the following three conditions at 1-week intervals (within-subject factor): VOCs (26 mg/m3), VOCs + O3 (26 mg/m3 + 40 ppb), and ambient air with a 1-min spike of VOCs (2.5 mg/m3). As a between-subjects factor, half the subjects were randomly assigned to perform a stressor. Subjects were 130 healthy women (mean age, 27.2 years; mean education, 15.2 years). Health effects measured before, during, and after each 140-min exposure included symptoms, neurobehavioral performance, salivary cortisol, and lung function. Mixing VOCs with O3 was shown to produce irritating compounds including aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, secondary organic aerosols, and ultrafine particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm). Exposure to VOCs with and without O3 did not result in significant subjective or objective health effects. Psychological stress significantly increased salivary cortisol and symptoms of anxiety regardless of exposure condition. Neither lung function nor neurobehavioral performance was compromised by exposure to VOCs or VOCs + O3. Although numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that symptoms are significantly increased among workers in buildings with poor ventilation and mixtures of VOCs, our acute exposure study was not consistent with these epidemiologic findings. Stress appears to be a more significant factor than chemical exposures in affecting some of the health end points measured in our present study. PMID:16263509

  2. Measurement of muon production depth in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers by time structure of muons at observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, Gohar; Khoshabadi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, muon production depth (MPD) of extensive air showers (EASs) are measured from time structure of muons at the observation level. A new method for calculating MPD is presented. Based on its relation to the maximum depth of development of electrons and muons (Xmax and Xmaxμ), this parameter has been used as a mass discriminator factor. Using CORSIKA simulation, different simulations for proton and iron primaries in the energy range of 1014-1015 eV are presented. It is found that MPD distribution is strongly related to Xmax and Xmaxμ. These are mass sensitive parameters and their potential as mass discriminator parameters between light and heavy primaries for ALBORZ prototype array and some arbitrary arrays are investigated.

  3. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-06-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night between spring and autumn in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C10H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  4. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-02-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night during spring and summer in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C105H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  5. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  6. Effect of oil and oil products on lipase activity in gray forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, N. A.; Tarasenko, E. M.; Shamaeva, A. A.; Novoselova, E. I.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of different rates of oil and oil products on the lipase activity in gray forest soil was studied under field and laboratory conditions. It was found that hydrocarbons activate the lipolytic activity of the soil. Along with the activation of lipolysis, an increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and a decrease in the content of oil products were observed.

  7. Impact of crop production on air quality in life support dynamics in closed habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1987-01-01

    Interest in human-designed closed habitats - where the substances needed for human life support are continuously regenerated from waste products - is growing, as apparent from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems Program, the Soviet Union's Bios experiments, and the Biosphere II Project in Arizona. Nuclear-powered bases on the moon and Mars will have food-growing capabilities, and through gas-exchange processes these crops will alter the atmospheric composition. This study focuses on major gases tied to human life support: CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and water vapor. Since actual systems are years and likely decades away, simulation studies can indicate necessary further research and provide instruction about the predicted behavior of such systems. To look at the first-order plant dynamics, i.e., the production of O/sub 2/ and water vapor and the consumption of CO/sub 2/, a simulation model is constructed with crop, human, and waste subsystems. The plant can either share an atmosphere with the humans or be separate, linked by osmotic or mechanical gas exchangers. The crop subsystem is sketched. Stoichiometric equations for the biosynthesis of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids in the edible portion and carbohydrates, fiber, and lignin in the inedible portion govern growth, mimicking that currently observed in the latest hydroponic wheat experiments.

  8. Development of magnetically preloaded air bearings for a linear slide: active compensation of three degrees of freedom motion errors.

    PubMed

    Ro, Seung-Kook; Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Yoonkeun; Park, Chun-Hong

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a linear air-bearing stage that uses active control to compensate for its motion errors. The active control is based on preloads generated by magnetic actuators, which were designed to generate nominal preloads for the air bearings using permanent magnets to maintain the desired stiffness while changing the air-bearing clearance by varying the magnetic flux generated by the current in electromagnetic coils. A single-axis linear stage with a linear motor and 240 mm of travel range was built to verify this design concept and used to test its performance. The motion of the table in three directions was controlled with four magnetic actuators driven by current amplifiers and a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based digital controller. The motion errors were measured using a laser interferometer combined with a two-probe method, and had 0.085 microm of repeatability for the straightness error. As a result of feed-forward active compensation, the errors were reduced from 1.09 to 0.11 microm for the vertical motion, from 9.42 to 0.18 arcsec for the pitch motion, and from 2.42 to 0.18 arcsec for the roll motion. PMID:18377049

  9. Development of magnetically preloaded air bearings for a linear slide: Active compensation of three degrees of freedom motion errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Seung-Kook; Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Yoonkeun; Park, Chun-Hong

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a linear air-bearing stage that uses active control to compensate for its motion errors. The active control is based on preloads generated by magnetic actuators, which were designed to generate nominal preloads for the air bearings using permanent magnets to maintain the desired stiffness while changing the air-bearing clearance by varying the magnetic flux generated by the current in electromagnetic coils. A single-axis linear stage with a linear motor and 240mm of travel range was built to verify this design concept and used to test its performance. The motion of the table in three directions was controlled with four magnetic actuators driven by current amplifiers and a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based digital controller. The motion errors were measured using a laser interferometer combined with a two-probe method, and had 0.085μm of repeatability for the straightness error. As a result of feed-forward active compensation, the errors were reduced from 1.09to0.11μm for the vertical motion, from 9.42to0.18arcsec for the pitch motion, and from 2.42to0.18arcsec for the roll motion.

  10. Smog O3 Production Rate in California Air: Marker Compounds Allow Checks on Source Attribution to Fire and Other Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Esswein, R. F.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; Kulkarni, S.; Blake, D. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    We are able to attribute sources of both radical reactivity and NO that determined the smog-chemical production rate of ozone, P(O3), for NASA's wide-ranging sampling of California air in June, 2008, part of the ARCTAS intensive. We relate formaldehyde, HCHO, and reactive nitrogen oxides, NOx, to a variety of distinct "marker" species that identify origins. We have labeled the sources and markers as (i) Fire emissions (CH3CN), (ii) Biogenic emissions (Isoprene), (iii) Urban/business emissions (CHCl3), (iv) Transport-related fuel consumption, (SO2), and (v) Refining/Port emissions ("residual" toluene). We use multiple linear regression with some appropriate restrictions. We achieve R-squared or explained variance of 88% for HCHO (VOC's) and 60% for NOx. HCHO and NOx are slowly evolving measures of potential ozone generation. The two related but radiation-influenced measures j (HCHO->H+HCO) x [HCHO] and [NO] quantitatively, but non-linearly, relate to instantaneous ozone production in California air, with R-squared of 86-93%, just as in New York City (Chatfield et al., Atmos. Environ., 2010). Maps of attribution for 650 samples from the Port of San Diego to the Northern Sierra foothills, and offshore -— all show huge variability in source attributions for VOCs and NOx. They indicate a widespread fire-emission influence on VOCs as they produce peroxy radicals, but show no positive influence on NOx, in fact consuming NOx from other sources. Comparisons with simulations help to refine our attribution classes and also to check balances of VOC emissions in available inventories. The use of the P(O3) measures is directly translatable to a method for estimate smog-ozone production rate from space, as data from another intensive, DISCOVER-AQ, show. (Left) A rare example where all sources contribute significantly, with markers and tentative attributions marked. (Right) Three different situations describing the control of smog ozone production, all from the same geographic

  11. Design of a simple active controller to suppress helicopter air resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, M. D.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. Using this mathematical model, a nominal configuration is selected that experiences an air resonance instability throughout most of its flight envelope. A simple multivariable compensator using conventional swashplate inputs and a single body roll rate measurement is then designed. The controller design is based on a linear estimator in conjunction with optimal feedback gains, and the design is done in the frequency domain using the Loop Transfer Recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout wide range helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  12. Activity concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn, and their decay products in german dwellings, dose calculations and estimate of risk.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Folkerts, K H; Muth, H

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of 222Rn, its short-lived decay products and of 212Pb - 212Bi were performed in 150 dwellings and in the open air in the Federal Republic of Germany. The concentrations of 222Rn was measured by electrostatic deposition of 218Po. The concentration of the short-lived decay products were measured by air sampling and alpha-spectroscopy. It was found that inside dwellings the average potential alpha-energy concentration of the short-lived daughters is about three times higher than in the open air. The total potential alpha-energy concentration indoors amounts to 2.6 . 10(-3) Working Level (W.L.). Direct measurements of the equilibrium factor inside dwellings gave a mean value of 0.3. A strong dependence of the potential alpha energy concentration on the ventilation rate in dwellings has been observed. These ventilation effects exceed the effects caused by differences in the activity concentrations due to different building materials. The dose calculation results in an average dose to the whole lung due to the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters of about 0.05-0.2 m/Gy/a. An estimate of risk - based on the risk factors for uranium miners - shows an average lifetime risk of about 6 . 10(-4) for the incidence of lung cancer caused by inhalation of radon and thoron daughters in dwellings in the Federal Republic of Germany. PMID:7146318

  13. Adverse effects of air pollutants on wood products and a method for preventing resulting degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, W.Y.

    1992-01-01

    A study of wood surface in hostile environments was undertaken to elucidate the degradation mechanism and develop a method to protect wood in outdoor applications. In this investigation, wood was exposed to SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2] in the presence and absence of ultraviolet light for up to 4 weeks. The effect of the simulated acid rain on wood with and without an epoxy film was evaluated by intermittent spraying of the wood with either sulfuric, nitric acid or water and irradiated with and without the xenon light in a weatherometer for up to 8 weeks. The surface properties of degraded wood and protective epoxy films were analyzed. UV light changed the wood color. The samples lost weight and generated water-soluble degradation products after the photoirradiation. Sulfur dioxide lighted the wood color; nitrogen dioxide changed wood color to brown. Wood increased its weight during the exposure of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub 2], however, the presence of such gases triggered photo-induced degradation. Lignin was degraded and carbonyl groups were formed at irradiated wood. Sulfur and nitrogen dioxides reduced the intensity of carbonyl groups due to degradative hydrolysis. Water-soluble products were derived from polysaccharides and lignin, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and its dissociated ions. During the simulated acidic weathering, xenon light changed the wood color. The color change rate of earlywood was greater than latewood. The presence of acids and water facilitated the wood degradation, and eventually caused leaching. The primary photodegradation phenomena of lignin was confirmed by the FTIR and UV analyses of the irradiated samples. Transparent anhydride-cured epoxy films partially protected wood against the acidic degradation and photoirradiation. Epoxy film cracked, yellowed and had O-ring shapes cavities after the exposure. Salol-added film provided the best protection for wood, followed by a film without an UV stabilizer and Tinuvin 770-added film last.

  14. Actinide, Activation Product and Fission Product Decay Data for Reactor-based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. J.; Dean, C. J.; Nichols, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    The UK Activation Product Decay Data Library was first released in September 1977 as UK-PADD1, to be followed by regular improvements on an almost yearly basis up to the assembly of UKPADD6.12 in March 2013. Similarly, the UK Heavy Element and Actinide Decay Data Library followed in December 1981 as UKHEDD1, with the implementation of various modifications leading to UKHEDD2.6, February 2008. Both the data content and evaluation procedures are defined, and the most recent evaluations are described in terms of specific radionuclides and the resulting consistency of their recommended decay-data files. New versions of the UKPADD and UKHEDD libraries are regularly submitted to the NEA Data Bank for possible inclusion in the JEFF library.

  15. Actinide, Activation Product and Fission Product Decay Data for Reactor-based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.J.; Dean, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.

    2014-06-15

    The UK Activation Product Decay Data Library was first released in September 1977 as UK-PADD1, to be followed by regular improvements on an almost yearly basis up to the assembly of UKPADD6.12 in March 2013. Similarly, the UK Heavy Element and Actinide Decay Data Library followed in December 1981 as UKHEDD1, with the implementation of various modifications leading to UKHEDD2.6, February 2008. Both the data content and evaluation procedures are defined, and the most recent evaluations are described in terms of specific radionuclides and the resulting consistency of their recommended decay-data files. New versions of the UKPADD and UKHEDD libraries are regularly submitted to the NEA Data Bank for possible inclusion in the JEFF library.

  16. Rate-ratio asymptotic analysis of methane-air diffusion-flame structure for predicting production of oxides of nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hewson, J.C.; Williams, F.A.

    1999-05-01

    Production rates of oxides of nitrogen in laminar methane-air diffusion flames are addressed, with thermal, prompt, and nitrous oxide mechanisms taken into account, as well as consumption processes collectively termed reburn. For this purpose, it is necessary to extend the well-known four-step flame-chemistry description to six steps, with acetylene taken out of steady-state and one-step production of nitric oxide included. Emission indices are calculated as functions of the rate of scalar dissipation at the stoichiometric mixture fraction for near-atmospheric pressures and shown to be in reasonable agreement with results obtained from numerical integrations. The various mechanisms of NO{sub x} production and consumption are verified to be strongly dependent on the flame temperature and on superequilibrium concentrations of radicals, both fuel-derived and from hydrogen-oxygen chemistry; the flame-structure analysis was extended to provide sufficient accuracy in the prediction of these quantities. It was found that for flames in near-normal ambient atmospheres, the prompt mechanism usually is most important. For longer residence times, and especially for ambient pressures and temperatures above standard, the thermal mechanism was found to increase in importance, but this increase was calculated to be offset almost entirely by NO consumption through reburn reactions. Conditions that favor reburn were observed to be those where the ratio of radical concentrations to NO concentrations is small. Longer residence times and higher pressures were demonstrated to lead both to more complete heat release and to smaller superequilibrium radical concentrations whence the correspondence between thermal production and reburn. The nitrous oxide mechanism was found to be generally less important for the conditions considered here.

  17. Photo-degradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Rickard; Lindqvist, Camilla; Ericsson, Leif K E; Opitz, Andreas; Wang, Ergang; Moons, Ellen

    2016-04-28

    We have studied the photo-degradation in air of a blend of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), and how the photo-degradation affects the solar cell performance. Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, changes to the electronic structure of TQ1 and PCBM caused by illumination in ambient air are investigated and compared between the pristine materials and the blend. The NEXAFS spectra show that the unoccupied molecular orbitals of TQ1 are not significantly changed by the exposure of pristine TQ1 to light in air, whereas those of PCBM are severely affected as a result of photo-induced degradation of PCBM. Furthermore, the photo-degradation of PCBM is accelerated by blending it with TQ1. While the NEXAFS spectrum of TQ1 remains unchanged upon illumination in air, its valence band spectrum shows that the occupied molecular orbitals are weakly affected. Yet, UV-Vis absorption spectra demonstrate photo-bleaching of TQ1, which is attenuated in the presence of PCBM in blend films. Illumination of the active layer of TQ1:PCBM solar cells prior to cathode deposition causes severe losses in electrical performance. PMID:27051887

  18. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  19. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  20. Microbial Community Dynamics and Activity Link to Indigo Production from Indole in Bioaugmented Activated Sludge Systems

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qin, Yujia; Zhou, Jiti; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the popular dyestuff indigo from indole has been comprehensively studied using pure cultures, but less has been done to characterize the indigo production by microbial communities. In our previous studies, a wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ was isolated from activated sludge and the recombinant Escherichia coli nagAc carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nag) from strain MQ was constructed, both of which were capable of producing indigo from indole. Herein, three activated sludge systems, G1 (non-augmented control), G2 (augmented with Comamonas sp. MQ), and G3 (augmented with recombinant E. coli nagAc), were constructed to investigate indigo production. After 132-day operation, G3 produced the highest yields of indigo (99.5 ± 3.0 mg/l), followed by G2 (27.3 ± 1.3 mg/l) and G1 (19.2 ± 1.2 mg/l). The microbial community dynamics and activities associated with indigo production were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The inoculated strain MQ survived for at least 30 days, whereas E. coli nagAc was undetectable shortly after inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested the abundance of naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nagAc) from both inoculated strains was strongly correlated with indigo yields in early stages (0–30 days) (P < 0.001) but not in later stages (30–132 days) (P > 0.10) of operation. Based on detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity test results, the communities underwent a noticeable shift during the operation. Among the four major genera (> 1% on average), the commonly reported indigo-producing populations Comamonas and Pseudomonas showed no positive relationship with indigo yields (P > 0.05) based on Pearson correlation test, while Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium, rarely reported for indigo production, were positively correlated with indigo yields (P < 0.05). This study should provide new insights into our understanding of indigo bio-production by microbial communities