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Sample records for air ambulance helicopter

  1. A review of risk analysis and helicopter air ambulance accidents.

    PubMed

    Nix, Sam; Buckner, Steven; Cercone, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration announced a final rule in February 2014 that includes a requirement for helicopter air ambulance operators to institute preflight risk analysis programs. This qualitative study examined risk factors that were described in 22 preliminary, factual, and probable cause helicopter air ambulance accident and incident reports that were initiated by the National Transportation Safety Board between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Insights into the effectiveness of existing preflight risk analysis strategies were gained by comparing these risk factors with the preflight risk analysis guidance that is published by the Federal Aviation Administration in the Flight Standards Information Management System. When appropriate, a deeper understanding of the human factors that may have contributed to occurrences was gained through methodologies that are described in the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System. The results of this study suggest that there are some vulnerabilities in existing preflight risk analysis guidelines that may affect safety in the helicopter air ambulance industry. The likelihood that human factors contributed to most of the helicopter air ambulance accidents and incidents that occurred during the study period was also evidenced. The results of this study suggest that effective risk analysis programs should provide pilots with both preflight and in-flight resources.

  2. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  3. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  4. [An ambulance helicopter in Jamtland. A survival necessity in a county of tourism].

    PubMed

    Ek, B; Zetterström, H

    2000-03-22

    The county of Jämtland is a sparsely populated area in which an ambulance-helicopter has been in use since the middle of the 1970's. A prospective study was undertaken during a six month period with the aim of evaluating the benefits of the helicopter as compared with the use of road-ambulance transport alone. Total number of patients involved was n = 249. Both flight nurses and receiving doctors found that in most cases, patients transported by helicopter manned with a flight nurse were given higher quality care. A follow-up study by specialists from the receiving departments confirmed that for 3% (n = 8), transport by ambulance-helicopter resulted in "probably better prognosis", and that for 2% (n = 6) the result was "lifesaving".

  5. Helicopter Emergency Ambulance Service (HEAS) Transfer: An Analysis of Trauma Patient Case-Mix, Injury Severity and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Melton, JTK; Jain, S; Kendrick, B; Deo, SD

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A retrospective review of all patients transferred by helicopter ambulance to the Great Western Hospital over a 20-month period between January 2003 and September 2004 was undertaken to establish the case-mix of patients (trauma and non-trauma) transferred and the outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS Details of all Helicopter Emergency Ambulance Service (HEAS) transfers to this unit in the study time period were obtained from the three HEAS providers in the area and case notes were reviewed. RESULTS There were 156 trauma patients transferred (total 193) in the study period with 111 cases identified for analysis with a mean age of 33 years (range, 1–92 years). Average Injury Severity Score on admission was 12 (range, 1–36). Forty-five patients were discharged home from the emergency department, 24 cases had operation, 10 patients required ICU care and 2 were pronounced dead in the emergency department. Average hospital stay following HEAS transfer was 2.97 days (range, 0–18 days). DISCUSSION Helicopter ambulance transfer in the acute setting is of debated value. Triage criteria are at fault if as many as 41% of patients transferred are being discharged home from casualty having incurred the financial cost of helicopter transfer. We suggest that the triage criteria for helicopter emergency transfer should be reviewed. PMID:17688727

  6. Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems. PMID:24902480

  7. The equestrian sport-related injury workload of a regional doctor-led air ambulance unit.

    PubMed

    Bleetman, David

    2012-12-01

    The Great Western Ambulance Service Air Support Unit (ASU) was established in July 2007. The helicopter carries a doctor, providing a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) model of care. Equestrian sport-related injuries account for 6.8% of the unit's total attended case load. Horse riding has a higher rate of severe injury than motorcycle racing and 45% of patients admitted with equestrian injuries require surgical intervention. Orthopaedic injuries to the extremities are commonest, superseding head injuries since the introduction of protective headwear. The majority of equestrian sport-related injuries occur in areas inaccessible to land crews. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the ASU mission database from July 2008 to December 2009 (18 months) and identified 29 patients that were attended to by the ASU. The patient cohort had a female majority with an average age of 31.9. 10 Patients (34.5%) were under the age of 20. The ISS ranged from 1 to 75 (mean, 4.8; median, 1) and injuries to the extremities were commonest. The location of the accident was inaccessible to land ambulance in 55.2% of missions. The average mission time was over 2h. Doctors delivered more advanced (medical) interventions in 20.7% of missions. In 41.4% of missions, there were no such interventions performed by the attending doctor and no access to land ambulance. We therefore conclude that a large proportion of ASU dispatches were due to limited access rather than for the delivery of advanced interventions. However, our results support the opinion that horse riding carries some risk of serious injury and when employed appropriately, HEMS doctors on the ASU are a useful resource for a minority of equestrian sport-related injuries.

  8. Exploring optimal air ambulance base locations in Norway using advanced mathematical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Røislien, Jo; van den Berg, Pieter L; Lindner, Thomas; Zakariassen, Erik; Aardal, Karen; van Essen, J Theresia

    2017-01-01

    Background Helicopter emergency medical services are an important part of many healthcare systems. Norway has a nationwide physician staffed air ambulance service with 12 bases servicing a country with large geographical variations in population density. The aim of the study was to estimate optimal air ambulance base locations. Methods We used high resolution population data for Norway from 2015, dividing Norway into >300 000 1 km×1 km cells. Inhabited cells had a median (5–95 percentile) of 13 (1–391) inhabitants. Optimal helicopter base locations were estimated using the maximal covering location problem facility location optimisation model, exploring the number of bases needed to cover various fractions of the population for time thresholds 30 and 45 min, both in green field scenarios and conditioning on the current base structure. We reanalysed on municipality level data to explore the potential information loss using coarser population data. Results For a 45 min threshold, 90% of the population could be covered using four bases, and 100% using nine bases. Given the existing bases, the calculations imply the need for two more bases to achieve full coverage. Decreasing the threshold to 30 min approximately doubles the number of bases needed. Results using municipality level data were remarkably similar to those using fine grid information. Conclusions The whole population could be reached in 45 min or less using nine optimally placed bases. The current base structure could be improved by moving or adding one or two select bases. Municipality level data appears sufficient for proper analysis. PMID:27325670

  9. Air To Air Helicopter Fire Control Equations and Software Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCE NO S.SCIP1INTIS CATALOG NUMBER Air To Air Helicop~ter Fire Control 1I t 31Au Equations and Software Generation oN.m...differentiator in order to model the way that they are added in the track loop before the capacitor coupled tachometer feedback. AIRSIM Data Representative output

  10. A Case of Blunt Traumatic Cardiac Tamponade Successfully Treated by Out-of-hospital Pericardial Drainage in a "Doctor-helicopter" Ambulance Staffed by Skilled Emergency Physicians.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshiki; Morita, Seiji; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2016-03-20

    We report a 55-year-old man who relapsed into a state of shock in an ambulance before arriving at our critical care center after a fall injury. The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made by portable ultrasound, and immediate pericardiocentesis and drainage were performed at the heliport. He was then transported immediately to our hospital with continuous drainage and surgery was performed. After surgery, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit in stable condition. After undergoing rehabilitation, he made a full recovery and was discharged. This case illustrates that such patients can be treated reliably by pericardial drainage performed by skilled emergency physicians in the field by making use of the "doctor-helicopter" ambulance transportation system, followed by emergency surgery in a critical care center.

  11. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... between the snow and the cloud eliminating all shadows. The result is a loss of depth perception.'' \\5\\ Brownout conditions occur when sand or other particles restrict visibility and depth perception. Prior to... light greatly impairs a pilot's ability to perceive depth, distance, altitude, or topographical...

  12. Thrombolysis in the air. Air-ambulance paramedics flying to remote communities treat patients before hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, H.; Kelly, L.; Morgan, J.

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations* communities in the North have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes and face an increasing incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Many conditions delay timely administration of thrombolysis, including long times between when patients first experience symptoms and when they present to community nursing stations, delays in air transfers to treating hospitals, uncertainty about when planes are available, and poor flying conditions. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a program for administration of thrombolysis on the way to hospital by air ambulance paramedics flying to remote communities to provide more rapid thrombolytic therapy to northern patients experiencing acute MIs. COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Critical care flight paramedics fly to northern communities from Sioux Lookout, Ont; assess patients; communicate with base hospital physicians; review an exclusion criteria checklist; and administer thrombolytics according to the Sioux Lookout District Health Centre/Base Hospital Policy and Procedure Manual. Patients are then flown to hospitals in Sioux Lookout; Winnipeg, Man; or Thunder Bay, Ont. CONCLUSION: This thrombolysis program is being pilot tested, and further evaluation and development is anticipated. Images p1316-a p1317-a p1317-b PMID:10907571

  13. Helicopter air resonance modeling and suppression using active control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, M. D.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. Using this mathematical model, a nominal configuration is selected with an air resonance instability throughout most of its flight envelope. A multivariable compensator is then designed using two swashplate inputs and a single-body roll rate measurement. The controller design is based on the linear quadratic Gaussian technique and the loop transfer recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout a wide range of helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  14. A Kernel Approach to the Estimation of Performance Measures in a Helicopter Ambulance Service with Missing Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    radius 100 miles centered in Gilroy and Salinas , respectively; with a large part of their coverage areas reachable from either base. The base in Salinas ...extending the operation of one helicopter to 24/7 for its Salinas base. In this study we analyze the operational impacts of that extension, and...Northern California. Two of these bases serve the land areas encompassed roughly in a circular area of radius 100 miles centered in Gilroy and Salinas

  15. The role of the payment vehicle in non-market valuations of a health care service: willingness-to-pay for an ambulance helicopter service.

    PubMed

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the role of the payment vehicle when conducting non-market valuations of health care services using stated preference methods. Based on a contingent valuation study conducted in Denmark encompassing more than 3400 respondents three important conclusions are drawn. Firstly, it is found that the valuation of a publicly financed ambulance helicopter service is higher than for an identical privately financed service. Secondly, the results suggest that the public premium is likely to be partly driven by altruistic preferences, and that some citizens value access to this type of service for all. An important driver is also perceptions of quality of services across the private and public sector. Finally, it is shown that exclusion of protest bidders is problematic and may bias welfare estimates. The take home message is that it is difficult to isolate the value of a good per se, and that analysts should take care in applying the payment vehicle that is likely to be applied in real life when valuing non-market goods. There has been little awareness of the importance of choice of payment vehicle in the literature to date.

  16. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  17. Aeronautical Decision Making for Air Ambulance Helicopter Pilots: Situational Awareness Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    provided: PITFALL DEFINITION ANSWER 1. Peer Pressure a. Unjustified reliance on the aircraft’s high performance capabilities. 2. Mental Set b...psychological pitfall does the statement in sentence 8 represent? a. Responding to Peer Pressure b. Mental Set (or expectancy) c. Scud Running d. Get...without adequate fuel reserves. b. Inadvertant 1HC. c. Responding to peer pressure . d. Neglect of flight planninS, preflight inspection, check lists

  18. Aeronautical Decision Making for Air Ambulance Helicopter Pilots: Learning from Past Mistakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    facility that has jurisdiction over your area of operations. 4. And remember "If you don’t want to get eaten by sharks, stay out of the water". That is...subdural hematoma . The pilot called flight service for weather and received a VMC report. Ŗ,000 broken and higher decks with 7 miles visibility

  19. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  20. Air ambulance flights in northern Norway 2002-2008. Increased number of secondary fixed wing (FW) operations and more use of rotor wing (RW) transports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air ambulance service in Norway has been upgraded during the last years. European regulations concerning pilots' working time and new treatment guidelines/strategies have called for more resources. Aims The objective was to describe and analyse the two supplementary air ambulance [fixed wing (FW) and rotor wing (RW)] alternatives' activity during the study period (2002-2008). Furthermore we aimed to compare our findings with reports from other north European regions. Methods A retrospective analysis. The air ambulance fleet's activity according to the electronic patient record database of "Luftambulansetjenesten ANS" (LABAS) was analysed. The subject was the fleet's operations in northern Norway, logistics, and patients handled. Type of flight, distances, frequency, and patients served were the main outcome measures. Results A significant increase (45%) in the use of RW and a shift in FW operations (less primary and more secondary) were revealed. The shift in FW operations reflected the centralisation of several health care services [i.e. percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI), trauma, and cancer surgery] during the study period. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and injuries were the main diagnoses and constituted half of all operations. CVD was the most common cause of FW operations and injuries of the RW ones. The number of air ambulance operations was 16 per 1,000 inhabitants. This was more frequent than in other north European regions. Conclusions The use of air ambulances and especially RW was significantly increased during the study period. The change in secondary FW operations reflected centralisation of medical care. When health care services are centralised, air ambulance services must be adjusted to the new settings. PMID:21878107

  1. Risk Management Analysis of Air Ambulance Blood Product Administration in Combat Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Medical Evacuation (medevac) helicopters in Afghanistan. This represents the initial experience for pre- hospital blood product transfusion by U.S...adverse reaction or local blood product wastage . Shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) improved significantly en-route, with a median shock...adherence to protocol, and diversion and/or wastage of limited resources were important considerations in the development of the pilot program. Aviation

  2. Design of a simple active controller to suppress helicopter air resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, M. D.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. Using this mathematical model, a nominal configuration is selected that experiences an air resonance instability throughout most of its flight envelope. A simple multivariable compensator using conventional swashplate inputs and a single body roll rate measurement is then designed. The controller design is based on a linear estimator in conjunction with optimal feedback gains, and the design is done in the frequency domain using the Loop Transfer Recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout wide range helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  3. Impact of helicopters on trauma care and clinical results.

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, J A

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the development of civilian helicopter ambulance program as a component of a total emergency medical services (EMS) system. Current literature demonstrates significant reduction in trauma mortality for those patients transported by air either from the scene of the accident or from an outlying hospital to a trauma center. The primary factor is not the speed of the transport but administration of life-saving care by the helicopter medical crew at the scene of the accident or at the outlying hospital. Regulations have been developed to assure proper patient selection, quality care, safety, and minimization of misuse of this expensive resource. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3058056

  4. Helicopter Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Langley Research Center has done extensive research into the effectiveness of tail boom strakes on conventional tail rotor helicopters. (A strake is a "spoiler" whose purpose is to alter the airflow around an aerodynamic body.) By placing strakes on a tail boom, the air loading can be changed, thrust and power requirements of the tail rotor can be reduced, and helicopter low speed flight handling qualities are improved. This research led to the incorporation of tail boom strakes on three production-type commercial helicopters manufactured by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company.

  5. Open and Closed Loop Stability of Hingeless Rotor Helicopter Air and Ground Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M. I.; Bailey, D. J.; Hirschbein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The air and ground resonance instabilities of hingeless rotor helicopters are examined on a relatively broad parametric basis including the effects of blade tuning, virtual hinge locations, and blade hysteresis damping, as well as size and scale effects in the gross weight range from 5,000 to 48,000 pounds. A special case of a 72,000 pound helicopter air resonance instability is also included. The study shows that nominal to moderate and readily achieved levels of blade inertial hysteresis damping in conjunction with a variety of tuning and/or feedback conditions are highly effective in dealing with these instabilities. Tip weights and reductions in pre-coning angles are also shown to be effective means for improving the air resonance instability.

  6. A simple active controller to suppress helicopter air resonance in hover and forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, P. P.; Takahashi, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. This model is used to illustrate the effect of unsteady aerodynamics, forward flight, and torsional flexibility on air resonance. Next, a nominal configuration, which experiences air resonance in forward flight, is selected. A simple multivariable compensator using conventional swashplate inputs and a single body roll rate measurement is then designed. The controller design is based on a linear estimator in conjunction with optimal feedback gains, and the design is done in the frequency domain using the loop-transfer recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout wide range helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  7. The effect of disinfectants on 2024-T3 aluminum in the air medical helicopter.

    PubMed

    Austin, E N; Austin, H C; McKechnie, T N

    1993-03-01

    A principle structural component of helicopters is 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. This alloy has been designed for use in areas requiring high strength-to-weight ratios, but it is susceptible to corrosion damage. The air medical helicopter is frequently exposed to bloodborne pathogens, dirt, intravenous solutions and a variety of other contaminants. The amount of damage to the helicopter that can be caused by the use of cleaners and disinfectants has been raised as an area of concern for the safety of the helicopter, crew and patients. In a controlled study, 2024-T3 alclad aluminum strips were placed in 120-ml glass jars that were filled with 60 ml of solution and then sealed. The solutions used were disinfectants, cleaners and water (both tap and distilled). The strips in solution were placed in a controlled oven at 140 F for 100 hours to simulate long-term damage from immersion, vapors and heat. On examination, many strips were discolored and corroded. Only one solution caused no apparent damage, and only one caused slight vapor damage. As a result of the study, one of the solutions has been designated for use. The results have been used as examples for flight team members on the costly damage that can result from inappropriate use of these substances. A cleaning policy and procedure has been developed to ensure adequate protection from chemical exposure while protecting all team members from the dangers of bloodborne pathogens.

  8. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition.

  9. Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April 2014: A retrospective observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Alex J; Smith, Sue; Dobney, Alec; Thornes, John; Smith, Gillian E; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence illustrating the negative health effects of air pollution including increased risk of respiratory, cardiac and other morbid conditions. During March and April 2014 there were two air pollution episodes in England that occurred in close succession. We used national real-time syndromic surveillance systems, including general practitioner (GP) consultations, emergency department attendances, telehealth calls and ambulance dispatch calls to further understand the impact of these short term acute air pollution periods on the health seeking behaviour of the general public. Each air pollution period was comparable with respect to particulate matter concentrations (PM10 and PM2.5), however, the second period was longer in duration (6 days vs 3 days) and meteorologically driven 'Sahara dust' contributed to the pollution. Health surveillance data revealed a greater impact during the second period, with GP consultations, emergency department attendances and telehealth (NHS 111) calls increasing for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing indicators, particularly in patients aged 15-64 years. Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour.

  10. Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with MUX-Bucket in flight Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 135

  11. [Importance of helicopter rescue].

    PubMed

    Hofer, G; Voelckel, W G

    2014-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) have become a main part of prehospital emergency medical services over the last 40 years. Recently, an ongoing discussion about financial shortage and personal shortcomings question the role of cost-intensive air rescue. Thus, the value of HEMS must be examined and discussed appropriately. Since the number of physician-staffed ground ambulances may decrease due to the limited availability of qualified physicians, HEMS may fill the gap. In addition patient transfer to specialized hospitals will require an increasing number of air transports in order to minimize prehospital time. The higher risk ratio for HEMS missions when compared with ground rescue requires a rigorous quality management system. When it comes to missions in remote and exposed areas, the scope of medical treatment must be adjusted to the individual situation. Medical competence is key in order to balance guideline compliant or maximal care versus optimal care characterized as a mission-specific, individualized emergency care concept. Although, medical decision making and treatment is typically based on the best scientific evidence, personal skills, competence, and the mission scenario will determine the scope of interventions suitable to improve outcome. Thus, the profile of requirements for the HEMS medical crew is high.

  12. Hardware Requirements for Helicopter Air-to-Air Weapons in the 1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    Aviation School, Field Manual 90-1, nploymentq f Army Aviation Units in a High Threat Environ- ment, 30 September 1976, p. 2-13. Ilbid. - 4-.Y’ ’~’&4...pons sighting systems, is located in the nose section in .U.S. Army Field Manual 30-40, Handbook on Soviet Ground Forces, )0 June 1975, pp. 6-95. 20...that this high regard will continue. At present new manuals are being written to expand the use of helicopters on the battlefield, and proposed

  13. 78 FR 47531 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services (previously Erickson Air-Crane Co.); California... State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services (previously Erickson Air-Crane Co.); California... Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter...

  14. An evaluation of the Royal Air Force helicopter search and rescue services in Britain with reference to Royal Air Force Valley 1980-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Liskiewicz, W J

    1992-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) operates a helicopter Search and Rescue (SAR) service in the United Kingdom and territorial waters; it also provides a similar service in several locations abroad. A 10-year retrospective study of the SAR helicopter service operating from the RAF base at Valley on the island of Anglesey in North Wales is presented, with national SAR statistics over a similar period provided for comparison. Analysis of records kept by SAR aircrew at RAF Valley shows that their assistance had been requested on 1490 occasions during the 10-year period studied; most of these requests were the result of incidents involving holidaymakers, particularly in the mountains or along the coast. The results illustrate the versatility and life-saving potential of a highly skilled and motivated service able to work in adverse weather and dangerous locations. In the light of current debate, the value of aeromedical evacuation of seriously ill patients using helicopters is discussed. PMID:1494160

  15. Helicopter Maneuverability and Agility Design Sensitivity and Air Combat Maneuver Data Correlation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    attitude limit. At the end of the maneuver, the nose comes c? as the power limit is reached for each helicopter . Because of the impact of individual... helicopter rapidly rotates down to the pitch attitude limit and stays there for about two-thirds of the acceleration interval. The nose comes up and...previous acceleration maneuver. The power limit was added to avoid having ’"he helicopters reach hover with large nose-up attitudes . Fundamental Parameter

  16. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-13

    Pain Yvonne Brandt, AFGSC/SGP; Linda Currier, 374 MDG; Timothy Plante, 15 AMDS/SGPT; Christine Schubert Kabban, AFIT/ENC; Anthony Tvaryanas...Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...88ABW-2014-6033, 22 Dec 2014 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if 5 core strengthening exercises would decrease pain severity

  18. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  19. 78 FR 40063 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters (Type Certificate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... helicopters. The existing AD requires checks of the main rotor blades for a crack. This proposed AD would... expand the applicability to include Model S-64F helicopters and clarify the applicable main rotor blades by part number. The proposed actions are intended to detect a crack in the main rotor blade...

  20. Helicopter external noise requirements: FAA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Enactment of helicopter noise certification standards for the control of noise impact contributing to community annoyance is considered in terms of the development of helicopters as an environmentally compatible air transportation mode. Increased use of helicopters for commercial applications and public awareness of aircraft noise are cited as factors making development of helicopter noise standards necessary both for the protection of the environmental interest of the community and to ensure the orderly growth of the helicopter industry itself. Noise sources, technology trends in helicopter design, and design concepts to control helicopter noise are discussed along with the regulatory background and specific helicopter regulatory concepts.

  1. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  2. 77 FR 44434 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services (previously Erickson Air-Crane Co.); California... apply to Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter... Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter...

  3. Impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness for helicopter air combat, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, T. M.; Beerman, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation to investigate the impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness is described. The objective of the study was to relate the effects of flying qualities, such as precision of flight path control and pilot workload, to the ability of a single Scout helicopter, or helicopter team, to accomplish a specified anti-armor mission successfully. The model of the actual engagement is a Monte Carlo simulation that has the capability to assess the effects of helicopter characteristics, numbers, tactics and weaponization on the force's ability to accomplish a specific mission against a specified threat as a function of realistic tactical factors. A key feature of this program is a simulation of micro-terrain features and their effects on detection, exposure, and masking for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight.

  4. 77 FR 73265 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... cracking in the rotary rudder boom or pylon due to fatigue, and to prevent failure from static overload and... boom or pylon due to fatigue, and to prevent failure from static overload and subsequent loss of..., failure from static overload, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. (c) Effective Date This...

  5. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  6. Ambulation and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Walking impairment is a common consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) that can result in substantial limitations of daily activities and compromised quality of life. Walking impairment is often monitored as an indicator of disease and neurologic disability progression. The worsening of walking performance while undertaking a cognitive task underscores the role of nonmotor impairments in ambulation limitations. Walking impairment has ubiquitous and life-altering consequences, underscoring the importance of continued efforts to identify approaches to prevent and forestall this event, and to restore walking ability in persons with MS.

  7. [Hearing loss by continuous exposure to high sound pressure among maintenance workers at a Brazilian Air Force helicopters unity].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Maria Dutra; Câmara, Volney de M

    2006-06-01

    Continuous exposure to high sound pressure in aeronautical workers can be associated with inner ear hearing loss. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of deafness among all maintenance workers from a Brazilian Air Force helicopter unit. The methods included the application of individual questionnaires and audiometric tests. The results showed a high prevalence (32.4%) of hearing loss related to time on the job (p < 0.05; RP = 2.11; 95%CI: 1.03-4.32) and the 41-50-year age bracket (p = 0.00; RP < 3.94; 95%CI: 2.04-7.62). No influence was found from selected variables that might result in bias. Finally, a program to prevent hearing loss was recommended.

  8. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang

    2016-01-01

    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m2 (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m2. PMID:27077862

  9. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang

    2016-04-12

    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m² (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m².

  10. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  11. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  12. Investigation and Optimization of the Performance of an Air-Coil Sensor with a Differential Structure Suited to Helicopter TEM Exploration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Wang, Yanzhang

    2015-09-15

    An air-coil sensor (ACS) is a type of induction magnetometer used as a transducer to measure the variations of a magnetic field. This device is widely applied in helicopter transient electromagnetic method (TEM) exploration. Most helicopter TEM explorations generate common-mode noise and require extreme ACS specifications, both of which inevitably challenge geophysical explorations. This study proposes a differential air-core coil combined with a differential pre-amplifier to reduce the common-mode noise induced in exploration surveys. To satisfy the stringent performance requirements, including the geometric parameters and electrical specifications, the physical calculations in theory and the equivalent schematic of an ACS with noise location are investigated, respectively. The theory calculation and experimental result for the optimized ACS are then compared on the basis of a differential structure. Correspondingly, an ACS is constructed with a mass, resultant effective area, 3 dB bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and normalized equivalent input noise of 2.5 kg, 5.5 m² (diameter is 0.5 m), 71 kHz, 20 (the varying magnetic field strength is 1 nT/s), and 5.43 nV/m², respectively. These data are superior to those of the traditional induction sensor 3D-3. Finally, a field experiment is performed with a fabricated sensor to show a valid measurement of the time-varying magnetic field of a helicopter TEM system based on the designed ACS.

  13. Investigation and Optimization of the Performance of an Air-Coil Sensor with a Differential Structure Suited to Helicopter TEM Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Wang, Yanzhang

    2015-01-01

    An air-coil sensor (ACS) is a type of induction magnetometer used as a transducer to measure the variations of a magnetic field. This device is widely applied in helicopter transient electromagnetic method (TEM) exploration. Most helicopter TEM explorations generate common-mode noise and require extreme ACS specifications, both of which inevitably challenge geophysical explorations. This study proposes a differential air-core coil combined with a differential pre-amplifier to reduce the common-mode noise induced in exploration surveys. To satisfy the stringent performance requirements, including the geometric parameters and electrical specifications, the physical calculations in theory and the equivalent schematic of an ACS with noise location are investigated, respectively. The theory calculation and experimental result for the optimized ACS are then compared on the basis of a differential structure. Correspondingly, an ACS is constructed with a mass, resultant effective area, 3 dB bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and normalized equivalent input noise of 2.5 kg, 5.5 m2 (diameter is 0.5 m), 71 kHz, 20 (the varying magnetic field strength is 1 nT/s), and 5.43 nV/m2, respectively. These data are superior to those of the traditional induction sensor 3D-3. Finally, a field experiment is performed with a fabricated sensor to show a valid measurement of the time-varying magnetic field of a helicopter TEM system based on the designed ACS. PMID:26389908

  14. Physical workload of ambulance assistants.

    PubMed

    Doormaal, M T; Driessen, A P; Landeweerd, J A; Drost, M R

    1995-02-01

    The physical workload of ambulance assistants was assessed by means of the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) observation method and a Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ) for measuring perceived workload. In addition, a biomechanical model was applied to several specifically strenuous conditions that were simulated in a laboratory situation. Bad postures were identified for a number of activities: 16% to 29% of a work shift was spent in harmful positions. Strenuous situations occur particularly during rides in emergency situations. The results of observed and perceived workload are generally in agreement. A number of practical recommendations are made. They concern, for example, the equipment in ambulance cars, training of ambulance assistants and adaptations in working procedures.

  15. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  16. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  17. Helicopter problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G

    1937-01-01

    The present report deals with a number of the main problems requiring solution in the development of helicopters and concerning the lift, flying performance, stability, and drive. A complete solution is given for the stability of the helicopter with rigid blades and control surfaces. With a view to making a direct-lift propeller sufficient without the addition of auxiliary propellers, the "flapping drive" is assessed and its efficiency calculated.

  18. Note on Hovering Turns with Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P; Tapscott, Robert J

    1955-01-01

    The source of an appreciable pitching-moment difference between left and right hovering turns for a tandem helicopter is described. The difference in pitching moment results from the difference in rotational speed of the counter rotating rotors with respect to the air while the helicopter is turning.

  19. Outcome, transport times, and costs of patients evacuated by helicopter versus fixed-wing aircraft.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, F.; Wisham, J.; Clemmer, T. P.; Orme, J. F.; Larsen, K. G.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the differences in transport times and costs for patients transported by fixed-wing aircraft versus helicopter at ranges of 101 to 150 radial miles, where fixed-wing and helicopter in-hospital transports commonly overlap. Statistical analysis failed to show a significant difference between the trauma-care patients transported by helicopter (n = 109) and those transported by fixed-wing (n = 86) for age, injury severity score, hospital length of stay, hospital mortality, or discharge disability score. The times in returning patients to the receiving hospital by helicopter (n = 104) versus fixed-wing (n = 509) did not differ significantly. Helicopter transport costs per mile ($24), however, were 400% higher than those of fixed-wing aircraft with its associated ground ambulance transport costs ($6). Thus, helicopter transport is economically unjustified for interhospital transports exceeding 100 radial miles when an efficient fixed-wing service exists. PMID:2389575

  20. Effects of London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J. P.; Brazier, J. E.; Snooks, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of the London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma. DESIGN--Prospective comparison of outcomes in cohorts of seriously injured patients attended by the helicopter and attended by London ambulance service land ambulances crewed by paramedics. SETTING--Greater London. SUBJECTS--337 patients attended by helicopter and 466 patients attended by ambulance who sustained traumatic injuries and died, stayed in hospital three or more nights, or had other evidence of severe injury and who were taken to any one of 20 primary receiving hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Survival at six months after the incident. RESULTS--After differences in the nature and severity of the injuries in the two cohorts were accounted for the estimated survival rates were the same (relative risk of death with helicopter = 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.4). An analysis with trauma and injury severity scores (TRISS) found 16% more deaths than predicted in the helicopter cohort but only 2% more in the ambulance cohort. There was no evidence of a difference in survival for patients with head injury but a little evidence that patients with major trauma (injury severity score > or = 16) were more likely to survive if attended by the helicopter. An estimated 13 (-5 to 39) extra patients with major trauma could survive each year if attended by the helicopter. CONCLUSION--Any benefit in survival is restricted to patients with very severe injuries and amounts to an estimated one additional survivor of major trauma each month. Over all the helicopter caseload, however, there is no evidence that it improves the chance of survival in trauma. PMID:7627033

  1. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve?

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas I; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services.

  2. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve?

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas i; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services. PMID:26066019

  3. [Back ache in helicopter pilots].

    PubMed

    Colak, S; Jovelić, S; Manojlović, J

    1992-01-01

    Due to low back pain (LBP) and harmful effects of flying, questionnaires were sent to 71 helicopter pilots of the experimental group, 22 mechanics helicopter flyers and to the control group of 28 air-traffic controllers. The prevalence of LBP was the highest in helicopter pilots, then in helicomechanics and air-traffic controllers (53%, 50% and 36%). Effects of exposure to vibration, body posture and working load have not contributed significantly to the occurrence of LBP. LBP has not lead to an important difference in the strength of the back musculature, body mass index and spondylosis, that is, scoliosis. The necessity of further study of LBP and maintaining of specific preventive measures are indicated.

  4. 78 FR 65195 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... rotor blade (MRB) retention bolts (bolts) installed. This AD requires a daily check of the position of... other helicopters of the same type designs and that air safety and the public interest require adopting... (ASB SB900-116). ASB SB900-116 specifies a repetitive check of the blade retention bolts, part...

  5. Helicopter Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Exterior and interior noise problems are addressed both from the physics and engineering as well as the human factors point of view. The role of technology in closing the gap between what the customers and regulating agencies would like to have and what is available is explored. Noise regulation concepts, design, operations and testing for noise control, helicopter noise prediction, and research tools and measurements are among the topics covered.

  6. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  7. Integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads for wounded transfer under demand location uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi-Amiri, Ali; Tavakoli, Shayan; Mirzaeipour, Hossein; Rabbani, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Health emergency medical service (HEMS) plays an important role in reducing injuries by providing advanced medical care in the shortest time and reducing the transfer time to advanced treatment centers. In the regions without ground relief coverage, it would be faster to transfer emergency patients to the hospital by a helicopter. In this paper, an integer nonlinear programming model is presented for the integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads by considering uncertainty in demand points. We assume three transfer modes: (1) direct transfer by an ambulance, (2) transfer by an ambulance to a helicopter station and then to the hospital by a helicopter, (3) transfer by an ambulance to a predetermined point and then to the hospital by a helicopter. We also assume that demands occur in a square-shaped area, in which each side follows a uniform distribution. It is also assumed that demands in an area decrease errors in the distances between each two cities. The purpose of this model is to minimize the transfer time from demand points to the hospital by considering different modes. The proposed model is examined in terms of validity and applicability in Lorestan Province and a sensitivity analysis is also conducted on the total allocated budget.

  8. Ambulance deployment with the hypercube queuing model.

    PubMed

    Larson, R C

    1982-01-01

    A computer-implemented mathematical model has been developed to assist planners in the spatial deployment and dispatching of ambulances. The model incorporates uncertainties in the arrival times, locations, and service requirements of patients, building on the branch of operations research known as queuing theory. Several system-performance measures are generated by the model, including mean neighborhood-specific response times, mean utilization of each ambulance, and statistical profiles of ambulance response patterns. This model has been implemented by the Department of Health and Hospitals of the City of Boston.

  9. Ambulance Design Survey 2011: A Summary Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Tina; Kibira, Deogratias; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Marshall, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Current ambulance designs are ergonomically inefficient and often times unsafe for practical treatment response to medical emergencies. Thus, the patient compartment of a moving ambulance is a hazardous working environment. As a consequence, emergency medical services (EMS) workers suffer fatalities and injuries that far exceed those of the average work place in the United States. To reduce injury and mortality rates in ambulances, the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has teamed with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and BMT Designers & Planners in a joint project to produce science-based ambulance patient compartment design standards. This project will develop new crash-safety design standards and improved user-design interface guidance for patient compartments that are safer for EMS personnel and patients, and facilitate improved patient care. The project team has been working with practitioners, EMS workers' organizations, and manufacturers to solicit needs and requirements to address related issues. This paper presents an analysis of practitioners' concerns, needs, and requirements for improved designs elicited through the web-based survey of ambulance design, held by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This paper also introduces the survey, analyzes the survey results, and discusses recommendations for future ambulance patient compartments design.

  10. Ambulance Design Survey 2011: A Summary Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y Tina; Kibira, Deogratias; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Marshall, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Current ambulance designs are ergonomically inefficient and often times unsafe for practical treatment response to medical emergencies. Thus, the patient compartment of a moving ambulance is a hazardous working environment. As a consequence, emergency medical services (EMS) workers suffer fatalities and injuries that far exceed those of the average work place in the United States. To reduce injury and mortality rates in ambulances, the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has teamed with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and BMT Designers & Planners in a joint project to produce science-based ambulance patient compartment design standards. This project will develop new crash-safety design standards and improved user-design interface guidance for patient compartments that are safer for EMS personnel and patients, and facilitate improved patient care. The project team has been working with practitioners, EMS workers’ organizations, and manufacturers to solicit needs and requirements to address related issues. This paper presents an analysis of practitioners’ concerns, needs, and requirements for improved designs elicited through the web-based survey of ambulance design, held by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This paper also introduces the survey, analyzes the survey results, and discusses recommendations for future ambulance patient compartments design. PMID:26401439

  11. Ambulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate change.

    PubMed

    Thornes, John Edward; Fisher, Paul Anthony; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Smith, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Although there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007-2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance call-out and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December-20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency.

  12. Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.

  13. Environmental Assessment: Apalachicola National Forest Helicopter Landing Zones Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Use, Sustained Yield Act, "the national forests are established and shall be administered for outdoor recreation , range, timber, watershed, and...ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSEMENT APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST HELICOPTER LANDING ZONES FLORIDA MOODY AIR FORCE BASE...Assessment: Apalachicola National Forest Helicopter Landing Zones Florida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. Model Tests on the Economy and Effectiveness of Helicopter Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1925-01-01

    The average velocity of helicopter blades relative to the air is greater than that of airplane wings. The helicopter may turn out to be more economical than the airplane wing for extreme velocities of horizontal flight, the airplane then requiring a very great speed range.

  15. 77 FR 18970 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 407 helicopters. This proposed AD is... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4, telephone (450)...

  16. Application of a helicopter mathematical model to the Langley differential maneuvering simulator for use in a helicopter/fighter evasive maneuver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Ashworth, B. R.; Baker, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A real time simulation study was conducted using a differential maneuvering simulator to determine and evaluate helicopter evasive maneuvers when attacked by fighter aircraft. A general helicopter mathematical model was modified to represent an H-53 helicopter. The helicopter model was compared to H-53 flight test data to determine any differences between the simulated and actual vehicles. The simulated helicopter was also subjectively validated by participating pilots. Two fighter mathematical models validated in previous studies were utilized for the attacking aircraft. The results of this simulation study have been verified in a flight test program conducted by the U. S. Air Force and were found to closely match the flight results.

  17. Emergency ambulance assistance in The Netherlands: is the Dutch situation optimal?

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B; van Olden, G D; Edwards, M J

    1995-12-01

    The system of prehospital trauma care in the Netherlands is the subject of great concern. Although many improvements have been achieved in the last decade, there are still some deficits. Legislation concerning the minimal level of education for ambulance attendants was recently upgraded to 'registered nurse', a standard which must be achieved by 1997. Standardization with regard to extrication techniques, equipment and methods of treatment in prehospital trauma care does not yet exist. Although aware of the fact that large regional differences exist throughout the USA, a system of care in accordance with the advanced trauma life support (ATLS) standard of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and by means of prehospital and advanced trauma life support (PHTLS) given according to the standards of the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMS) was considered to be the 'golden standard'. Nineteen ground ambulance and two helicopter services in different states of the USA, working according to ACS/NAEMS standard, were visited to analyse the system of care, with special reference to (para)medical education, communication, logistics, and immobilization materials and techniques. In the Netherlands all 41 central post ambulance services (CPAs) were asked to return a questionnaire. This resulted in a 90% (37 out of 41) response. The deficits of the Dutch system of care related to the PHTLS/ATLS standard are pointed out, resulting in recommendations to improve the Dutch system. The requirements of the dispatcher are far inferior to the optimal situation, which, together with the lack of technical equipment, results in serious communication problems. The Dutch ambulance attendant education, in which in the present system the education level reaches 'registered nurse' in only 91% and specialized courses are not mandatory, should be upgraded to the PHTLS level of care.

  18. Would You Feel Safe in A Driverless Ambulance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Would You Feel Safe in a Driverless Ambulance? Vehicles would free up an extra person to care ... does have one potential advantage over current emergency vehicles. Right now, a patient in an ambulance gets ...

  19. Real-time simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Helicopter IFR routes at hub airports have been investigated in an air-traffic-control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer-generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed-wing traffic; and (3) utility of the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) for the helicopter. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were pilot acceptable and were noninterfering with fixed-wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning CDTI.

  20. Helicopter Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Helicopters are used by the military and civilian communities for a variety of tasks and must be capable of operating in poor weather conditions and at night. Accompanying extended helicopter operations is a significant increase in pilot workload and a need for better handling qualities. An overview of the status and problems in the development and specification of helicopter handling-qualities criteria is presented. Topics for future research efforts by government and industry are highlighted.

  1. All-weather capability for rescue helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitmair-Steck, Wolfgang; Haisch, Stefan

    2001-08-01

    In Germany as well as in numerous other countries the air rescue system has been extended significantly since the first operation of the rescue helicopter Christoph 1. The primary target of the air rescue system was to guarantee fast and efficient emergency medical services for victims of accidents. During the years, the scope of the helicopter operations has been extended not only to other types of emergency medical services, but also to secondary medical services like the displacement of patients from hospitals to special service hospitals. While in general the displacement of patients is operated from well known and registered helipads, the primary rescue service currently has to rely on available onboard systems only. Those operations are risky and challenging for the pilots because of time pressure and the danger of obstacles in the environment of the helicopter. In addition, reduced visibility due to fog, rainfall or low light levels can further increase the risks or can make the services unavailable at all. Almost one decade ago, Eurocopter started the investigation of technologies and systems that could help the pilots to perform their tasks with reduced workload and risk, and to allow for a 24 h operation of helicopters irrespective of the weather conditions. After a number of preliminary studies, in 1995 the research program 'All-weather helicopter' has been started as a joint effort of Eurocopter and the supplier industry in Europe. The first phase of the program has been successfully completed in 1999 and the second phase is currently in progress.

  2. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  3. Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-02

    AFFTC-PA-11118 Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links Michael Rice, Michael Jensen AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER...EDWARDS AFB, CA June 2, 2011 A F F T C m Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Helicopter transmission testing at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The helicopter has evolved into a highly valuable air mobile vehicle for both military and civilian needs. The helicopter transmission requires advanced studies to develop a technology base for future rotorcraft advances. A joint helicopter transmission research program between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command has existed since 1970. Program goals are to reduce weight and noise and to increase life and reliability. The current experimental activities at Lewis consist of full-scale helicopter transmission testing, a base effort in gearing technology, and a future effort in noise reduction technology. The experimental facilities at Lewis for helicopter transmission testing are described. A description of each of the rigs is presented along with some significant results and near-term plans.

  5. NASA helicopter blades get new paint job for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA UH-1H helicopter is prepared for transfer back to Patrick Air Force Base after being painted. The blades of four NASA UH-1H helicopters were repainted, changing the black to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen by a second helicopter from above. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  6. Helicopter simulator qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampson, Brian

    1992-01-01

    CAE has extensive experience in building helicopter simulators and has participated in group working sessions for fixed-wing advisory circulars. Against this background, issues that should be addressed in establishing helicopter approval criteria were highlighted. Some of these issues are not immediately obvious and may, indeed, be more important than the criteria a themselves.

  7. The RMAX Helicopter UAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    7 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION..................................8 OBSERVATION FLIGHT AT ERUPTING VOLCANO , MT. USU...autonomous flight control system. Because our autonomous, unmanned helicopter has succeeded in observation roles at erupting volcanoes , the Japanese...saving devices. In April 2000, we had our GPS-based autonomous helicopter play an observation role at an erupting volcano . This is the first time in

  8. ATC simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of independent helicopter IFR routes at hub airports was investigated in a real time air traffic control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. The helicopter simulator was equipped to fly area navigation (RNAV) routes and microwave landing system approaches. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed wing traffic; and (3) utility of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) for the helicopter in the hub airport environment. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were acceptable to the subject pilots and were noninterfering with fixed wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning the acceptability of the CDTI procedures.

  9. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  10. Development and tests of a paediatric and neonatal immobilizer for ambulance transfers.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Tomás; Arana, Ignacio; Pérez Ezcurdia, Amaya; Alfaro, José Ramón

    2014-05-01

    There are many stretcher models able to adequately achieve the spinal immobilization of adult patients during emergency transports but do not work well with children. A paediatric and neonatal immobilizer has been designed, constructed and tested. It is simple, radio-transparent, able to be adequately fastened to an ambulance, adaptable to a wide range of paediatric patient's size, providing a correct spinal immobilization without an excessive immobilization of the rest of the body, without impairing the aperture of an aerial way or the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and without reducing the accessibility of the medical personnel to the paediatric patient. It is able to be adapted to the size and injuries of the patient instead of adapting the position of the patient to the characteristics of the immobilizer. It can also be effectively fastened to the bed of an emergency helicopter, allowing the aerial transport of the paediatric patients.

  11. A critical care helicopter system in trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L. M.; Bennett, B.

    1989-01-01

    Civilian helicopters and emergency medical services in the United States have been in existence for approximately 15 years. The rapid growth of this type of health care delivery coupled with an increasing number of accidents has prompted professional and lay scrutiny of these programs. Although they have a demonstrated history of benefit to patients, the type and severity of injuries to patients who are eligible for helicopter transportation need further definition. The composition of the medical crews and the benefits that particular crew members bring to the patients require ongoing evaluation. Significant questions regarding the number of pilots in a helicopter and in a program remain to be answered. This article reviews the role of emergency medical air transport services in providing care to trauma patients, staff training and evaluation, and safety criteria and offers recommendations to minimize risks to patients and crews. PMID:2695653

  12. Air to Air Helicopter Combat (USMC Helicopters versus Russian HIND)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-11

    OGAIATOW IAt AND ADODRB8 10. PR TAS US Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013 IrTAT II OTO6H FIKNAME AND ORKSS h.Ot.*e G Is..~I 3.DISTRIBUTION...KUY WORDS (COaiiUw on eveeeb oldb It 80400040V 4011 1IMlU 6F Week M0060) So. ANAT"ACY tconlbus M meree .ds of ***....v Med 4daentoly 4 1"k mosei ) The

  13. Ambulance times of Ankara emergency aid and rescue services' ambulance system.

    PubMed

    Altintaş, K H; Bilir, N

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine various times related to the ambulance activities of Ankara Emergency Aid and Rescue Services (EARS) and if necessary contribute to the improvement of them. A descriptive study was planned to determine various times related to the ambulance activities of Ankara EARS. The data was collected by one of the researchers. The study was conducted between 1 October 1995 and 30 September 1996. The variables of the study were: delay time, response time, time at the scene (scene time), round trip time, transport time and total run time of Ankara EARS ambulance activities. Ankara EARS Emergency Call Registry Forms (5638 forms) were evaluated for the above stated variables. The computer program EPI-INFO 5.0 was used in the study. The median response time of Ankara EARS was found to be 9 minutes. In the research year, the median delay time was 2 minutes. Median arrival to patient contact time of Ankara EARS was 2 minutes. Median time at the scene was 7 minutes. Median round trip time of the system was 44 minutes. The median time to arrive at the scene from the ambulance station was 8 minutes. The median transport time was 10 minutes. The median total run time was 30 minutes. As the median response time was found to be 9 minutes it is concluded that there should be more ambulance vehicles to improve this time of Ankara EARS. Due to financial problems, times were recorded manually by the ambulance crew and dispatchers of Ankara EARS. If digital and electronic recording systems are used, these times might be more precise.

  14. 78 FR 40956 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... helicopters with a Metro Aviation (Metro) vapor-cycle air conditioning kit installed in accordance with Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) No. SH3880SW. This AD requires repetitively inspecting the air conditioning... comments. Discussion STC No. SH3880SW approves the installation of the Metro vapor-cycle air...

  15. Ambulance restocking could violate federal law, despite safe harbor.

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    A proposed rule to create safe harbors for EDs that restock ambulances was published by the Office of the Inspector General, but EDs are still at risk for violations. Even common practices such as providing free food, waiving education tuition, and restocking ambulance supplies could violate federal anti-kickback laws. Violations of the anti-kickback statute place a hospital at risk of losing its Medicare status. The proposed rule gives EDs seven criteria to qualify for safe harbors for ambulance restocking.

  16. Army Attack Helicopters: Can They Survive on the Airland Battlefield?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    air-to-ar defense sysstems were studied. Specific anti-helicopter systems and tactics were investigated to determine the level of the threat facing...most notable for its suggestion of the development of the helicopter turbine engine , which promised to be an answer to the acute engine power...Argentine Pucara. The Pucara is a small twin engined , two seat aircraft designed for counterinsurgency duties in Argentina. It is armed with two 20mm or

  17. Shoes versus sneakers in toddler ambulation.

    PubMed

    Gould, N

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative values and differences between shoes and sneakers for young children just learning to walk. In phase 1 of the study, 79 toddlers (47 females and 32 males), ranging in age from 11 months to 3 years, were carefully measured for footwear. Only 15 toddlers (19%) could be properly fitted in the medium-width sneakers that are currently available on the market. The majority of the measured toddlers required widths greater than D, and to accommodate these wider feet, it was necessary to fit them with longer sneakers than they actually needed otherwise, thus making ambulation a bit more difficult and clumsy. In phase 2, eight toddlers, randomly selected except for sex (four male and four female), ranging in age from 11 to 16 months who had been ambulating 2 weeks to 5 months, were tagged with an identifying letter and videotaped in four walking situations: sneakers on tile, shoes on tile, sneakers on rugging, and shoes on rugging. Four hours of video taping was edited down to one-half hour. Twenty-three observers (orthopaedic surgeons, pediatricians, and shoe fitters) carefully reviewed the tape on multiple occasions and came to the following conclusions: better fit, stance, gait, cadence, and stability were noted with shoes in all the toddlers and in all situations. Falls were three times more frequent in sneakers as compared to shoes on tile surfaces and five times more frequent on rugging. It was concluded that the slight economic advantage of sneakers over shoes was not that great to warrant jeopardizing the capabilities of the toddler in the earliest stages of ambulation.

  18. Leg spasticity and ambulation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Pula, John H; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = -0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = -0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = -0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = -0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  19. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Pula, John H.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = −0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = −0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = −0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = −0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking. PMID:24999434

  20. Multimission helicopter cockpit displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, William S.; Terry, Jody K.; Lovelace, Nancy D.

    1996-05-01

    A new operator display subsystem is being incorporated as part of the next generation United States Navy (USN) helicopter avionics system to be integrated into the multi-mission helicopter (MMH) that replaces both the SH-60B and the SH-60F in 2001. This subsystem exploits state-of-the-art technology for the display hardware, the display driver hardware, information presentation methodologies, and software architecture. Both of the existing SH-60 helicopter display systems are based on monochrome CRT technology; a key feature of the MMH cockpit is the integration of color AMLCD multifunction displays. The MMH program is one of the first military programs to use modified commercial AMLCD elements in a tactical aircraft. This paper presents the general configuration of the MMH cockpit and multifunction display subsystem and discusses the approach taken for presenting helicopter flight information to the pilots as well as presentation of mission sensor data for use by the copilot.

  1. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  2. Medical Requirements for Ambulance Design and Equipment. Emergency Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    A vehicle must meet certain specific requirements to be classified as an ambulance if it is to satisfy the demands of the physician in terms of emergency care for which properly trained ambulance attendants can be held responsible. Developed by professional and lay experts for use by automotive designers and manufacturing, this publication would…

  3. Occupational Survey Report. Helicopter Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    helicopters I-D53 Oversee helicopter inspectim or maintance activities during cross-country missions on H- I B15 0014 H-1Maian (Continued) H383 Remove or...Plan maintmeance or inspections of helicopters E95 Comdinate estimated times in commission (ETICs) of maintance jobs with job control A19 Plan work

  4. Helicopter support of North Sea oil exploration.

    PubMed

    Preston, F S

    1978-04-01

    Exploration for oil beneath the North Sea started in the early 1960's with the discovery of natural gas and oil in the southern part between the coasts of East Anglia and the Netherlands. Since then oil exploration has built up considerably, the main effort moving northwards between the Shetland Islands and the Norwegian coasts. The helicopter offered the most direct and rapid contact with off-shore oil rigs and since these early days and immense helicopter operation has been built up round the borders of the North Sea by all the nations involved. Flying conditions in this area, particularly in winter, are at times difficult if not to say hazardous. Nevertheless, a sophisticated helicopter support service has been built up using modern aircraft and equipment which is unique in aviation history. This paper attempts to trace the history of the service, the operational problems involved and the special needs such as survival equipment and clothing. In addition, a co-ordinated air/sea rescue service largely based on helicopters has been built up and provides not only rescue facilities for possible rig disasters but also for shipping emergencies in the area.

  5. Board Certification. Registered EMT-Paramedic. Registered EMT-Intermediate. Registered EMT-Ambulance. Registered EMT-Non-Ambulance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, Columbus, OH.

    These three brochures outline entry requirements and certification information for: (1) emergency medical technician (EMT)-ambulance and EMT-non-ambulance; (2) EMT-intermediate; and (3) EMT-paramedic. Each brochure provides information on entry requirements, including provisional registration and expiration date; lapsed registration; examination…

  6. Medical considerations in the use of helicopters in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok; Kovacs, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue and medical care to the mountain rescue scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. The use of a helicopter for these purposes is common. It is necessary when it has clear advantages for victims in comparison with ground rescue and transport. Helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system and must be staffed by appropriate mountain rescue and medically trained personnel. Activation time should be as short as possible. Activation of a helicopter for a mountain rescue should primarily include indication and assessment of flight and safety conditions. No other mediators or delaying factors should be permitted. The main safety criteria are appropriate mountain rescue and flight training, competence of air and ground crews, radio communication between the air and ground crews, and mission briefing before the rescue. Criteria for a helicopter used for mountain rescue are proper medical and rescue equipment, load capacity, adequate space, and others. There are two main groups of indications for use of a helicopter for mountain rescue: the patient's condition and the circumstances at the site of the accident. All persons responsible for the activation of the helicopter rescue operation should be aware of specific problems in the mountains or wilderness.

  7. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468

  8. Optimal ambulance location with random delays and travel times.

    PubMed

    Ingolfsson, Armann; Budge, Susan; Erkut, Erhan

    2008-09-01

    We describe an ambulance location optimization model that minimizes the number of ambulances needed to provide a specified service level. The model measures service level as the fraction of calls reached within a given time standard and considers response time to be composed of a random delay (prior to travel to the scene) plus a random travel time. In addition to modeling the uncertainty in the delay and in the travel time, we incorporate uncertainty in the ambulance availability in determining the response time. Models that do not account for the uncertainty in all three of these components may overestimate the possible service level for a given number of ambulances and underestimate the number of ambulances needed to provide a specified service level. By explicitly modeling the randomness in the ambulance availability and in the delays and the travel times, we arrive at a more realistic ambulance location model. Our model is tractable enough to be solved with general-purpose optimization solvers for cities with populations around one Million. We illustrate the use of the model using actual data from Edmonton.

  9. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  10. Understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction with ambulance services.

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, Svetlana; Tan, P J; Dunn, S P; Bizjak-Mikic, M

    2016-01-01

    The quality of ambulance services has an immense impact on patients' future well-being and quality of life. Patient satisfaction is one of the key metrics for evaluating the quality of this service. Yet, the patient satisfaction measurement may be limited in its ability to accurately reflect this service quality, and even reflect factors beyond the patient experiences. We analyze 10 years of survey data to reveal a number of factors that systematically bias ambulance satisfaction ratings. Taking into account these biases provides more robust comparison of ambulance performance over time or across different jurisdictions.

  11. The Potential for Helicopter Passenger Service in Major Urban Areas. [cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Stortstrom, R. G.; Warner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    An interurban helicopter cost model having the capability of selecting an efficient helicopter network for a given city in terms of service and total operating costs was developed. This model which is based upon the relationship between total and direct operating costs and the number of block hours of helicopter operation is compiled in terms of a computer program which simulates the operation of an intracity helicopter fleet over a given network. When applied to specific urban areas, the model produces results in terms of a break-even air passenger market penetration rate, which is the percent of the air travelers in each of those areas that must patronize the helicopter network to make it break even commercially. A total of twenty major metropolitan areas are analyzed and are ranked initially according to cost per seat mile and then according to break-even penetration rate.

  12. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  13. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year UCR

  14. The Focke Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Focke, H; Kruger, K B

    1938-01-01

    This report presents some of the problems concerning tests of helicopters, such as forced landings, controllability and stability, general safety, piloting maneuvers, performance, servicing, and the production of lift of a propeller. Test flights are described including a 67.67 mph flight by Hanna Reitsch.

  15. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle. (2) ALS vehicles. In addition to meeting the vehicle staff requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  16. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle. (2) ALS vehicles. In addition to meeting the vehicle staff requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  17. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle. (2) ALS vehicles. In addition to meeting the vehicle staff requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  18. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle. (2) ALS vehicles. In addition to meeting the vehicle staff requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  19. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle. (2) ALS vehicles. In addition to meeting the vehicle staff requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  20. Detection and characterization of surface microbial contamination in emergency ambulances.

    PubMed

    Varona-Barquin, Aketza; Ballesteros-Peña, Sendoa; Lorrio-Palomino, Sergio; Ezpeleta, Guillermo; Zamanillo, Verónica; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in 10 emergency basic life support ambulances operating in Bilbao, Spain, to assess surface bacterial contamination. Presence of clinically relevant bacterial contamination suggests that disinfection of the studied basic life support ambulances was not optimal and represents a potential risk of infection for the patients transferred in them. It is critical to implement existing infection control and prevention protocols to resolve this issue.

  1. Utility of Helicopter Rotor Reflections at HF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-29

    Vesuvius AE 15 Ammunition Helicopter platform Mount Katmai AE 16 Ammunition Helicopter platform Great Sitkin AE 17 Ammunition Helicopter platform Diamond...carried Mount Whitney LCC 20 Amphibious command Utility helicopter carried Eldorado LCC 11 Amphibious command Utility helicopter carried Iwo Jima LPH...Barbara AE 28 Special minesweeper Mount Hood AE 29 Special minesweeper Suribachi AE 21 Ammunition Helicopter platform Mauna Kea AE 22 Ammunition

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for the Establishment of an Air-to-Surface Helicopter Gunnery Training Target Set at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    micrograms per cubic meter 49 FW 49th Fighter Wing 58 SOW 58th Special Operations Wing AETC Air Education and Training Command AFB Air Force Base...White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and U.S. Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, 58th Special Operations Wing PROPONENT: ~~ ZSJ’~<:/;8...New Mexico is a unit of the USAF Air Education and Training Command (AETC) and is the proponent of this action. Kirtland AFB is located southeast

  3. Simulation Based Training Improves Airway Management for Helicopter EMS Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhindsa, Harinder S.; Reid, Renee; Murray, David; Lovelady, James; Powell, Katie; Sayles, Jeff; Stevenson, Christopher; Baker, Kathy; Solada, Brian; Carroll, Scott; Seay, Louis; Powell, Jeff; Van de Bussche, Todd; Giangrasso, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The use of paralytic medications in the performance of RSI intubation is a high risk intervention used by many HEMS crews. There is no margin for error in RSI intubation as the results can be fatal. Operating room access for airway management training has become more difficult, and is not representative of the environment in which HEMS crews typically function. LifeEvac of Virginia designed and implemented an SST airway management program to provide a realistic, consistent training platform. The dynamic program incorporates standardized scenarios, and real life challenging cases that this and other programs have encountered. SST is done in a variety of settings including the helicopter, back of ambulances, staged car crashes and simulation centers. The result has been the indoctrination of a well defined, consistent approach to every airway management intervention. The SST program facillitates enhancement of technical skills. as well as team dynamics and communication.

  4. Satellite communications experiment for the Ontario air ambulance service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterworth, John S.

    1988-01-01

    A satellite communications experiment was conducted to develop a reliable voice communications system between paramedics and doctors at certain larger medical centers. The experiment used INMARSAT's Atlantic Ocean Region satellite which provides coverage to the western border of Ontario. Forward downlink power from the satellite is in great demand, so two highly power-efficient modulation schemes were chosen for evaluation during the experiment. These were amplitude-companded single-sideband (ACSSB) and linear predictive coding in conjunction with DMSK modulation. Good performance with a signal to noise ratio of about 10 dB was demonstrated from many parts of the province with the evevation angle to the satellite ranging from five to twenty degrees and with the aircraft both in-flight and on the runway.

  5. Ambulation after Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Overend, Tom J.; Godwin, Julie; Sealy, Christina; Sunderji, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To systematically review the effects of early ambulation on development of pulmonary embolism (PE) and progression or development of a new thrombus in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to June 2008. Study quality was appraised using the Jadad and PEDro scales. Meta-analyses were reported as relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Four randomized trials were accepted. For development of a PE, the pooled relative risks for ambulation and compression versus bed rest and compression (RR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.34–1.19) and for ambulation and compression versus bed rest alone (RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.57–3.29) were not significant. For progression of an existing thrombus or development of a new thrombus, the independent relative risks for ambulation and compression versus bed rest and compression (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.13–1.14) and for ambulation and compression versus bed rest alone (RR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.20–1.57) were also not significant. Conclusions: Given the clinical benefits of mobility, and because there was no significant difference between ambulation and bed rest for risk of developing a PE or development and progression of a new DVT in any of the studies, clinicians should be confident in prescribing ambulation in this population. PMID:20514175

  6. Helicopter blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyothier, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving helicopter performance and vibration level by proper shaping of helicopter blade tips are considered. The principle involved consists of reducing the extent of the supersonic zone above the advancing tip and of the turbulent interaction. For stationary and advancing flight, the influence of the rotor and the problems posed by blade tips are reviewed. The theoretical methods of dealing with the two types of flight are briefly stated, and the experimental apparatus is described, including model triple and quadruple rotors. Different blade tip shapes are shown and briefly discussed. The theoretical results include an advancing speed of 309 km/H and a blade tip rotational speed of 215 m/s. The experimental values are advancing speed of 302 km/h and blade tip Mach number 0.86 for both types of rotors.

  7. Helicopter Visual Aid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of police helicopter effectiveness revealed a need for improved visual capability. A JPL program developed a method that would enhance visual observation capability for both day and night usage and demonstrated the feasibility of the adopted approach. This approach made use of remote pointable optics, a display screen, a slaved covert searchlight, and a coupled camera. The approach was proved feasible through field testing and by judgement against evaluation criteria.

  8. Apollo 10 Helicopter Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A Navy helicopter arrivies to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module 'Charlie Brown' floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft.

  9. Operational Helicopter Aviation Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    acoustic stimuli travelling through the system to the inner ear. HEARING PROTECTOR AND VOICE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS EFFECTS The humar auditory system just...equipment, communication noise, aircrew hearing loss, and weapons impulse noise. Helicopter Safety and Crashworthiness covered crash injury analysis...protect visual and auditory performance while performing aircrew duties were also pre- sented. A summ. ry of the excellent work presented supported the

  10. From Self-Flying Helicopters to Classrooms of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    On a summer day four years ago, a Stanford University computer-science professor named Andrew Ng held an unusual air show on a field near the campus. His fleet of small helicopter drones flew under computer control, piloted by artificial-intelligence software that could teach itself to fly after watching a human operator. By the end of the day,…

  11. 77 FR 36131 - Airworthiness Directives; Enstrom Helicopter Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-28, 480, and 480B helicopters to add another trim relay to the applicability and to revise the modification instructions. This AD is prompted by the discovery that another part- numbered trim relay...-28F, 280C, 280F, 280FX, TH-28, 480, and 480B helicopters with a trim relay, part-number (P/N)...

  12. 77 FR 52264 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate Currently... proposed AD, contact MD Helicopters Inc., Attn: Customer Support Division, 4555 E. McDowell Rd., Mail Stop... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...

  13. Selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes in a concise manner three selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems. The three topics are as follows: (1) the active control of helicopter air-resonance using an LQG/LTR approach; (2) simulation of higher harmonic control (HHC) applied to a four bladed hingeless helicopter rotor in forward flight; and (3) vibration suppression in forward flight on a hingeless helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap, which is mounted on the blade. Only a few selected illustrative results are presented. The results obtained clearly indicate that the partial span, actively controlled flap has considerable potential for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors.

  14. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  15. Helicopter simulation: Making it work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The opportunities for improved training and checking by using helicopter simulators are greater than they are for airplane pilot training. Simulators permit the safe creation of training environments that are conducive to the development of pilot decision-making, situational awareness, and cockpit management. This paper defines specific attributes required in a simulator to meet a typical helicopter operator's training and checking objectives.

  16. Recent European Developments in Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Descriptions are given of two captured helicopters, one driven by electric power, the other by a gasoline engine. An account is given of flight tests of the gasoline powered vehicle. After 15 successful flight tests, the gasoline powered vehicle crashed due to the insufficient thrust. Also discussed here are the applications of helicopters for military observations, for meteorological work, and for carrying radio antennas.

  17. Helicopter Acoustics, part 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Exterior and interior helicopter noise problems are addressed from the physics and engineering as well as the human factors point of view. Noise regulation concepts, human factors and criteria, rotor noise generation and control, design, operations and testing for noise control, helicopter noise prediction, and research tools and measurements are covered.

  18. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  19. Profile of Ambulance Runs at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has four onsite ambulances staffed with Paramedics at two fire stations that respond to 911 Emergency Medical System (EMS) medical dispatches. These ambulances serve over 22,000 NASA, military, government, and contractor employees in an area of approximately 520 square miles. Included in this coverage are several public areas such as beaches, a wildlife refuge and a popular Visitor Center. Reports are filled out on each patient encountered. However. the only element tracked has been the ambulance response time. Now that reports are filed electronically, it is possible to enter them into an electronic database for analysis. Data analyses reveal trends and assist in better allocation of resources.

  20. A framework for the design of ambulance sirens.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, K; McKeown, D

    2007-08-01

    Ambulance sirens are essential for assisting the safe and rapid arrival of an ambulance at the scene of an emergency. In this study, the parameters upon which sirens may be designed were examined and a framework for emergency vehicle siren design was proposed. Validity for the framework was supported through acoustic measurements and the evaluation of ambulance transit times over 240 emergency runs using two different siren systems. Modifying existing siren sounds to add high frequency content would improve vehicle penetration, detectability and sound localization cues, and mounting the siren behind the radiator grill, rather than on the light bar or under the wheel arch, would provide less unwanted noise while maintaining or improving the effective distance in front of the vehicle. Ultimately, these considerations will benefit any new attempt to design auditory warnings for the emergency services.

  1. Medical helicopters in wilderness search and rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Thomas, Frank; James, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Medical helicopters may be asked to assist in wilderness search and rescue (SAR) operations to quickly reach patients in remote areas and provide medical care and transport of sick or injured persons. The number 1 priority for any medical helicopter involved in an SAR operation is safety, which is considered at each decision point. The involvement of a medical helicopter service begins with a request from a local agency for support. Obtaining key information about the SAR operation from the local agency is essential for deciding whether to accept the mission and for making appropriate preparations for the mission. While en route to the SAR location, the medical crew can review the information regarding location and patient status. Once on location, the crew can survey the scene from the air before landing at the command post to brief with SAR personnel regarding the mission. An initial survey of the scene from the air is important for identifying landing zones and evaluating the terrain where the rescue will occur. A face-to-face briefing with SAR personnel is preferable to learn specifically what type of mission is requested. The medical helicopter crew is empowered to decline the mission for safety reasons at any step. The actual rescue may be done by inserting the helicopter at the scene in nontechnical terrain or by having SAR personnel extricate the patient and deliver him or her to the medical helicopter crew at the nearest safe landing zone. Medical care and transport of the patient as indicated by injuries or illness then occurs. Finally, a postmission debriefing is essential for identifying problems that occurred during the mission and implementing corrections for improvement.

  2. An integration of Emergency Department Information and Ambulance Systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Nada; El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Emergency Department Information System that will be integrated with the ambulance system to improve the communication, enhance the quality of provided emergency services and facilitate information sharing. The proposed system utilizes new advanced technologies such as mobile web services that overcome the problems of interoperability between different systems, HL7 and GPS. The system is unique in that it allows ambulance officers to locate the nearest specialized hospital and allows access to the patient's electronic health record as well as providing the hospital with required information to prepare for the incoming patient.

  3. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  4. A Piloted Simulation Investigating Handling Qualities and Performance Requirements of a Single-Pilot Helicopter in Air Combat Employing a Helmet-Driven Turreted Gun.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    57 10. Environmental IFactors ................................. 57 B. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES ............................ 60 I. Yaw Axis...chrceitiso oftre hanbl quities roure elpe Maior dfcmbait. Thsirbe iost rcoentiot eAir Comba 11 l PilotC im)pconduceJnuay196 inetgte control...equivalent to the IHADSS gunsight pipper used for the turreted gun. 10. Environmental Factors Adjustable environmental factors included visibility, wind

  5. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  6. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  7. Materials for helicopter gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Some of the power train transmission gears in helicopter drive systems can become critical components as performance requirements are increased; accordingly, increasing attention must be paid to new alloys in order to obtain required performance reliability and survivability. Candidate advanced alloys, with improved high temperature properties, while increasing the resistance to scoring and scuffing, tend to have lower ductility and fracture toughness. An attempt is made to identify design materials, and process problems and requirements. In addition, it is recommended that the characterization of candidate steels be accelerated; preliminary investigation indicates that new alloys may provide improved capability against surface distress.

  8. Effects of weather conditions on emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Siurkaite, Viktorija

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between weather conditions and daily emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The study included data on 3631 patients who called the ambulance for chest pain and were admitted to the department of cardiology as patients with ACS. We investigated the effect of daily air temperature ( T), barometric pressure (BP), relative humidity, and wind speed (WS) to detect the risk areas for low and high daily volume (DV) of emergency calls. We used the classification and regression tree method as well as cluster analysis. The clusters were created by applying the k-means cluster algorithm using the standardized daily weather variables. The analysis was performed separately during cold (October-April) and warm (May-September) seasons. During the cold period, the greatest DV was observed on days of low T during the 3-day sequence, on cold and windy days, and on days of low BP and high WS during the 3-day sequence; low DV was associated with high BP and decreased WS on the previous day. During June-September, a lower DV was associated with low BP, windless days, and high BP and low WS during the 3-day sequence. During the warm period, the greatest DV was associated with increased BP and changing WS during the 3-day sequence. These results suggest that daily T, BP, and WS on the day of the ambulance call and on the two previous days may be prognostic variables for the risk of ACS.

  9. Medical helicopters: carbon monoxide risk?

    PubMed

    Poulton, T J

    1987-02-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure of medical personnel working beneath the turning rotor of a medical helicopter appeared to cause mild clinical illness. We measured the carbon monoxide levels found in various locations beneath the rotor of a jet helicopter under two different conditions. Carbon monoxide levels ranged from 8-76 ppm depending on location of sampling and speed of operation of the engine. This level of carbon monoxide is potentially a problem, as is the inhalation of jet fuel vapor, when working beneath the rotors of an operating helicopter.

  10. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  11. Helicopter noise regulations: An industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review of helicopter noise measurement programs and noise reduction/economic studies of FAA is given along with a critique of a study which addresses the economic impact of noise reduction on helicopter noise. Modification of several helicopters to reduce noise and demonstrate the economic impact of the application of the current state-of-the-art technology is discussed. Specific helicopters described include Boeing Vertol 347 Helicopter, Hughes OH-6 Helicopter, and Hughes 269C Helicopter. Other topics covered include: (1) noise trends and possible noise limits; (2) accuracy of helicopter noise prediction techniques; (3) limited change possibilities of derivatives; and (4) rotor impulsive noise. The unique operational capabilities of helicopters and the implications relative to noise regulations and certification are discussed.

  12. 29 CFR 553.215 - Ambulance and rescue service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service employees are regularly dispatched to fires, crime scenes, riots, natural disasters and accidents... REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire... rescue service employees. (a) Ambulance and rescue service employees of a public agency other than a...

  13. 42 CFR 410.40 - Coverage of ambulance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., level 2 (ALS2). (4) Paramedic ALS intercept (PI). (5) Specialty care transport (SCT). (6) Fixed wing transport (FW). (7) Rotary wing transport (RW). (c) Paramedic ALS intercept services. Paramedic ALS... necessity requirements—(1) General rule. Medicare covers ambulance services, including fixed wing and...

  14. 42 CFR 410.40 - Coverage of ambulance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., level 2 (ALS2). (4) Paramedic ALS intercept (PI). (5) Specialty care transport (SCT). (6) Fixed wing transport (FW). (7) Rotary wing transport (RW). (c) Paramedic ALS intercept services. Paramedic ALS...—(1) General rule. Medicare covers ambulance services, including fixed wing and rotary wing...

  15. 4. OVERALL VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) AMBULANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) AMBULANT QUARTERS, STOREHOUSE, BOILER HOUSE (LARGELY OBSCURED), SMOKESTACK, STATION GARAGE, ANIMAL HOUSE, AND WATER SOFTENER BUILDING - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, 5103 Delafield Avenue (O'Hara Township), Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Mathematical model of ambulance resources in Saint-Petersburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavidze, G. G.; Balykina, Y. E.; Lejnina, E. A.; Svirkin, M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Emergency medical system is one of the main elements in city infrastructure. The article contains analysis of existing system of ambulance resource distribution. Paper considers the idea of using multiperiodicity as a tool to increase the efficiency of the Emergency Medical Services. The program developed in programming environment Matlab helps to evaluate the changes in the functioning of the system of emergency medical service.

  17. Application of an X-ray Fluorescence Instrument to Helicopter Wear Debris Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Application of an X-ray Fluorescence Instrument to Helicopter Wear Debris Analysis Andrew Becker Air Vehicles Division...instrument to determine the composition of wear debris collected from helicopter magnetic chip detectors and oil filters. The Twin-X XRF (assessed in this...report) is a commercially produced bench-top XRF and has not previously been applied to wear debris analysis of Australian Defence Force aircraft

  18. Quantification of NSW Ambulance Record Linkages with Multiple External Datasets.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Therese; Muecke, Sandy; Simpson, Judy; Irvine, Katie; Jenkins, André

    2015-01-01

    This study has two aims: 1) to describe linkage rates between ambulance data and external datasets for "episodes of care" and "patient only" linkages in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; and 2) to detect and report any systematic issues with linkage that relate to patients, and operational or clinical variables that may introduce bias in subsequent studies if not adequately addressed. During 2010-11, the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL) in NSW, linked the records for patients attended by NSW Ambulance paramedics for the period July 2006 to June 2009, with four external datasets: Emergency Department Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages death registration data; and the Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality data. This study reports linkage rates in terms of those "expected" to link and those who were "not expected" to link with external databases within 24 hours of paramedic attendance. Following thorough data preparation processes, 2,041,728 NSW Ambulance care episodes for 1,116,509 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The overall episode-specific hospital linkage rate was 97.2%. Where a patient was not transported to hospital following paramedic care, 8.6% of these episodes resulted in an emergency department attendance within 24 hours. For all care episodes, 5.2% linked to a death record at some time within the 3-year period, with 2.4% of all death episodes occurring within 7 days of a paramedic encounter. For NSW Ambulance episodes of care that were expected to link to an external dataset but did not, nonlinkage to hospital admission records tended to decrease with age. For all other variables, issues relating to rates of linkage and nonlinkage were more indiscriminate. This quantification of the limitations of this large linked dataset will underpin the interpretation and results of ensuing studies that will inform future clinical and operational policies and practices at NSW Ambulance.

  19. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  20. Tests Of Helicopter Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, Kathryn B.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Hindson, William S.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced control systems being developed for rotorcraft. Report discusses aspects of development of multivariable, explicit-model-following control system for CH-47B fly-by-wire helicopter. Project part of recent trend toward use of highly-augmented, high-gain flight-control systems to assist pilots of military helicopters in performance of demanding tasks and to improve handling qualities of aircraft.

  1. 77 FR 5425 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 427 helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted... Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4, telephone (450) 437-2862 or (800)...

  2. The evolution of helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  3. Noise measurement flight test: Data-analyses Aerospatiale SA-365N Dauphin 2 helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickely, E. J.; Daboin, S. A.; Beattie, K. R.

    1984-04-01

    This report documents the results of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise measurement flight test program with the Dauphin twin-jet helicopter. The report contains documentary sections describing the acoustical characteristics of the subject helicopter and provides analyses and discussions addressing topics ranging from acoustical propagation to environmental impact of helicopter noise. This report is the second in a series of seven documenting the FAA helicopter noise measurement program conducted at Dulles International Airport during the summer of 1983. The Dauphin test program involved the acquisition of detailed acoustical, position and meteorological data. This test program was designed to address a series of objectives including: (1) acquisition of acoustical data for use in assessing heliport environment impact, (2) documentation of directivity characteristics for static operation of helicopters, (3) establishment of ground-to-ground and air-to-ground acoustical propagation relationships for helicopters, (4) determination of noise event duration influences on energy dose acoustical metrics, (5) examination of the differences between noise measured by a surface mounted microphone and a microphone mounted at a height of four feet (1.2 meters), and (6) documentation of noise levels acquired using international helicopter noise certification test procedures.

  4. A new helicostat from SNIAS helicopter division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisset, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Helicostat was described as a helicopter in which the vehicle weight is nullified by two balloons arranged in a catamaran fashion. Development of such a vehicle is discussed, and various uses for these helicopters are summarized.

  5. Is the Ability to Ambulate Associated with Better Employment Outcomes in Participants with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The author compares current employment status after spinal cord injury between participants who were independent in ambulation (required no assistance from others) and those who were dependent in ambulation (required assistance from at least one other person to ambulate). Those who were independent of assistance from others in ambulation were…

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Helicopter External Load Acquisition Technology Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, Ky. Evergreen Helicopters, McMinnville , Oregon The Army Technical Representative for the program was Mr. Richard...commercial helicopter operator, Evergreen Helicopters, McMinnville , Oregon, to obtain additional data on commercial solutions to external load acquisition

  8. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-136 27 - 1 Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality Dr. Ed Bachelder Systems Technology Inc. 13766 Hawthorne Blvd...applied to training helicopter aircrew personnel using a prototype simulator, the Prototype Aircrew Virtual Environment Training (PAVET) System...cabin) pixels using blue screen imaging techniques. This bitmap is overlaid on a virtual environment, and sent Bachelder, E. (2006) Helicopter Aircrew

  9. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo... allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (p) Approaching helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo... allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (p) Approaching helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo... allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (p) Approaching helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo... allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (p) Approaching helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo... allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (p) Approaching helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain...

  14. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  15. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  16. Helicopter roll control effectiveness criteria program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, Robert K.; Bourne, Simon M.; Mnich, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    A study of helicopter roll control effectiveness is summarized for the purpose of defining military helicopter handling qualities requirements. The study is based on an analysis of pilot-in-the-loop task performance of several basic maneuvers. This is extended by a series of piloted simulations using the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator and selected flight data. The main results cover roll control power and short-term response characteristics. In general the handling qualities requirements recommended are set in conjunction with desired levels of flight task and maneuver response which can be directly observed in actual flight. An important aspect of this, however, is that vehicle handling qualities need to be set with regard to some quantitative aspect of mission performance. Specific examples of how this can be accomplished include a lateral unmask/remask maneuver in the presence of a threat and an air tracking maneuver which recognizes the kill probability enhancement connected with decreasing the range to the target. Conclusions and recommendations address not only the handling qualities recommendations, but also the general use of flight simulators and the dependence of mission performance on handling qualities.

  17. Helicopter anti-torque system using fuselage strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor); Wilson, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The improvement of the helicopter torque control system is discussed. At low to medium forward speeds helicopter performance is limited by the effectiveness of the means for counteracting main rotor torque and controlling sideslip airloads. These problems may be overcome by mounting strakes on the aft fuselage section. For single rotor helicopters whose main rotor rotates counter-clockwise as viewed from above, one of the strakes would be mounted in the upper lefthand quadrant and the second in the lower left hand quadrant. The strakes alter the air flow around the fuselage by separating the flow so as to produce lateral airloads on the tail boom which oppose main-rotor torque. The upper strake operates in a right crosswind to oppose main rotor torque, and the lower strake has effect in left crosswinds. The novelty of this invention resides in the simple and economical manner in which the helicopter tail boom may be modified by the addition of strakes in order to increase torque control, and reduce the need for supplemental mechanical means of torque control.

  18. Automatic target recognition flight prototype for police helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Haisch, Stefan; Wolf, Peter

    2002-07-01

    A cooperation between the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company AG (EADS) and the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior was started at the beginning of 2001 to develop an application for automatic target recognition technology for police helicopter missions. The Bavarian Police Air Support Unit is the main support partner and first user. Bavarian polic helicopters are equipped with a modern infrared system (FLIR) especially for night missions. EADS has extensive knowledge in the area of sensor image exploitation and automatic target recognition (ATR). The technology has been developed for military aircraft reconnaissance missions. The same software kernel is used for a flight prototype which is integrated in a police helicopter. The integration concept presented in this paper is set up so as not to interfere the existing FLIR system in any way. The flight prototype which will be described in detail consists of standard hardware (COTS) components and has the main functionality of detecting pre-selected object classes. With the flight prototype a comprehensive in-flight testing of the automatic target recognition application is enabled. The test procedure and first results of the flight tests are explained with selected examples. The cooperation will go on to further enhance the operational effectiveness of the Bavarian police helicopters.

  19. Measuring Returns to Hospital Care: Evidence from Ambulance Referral Patterns.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Joseph; Graves, John; Gruber, Jonathan; Kleiner, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Medicare spending exceeds 4% of GDP in the US each year, and there are concerns that moral hazard problems have led to overspending. This paper considers whether hospitals that treat patients more aggressively and receive higher payments from Medicare improve health outcomes for their patients. An innovation is a new lens to compare hospital performance for emergency patients: plausibly exogenous variation in ambulance-company assignment among patients who live near one another. Using Medicare data from 2002-2010, we show that ambulance company assignment importantly affects hospital choice for patients in the same ZIP code. Using data for New York State from 2000-2006 that matches exact patient addresses to hospital discharge records, we show that patients who live very near each other but on either side of ambulance service area boundaries go to different types of hospitals. Both identification strategies show that higher-cost hospitals achieve better patient outcomes for a variety of emergency conditions. Using our Medicare sample, the estimates imply that a one standard deviation increase in Medicare reimbursement leads to a 4 percentage point reduction in mortality (10% compared to the mean). Taking into account one-year spending after the health shock, the implied cost per at least one year of life saved is approximately $80,000. These results are found across different types of hospitals and patients, as well across both identification strategies.

  20. Clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yetisgin, Alparslan

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Demographic and clinical characteristics of 53 stroke patients (31 M, 22 F), such as age, gender, etiology, hemiplegic side, Brunnstrom stage, functional ambulation scale scores, history of rehabilitation, and presence of shoulder pain and complex regional pain syndrome were evaluated. [Results] The etiology was ischemic in 79.2% of patients and hemorrhagic in 20.8%. Brunnstrom hand and upper extremity values in females were lower than in males. Complex regional pain syndrome was observed at a level of 18.9% in all patients (more common in females). Brunnstrom hand stage was lower in complex regional pain syndrome patients than in those without the syndrome. Shoulder pain was present in 44.4% of patients. Brunnstrom lower extremity values and functional ambulation scale scores were higher in rehabilitated than in non-rehabilitated cases. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom stages of hand and upper extremity were lower and complex regional pain syndrome was more common in female stroke patients. Shoulder pain and lower Brunnstrom hand stages were related to the presence of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:28265142

  1. Civil helicopter flight research. [for CH-53 helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. J.; Schoultz, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a description of the NASA CH-53 Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft and discusses preliminary results of the aircraft flight research performed to evaluate factors and requirements for future helicopter transport operations. The CH-53 equipped with a 16-seat airline-type cabin and instrumented for flight research studies in noise, vibration, handling qualities, passenger acceptance, fuel utilization, terminal area maneuvers, and gust response. Predicted fuel usage for typical short-haul missions is compared with actual fuel use. Pilot ratings for an IFR handling quality task for three levels of stability augmentation are presented, and the effects of internal noise, vibration, and motion on passenger acceptance are discussed. Future planned CH-53 flight research within the Civil Helicopter Technology Program is discussed.

  2. Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242

  3. Helicopter collision avoidance and brown-out recovery with HELLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Christian; Schwartz, Ingo; Kielhorn, Peter

    2008-10-01

    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial and military Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Federal Police and Royal Thai Air Force. HELLAS was also successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the U.S. Army and other governmental agencies. Currently the successor system for military applications, HELLAS-Awareness, is in qualification phase. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced real-time data processing capabilities and advanced human machine interface (HMI) features. Flight tests on NH90 helicopter have been successfully performed. Helicopter series integration is scheduled to begin from 2009. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate. We will show the HMI representations. This HELLAS system is the basis for a 3 dimensional see-and-remember-system for brown-out recovery. When landing in sandy or dusty areas the downwash of the helicopter rotor causes clouds of visually-restrictive material that can completely obstruct the pilot's outside reference, resulting in a complete loss of situational awareness and spatial orientation of the pilot which can end up in total loss of aircraft control and dangerous accidents. The brown-out recovery system presented here creates an augmented enhanced synthetic vision of the landing area with the surrounding which is based on HELLAS range image data as well as altimeter and inertial reference information.

  4. Annoyance of helicopter impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambra, F.; Damongeot, A.

    1978-01-01

    Psychoacoustic studies of helicopter impulsive noise were conducted in order to qualify additional annoyance due to this feature and to develop physical impulsiveness descriptors to develop impulsivity correction methods. The currently proposed descriptors and methods of impulsiveness correction are compared using a multilinear regression analysis technique. It is shown that the presently recommended descriptor and correction method provides the best correlation with the subjective evaluations of real helicopter impulsive noises. The equipment necessary for data processing in order to apply the correction method is discussed.

  5. The helicopter - some ergonomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lovesey, E J

    1975-09-01

    Helicopter pilots are some of the hardest working human operators, because of the machine's inherant instability and control problems. This article covers some aspects where ergonomists might help to improve the overall system. After considering basic differences between helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, the author examines controls, where there are prospects of using miniature hand levers; cockpit vision and displays with particular reference to night and instrument flying; seating and vibration where the effects of protective clothing and harnesses are considered; and cabin noise from the engine, transmission and intercom systems. Finally, he assesses pilot activity using cine film techniques for different types of flight.

  6. 78 FR 27867 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters Inc. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ..., leading to vibration, loss of tail rotor pitch control, and subsequent loss of tail rotor and helicopter... from cracking and separating from the blade, leading to an unbalanced condition, vibration, loss of...) separating from the tail rotor blade, leading to an unbalanced condition, vibration, loss of tail rotor...

  7. 78 FR 65180 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... actions are intended to prevent a pitch horn from cracking, leading to vibration, loss of tail rotor pitch... condition, vibration, loss of tail rotor pitch control, and loss of directional control of the helicopter... (pitch horn) separating from the tail rotor blade, leading to an unbalanced condition, vibration, loss...

  8. 77 FR 23638 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., and the AD ] applicability needs to be expanded to include additional grips similar in design, as well... rotor blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: We must receive comments on this... damage to the blade, blade bolt bore, or buffer pad tang surface were found in the two cracked...

  9. 77 FR 5427 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... creating a component history card or equivalent record and begin counting and recording the number of... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov or in person at the Docket Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p... for the specified Bell model helicopters. This proposal would require creating a component...

  10. 77 FR 68055 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ..., and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the collective lever for a crack, and if there is a crack, before further flight, replacing the collective lever with an airworthy... to detect a crack in the collective lever, which could lead to failure of the collective lever...

  11. 78 FR 18224 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-1088; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW...): 2013-05-15 Robinson Helicopter Company: Amendment 39-17387; Docket No. FAA-2012-1088;...

  12. 78 FR 1730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power cable assemblies (power cable assemblies). This AD requires replacing the power cable assemblies and their associated parts, and performing continuity readings. This AD was prompted by the determination that the power cable assembly...

  13. 77 FR 729 - Airworthiness Directives; Enstrom Helicopter Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... certain trim relays to require modifying and testing the lateral and longitudinal cyclic trim actuator..., and 480B helicopters with a trim relay, part-number (P/N) KUP14D55-472, M83536/10-015M, or M83536/10...) and flight tests to determine that the trim relay is working correctly. This AD was prompted...

  14. Use of the automatic external defibrillator-pacemaker by ambulance personnel: the Stockport experience.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, A J; Redmond, A D; Martin, M A

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the number of people who die from a cardiac arrest in the Stockport area ambulances were equipped with automatic external defibrillator-pacemakers, and ambulance personnel were trained in their use. Over an 18 month period ambulance personnel attended 113 patients in cardiac arrest with these devices. One patient subsequently survived, and three patients survived for up to three days. The reasons for these poor initial results include the failure of bystanders to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a delay in calling for the ambulance, and too few defibrillators being available. PMID:3107727

  15. Measurement and Characterization of Helicopter Noise in Steady-State and Maneuvering Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H.; Greenwood, Eric; Sickenberger, Richard D.; Gopalan, Gaurav; Sim, Ben Well-C; Conner, David; Moralez, Ernesto; Decker, William A.

    2007-01-01

    A special acoustic flight test program was performed on the Bell 206B helicopter outfitted with an in-flight microphone boom/array attached to the helicopter while simultaneous acoustic measurements were made using a linear ground array of microphones arranged to be perpendicular to the flight path. Air and ground noise measurements were made in steady-state longitudinal and steady turning flight, and during selected dynamic maneuvers. Special instrumentation, including direct measurement of the helicopter s longitudinal tip-path-plane (TPP) angle, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) measurements, and a pursuit guidance display were used to measure important noise controlling parameters and to make the task of flying precise operating conditions and flight track easier for the pilot. Special care was also made to test only in very low winds. The resulting acoustic data is of relatively high quality and shows the value of carefully monitoring and controlling the helicopter s performance state. This paper has shown experimentally, that microphones close to the helicopter can be used to estimate the specific noise sources that radiate to the far field, if the microphones are positioned correctly relative to the noise source. Directivity patterns for steady, turning flight were also developed, for the first time, and connected to the turning performance of the helicopter. Some of the acoustic benefits of combining normally separated flight segments (i.e. an accelerated segment and a descending segment) were also demonstrated.

  16. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  17. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Calcaneus deformity in the ambulant patient with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Fraser, R K; Hoffman, E B

    1991-11-01

    We reviewed our experience of tibialis anterior transfer and anterior release for calcaneus deformity in 46 feet of 26 ambulant patients with myelomeningocele. At an average follow-up of 8.4 years (2 to 17.6) there were 89% who had satisfactory results; 64% of the patients having tibialis anterior transfers were able to stand on their toes. Hip abductor power was a good predictor of a functional transfer. Pre-operative trophic ulceration of the heel increased from 3.2% to 33% if surgery was delayed. Secondary deformities, two-thirds of them into valgus, developed in 76% of feet.

  19. Effects of weather and heliophysical conditions on emergency ambulance calls for elevated arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta M; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Sakalyte, Gintare; Lopatiene, Kristina; Mikelionis, Nerijus

    2015-02-27

    We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009-2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs), in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10-I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T), wind speed (WS), relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP). We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS>600 km/s) increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP) by 12% (RR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.21); and WS≥3.5 knots during days of T<1.5 °C and T≥12.5 °C by 8% (RR=1.08; CI 1.04-1.12). An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T≥17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population's sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  20. Effects of Weather and Heliophysical Conditions on Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta M.; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Sakalyte, Gintare; Lopatiene, Kristina; Mikelionis, Nerijus

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009–2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs), in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10–I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T), wind speed (WS), relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP). We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS > 600 km/s) increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP) by 12% (RR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.21); and WS ≥ 3.5 knots during days of T < 1.5 °C and T ≥ 12.5 °C by 8% (RR = 1.08; CI 1.04–1.12). An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T ≥ 17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population’s sensitivity to different weather conditions. PMID:25734792

  1. 78 FR 54792 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Model EC225 LP helicopters. This proposed AD would add a new operating limitation that would require increasing the minimum density altitude flight limitation for helicopters without certain...

  2. Modeling of patient's blood pressure variation during ambulance transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatani, Kenji; Ono, Takahiko; Kobayasi, Yasuhide; Hikita, Shinichi; Saito, Mitsuyuki

    2007-12-01

    In an emergency transportation by ambulance, a patient is transported in a supine position. In this position, a patient's blood pressure (BP) variation depending on an inertial force which occurs when an ambulance accelerates or decelerates. This BP variation causes a critical damage for a patent with brain disorder. In order to keep a patient stable during transportation, it is required to maintain small BP variation. To analyze the BP variation during transportation, a model of the BP variation has so far been made. But, it can estimate the BP variation only in braking. The purpose of this paper is to make a dynamical model of the BP variation which can simulate it in both braking and accelerating. First, to obtain the data to construct the model, we used a tilting bed to measure a head-to-foot acceleration and BP of fingertip. Based on this data, we build a mathematical model whose input is the head-to-foot acceleration and output is the Mean BP variation. It is a switched model which switches two models depending on the jerk. We add baroreceptor reflex to the model as a offset value.

  3. Optimizing the location of ambulances in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dibene, Juan Carlos; Maldonado, Yazmin; Vera, Carlos; de Oliveira, Mauricio; Trujillo, Leonardo; Schütze, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on modeling the demand for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, followed by the optimization of the location of the ambulances for the Red Cross of Tijuana (RCT), which is by far the largest provider of EMS services in the region. We used data from more than 10,000 emergency calls surveyed during the year 2013 to model and classify the demand for EMS in different scenarios that provide different perspectives on the demand throughout the city, considering such factors as the time of day, work and off-days. A modification of the Double Standard Model (DSM) is proposed and solved to determine a common robust solution to the ambulance location problem that simultaneously satisfies all specified constraints in all demand scenarios selecting from a set of almost 1000 possible base locations. The resulting optimization problems are solved using integer linear programming and the solutions are compared with the locations currently used by the Red Cross. Results show that demand coverage and response times can be substantially improved by relocating the current bases without the need for additional resources.

  4. Optimal landing of a helicopter in autorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y. N.

    1985-01-01

    Gliding descent in autorotation is a maneuver used by helicopter pilots in case of engine failure. The landing of a helicopter in autorotation is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The OH-58A helicopter was used. Helicopter vertical and horizontal velocities, vertical and horizontal displacement, and the rotor angle speed were modeled. An empirical approximation for the induced veloctiy in the vortex-ring state were provided. The cost function of the optimal control problem is a weighted sum of the squared horizontal and vertical components of the helicopter velocity at touchdown. Optimal trajectories are calculated for entry conditions well within the horizontal-vertical restriction curve, with the helicopter initially in hover or forwared flight. The resultant two-point boundary value problem with path equality constraints was successfully solved using the Sequential Gradient Restoration Technique.

  5. Model predictive formation control of helicopter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarian, Mehdi

    In this thesis, a robust formation control framework for formation control of a group of helicopters is proposed and designed. The dynamic model of the helicopter has been developed and verified through simulations. The control framework is constructed using two main control schemes for navigation of a helicopter group in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Two schemes are designed to maintain the position of one helicopter with respect to one or two other neighboring members, respectively. The developed parameters can uniquely define the position of the helicopters with respect to each other and can be used for any other aerial and under water vehicles such as airplanes, spacecrafts and submarines. Also, since this approach is modular, it is possible to use it for desired number and form of the group helicopters. Using the defined control parameters, two decentralized controllers are designed based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) algorithm technique. The framework performance has been tested through simulation of different formation scenarios.

  6. 76 FR 66609 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... the service information identified in this AD from Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue... the helicopter. Transport Canada, the airworthiness authority for Canada, notified the FAA that...

  7. 78 FR 23688 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. (BHT) Model 206A, 206B, and 206L helicopters. This proposed AD... Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862 or (800)...

  8. Documenting helicopter operations from an energy standpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the relative and absolute energy consumption of helicopters, including limited comparisons with fixed-wing aircraft, and selected surface transportation vehicles. Additional comparisons were made to determine the level of reduction in energy consumption expected from the application of advanced technologies to the helicopter design and sizing process. It was found that improvements in helicopter consumption characteristics can be accomplished through the utilization of advanced technology to reduce drag, structures weight, and powerplant fuel consumption.

  9. Research On The CH-47B Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, Kathryn B.; Tucker, George E.; Chen, Robert T. N.; Fry, Emmett B.; Hindson, William S.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes equipment added to, and research capabilities of CH-47B helicopter. Programmable symbol generator provides display formats for variety of missions - those of vertical-takeoff-and-landing aircraft and helicopters. Powerful general-purpose flight computer in operation. Computer programmable in high-level languages and supports research more efficiently. Flight-control software developed to improve capability of helicopter to perform simulations in flight.

  10. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  11. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  12. MUOS: Application in Naval Helicopter Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    frequency HSC Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron HSL Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light HSM Helicopter Strike Maritime Squadron ISAR inverse ...using the AN/APS 147 Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), which gives the aircraft the ability to identify tracks based solely on radar data. The...footprint of the satellite (see Figure 12). Each beam is like a cell tower that covers approximately 600 square miles of earth (Buck & Russ, 2007). Using a

  13. Advanced Control System Increases Helicopter Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    With support and funding from a Phase II NASA SBIR project from Ames Research Center, Hoh Aeronautics Inc. (HAI), of Lomita, California, produced HeliSAS, a low-cost, lightweight, attitude-command-attitude-hold stability augmentation system (SAS) for civil helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. HeliSAS proved itself in over 160 hours of flight testing and demonstrations in a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter, a commercial helicopter popular with news broadcasting and police operations. Chelton Flight Systems, of Boise, Idaho, negotiated with HAI to develop, market, and manufacture HeliSAS, now available as the Chelton HeliSAS Digital Helicopter Autopilot.

  14. Combat Service Support Enabler Functional Assessment (CEFA). Volume 2: Individual (65) Mini-CEFA Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    47E Vibration Management Enhancement DEC 96 Program Cost-Benefit Analysis for U.S. Navy JAN 95 and Marine Corps Helicopter Safety-of-Flight Systems...ASSESSMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Mini-Assessment Title Page 1. Advanced Radiographic System (ARS) . 1 2. Air Ambulance (UH-60Q MEDEVAC Helicopter ) 7...Air Ambulance (UH-60Q MEDEVAC Helicopter ) 2. Designation. FXXI CSS Initiative. Provides medical units w/on-board medical technology to

  15. Impacts of temperature change on ambulance dispatches and seasonal effect modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Desheng; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Li, Kesheng; Su, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Ambulance dispatch is a proxy of acute health outcomes, and growing epidemiological evidence documented its relation to extreme temperature events. Research, however, on short-term temperature change and ambulance dispatches is scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term temperature change on ambulance dispatches and potential modification by season. Daily data on ambulance dispatch and weather factors were collected in Huainan, a Chinese inland city from December 2011 through December 2013. A Poison generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was constructed to examine the association of temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) with ambulance dispatches. The effect modification by season was also examined. There were 48,700 ambulance attendances during the study period. A statistically significant association of TCN with ambulance dispatches was observed. Temperature rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) was associated with elevated adverse risk of ambulance dispatches, and the effects appeared to be acute (lag0, on the current day) and could last for at least a week, while temperature drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect. For a 1 °C increase of TCN at lag0 and lag06 (on the 7-day moving average), the risk of ambulance dispatches increased by 2 % (95 % CI 1-3 %) and 7 (95 % CI 1-13 %), respectively. Extreme TCN increase (95th percentile, 3.3 °C vs. 0 °C) at lag0 and lag05 was accompanied by 6 (95 % CI 3-8 %) and 27 % (95 % CI 12-44 %) increase in ambulance dispatches. Ambulance dispatches were more vulnerable to extremely great temperature rise in summer and autumn. TCN was adopted for the first time to quantify the impact of short-term temperature change on ambulance dispatches. Temperature drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect on ambulance dispatches, while temperature rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) could acutely trigger the increase in

  16. Comparison of different intubation techniques performed inside a moving ambulance: a manikin study.

    PubMed

    Wong, K B; Lui, C T; Chan, William Y W; Lau, T L; Tang, Simon Y H; Tsui, K L

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. Airway management and endotracheal intubation may be required urgently when a patient deteriorates in an ambulance or aircraft during interhospital transfer or in a prehospital setting. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of conventional intubation by Macintosh laryngoscope in a moving ambulance versus that in a static ambulance; and (2) to compare the effectiveness of inverse intubation and GlideScope laryngoscopy with conventional intubation inside a moving ambulance. DESIGN. Comparative experimental study. SETTING. The experiment was conducted in an ambulance provided by the Auxiliary Medical Service in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A group of 22 doctors performed endotracheal intubation on manikins with Macintosh laryngoscope in a static and moving ambulance. In addition, they performed conventional Macintosh intubation, inverse intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope, and GlideScope intubation in a moving ambulance in both normal and simulated difficult airways. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The primary outcome was the rate of successful intubation. The secondary outcomes were time taken for intubation, subjective glottis visualisation grading, and eventful intubation (oesophageal intubation, intubation time >60 seconds, and incisor breakage) with different techniques or devices. RESULTS. In normal airways, conventional Macintosh intubation in a static ambulance (95.5%), conventional intubation in a moving ambulance (95.5%), as well as GlideScope intubation in a moving ambulance (95.5%) were associated with high success rates; the success rate of inverse intubation was comparatively low (54.5%; P=0.004). In difficult airways, conventional Macintosh intubation in a static ambulance (86.4%), conventional intubation in a moving ambulance (90.9%), and GlideScope intubation in a moving ambulance (100%) were associated with high success rates; the success rate of inverse intubation was comparatively lower (40.9%; P=0.034). CONCLUSIONS

  17. Medicare program; coverage and payment of ambulance services; inflation update for CY 2004. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2003-12-05

    This final rule provides the sunset date for the interim bonus payment for rural ambulance mileage of 18 through 50 miles as required by the Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA) and provides notice of the annual Ambulance Inflation Factor (AIF) for ambulance services for calendar year (CY) 2004. The statute requires that this inflation factor be applied in determining the fee schedule amounts and payment limits for ambulance services.

  18. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  19. Lytic spondylolisthesis in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J; Van Dyk, D; Caine, Y; Ribak, J; Margaliot, S; Floman, Y

    1984-06-01

    Trauma to the back from the force of chronic stress is thought to be an etiologic factor in isthmic spondylolisthesis (SLL). The relationship of first degree spondylolisthesis to low back pain (LBP) is controversial. We compare the prevalence of SLL in helicopter pilots who are subject to strong vibrational forces, with other airforce personnel. Helicopter pilots had more than a four times higher prevalence of SLL (4.5%) than did cadets (1.0%) and transport pilots (0.9%). Low back pain was more frequent in pilots with SLL than in those without this lesion but in no case was the pain disabling or the defect progressive. We conclude that SLL may be induced by vibrational forces and although SLL is associated with LBP, the pain was little clinical significance.

  20. 77 FR 41897 - Airworthiness Directives; PZL Swidnik S.A. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...-019-AD; Amendment 39-17112; AD 2012-13-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PZL Swidnik S.A... rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the PZL Swidnik S.A. (PZL) Model PZL W-3A helicopter with a certain generator air outlet collector...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F Appendix F to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App....

  4. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F Appendix F to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App....

  5. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  6. Development of Training Programs to Optimize Planetary Ambulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Rutley, T. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in functional mobility following their return to Earth due to adaptive responses that occur during exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. Despite significant time spent performing in-flight exercise routines, these training programs have not been able to mitigate postflight alterations in postural and locomotor function. Therefore, the goal of our two inter-related projects (NSBRI-ground based and ISS flight study, "Mobility") is to develop and test gait training programs that will serve to optimize functional mobility during the adaptation period immediately following space flight, thereby improving the safety and efficiency of planetary ambulation. The gait training program entails manipulating the sensory conditions of treadmill exercise to systematically challenge the balance and gait control system. This enhances the overall adaptability of locomotor function enabling rapid reorganization of gait control to respond to ambulation in different gravitational environments. To develop the training program, we are conducting a series of ground-based studies evaluating the training efficacy associated with variation in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability during treadmill walking. We will also determine the optimal method to present training stimuli within and across training sessions to maximize both the efficacy and efficiency of the training procedure. Results indicate that variations in both visual flow and body unloading during treadmill walking leads to modification in locomotor control and can be used as effective training modalities. Additionally, the composition and timing of sensory challenges experienced during each training session has significant impact on the ability to rapidly reorganize locomotor function when exposed to a novel sensory environment. We have developed the capability of producing support surface variation during gait training by mounting a treadmill on a six

  7. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Smith, Charles D.; Snider, Royce; Conner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative ight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 test points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive database of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone arrays with up to 31 microphon. es in each were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included Differential Global Positioning System, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test and documents the data acquired.

  8. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  9. Study of Helicopter Roll Control Effectiveness Criteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    variety of helicopter configurations and control system types , and a wide range of flight tasks and maneuvers. The basis of the experimental design...represent a wide range of basic helicopter rotor hub and airframe designs and flight control system types . It was intended to generally limit

  10. Neural Network Based Helicopter Low Airspeed Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-24

    This invention relates generally to virtual sensors and, more particularly, to a means and method utilizing a neural network for estimating...helicopter airspeed at speeds below about 50 knots using only fixed system parameters (i.e., parameters measured or determined in a reference frame fixed relative to the helicopter fuselage) as inputs to the neural network .

  11. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons...

  12. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons...

  13. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons...

  14. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons...

  15. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons...

  16. NASA helicopter transmission system technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

  17. [The civil ambulances during the Franc-Prussion war (July 19, 1870 to January 28, 1871)].

    PubMed

    Guivarc'h, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The civil ambulances joined together under the emblem of the Red Cross: the Company of Help to the Wounded Soldiers, directed from the Palate of Industry by Chenu and Le Fort; the Ambulance of the Press, directed by Ricord and Mgr Bailer; and multiple ambulances disseminated in Paris. They brought a decisive help to the French medical military Corps. On the ground, eigtheen civil Ambulances from Countryside formed in Paris looked after the casualties of the two camps: around Sedan, then in the battles of the Loire and the East, where 13 ambulances formed secondarily in province joined them. During the siege of Paris, flying Ambulances went out the ramparts and brought back the wounded to the Palate of Industry or to Longchamp 'street Press ambulancy. They were integrated in November in a great Coordination of 10 hospitals distributors, directed by Hippolyte Larrey. The surgical care, limited to the members, to the head and the neck, were simple, rapids and conservatives, and the number of amputations was limited. But secondary infectious complications were frequent, had a raised mortality, worsened by the associated diseases, infectious (smallpox, typhoid, pneumonia, and by the cold, hunger, denutrition. The war of 1870-1871 brought: a large humane progress due to the neutralization of the casualties, places and actors of care; a better approach of the infection and shown the need for an autonomy of the French Military Corps.

  18. The Helicopter Antenna Radiation Prediction Code (HARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klevenow, F. T.; Lynch, B. G.; Newman, E. H.; Rojas, R. G.; Scheick, J. T.; Shamansky, H. T.; Sze, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first nine months effort in the development of a user oriented computer code, referred to as the HARP code, for analyzing the radiation from helicopter antennas is described. The HARP code uses modern computer graphics to aid in the description and display of the helicopter geometry. At low frequencies the helicopter is modeled by polygonal plates, and the method of moments is used to compute the desired patterns. At high frequencies the helicopter is modeled by a composite ellipsoid and flat plates, and computations are made using the geometrical theory of diffraction. The HARP code will provide a user friendly interface, employing modern computer graphics, to aid the user to describe the helicopter geometry, select the method of computation, construct the desired high or low frequency model, and display the results.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell on a Helicopter: A System Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesheiwat, Rod

    Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted to extend their applicability to rotary wing aircrafts. To aid in the advancement of such innovative technologies, a holistic technical approach is required to ensure risk reduction and cost effectiveness throughout the product lifecycle. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of replacing a gas turbine auxiliary power unit on a helicopter with a direct hydrogen, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, all while emphasizing a system engineering approach that utilize a specialized set of tools and artifacts.

  20. NASA/FAA Helicopter ATC simulation investigation of RNAV/MLS instrument approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, L. L., Jr.; Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/FAA Helicopter Air Traffic Control (ATC) simulation investigations to determine the feasibility of simultaneous, independent instrument approach procedures for helicopters at major terminal areas, using Area Navigation/Microwave Landing System (RNAV/MLS) guidance, was conducted at several levels of helicopter display sophistication, up to that of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) system. Test objectives included the determination of pilot acceptability and the tracking performance of the RNAV/MLS's noninterfering rotorcraft approach path structure, along with the evaluation of the effect on controller workload of multiroute structures combining conventional and rotorcraft approaches at various arrival rates and traffic separations. The utility of electronic area maps and CDTI displays was also investigated. Participating pilots flew 127 simulated instrument approaches in an ATC simulation laboratory.

  1. Application of the ABC helicopter to the emergency medical service role

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. S.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is called to the use of helicopters in transporting the sick and injured to medical facilities. It is noted that the helicopter's speed of response and delivery increases patient survival rates and may reduce the cost of medical care and its burden on society. Among the vehicle characteristics desired for this use are a cruising speed of 200 knots, a single engine hover capability at 10,000 ft, and an absence of a tail rotor. Three designs for helicopters incorporating such new technologies as digital/optical control systems, all composite air-frames, and third-generation airfoils are presented. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the effect of design speed, mission radius, and single engine hover capability on vehicle weight, fuel consumption, operating costs, and productivity.

  2. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  3. A random blend: the self in Philip Larkin's poems "Ambulances" and "The Building".

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In two of his great poems, "Ambulances" and "The Building," Philip Larkin considers a deep fear about human individuality. The fear is that the human self is contingent and disjunctive, lacking any integrity or unity. The arrival of an ambulance on an urban curb and a visit to the hospital are the occasion of reflection on this form of human fragility. But more significant, the ambulance and the hospital are imagined as contexts in which the contingency of the human individual is brought out and laid before us.

  4. An evaluation of helicopter noise and vibration ride qualities criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. E.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two methods of quantifying helicopter ride quality; absorbed power for vibration only and the NASA ride comfort model for both noise and vibration are discussed. Noise and vibration measurements were obtained on five operational US Army helicopters. The data were converted to both absorbed power and DISC's (discomfort units used in the NASA model) for specific helicopter flight conditions. Both models indicate considerable variation in ride quality between the five helicopters and between flight conditions within each helicopter.

  5. The impact of urban operations on helicopter noise requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The interrelationship of urban helicopter operations, helicopter noise, and the establishment of urban public-use heliports is discussed. Public resistance to urban helicopter operations due to concern for safety and noise is shown to negatively impact the establishment of public-use heliports in urban centers. It is indicated that increased government and industry effort to reduce helicopter noise is needed to ensure continued growth in the helicopter industry.

  6. Helicopter flight control compensator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaici, Malika; Hariche, Kamel; Clarke, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In a precedent paper a design process is described to achieve eigenstructure assignment using block poles. Systems described in state space equations are transformed to systems in matrix fractions description (MFD) and its desired eigenstructure is transformed to a desired latent structure, which is used to construct desired block poles. In this paper, the proposed design method is applied for attitude stabilization of a Lynx helicopter in hover. An input-output feedback configuration has been chosen for more generality, and to validate the results the output responses are compared to state and output feedback control responses.

  7. Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.

  8. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  9. Occupant accelerations and injury potential during an ambulance-to-curb impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen L; Hayes, Wilson C

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents real world acceleration data for an ambulance driving up and over a curb. A full scale reenactment was performed for a litigated case in which a patient on a gurney in an ambulance claimed a variety of bodily injuries after the ambulance struck a curb. A height and weight matched surrogate rode on the gurney during the tests. Results demonstrated that peak vehicle and occupant accelerations never exceeded 1.1g's. To address the claimed injuries, the accelerations likely sustained by the patient were compared to those experienced during daily life. Since ambulances are wide vehicles that travel fast on potentially narrow arterial, collector or local roadways, curb or median impacts may occur during the normal course of driving. Thus, these results may be useful for forensic experts in dealing with similar cases involving claimed injuries following curb impacts.

  10. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter-rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of rotor wake on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained on three fuselage models at various combinations of windspeed, sideslip angle, and pitch angle. The data show that the influence of rotor wake on the helicopter fuselage yawing moment imposes a significant additional thrust requirement on the tail rotor of a single-rotor helicopter at high sideslip angles.

  11. To surrender in dependence of another: the relationship with the ambulance clinicians as experienced by patients.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Mats; Forslund, Kerstin; Wahlberg, Anna Carin; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2014-09-01

    Historically, the ambulance care has focused on acute transports and medical treatment, although ambulance care has also been reported as complex, encompassing more than just medical treatment and transports. Previous studies, on ambulance clinicians, have pointed out the importance of interpersonal caring activities complementary to the medical treatment. Those activities can be understood as taking part in the relationship between patients and ambulance clinicians, earlier described as essential and a core component of care. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of the relationship with the ambulance clinicians as experienced by patients. Twenty ambulance patients were interviewed in the study. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical method to grasp meanings in the patients' experiences. The regional ethical committee approved the study. In the result emerged one main theme: To surrender in dependence of another. The main theme includes four themes: Being in the hands of another, Being in a caring temporary presence, Being important while involved and Being powerless while insignificant, and the themes comprise eleven subthemes. The main theme meant to have no other option than to surrender and to put their life into the hand of another. This surrender also meant to adapt to the clinicians' views even if not shared. This is experienced as excessive care. Summarised, the patients' experiences were both positive and negative and the findings provide a complex understanding of the relationship between the patient and the ambulance clinicians. Overall, the relationship embraces the whole person without reducing the patient to be a recipient of an objectified ambulance care.

  12. The Effect of Ambulance Staffing Models in a Metropolitan, Fire-Based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eric J; Panchal, Ashish R; Davis, James E; Keseg, David P

    2017-01-18

    Introduction The staffing of ambulances with different levels of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers is a difficult decision with evidence being mixed on the benefit of each model. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to describe a pilot program evaluating alternative staffing on two ambulances utilizing the paramedic-basic (PB) model (staffed with one paramedic and one emergency medical technician[EMT]).

  13. What's Cookin' With Helicopter Microwave Landing Systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a joint effort of the FAA, NASA and the Helicopter Industry to establish a data base for (Microwave Landing Systems) MLS approaches, and to aid the FAA in developing the MLS Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria for rotary-wing IFR operations. The latter is of particular importance for it appears to signal sincere official interest in filling in the blanks in Chapter 11 of TERPS -- that portion set aside for helicopter IFR operations and recognition of the unique capabilities of the helicopter in the instrument environment. One of the program objectives is to find out what a sample of pilots can do with the MLS in a minimum machine.

  14. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  15. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF FUNCTIONAL AMBULATION OUTCOME MEASURES IN SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tania; Noonan, Vanessa K.; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design systematic review Objectives To systematically review the psychometric properties of outcome measures used to assess ambulation in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting Vancouver, Canada Methods A keyword literature search of original articles that evaluated the psychometric properties of ambulation outcome measures in the SCI population was conducted using multiple databases. Multi-dimensional scales of function were included if specific data were available on ambulation-related sub-scales. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness values were extracted and conclusions drawn about the psychometric quality of each measure. Results Seven outcome measures were identified and were broadly categorized into timed and categorical measures of ambulation. Timed measures included timed walking tests that showed excellent reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness to change. The psychometric properties of the categorical scales were more variable, but those that were developed specifically for the SCI population had excellent reliability and validity. Categorical scales also exhibited some floor or ceiling effects. Conclusion Excellent tools are available for measuring functional ambulation capacity. Further work is required to develop and evaluate outcome measures to include environmental factors that contribute to the ability to achieve safe, functional ambulation in everyday settings. Sponsorship Rick Hansen Man-in-Motion Foundation and Ontario Neurotrauma Fund. PMID:17923844

  16. 78 FR 46405 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of a New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... request the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for a new information collection. The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 included a mandate to begin collection of operational data from Air... air ambulance services. The helicopter air ambulance operational data provided to the FAA will be...

  17. Transonic Aeroelasticity Analysis For Helicopter Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Chung; Gea, Lie-Mine; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1991-01-01

    Numerical-simulation method for aeroelasticity analysis of helicopter rotor blade combines established techniques for analysis of aerodynamics and vibrations of blade. Application of method clearly shows elasticity of blade modifies flow and, consequently, aerodynamic loads on blade.

  18. Small crack test program for helicopter materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annigeri, Bal; Schneider, George

    1994-01-01

    Crack propagation tests were conducted to determine crack growth behavior in five helicopter materials for surface cracks between 0.005 to 0.020 inches in depth. Constant amplitude tests were conducted at stress ratios R equals 0.1 and 0.5, and emphasis was placed on near threshold data (i.e., 10-8 to 10-6 inches/cycle). Spectrum tests were conducted using a helicopter spectrum. The test specimen was an unnotched tension specimen, and cracks were initiated from a small EDM notch. An optical/video system was used to monitor crack growth. The material for the test specimens was obtained from helicopter part forgings. Testing was conducted at stresses below yield to reflect actual stresses in helicopter parts.

  19. 14 CFR 93.103 - Helicopter operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Orient Point, shall utilize the North Shore Helicopter route and altitude, as published. (b) Pilots may deviate from the route and altitude requirements of paragraph (a) of this section when necessary...

  20. 14 CFR 93.103 - Helicopter operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Orient Point, shall utilize the North Shore Helicopter route and altitude, as published. (b) Pilots may deviate from the route and altitude requirements of paragraph (a) of this section when necessary...

  1. Civil helicopter design and operational requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    Design and operational requirements and other factors that have a restraining influence on expansion of the helicopter market are discussed. The needs of operators, users, pilots and the community at large are examined. The impact of future technology developments and other trends such as use, energy shortages, and civil and military helicopter requirements and development is assessed. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering life cycle costs and removing barriers to further expansion of the industry are analyzed.

  2. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  3. The effective acoustic environment of helicopter crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, R. T., Jr.; Mozo, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring the composite acoustic environment of helicopters in order to quantify the effective acoustic environment of the crewmen and to assess the real acoustic hazards of the personnel are examined. It is indicated that the attenuation characteristics of the helmets and hearing protectors and the variables of the physiology of the human ear be accounted for in determining the effective acoustic environment of Army helicopter crewmen as well as the acoustic hazards of voice communications systems noise.

  4. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  5. The Evolution of the Advanced Attack Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    engineering laboratory at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. The first helicopter which appears to have been evaluated was th. Peter Cooper Hewitt design...through five decades to an evaluation of the Peter Cooper Hewitt design in 1918. The first helicopter contracted for by the military was the 199 200 de...used counter-rotating rotors, control vanes below, 24-hp Antoinette engine, two 20 foot rotors. On 13 Nov lifted inventor and two passen- gers, a

  6. Helicopter Performance Evaluation (HELPE) Computer Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    questions : * For a given helicopter at given flight conditions and specified mission weight, how fast can the helicopter cruise in level flight...possible level speed its maneuverability in a turn, and its hover and climb capabilities in the in-ground and out-of-ground effects modes. The code... levels , and mappings ..... 2 2. Available engine power output as a function of altitude "h".................... 8 3. Schematic drawing of the thrust

  7. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.

  8. 77 FR 23388 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... helicopters with certain main rotor blades installed to reduce the life limit of those blades. This AD is... rotor blade failed because of fatigue cracking. These actions are intended to prevent failure of the main rotor blade and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD becomes effective...

  9. 78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... service information identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l...-2009-32, dated July 24, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the...

  10. 78 FR 54751 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ...-17576; AD 2013-18-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. (BHT) Model 206A... Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862 or...

  11. Analysis of helicopter noise data using international helicopter noise certification procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Levanduski, D. A.; Woolridge, S. B.

    1986-03-01

    The results of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise measurement flight test program involving seven helicopters are documented. Noise levels were established using the basic testing, reduction and analysis techniques specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for helicopter noise certification, supplemented with some procedural refinements contained in ICAO Working Group II recommendations for incorporation into the standard.

  12. Responses of the Acutely Injured Spinal Cord to Vibration that Simulates Transport in Helicopters or Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Manouchehri, Neda; Melnyk, Angela D; Chak, Jason; Tigchelaar, Seth; So, Kitty; Okon, Elena B; Jiang, Shudong; Kinsler, Rachel; Barazanji, Khalid; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2016-12-15

    In the military environment, injured soldiers undergoing medical evacuation via helicopter or mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle (MRAP) are subjected to vibration and shock inherent to the transport vehicle. We conducted the present study to assess the consequences of such vibration on the acutely injured spinal cord. We used a porcine model of spinal cord injury (SCI). After a T10 contusion-compression injury, animals were subjected to 1) no vibration (n = 7-8), 2) whole body vibration at frequencies and amplitudes simulating helicopter transport (n = 8), or 3) whole body vibration simulating ground transportation in an MRAP ambulance (n = 7). Hindlimb locomotor function (using Porcine Thoracic Injury Behavior Scale [PTIBS]), Eriochrome Cyanine histochemistry and biochemical analysis of inflammatory and neural damage markers were analyzed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression levels for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were similar between the helicopter or MRAP group and the unvibrated controls. Spared white/gray matter tended to be lower in the MRAP-vibrated animals than in the unvibrated controls, especially rostral to the epicenter. However, spared white/gray matter in the helicopter-vibrated group appeared normal. Although there was a relationship between the extent of sparing and the extent of locomotor recovery, no significant differences were found in PTIBS scores between the groups. In summary, exposures to vibration in the context of ground (MRAP) or aeromedical (helicopter) transportation did not significantly impair functional outcome in our large animal model of SCI. However, MRAP vibration was associated with increased tissue damage around the injury site, warranting caution around exposure to vehicle vibration acutely after SCI.

  13. Instrument Approach Aids for Helicopters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Me 3.9 "HELICOPTER ONLY" CRITERIA 3-27 h3-30 3.9.1 Procedure Limitations 3-30 3.9.2 Point in Space Concept 3-30 3.9.3 Descent Gradients 3-30 3.9.4...601-800 ft 3/4 mile 801 ft and up 1 mile * Point in space procedures HAS Visibility Minimum 250-800 ft 3/4 mile 801 ft and up 1 mile 1.3 ESTABLISHED...procedures. In the analysis of visibility data most procedures were able to achieve 1/2 mile minimums. A few, primarily the RNAV Point in Space

  14. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... ] power supply disruptions while a helicopter is on the ground, causing the landing gear to retract and... power supply disruptions, which caused the landing gear to retract and the helicopter to drop,...

  15. Further Study Of Face Gears For Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J. C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y. J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    Document describes theoretical, computational, and experimental studies of feasibility of proposed lightweight, split-torque helicopter transmissions based on face gears. Majority of work also described in prior document "Face Gears for Helicopter Transmissions" (LEW-15840).

  16. 77 FR 18969 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  17. Calls Forecast for the Moscow Ambulance Service. The Impact of Weather Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordin, Vladimir; Bykov, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    We use the known statistics of the calls for the current and previous days to predict them for tomorrow and for the following days. We assume that this algorithm will work operatively, will cyclically update the available information and will move the horizon of the forecast. Sure, the accuracy of such forecasts depends on their lead time, and from a choice of some group of diagnoses. For comparison we used the error of the inertial forecast (tomorrow there will be the same number of calls as today). Our technology has demonstrated accuracy that is approximately two times better compared to the inertial forecast. We obtained the following result: the number of calls depends on the actual weather in the city as well as on its rate of change. We were interested in the accuracy of the forecast for 12-hour sum of the calls in real situations. We evaluate the impact of the meteorological errors [1] on the forecast errors of the number of Ambulance calls. The weather and the Ambulance calls number both have seasonal tendencies. Therefore, if we have medical information from one city only, we should separate the impacts of such predictors as "annual variations in the number of calls" and "weather". We need to consider the seasonal tendencies (associated, e. g. with the seasonal migration of the population) and the impact of the air temperature simultaneously, rather than sequentially. We forecasted separately the number of calls with diagnoses of cardiovascular group, where it was demonstrated the advantage of the forecasting method, when we use the maximum daily air temperature as a predictor. We have a chance to evaluate statistically the influence of meteorological factors on the dynamics of medical problems. In some cases it may be useful for understanding of the physiology of disease and possible treatment options. We can assimilate some personal archives of medical parameters for the individuals with concrete diseases and the relative meteorological archive. As a

  18. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy–related deaths? One–year operational assessment in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Kinsman, John; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background To maximise the potential benefits of maternity care services, pregnant women need to be able to physically get to health facilities in a timely manner. In most of sub–Saharan Africa, transport represents a major practical barrier. Here we evaluate the extent to which an innovative national ambulance service in Ethiopia, together with mobile phones, may have been successful in averting pregnancy–related deaths. Methods An operational assessment of pregnancy–related deaths in relation to utilisation of the new national ambulance service was undertaken in six randomly selected Districts in northern Ethiopia. All 183 286 households in the six randomly selected Districts were visited to identify live–births and deaths among women of reproductive age that occurred over a one–year period. The uptake of the new ambulance transport service for women’s deliveries in the same six randomly selected Districts over the same period was determined retrospectively from ambulance log books. Pregnancy–related deaths as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO 2012) verbal autopsy tool [13] and the InterVA–4 model [14] were analysed against ambulance utilisation by District, month, local area, distance from health facility and mobile network coverage. Findings A total of 51 pregnancy–related deaths and 19 179 live–births were documented. Pregnancy–related mortality for Districts with above average ambulance utilisation was 149 per 100 000 live–births (95% confidence interval CI 77–260), compared with 350 per 100 000 (95% CI 249–479) for below average utilisation (P = 0.01). Distance to a health facility, mobile network availability and ambulance utilisation were all significantly associated with pregnancy–related mortality on a bivariable basis. On a multivariable basis, ambulance non–utilisation uniquely persisted as a significant determinant of mortality (mortality rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05–3.69; P = 0

  19. Non-Ambulant Duchenne Patients Theoretically Treatable by Exon 53 Skipping have Severe Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Laurent; Montus, Marie; Guiner, Caroline Le; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Annoussamy, Mélanie; Moraux, Amélie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Seferian, Andreea M.; Zehrouni, Karima; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Vanhulle, Catherine; Laugel, Vincent; Butoianu, Nina; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Sabouraud, Pascal; Cances, Claude; Klein, Andrea; Leturcq, France; Moullier, Philippe; Voit, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Exon skipping therapy is an emerging approach in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Antisense oligonucleotides that induce skipping of exon 51, 44, 45, or 53 are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. These trials were designed on the basis of data available in general DMD population. Objectives: Our objective was to compare the clinical and functional statuses of non-ambulant DMD patients theoretically treatable by exon 53 skipping and of DMD patients with other mutations. Methods: We first compared fifteen non-ambulant DMD patients carrying deletions theoretically treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-53) with fifteen closely age-matched DMD patients with mutations not treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-all-non-53) then with fifteen DMD patients carrying deletions not treatable by exon 53 skipping (DMD-del-non-53). Results: We found that DMD-53 patients had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, more contractures and they tend to have weaker grips and pinch strengths than other DMD patients. DMD-53 patients lost ambulation significantly younger than other DMD patients. This result was confirmed by comparing ages at loss of ambulation in all non-ambulant DMD patients of the DMD cohort identified in a molecular diagnostic lab. Conclusions: These prospective and retrospective data demonstrate that DMD-53 patients have clinically more severe phenotypes than other DMD patients. PMID:27858743

  20. A national census of ambulance response times to emergency calls in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breen, N.; Woods, J.; Bury, G.; Murphy, A.; Brazier, H.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Equity of access to appropriate pre-hospital emergency care is a core principle underlying an effective ambulance service. Care must be provided within a timeframe in which it is likely to be effective. A national census of response times to emergency and urgent calls in statutory ambulance services in Ireland was undertaken to assess current service provision. Methods—A prospective census of response times to all emergency and urgent calls was carried out in the nine ambulance services in the country over a period of one week. The times for call receipt, activation, arrival at and departure from scene and arrival at hospital were analysed. Crew type, location of call and distance from ambulance base were detailed. The type of incident leading to the call was recorded but no further clinical information was gathered. Results—2426 emergency calls were received by the services during the week. Fourteen per cent took five minutes or longer to activate (range 5–33%). Thirty eight per cent of emergencies received a response within nine minutes (range 10–47%). Only 4.5% of emergency calls originating greater than five miles from an ambulance station were responded to within nine minutes (range 0–10%). Median patient care times for "on call" crews were three times longer than "on duty" crews. Conclusion—Without prioritised use of available resources, inappropriately delayed responses to critical incidents will continue. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of emergency medical service utilisation. PMID:11104237

  1. Levels of Community Ambulation Ability in Patients with Stroke Who Live in a Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Amatachaya, Sugalya; Chuadthong, Janya; Thaweewannaku, Thiwabhorn; Srisim, Kitiyawadee; Phonthee, Sirisuda

    2016-01-01

    Background Community ambulation is essential for patients with stroke. Apart from treatments, an assessment with a quantitative target criterion is also important for patients to clearly demonstrate their functional alteration and determine how close they are to their goal, as well as for therapists to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. The existing quantitative target criteria for community ambulation were all derived from participants in a developed country and ability was assessed using a single-task test. To explore cutoff scores of the single-task and dual-task 10-meter walk test (10MWT) in ambulatory patients with stroke from rural areas of a developing country. Methods Ninety-five participants with chronic stroke were interviewed concerning their community ambulation ability, and assessed for their walking ability using the single- and dual-task 10MWT. Results A walking speed of at least 0.47 m/s assessed using the single-task 10MWT, and at least 0.30 m/s assessed using the dual-task 10MWT, could determine the community ambulation ability of the participants. Conclusion Distinct contexts and anthropometric characteristics required different target criteria for community walking. Thus, when establishing a target value for community ambulation, it needs to be specific to the demographics and geographical locations of the patients. PMID:27540326

  2. Ambulation speed and corresponding mechanics are associated with changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Denning, W Matt; Becker Pardo, Michael; Winward, Jason G; Hunter, Iain; Ridge, Sarah; Hopkins, J Ty; Reese, C Shane; Parcell, Allen C; Seeley, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Because serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) has been used to reflect articular cartilage condition, we aimed to identify walking and running mechanics that are associated with changes in serum COMP. Eighteen subjects (9 male, 9 female; age=23 ± 2 yrs.; mass=68.3 ± 9.6 kg; height=1.70 ± 0.08 m) completed 4000 steps on an instrumented treadmill on three separate days. Each day corresponded to a different ambulation speed: slow (preferred walking speed), medium (+50% of slow), and fast (+100% of slow). Synchronized ground reaction force and video data were collected to evaluate walking mechanics. Blood samples were collected pre-, post-, 30-minute post-, and 60-minute post-ambulation to determine serum COMP concentration at these times. Serum COMP increased 29%, 18%, and 5% immediately post ambulation for the fast, medium, and slow sessions (p<0.01). When the speeds were pooled, peak ankle inversion, knee extension, knee abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, and hip abduction moment, and knee flexion angle at impact explained 61.4% of total variance in COMP concentration change (p<0.001). These results indicate that (1) certain joint mechanics are associated with acute change in serum COMP due to ambulation, and (2) increased ambulation speed increases serum COMP concentration.

  3. Developing alternative ambulance response schemes: analysis of attitudes, barriers, and change

    PubMed Central

    Squires, J; Mason, S

    2004-01-01

    Methods: South Yorkshire Ambulance Service crews and control room staff were interviewed, using South Yorkshire's paramedic practitioner (PP) scheme as a model of an alternative response scheme. Results: 55 ambulance crew and 17 control staff were interviewed. Most (97%, n = 70) thought that the PP scheme was a good way of dealing with patients who call 999 but may not need urgent transport and hospital treatment. The perceived effect of the PP scheme on traditional ambulance service duties was equally divided between a third who thought there had been no effect, a third who perceived an improvement, and a third a deterioration. Recurrent difficulties with the scheme were found relating to the AMPDS methodology of ambulance dispatch, and ambulance service performance targets. Conclusions: Flexibility of AMPDS and dispatch targets will need to be reviewed to permit the successful implementation of alternative responses to 999 calls. Careful consideration needs to be given to communicating the aims and value of such schemes to all staff and ensuring a common understanding of, and commitment to, a shared vision. The effect of implementation on the remaining service function must be well planned. PMID:15496710

  4. Commercially available accelerometry as an ecologically valid measure of ambulation in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-09-01

    Ambulatory impairment is a prevalent consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) that is often measured in controlled contexts using performance tests that lack ecological validity. This underscores the importance of considering alternative, ecologically valid approaches, such as commercially available accelerometers, for measuring community ambulation in individuals with MS. This consideration is warranted based on problems with existing measures of ambulation in MS (e.g., poor responsiveness and patient-clinician discordance); conceptual associations among MS pathology, impairment and gait function with relevance for the signal detected by accelerometers; assumptions that are empirically supported for the application of commercially available accelerometers as a measure of community ambulation; and evidence supporting the output of commercially available accelerometers as a measure of ambulation. Collectively, the authors believe the time is ripe for the application of commercially available accelerometers as an outcome measure of community ambulation in MS. Such an application has the potential to maximize the understanding of ambulatory impairments in real-world conditions for clinical research and practice involving individuals with MS.

  5. Lubricant Effects on Efficiency of a Helicopter Transmission.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Research Cen- ter’s 500 hp torque regenerative helicopter transmission test stand. The test transmission was the 01158 helicopter main transmission...cooling systema. This effect adds to increase the payload capacity of the helicopter. The total power loss in a helicopter transmision is a function...friction between Sear teeth . Martin (rof 3) concentrates on the problem of calcmlatiui the losses in the tooth contact. Anderson and Loeventhel (ref 4

  6. Emergency and microfog lubrication and cooling of bearings for Army helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once-through oil-mist (microfog) and coolant air system. A system was designed, manufactured, coupled with an existing rig and evaluation tests were performed using 46 mm bore split-inner angular-contact ball bearings under 1779N (400 lb.) thrust load. An emergency lubrication aspirator system was also manufactured and tested under lost lubricant conditions. The testing demonstrated the feasibility of using a mist oil and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed helicopter engine mainshaft bearing. The testing also demonstrated the feasibility of using an emergency aspirator lubrication system as a viable survivability concept for helicopter mainshaft engine bearing for periods as long as 30 minutes.

  7. 77 FR 57524 - Stage 3 Helicopter Noise Certification Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... applications for a new helicopter type design and for a supplemental type certificate for those new type designs. A helicopter type certificated under this standard would be designated as a Stage 3 helicopter... standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The proposal of these more...

  8. 14 CFR 135.207 - VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference...

  9. 78 FR 17593 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... helicopters. This AD requires establishing a lower life limit on certain swashplate outer ring assemblies... lead to the loss of main rotor (M/R) blade pitch control and subsequent loss of helicopter control..., which could lead to the loss of M/R blade pitch control and subsequent loss of helicopter...

  10. Helicopter Slung-Load Simulation Toolbox for Use With MATLAB (Registered trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    ifiage c ass cation: UNCLASSIFlED DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 1. PRIVACY MARKING/CAVEAT (OF DOCUMENT) 2. TITLE 3...34. ,", ,. Australian Government Department of Defence Defence Science and Technology Organisation Helicopter Slung-Load Simulation Toolbox for...use with MATLAB® Roger A. Stuckey Air Operations Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-0855 ABSTRACT This document outlines the

  11. Artificial Icing Test, Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS), Boeing Vertol YUH-61A Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Tactical Transport Aircraft System," 10 November 1975. 2. Letter, AVSCOM, DRSAV-EQI, 25 May 1976, subject: Utility Tactical Tranport Aircraft System...Parts, Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS). 12 November 1973, with Change 1, 15 July 1976. 8. Technical Report. Environmental Research and Technology ...and static air temperature was obtained from table 3. Relative humidity was then computed using the values obtained from table 2 and equation 1: PS

  12. Practice guidelines for early ambulation of burn survivors after lower extremity grafts.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Serghiou, Michael A; Niszczak, Jonathan; McMahon, Margaret; Healey, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the available clinical evidence for early ambulation of burn survivors after lower extremity skin grafting procedures so that practice guidelines could be proposed. It provides evidence-based recommendations, specifically for the rehabilitation interventions required for early ambulation of burn survivors. These guidelines are designed to assist all healthcare providers who are responsible for initiating and supporting the ambulation and rehabilitation of burn survivors after lower extremity grafting. Summary recommendations were made after the literature, retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised and the level of evidence determined according to Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A formal consensus exercise was performed to address some of the identified gaps in the literature which were believed to be critical building blocks of clinical practice.

  13. Degenerative Changes of Spine in Helicopter Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Won; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Im, Hyoung June

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between whole body vibration (WBV) induced helicopter flights and degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Methods We examined 186 helicopter pilots who were exposed to WBV and 94 military clerical workers at a military hospital. Questionnaires and interviews were completed for 164 of the 186 pilots (response rate, 88.2%) and 88 of the 94 clerical workers (response rate, 93.6%). Radiographic examinations of the cervical and the lumbar spines were performed after obtaining informed consent in both groups. Degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines were determined using four radiographs per subject, and diagnosed by two independent, blinded radiologists. Results There was no significant difference in general and work-related characteristics except for flight hours and frequency between helicopter pilots and clerical workers. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine were significantly more prevalent in the helicopter pilots compared with control group. In the cervical spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) was associated with degenerative changes. And in the lumbar spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) and age were associated with degenerative changes. Conclusion Accumulated flight hours were associated with degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines in helicopter pilots. PMID:24236259

  14. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation.

    PubMed

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R

    1989-07-01

    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems.

  15. 78 FR 48925 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of a New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... request the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for a new information collection. This notice... Reform Act of 2012 included a mandate to begin collection of operational data from Air Ambulance... services. See 49 U.S.C. 44731. The helicopter air ambulance operational data provided to the FAA will...

  16. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a nationwide sample of operational Norwegian ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Lau, Bjørn; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2008-01-01

    This is the first paper on suicidal ideation and attempts among ambulance personnel. This study aimed to investigate levels of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among ambulance personnel, and to identify important correlates and the factors to which ambulance personnel attribute their serious suicidal ideation. A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of 1,180 operational ambulance personnel was conducted. Measurements included: Paykel's Suicidal Feelings in the General Population questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Subjective Health Complaints Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Job Satisfaction Scale, the Basic Character Inventory, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Lifetime prevalence ranged from 28% for feelings that life was not worth living to 10.4% for seriously considered suicide and 3.1% for a suicide attempt. Serious suicidal ideation was independently associated with job-related emotional exhaustion (feelings of being overextended and depleted of resources) (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and bullying at work (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.02-2.7), younger age, not married/cohabitant, depression symptoms, low self-esteem and the personality trait reality weakness. In general, suicidal thoughts were hardly attributable to working conditions, since only 1.8% of ambulance personnel attributed suicidal ideation to work problems alone. In conclusion, ambulance personnel reported a moderate level of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Although serious suicidal ideation was rarely attributed to working conditions in general, this study suggests that job-related factors like emotional exhaustion and bullying may be of importance.

  17. 24 Month Longitudinal Data in Ambulant Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sormani, Maria Pia; Scalise, Roberta; Berardinelli, Angela; Messina, Sonia; Torrente, Yvan; D’Amico, Adele; Doglio, Luca; Viggiano, Emanuela; D’Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Magri, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Vasco, Gessica; Vita, GianLuca; Motta, Maria Chiara; Donati, Maria Alice; Sacchini, Michele; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was i) to assess the spectrum of changes over 24 months in ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, ii) to establish the difference between the first and the second year results and iii) to identify possible early markers of loss of ambulation. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients (age range 4.1–17, mean 8.2) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 67 of the 113 were on daily and 40 on intermittent steroids, while 6 were not on steroids. All were assessed using the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and timed test. Results On the 6MWT there was an average overall decline of −22.7 (SD 81.0) in the first year and of −64.7 (SD 123.1) in the second year. On the NSAA the average overall decline was of −1.86 (SD 4.21) in the first year and of −2.98 (SD 5.19) in the second year. Fourteen children lost ambulation, one in the first year and the other 13 in the second year of the study. A distance of at least 330 meters on the 6MWT, or a NSAA score of 18 at baseline reduced significantly the risk of losing ambulation within 2 years. Conclusions These results can be of help at the time of using inclusion criteria for a study in ambulant patients in order to minimize the risk of patients who may lose ambulation within the time of the trial. PMID:23326337

  18. Promoting ambulation and object manipulation in persons with multiple handicaps through the use of a robot.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; Oliva, D; Signorino, M

    1994-10-01

    A robot was used with a man and a woman affected by blindness, motor disabilities, and mental retardation. The robot was to assist these subjects during their ambulation and allow them to reach a couch (on which to sit) and to transport objects. The data showed that both subjects learned to use the robot, succeeded in transporting and putting away objects, and achieved independent ambulation times of over 22 and 20 min. per session. Staff personnel found the situation in which the subjects were busy with the robot preferable to situations in which the robot was not available.

  19. Infection control implications of the laundering of ambulance staff uniforms and reusable mops.

    PubMed

    Mackay, W G; Whitehead, S; Purdue, N; Smith, M; Redhead, N; Williams, C; Wilson, S

    2017-02-22

    There is a lack of published studies on laundering in ambulance services. We performed bacterial culture on soiled and unsoiled uniforms and reusable mop heads artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile spores. Current laundering processes used for routine cleans in the ambulances appears, from our simulations, to be effective at reducing vegetative pathogenic bacteria to undetectable levels, <3.398log10 colony-forming units (S. aureus and E. coli). Reduced levels of C. difficile were still detected after laundering but the risk this poses for infection is unknown, as background levels of these spores in the environment are unknown.

  20. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Spring 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    SOF MH-53M Pave Low and Rescue HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters can 1. fly at night using NVGs or a forward- looking infrared system, 2. defend...modified-contour low-level flight, 2. fly NVG air and land missions, 3. conduct NVG helicopter air refueling, 4. perform NVG airdrop of personnel and...transports. Rotary-wing squadrons use modified versions of the H-53 heli­ copter. Both platforms are showing their age; in­ deed, the helicopters have

  1. Helicopter stability during aggressive maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranjith

    The dissertation investigates helicopter trim and stability during level bank-angle and diving bank-angle turns. The level turn is moderate in that sufficient power is available to maintain level maneuver, and the diving turn is severe where the power deficit is overcome by the kinetic energy of descent. The investigation basically represents design conditions where the peak loading goes well beyond the steady thrust limit and the rotor experiences appreciable stall. The major objectives are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the trim and stability predictions to the approximations in modeling stall, (2) to correlate the trim predictions with the UH-60A flight test data, and (3) to demonstrate the feasibility of routinely using the exact fast-Floquet periodic eigenvector method for mode identification in the stability analysis. The UH-60A modeling and analysis are performed using the comprehensive code RCAS (Army's Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System). The trim and damping predictions are based on quasisteady stall, ONERA-Edlin (Equations Differentielles Lineaires) and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall models. From the correlation with the test data, the strengths and weaknesses of the trim predictions are presented.

  2. Assessing Pesticide Impact on Human Health in Nebraska: A Survey of Ambulance Services and Rescue Squads. Department Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitzthum, Edward F.; And Others

    A study examined the employment qualifications, job content, training, and training needs of ambulance service and rescue squad workers in Nebraska. Based on the 268 mail questionnaires that were completed and returned out of a total of 338 sent out, it was concluded that the strengths of the various ambulance and rescue services vary widely. The…

  3. Air Assault - Rapid Response at the Operational Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    visualize a number of operational applications for air assault units on the European battlefield. The key to their employment at this level is for...concept, one can visualize a number of operational applications for air assault units on the European battlefield. The key to their employment at this level...combat troop carrying and fire support roles for the helicopter. In 1969, the Soviet Union realized a need for this new combat helicopter technology

  4. Helicopter emergency medical service in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue-medical treatment to the scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. In mountainous areas this is usually possible only with the use of helicopters. ICAR MEDCOM suggests international standards for competent and safe response to medical problems in mountainous and wilderness areas. Rescue helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system with appropriate mountain rescue and medically-trained personnel and with medical and rescue equipment on board. Safety is most important issue in mountain rescue. Activation and approach time should be as short as possible. All persons responsible for activation and realization of a helicopter rescue operation should be aware of all specific problems in the mountains and wilderness.

  5. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardoian, G. H.; Ezzo, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of composite helicopter tail rotor spars and horizontal stabilizers, exposed to the effects of the environment, after up to five and a half years of commercial service. This evaluation is supported by test results of helicopter components and panels which have been exposed to outdoor environmental effects since September 1979. Full scale static and fatigue tests have been conducted on graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite components obtained from Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters in commercial operations in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. Small scale static and fatigue tests are being conducted on coupons obtained from panels under exposure to outdoor conditions in Stratford, Connecticut and West Palm, Florida. The panel layups are representative of the S-76 components. Additionally, this report discusses the results of moisture absorption evaluations and strength tests on the S-76 components and composite panels with up to five years of outdoor exposure.

  6. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of composite helicopter structures, exposed to environmental effects, after four years of commercial service is presented. This assessment is supported by test results of helicopter components and test panels which have been exposed to environmental effects since late 1979. Full scale static and fatigue tests are being conducted on composite components obtained from S-76 helicopters in commercial operations in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. Small scale tests are being conducted on coupons obtained from panels being exposed to outdoor conditions in Stratford, Connecticut and West Palm Beach, Florida. The panel layups represent S-76 components. Moisture evaluations and strength tests are being conducted, on the S-76 components and panels, over a period of eight years. Results are discussed for components and panels with up to four years of exposure.

  7. Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.

  8. Neuro-optimal control of helicopter UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodland, David; Ghosh, Arpita; Zargarzadeh, H.; Jagannathan, S.

    2011-05-01

    Helicopter UAVs can be extensively used for military missions as well as in civil operations, ranging from multirole combat support and search and rescue, to border surveillance and forest fire monitoring. Helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems with correspondingly challenging controller designs. This paper presents an optimal controller design for the regulation and vertical tracking of an underactuated helicopter using an adaptive critic neural network framework. The online approximator-based controller learns the infinite-horizon continuous-time Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation and then calculates the corresponding optimal control input that minimizes the HJB equation forward-in-time. In the proposed technique, optimal regulation and vertical tracking is accomplished by a single neural network (NN) with a second NN necessary for the virtual controller. Both of the NNs are tuned online using novel weight update laws. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design in hovering applications.

  9. Disorientation phenomena in naval helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Tormes, F R; Guedry, F E

    1975-04-01

    The incidence of pilot disorientation in fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft has been previously investigated, but special orientation problems of naval helicopter pilots engaged in operations at sea and landing on moving platforms have not been previously investigated. A questionnaire concerning disorientations was answered anonymously and individually by 104 active naval helicopter pilots. Fifty-six percent indicated one or more espisodes of severe disorientation, and 8.6% indicated having experienced severe disorientation five or more times while piloting helicopters. A number of factors conducive to disorientation were identified. Some precipitating factors appear to be specific to operations over water or over a moving deck, although some of these may well have their counterparts in special operations over land. Other factors are common to fixed-wing as well as rotary-wing aircraft. A number of potential countermeasures for various precipitating factors are discussed.

  10. Workload and operational fatigue in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, G

    1978-02-01

    In light of the modern aetiopathogenic views, a brief review was made concerning possible causes of operational fatigue to which flying personnel in general are exposed in the exercise of flying activity. The author then describes and analyzes the meaning and importance of the various stressing factors that constitute the physical and psychic workload to which the helicopter pilot is subjected in performing his professional activities. Also analyzed are the influences exercised, both separately and jointly, on the genesis of flight fatigue in helicopter pilots by stressing and fatiguing effects of vibrations, noise, and psycho-emotional and psycho-sensorial factors related to the variety and danger of utilization of this modern aircraft. Such an analytical investigation enables the author to conclude that one must admit that helicopter piloting involves a psycho-physical workload certainly no less than that required by more powerful and faster aircraft.

  11. Helicopter impulsive noise: Theoretical and experimental status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental status of helicopter impulsive noise is reviewed. The two major source mechanisms of helicopter impulsive noise are addressed: high-speed impulsive noise and blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise. A thorough physical explanation of both generating mechanism is presented together with model and full-scale measurements of the phenomena. Current theoretical prediction methods are compared with experimental findings of isolated rotor tests. The noise generating mechanism of high speed impulsive noise are fairly well understood - theory and experiment compare nicely over Mach number ranges typical of today's helicopters. For the case of blade-vortex interaction noise, understanding of noise generating mechanisms and theoretical comparison with experiment are less satisfactory. Several methods for improving theory-experiment are suggested.

  12. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  13. A comprehensive plan for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Montana, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current helicopters have parasite drag levels 6 to 10 times as great as fixed wing aircraft. The commensurate poor cruise efficiency results in a substantial degradation of potential mission capability. The paper traces the origins of helicopter drag and shows that the problem (primarily due to bluff body flow separation) can be solved by the adoption of a comprehensive research and development plan. This plan, known as the Fuselage Design Methodology, comprises both nonaerodynamic and aerodynamic aspects. The aerodynamics are discussed in detail and experimental and analytical programs are described which will lead to a solution of the bluff body problem. Some recent results of work conducted at the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) are presented to illustrate these programs. It is concluded that a 75-per cent reduction of helicopter drag is possible by the full implementation of the Fuselage Design Methodology.

  14. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  15. ALLFlight: multisensor data fusion for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehler, H.-U.; Lueken, T.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the project ALLFlight (Assisted Low Level Flight and Landing on Unprepared Landing Sites) is to demonstrate and evaluate the characteristics of different sensors for helicopter operations within degraded visual environments, such as brownout or whiteout. The sensor suite, which is mounted onto DLR's research helicopter EC135 consists of standard color or black and white TV cameras, an un-cooled thermal infrared camera (EVS-1000, Max-Viz, USA), an optical radar scanner (HELLAS-W, EADS, Germany; a millimeter wave radar system (AI-130, ICx Radar Systems, Canada). Data processing is designed and realized by a sophisticated, high performance sensor co-computer (SCC) cluster architecture, which is installed into the helicopter's experimental electronic cargo bay. This paper describes applied methods and the software architecture in terms of real time data acquisition, recording, time stamping and sensor data fusion. First concepts for a pilot HMI are presented as well.

  16. Helicopter Mechanic Career Ladder (AFSC 431X0C/D).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    SYSTEMS ON H-i HELICOPTERS 88 G352 LAUNCH H-i HELICOPTERS 88 G415 REMOVE OR INSTALL BATTERIES ON H-i HELICOPTERS 88 G351 JACK H-i HELICOPTERS 88 F165...PREPARE AFTO FORMS 781H (AEROSPACE VEHICLE FLIGHT STATUS AND MAINTENANCE DOCUMENT) 72 G351 JACK H-i HELICOPTERS 72 E122 PREPARE AFTO FORMS 350...H-I HELICOPTERS 97 G308 ATTACH OR DETACH TOW BARS ON H-i HELICOPTERS 96 G351 JACK H-I HELICOPTERS 95 G507 TIE DOWN BLADES ON H-i HELICOPTERS 93 G336

  17. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  18. CMU's autonomous helicopter explores new territory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, J.

    1998-10-01

    In the summer of 1998, several members of Carnegie Mellon University's (CMUs) Autonomous Helicopter Project team joined NASA on a multidisciplinary expedition to the Canadian Arctic's Haughton Crater. NASA was willing to travel to such a remote corner of the globe because of its similarity to an even more remote locale - Mars. Researchers are studying the 23-million-year-old meteorite impact crater in the hope of learning more about Mars's environment. While there, they also tested a number of technologies that will enable future exploration of Mars, including CMU's autonomous helicopter.

  19. Influence of maneuverability on helicopter combat effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, M.; Smith, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computational procedure employing a stochastic learning method in conjunction with dynamic simulation of helicopter flight and weapon system operation was used to derive helicopter maneuvering strategies. The derived strategies maximize either survival or kill probability and are in the form of a feedback control based upon threat visual or warning system cues. Maneuverability parameters implicit in the strategy development include maximum longitudinal acceleration and deceleration, maximum sustained and transient load factor turn rate at forward speed, and maximum pedal turn rate and lateral acceleration at hover. Results are presented in terms of probability of skill for all combat initial conditions for two threat categories.

  20. Efficient fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, H.; Danai, K.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Application of a diagnostic system to a helicopter gearbox is presented. The diagnostic system is a nonparametric pattern classifier that uses a multi-valued influence matrix (MVIM) as its diagnostic model and benefits from a fast learning algorithm that enables it to estimate its diagnostic model from a small number of measurement-fault data. To test this diagnostic system, vibration measurements were collected from a helicopter gearbox test stand during accelerated fatigue tests and at various fault instances. The diagnostic results indicate that the MVIM system can accurately detect and diagnose various gearbox faults so long as they are included in training.

  1. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an application for turning and direct modes in a complex composite laminate structure. The propagation and interaction of turning modes and fundamental Lamb modes are investigated in the skin, spar and web sections of a helicopter rotor blade. Finite element models were used to understand the various mode conversions at geometric discontinuities such as web-spar joints. Experimental investigation was carried out with the help of air coupled ultrasonic transducers. The turning and direct modes were confirmed with the help of particle displacements and velocities. Experimental B-Scans were performed on damaged and undamaged samples for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure. A strong correlation between the numerical and experimental results was observed and reported.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Williams, Larry; Calafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project in cooperation with the Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector. The results of this contractor activity are reported in the Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment. A recommended system design and transition strategy was then developed to satisfy the identified needs within the constraints of the environment. This work, also performed under contract to NASA, is the subject of this report.

  4. Helicopter-based live-line work. Volume 1, Helicopter platform work between phases: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gela, G.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents experimental data on tests of a configuration consisting of a helicopter between two energized phases (for AC and switching surge) or poles (for DC). The configuration is that related to live-line work from a hovering helicopter. The McDonnell Douglas 500 Series helicopter was used for the tests. All tests were performed with phase-to-phase, or pole-to-pole energization. For AC tests, proper relationship between the phase-to-ground voltages and the phase-to-phase voltage was maintained by energizing the experimental setup from a balanced 3-{phi} AC source. For DC tests, one pole was energized with positive DC voltage to ground, while the other pole was energized with negative DC voltage to ground. For switching surge tests, a surge of positive polarity and a specific peak voltage magnitude was applied to one phase while a surge of negative polarity and the same peak voltage Magnitude was simultaneously applied to the other phase, resulting in {alpha} = 0.5 ({alpha} is the ratio between negative and total surge). In the research program, four conditions were investigated, namely helicopter operating versus not operating, and helicopter bonded to one phase or pole versus not bonded. Results from this research show effects of the rotating main rotor blade of the helicopter, effect of the position of the electrically floating helicopter in the phase-to-phase or pole-to-pole gap, effects of the mannequin, importance of the polarity of the DC poles and switching surges, and effects of inclement weather such as rain. The overall conclusion of this research is that the phase-to-phase or pole-to-pole spacings that cause sparkover with the helicopter between phases (poles) were always significantly smaller than the typical spacings on actual existing overhead transmission lines of the corresponding voltage rating.

  5. A PAIR OF 10TH CAVALRY AMBULANCES, PARKED NEXT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A PAIR OF 10TH CAVALRY AMBULANCES, PARKED NEXT TO ONE OF THE STABLE LABELED "M.D. 10." PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN CIRCA 1918 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1918.00.00.135, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  6. [Simplified schema of action of the ambulance rescue services during mass casualty].

    PubMed

    Guła, Przemysław; Hładki, Waldemar; Górski, Krzysztof; Popławska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Authors represented problems relating mass - casualty accidents and manner of segregation of victims. Lifesaving activities in mass - casualty usually leads to increased emotional stress. It is the result of event specificity, and also of external threats in the zone of activity. Authors presented schema prepared for needs of Cracow's - Ambulance Rescue Services, being the adaptation of universally accepted in western countries algorithm (SAD CHALETS).

  7. Desirable attributes of the ambulance technician, paramedic, and clinical supervisor: findings from a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, T

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The Delphi technique was used to gain a consensus view from a panel of experts. The first round of the study asked the experts to list the attributes they believed were desirable for the ambulance technician, the ambulance paramedic, and the clinical supervisor. The first round of the study generated 3403 individual statements that were collapsed into 25 broad categories, which were returned to the experts, who were required to rate each of the attributes along a visual analogue scale in respect of each of the identified occupational groups. Results: On completion of the second round the data were analysed to demonstrate rank ordering of desirable attributes by occupational group. The level of agreement within each group was determined by analysis using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. This showed high levels of agreement within the technician group but less agreement within the paramedic and clinical supervisor group. All were highly significant p<0.0001. Conclusions: There was significant agreement among the experts as to the desirable attributes of ambulance staff, many of which do not feature in existing ambulance training curriculums. The findings of this study may therefore be of value in informing future curriculum development and in providing guidance for the selection of staff for each of the occupational groups. PMID:15107388

  8. The Birth and Growth of the National Ambulance Service in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Zakariah, Ahmed; Stewart, Barclay T; Boateng, Edmund; Achena, Christiana; Tansley, Gavin; Mock, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Introduction This study aimed to document the growth and challenges encountered in the decade since inception of the National Ambulance Service (NAS) in Ghana, West Africa. By doing so, potentially instructive examples for other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) planning a formal prehospital care system or attempting to identify ways to improve existing emergency services could be identified.

  9. Iterative optimization algorithm with parameter estimation for the ambulance location problem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Lee, Young Hoon

    2016-12-01

    The emergency vehicle location problem to determine the number of ambulance vehicles and their locations satisfying a required reliability level is investigated in this study. This is a complex nonlinear issue involving critical decision making that has inherent stochastic characteristics. This paper studies an iterative optimization algorithm with parameter estimation to solve the emergency vehicle location problem. In the suggested algorithm, a linear model determines the locations of ambulances, while a hypercube simulation is used to estimate and provide parameters regarding ambulance locations. First, we suggest an iterative hypercube optimization algorithm in which interaction parameters and rules for the hypercube and optimization are identified. The interaction rules employed in this study enable our algorithm to always find the locations of ambulances satisfying the reliability requirement. We also propose an iterative simulation optimization algorithm in which the hypercube method is replaced by a simulation, to achieve computational efficiency. The computational experiments show that the iterative simulation optimization algorithm performs equivalently to the iterative hypercube optimization. The suggested algorithms are found to outperform existing algorithms suggested in the literature.

  10. Promoting Ambulation Responses among Children with Multiple Disabilities through Walkers and Microswitches with Contingent Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Smaldone, Angela; La Martire, Maria L.; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Castagnaro, Francesca; Groeneweg, Jop

    2010-01-01

    Children with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities often present problems of balance and ambulation and spend much of their time sitting or lying, with negative consequences for their development and social status. Recent research has shown the possibility of using a walker (support) device and microswitches with preferred…

  11. Emergency Medical Technician-Ambulance: National Standard Curriculum. Course Guide (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide is intended to assist course coordinators in planning and managing a course to train emergency medical technicians to work with ambulance or other specialized rescue services. Materials are presented to enable students to perform the following functions: recognize the nature and seriousness of the patient's condition or extent of…

  12. Optimization of Ambulance Services at McDonald Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-31

    Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) Findings The Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) of the Virginia General... Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) of the Virginia General Assembly. (2004). Review of emergency medical services in Virginia. JLARC (house...making process for the provision of ambulance service at Kimbrough Ambulatory Care Center. Fort George Meade, MD (DTIC No. ADA324412)

  13. The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.

    PubMed

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-10-07

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase.

  14. The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

  15. Modeling the Emergency Ambulance Pass-By of Small Rural Hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Patrick; Duckett, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many small rural hospitals struggle to attract sufficient numbers of suitable patients. Inadequate patient throughput threatens the viability of these hospitals and, consequently, the financial, physical, and social well-being of the whole community. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many emergency ambulance patients are routinely taken…

  16. A Prevalence and Management Study of Acute Pain in Children Attending Emergency Departments by Ambulance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; McCoy, Siobhan; O'Reilly, Kay; Fogarty, Eoin; Dietz, Jason; Crispino, Gloria; Wakai, Abel; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Pain is the most common symptom in the emergency setting and remains one of the most challenging problems for emergency care providers, particularly in the pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute pain in children attending emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland by ambulance. In addition, this study sought to describe the prehospital and initial ED management of pain in this population, with specific reference to etiology of pain, frequency of pain assessment, pain severity, and pharmacological analgesic interventions. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken over a 12-month period of all pediatric patients transported by emergency ambulance to four tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. All children (<16 years) who had pain as a symptom (regardless of cause) at any stage during the prehospital phase of care were included in this study. Over the study period, 6,371 children attended the four EDs by emergency ambulance, of which 2,635 (41.4%, 95% confidence interval 40.2-42.3%) had pain as a documented symptom on the ambulance patient care report (PCR) form. Overall 32% (n = 856) of children who complained of pain were subject to a formal pain assessment during the prehospital phase of care. Younger age, short transfer time to the ED, and emergency calls between midnight and 6 am were independently associated with decreased likelihood of having a documented assessment of pain intensity during the prehospital phase of care. Of the 2,635 children who had documented pain on the ambulance PCR, 26% (n = 689) received some form of analgesic agent prior to ED arrival. Upon ED arrival 54% (n = 1,422) of children had a documented pain assessment and some form of analgesic agent was administered to 50% (n = 1,324). Approximately 41% of children who attend EDs in Ireland by ambulance have pain documented as their primary symptom. This study suggests that the management of acute pain in children transferred by

  17. The Advanced Guided Weapon Testbed (AGWT) at the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Boosting Theater Target Deploying Post-Boost Vehicle Strategic Reentry Vehicle...High Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Figure 17. Air breathing and ballistic missile RTC outputs in various...radiation and convection heat loads. It also models external source effects, including solar reflection, earth shine, and plume impingement. Over the

  18. Helicopter Parents Can Be a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…

  19. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device so designed and installed as to prevent... employee shall be permitted to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning... blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position....

  20. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device so designed and installed as to prevent... employee shall be permitted to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning... blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position....

  1. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device so designed and installed as to prevent... employee shall be permitted to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning... blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position....

  2. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment is presented of ten composite tail rotor spars and four horizontal stabilizers exposed to the effects of in-flight commercial service for up to nine years to establish realistic environmental factors for use in future designs. This evaluation is supported by test results of helicopter components and panels which have been exposed to outdoor environmental effects since 1979. Full scale static and fatigue tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite components removed from Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters in commercial operations off the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. Small scale static and fatigue tests were conducted on coupons obtained from panels exposed to outdoor conditions in Stratford, CT and West Palm Beach, Florida. The panel materials and ply configurations were representative of the S-76 components. The results are discussed of moisture analyses and strength tests on both the S-76 components and composite panels after up to nine years of outdoor exposure. Full scale tests performed on the helicopter components did not disclose any significant reductions from the baseline strengths. The results increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials in helicopter structural applications.

  3. Finite element analysis of helicopter structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the finite element analysis is now being expanded to three dimensional analysis of mechanical components. Examples are presented for airframe, mechanical components, and composite structure calculations. Data are detailed on the increase of model size, computer usage, and the effect on reducing stress analysis costs. Future applications for use of finite element analysis for helicopter structures are projected.

  4. HH-60D night hawk helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

  5. Computer Programs for Helicopter Aerodynamic Stability Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    augmentation system . Two methods of calculating the required stability derivatives and solution of the equations of motion in terms of period and time to damp or time histories for various control motions are shown....The three equations of motion for helicopters are reviewed for both pitch and roll. These include provisions for a simplified second order stability

  6. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the system with the employees in advance of hoisting the load. This applies to both radio and hand... employee shall be permitted to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning... blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position....

  7. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  8. Computerized Analysis Of Helicopter-Rotor Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of aeroelastic stability of helicopter rotor automated. Symbolic-manipulation program, HESL, written in FORTRAN, used to aid in derivation of government equations of motion for elastic-bladed rotor. Operates both on expressions and matrices. By transferring some burden of algebraic manipulations from human analyst to computer, program reduces tedium analysis and conequent opportunity for errors.

  9. Considerations of Methods of Improving Helicopter Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingeldein, Richard C.

    1961-01-01

    Recent NASA helicopter research indicates that significant improvements in hovering efficiency, up to 7 percent, are available from the use of a special airfoil section formed by combining an NACA 632A015 thickness distribution with an NACA 230 mean line. This airfoil should be considered for flying-crane-type helicopters. Application of standard leading-edge roughness causes a large drop in efficiency; however, the cambered rotor is shown to retain its superiority over a rotor having a symmetrical airfoil when both rotors have leading-edge roughness. A simple analysis of available rotor static-thrust data indicates a greatly reduced effect of compressibility effects on the rotor profile-drag power than predicted from calculations. Preliminary results of an experimental study of helicopter parasite drag indicate the practicability of achieving an equivalent flat-plate parasite-drag area of less than 4 square feet for a rotor-head-pylon-fuselage configuration (landing gear retracted) in the 2,000-pound minimum-flying-weight class. The large drag penalty of a conventional skid-type landing (3.6 square feet) can be reduced by two-thirds by careful design. Clean, fair, and smooth fuselages that tend to have narrow, deep cross sections are shown to have advantages from the standpoint of drag and download. A ferry range of the order of 1,500 miles is indicated to be practicable for the small helicopter considered.

  10. Measurements of atmospheric hydroperoxides over a rural site in central Japan during summers using a helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Yachi, Chinatsu; Nishibe, Miyuki; Michigami, Serina; Saito, Yukiko; Eda, Nagisa; Yamazaki, Nobuhiro; Hirai, Taiki

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of hydroperoxides (H2O2 and MHP), O3, SO2 and NOX* over Imizu City, Toyama Prefecture, Japan were measured during summers using a helicopter. The concentrations of hydroperoxides were analyzed by an HPLC system within 5-10 min after the sampling. The H2O2 concentration was lowest at the surface, and the highest concentration was detected at altitudes of 6000 and 8000 ft. The MHP was also higher in the high-altitude atmosphere. Significantly high concentrations of hydroperoxides were observed when air pollutants were transported from China. The concentration of H2O2 was higher than that of SO2 above 4000 ft where the potential capacity of SO2 oxidation in the aqueous phase is large. A helicopter is useful for measuring of hydroperoxides in the high-altitude atmosphere using an HPLC system in a laboratory.

  11. Deflection Shape Reconstructions of a Rotating Five-blade Helicopter Rotor from TLDV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, A.; Di Maio, D.; Ewins, D. J.; Castellini, P.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2010-05-01

    Helicopters are aircraft machines which are subjected to high level of vibrations, mainly due to spinning rotors. These are made of two or more blades attached by hinges to a central hub, which can make the dynamic behaviour difficult to study. However, they share some common dynamic properties with the ones expected in bladed discs, thereby the analytical modelling of rotors can be performed using some assumptions as the ones adopted for the bladed discs. This paper presents results of a vibrations study performed on a scaled helicopter rotor model which was rotating at a fix rotational speed and excited by an air jet. A simplified analytical model of that rotor was also produced to help the identifications of the vibration patterns measured using a single point tracking-SLDV measurement method.

  12. Development of circumferential seal for helicopter transmissions: Results of bench and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, T. N.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A modified circumferential segmented ring seal was designed for direct replacement of a helicopter transmission elastomeric lip seal operating on a shaft diameter of 13.91 centimeters (5.481 in.) at sliding velocities to 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min). The modifications involved the garter spring tension, shaft roundness, seal housing flatness, and pumping grooves to inhibit leakage. Operation of the seals in bench tests under simulated helicopter transmission conditions revealed that the seal leakage rate was within acceptable limits and that the wear rate was negligible. The low leakage and wear rates were confirmed in flight tests of 600 and 175 hours (sliding speed, 48.11 m/sec (9470 ft/min)). An additional 200 hours of air worthiness qualification testing (aircraft tie down) demonstrated that the seal can operate at the advanced sliding conditions of 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min).

  13. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services.

  14. Training Presentation for NASA Civil Helicopter Safety Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura

    2002-01-01

    NASA civil helicopter safety News & Updates include the following: Mar. 2002. The Air Medical Operations Survey has been completed! Check it out! Also accessible via the Mission pages under Air Medical Mission. Air Medical and Law Enforcement Mission pages have been added. They are accessible via the Mission pages. The Public Use, Personal, Offshore, Law Enforcement, External Load, Business and Gyro accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Feb. 2002. A Words of Wisdom section has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. A link to a Corporate Accident Response Plan has been added to the Accident page. The AMs, Aerial Application and Instruction accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Jan. 2002. A new searchable safety article database has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. The 2001 accident summaries have been updated and the statistics have been compiled - check it out by clicking the accident tab to the left. Dec. 2001. Please read the FAA Administrator's memo regarding the latest FBI warning. 3ee the FAA column - Fall 2001 Read it now!

  15. Helicopter emergency medical services (doctor-helicopter) in Fukushima Prefecture: present state and problems.

    PubMed

    Tase, Choichiro; Ohno, Yuko; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tsukada, Yasuhiro; Shimada, Jiro; Ikegami, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the problems in operating an emergency medical service helicopter with an emergency medicine doctor on board (doctor-helicopter) in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, which covers wide regions and many rural areas. The study looked at the numbers of flights and patients during the 523 days since the start of the doctor-helicopter service at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital. The items investigated were: number of flights, number of helicopter dispatches per month, number of patients, the hospitals where patients were taken to, the fire department dispatch centers that requested the doctor-helicopter, and the number of times each doctor flew on the helicopter. There were 450 flights. When the service was started, there were a few flights, but they gradually increased. The majority of the flights were to emergency scenes (295), while 75 flights were interfacility transports of critically ill patients, 79 flights were cancelled after take-off, and one flight was for a disaster relief operation. The nature of requests differed greatly depending on the fire department dispatch center requesting the service. The majority of patients were trauma patients (62.2%). Stroke (8.5%) and acute coronary syndrome (5.2%) patients requiring emergency treatment were fewer than anticipated. The final destination hospitals were appropriate hospitals in the region. Because the number of flight doctors is small, the burden on individual doctors is large. A system for early on-site diagnosis and helicopter request by emergency rescue team is required to maintain a high quality of emergency care.

  16. Subjective field study of response to impulsive helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects, located outdoors and indoors, judged the noisiness and other subjective noise characteristics of flyovers of two helicopters and a propeller driven airplane as part of a study of the effects of impulsiveness on the subjective response to helicopter noise. In the first experiment, the impulsive characteristics of one helicopter was controlled by varying the main rotor speed while maintaining a constant airspeed in level flight. The second experiment which utilized only the helicopters, included descent and level flight operations. The more impulsive helicopter was consistently judged less noisy than the less impulsive helicopter at equal effective perceived noise levels (EPNL). The ability of EPNL to predict noisiness was not improved by the addition of either of two proposed impulse corrections. A subjective measure of impulsiveness, however, which was not significantly related to the proposed impulse corrections, was found to improve the predictive ability of EPNL.

  17. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Tugrul; Sal, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT) strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS) energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC) is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA). In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done. PMID:26180841

  18. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in <3weeks hospitalization or no hospitalization) when compared to severe medical conditions (e.g. critical cases, and cases that led to >3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  19. Variation in ambulance call rates for care homes in Torbay, UK.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Jason; Matthews, Justin; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Lang, Iain; Somerfield, David; Wenman, James; Dickens, Chris

    2016-08-31

    Emergency ambulance calls represent one of the routes of emergency hospital admissions from care homes. We aimed to describe the pattern of ambulance call rates from care homes and identify factors predicting those homes calling for an ambulance most frequently. We obtained data from South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust on 3138 ambulance calls relating to people aged 65 and over from care homes in the Torbay region between 1 April 2012 and 31 July 2013. We supplemented this with data from the Care Quality Commission (CQC) website on home characteristics and outcomes of CQC inspections. We used descriptive statistics to identify variation in ambulance call rates for residential and nursing homes and fitted negative binomial regression models to determine if call rates were predicted by home type (nursing versus residential), the five standards in the CQC reports, dementia care status or travel time to hospital. One hundred and forty-six homes (119 residential and 27 nursing) were included in the analysis. The number of calls made ranged from 1 to 99. The median number (IQR; range) of calls per resident per year was 0.51 (0.21-0.89; 0.03-2.45). Nursing homes had a lower call rate than residential homes [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.29; 95% CI: 0.22-0.40; P < 0.001]; care homes failing the quality and suitability of management standard had a lower call rate compared to those who passed (ARR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50-0.90; P = 0.006); and homes specialising in dementia had a higher call rate compared to those not specialising (ARR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.23-1.96; P < 0.001). These findings require replication in other regions to establish their generalisability and further investigation is required to determine the extent to which call rate variability reflects the different needs of resident populations or differences in care home policies and practice.

  20. Finite difference time domain grid generation from AMC helicopter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique is presented which forms a cubic grid model of a helicopter from an Aircraft Modeling Code (AMC) input file. The AMC input file defines the helicopter fuselage as a series of polygonal cross sections. The cubic grid model is used as an input to a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) code to obtain predictions of antenna performance on a generic helicopter model. The predictions compare reasonably well with measured data.

  1. Combat Maintenance Concepts and Repair Techniques for Helicopter Airframe Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    helicopter airframe and to de- velop concepts for the assessment and repair of airframe combat damage. A computer model was developed to generate...random simulated hallistic strikes on the Black Hawk helicopter airframe. Random shotlines were generated with the model , and cases involving damage...Distribution of Ballistic Hits on Helicopters from Southeast Asia Combat Experience 23 Shotline Simulation Model 24 Conventions for Azimuth and

  2. Economic Effects of Noise Abatement Regulations on the Helicopter Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    are estimated. The effects an consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight...helicopter by subsystem. This thesis proposes that if noise abatement regulations are iqposed on the helicopter industry without due consideration for future...abatement regu- lations on Sikorsky’s s-7S helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. kn appendix compares two

  3. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  4. Research requirements to improve safety of civil helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1977-01-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing accident data were reviewed and major accident causal factors were established. The impact of accidents on insurance rates was examined and the differences in fixed-wing and helicopter accident costs discussed. The state of the art in civil helicopter safety was compared to military helicopters. Goals were established based on incorporation of known technology and achievable improvements that require development, as well as administrative-type changes such as the impact of improved operational planning, training, and human factors effects. Specific R and D recommendations are provided with an estimation of the payoffs, timing, and development costs.

  5. NASA helicopter blades get new paint job for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers put the finishing touches on new paint for the blades of a NASA UH-1H helicopter. They have changed the black to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen from above by a second helicopter. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  6. NASA helicopter blades get new paint job for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers paint the blades of a NASA UH-1H helicopter, changing the black to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen by a second helicopter from above. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  7. Automatic guidance and control laws for helicopter obstacle avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.

  8. 78 FR 44045 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Corporation (Sikorsky) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... directive (AD): Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky): Docket No. FAA-2013-0636; Directorate...

  9. Energy consumption in children with myelomeningocele: a comparison between reciprocating gait orthosis and hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis ambulators.

    PubMed

    Cuddeford, T J; Freeling, R P; Thomas, S S; Aiona, M D; Rex, D; Sirolli, H; Elliott, J; Magnusson, M

    1997-04-01

    This study compared the differences in energy efficiency (energy cost) in children with myelomeningocele ambulating with either reciprocating gait orthoses (RGOs) or hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFOs). There were 15 children who ambulated with RGOs and 11 children braced and ambulating in HKAFOs. Velocity was measured in m/s, energy consumption was measured in mL/kg/min, and energy cost (energy consumption/velocity) was measured in mL/kg/m. Children in HKAFOs had a significantly higher energy consumption rate than children in RGOs. However, children who swing through in a HKAFO have a significantly faster velocity than children who ambulate with the RGO using a reciprocating pattern. The increased energy cost in the RGO group is influenced by their slower velocity, just as the decreased energy cost in the HKAFO group is influenced by their increased velocity. Therefore it appears that children in HKAFOs are more energy efficient than children in RGOs.

  10. 10-year experience of CO2-laser application in ambulance gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachanov, Michael L.; Masychev, Victor I.; Velsher, Leonid Z.; Kirkin, Vladimir V.; Zhashkov, Roman V.; Kocharian, Emilia A.

    2000-10-01

    CO2-laser surgical systems have come to stay in everyday practice of modern physicians and are successfully used in colposcopic and laparoscopic surgery. Results, obtained in ambulance gynecology are especially impressing. CO2- laser provides high medical- and cost-effective treatment. Presented work describes many-years experience of CO2- laser application. 439 patients with various vulvaric and cervix diseases were operated within this period. Laser beam parameters were selected according to requirements ((tau) =4 J/cm2) treatment without carbonization. Analyses of the results showed that the laser successfully destructs uterine cervix erosion, endocervicosis, dysplasia, leukoplakia, eritoplakia of uterine cervix, various benignant pathologies and focus degenerative process in ambulate conditions.

  11. Prosthetic ambulation in a paraplegic patient with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Shin, J C; Park, C; Kim, D Y; Choi, Y S; Kim, Y K; Seong, Y J

    2000-08-01

    Great importance and caution should be placed on prosthetic fitting for a paraplegic patient with an anesthetic residual limb if functional ambulation is to be achieved. The combination of paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy is a complex injury that makes the rehabilitation process difficult. This article describes a case of L2 paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy on the right side. Following the rehabilitation course, the patient independently walked using a walker at indoor level with a transfemoral prosthesis with ischial containment socket, polycentric knee assembly, endoskeletal shank and multiaxis foot assembly and a knee ankle foot orthosis on the sound side. The difficulties of fitting a functional prosthesis to an insensate limb and the rehabilitation stages leading to functional ambulation are reviewed.

  12. Nursing students' perceptions of learning nursing skills in the ambulance service.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Tomas; Lindström, Veronica

    2017-03-02

    Several previous studies have explored nursing students' perceptions of clinical learning at hospitals and in other health care facilities, but there are few studies exploring nursing students' perceptions of the clinical learning in the ambulance service. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore nursing students' perceptions of learning nursing skills in the ambulance service. An inductive qualitative study design with two focus group interviews and content analysis was used. Two themes were identified. The first theme, professional skills, included: Assessment, Prioritizing and initiating care, and Medical treatment and evaluation of interventions. The second theme, a holistic approach to the care included: Cultural, social, and ethical aspects of caring, Decision-making in collaboration with patients, and Care provided in the patients' home.

  13. Effectiveness of media awareness campaigns on the proportion of vehicles that give space to ambulances on roads: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Baig, Lubna A; Polkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: The findings of the Health Care in Danger project in Karachi suggests that there is presence of behavioral negligence among vehicle operators on roads in regards to giving way to ambulances. A mass media campaign was conducted to raise people’s awareness on the importance of giving way to ambulances. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the campaign on increasing the proportion of vehicles that give way to ambulances. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was based on before and after design. Three observation surveys were carried out in different areas of the city in Karachi, Pakistan before, during and after the campaign by trained observers who recorded their findings on a checklist. Each observation was carried out at three different times of the day for at least two days on each road. The relationship of the media campaign with regards to a vehicle giving space to an ambulance was calculated by means of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 245 observations were included in the analysis. Traffic congestion and negligence/resistance, by vehicles operators who were in front of the ambulance, were the two main reasons why ambulances were not given way. Other reasons include: sudden stops by minibuses and in the process causing obstruction, ambulances not rushing through to alert vehicle operators to give way and traffic interruption by VIP movement. After adjustment for site, time of day, type of ambulance and number of cars in front of the ambulance, vehicles during (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.22-3.71, p=0.007) and after the campaign (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02-2.95, p=0.042) were significantly more likely give space to ambulances. Conclusion: Mass media campaigns can play a significant role in changing the negligent behavior of people, especially when the campaign conveys a humanitarian message such as: giving way to ambulances can save lives

  14. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    This first interim report presents the technical background for including environmental effects in the design of helicopter composite structures, and test results after approximately two year field exposure of components and panels. Composite structural components were removed from Sikorsky S-76 helicopters commercially operated in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. Fatigue tests were conducted for a graphite/epoxy tail rotor spar and static test for a graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy stabilizer. Graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy panels are being exposed to the outdoor environment in Stratford, Connecticut and West Palm Beach, Florida. For this reporting period the two year panels were returned, moisture measurements taken, and strength tests conducted. Results are compared with initial type certificate strengths for components and with initial laboratory coupon tests for the exposed panels. Comparisons are also presented with predicted and measured moisture contents.

  15. Effect of helicopter noise on passenger annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of helicopter interior noise on passenger annoyance for both reverie and listening situations was investigated. The relative effectiveness of several metrics for quantifying annoyance response for these situations was also studied. The noise stimuli were based upon recordings of the interior noise of civil helicopter research aircraft. These noises were presented at levels ranging from approximately 70 to 86 d with various tonal components selectively attenuated to give a range of spectra. The listening task required the subjects to listen to and record phonetically-balanced words presented within the various noise environments. Results indicate that annoyance during a listening condition is generally higher than annoyance under a reverie condition for corresponding interior noise environments. Attenuation of the tonal components results in increases in listening performance but has only a small effect upon annoyance for a given noise level.

  16. NASA/FAA helicopter simulator workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.

  17. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  18. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  19. An evaluation of some mechanical resuscitators for use in the ambulance service.

    PubMed Central

    Harber, T.; Lucas, B. G.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements for a mechanical resuscitator intended for use in the ambulance service are set out in detail. Seven resuscitators in current use (4 volume-cycled, 3 pressure-cycled) were subjected to a series of tests of efficiency, reliability, and robustness and their portability and foolproof qualities were evaluated. Although 3 of the machines met the functional requirements for resuscitation, only one, the volume-cycled Pneupac, fulfilled all the criteria laid down. PMID:6930934

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND DAILY AMBULATION IN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Purposes To compare daily ambulatory measures in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome, and to assess which metabolic syndrome components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with daily ambulatory measures. Methods Two-hundred fifty subjects between the ages of 10 and 30 years were assessed on metabolic syndrome components, demographic and clinical measures, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory strides, durations, and cadences during seven consecutive days. Forty-five of the 250 subjects had metabolic syndrome, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation. Results Subjects with metabolic syndrome ambulated at a slower daily average cadence than those without metabolic syndrome (13.6 ± 2.2 strides/min vs. 14.9 ± 3.2 strides/min; p=0.012), and they had slower cadences for continuous durations of 60 minutes (p=0.006), 30 minutes (p=0.005), 20 minutes (p=0.003), 5 minutes (p=0.002), and 1 minute (p=0.001). However, the total amount of time spent ambulating each day was not different (p=0.077). After adjustment for metabolic syndrome status, average cadence is linearly associated with body fat percentage (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.01). Group difference in average cadence was no longer significant after adjusting for body fat percentage (p=0.683) and fat mass (p=0.973). Conclusion Children, adolescents, and young adults with metabolic syndrome ambulate more slowly and take fewer strides throughout the day than those without metabolic syndrome, even though the total amount of time spent ambulating is not different. Furthermore, the detrimental influence of metabolic syndrome on ambulatory cadence is primarily a function of body fatness. PMID:22811038

  1. Flight investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to oil rigs using airborne weather and mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Phillips, J. D.; Sturgeon, W. R.; Hunting, A. W.; Pate, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne weather and mapping radar is a near-term, economical method of providing 'self-contained' navigation information for approaches to offshore oil rigs and its use has been rapidly expanding in recent years. A joint NASA/FAA flight test investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico was initiated in June 1978 and conducted under contract to Air Logistics. Approximately 120 approaches were flown in a Bell 212 helicopter by 15 operational pilots during the months of August and September 1978. The purpose of the tests was to collect data to (1) support development of advanced radar flight director concepts by NASA and (2) aid the establishment of Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria by the FAA. The flight test objectives were to develop airborne radar approach procedures, measure tracking errors, determine accpetable weather minimums, and determine pilot acceptability. Data obtained will contribute significantly to improved helicopter airborne radar approach capability and to the support of exploration, development, and utilization of the Nation's offshore oil supplies.

  2. Back pain and exposure to whole body vibration in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T; Dijkstra, L; Boshuizen, H C; Groenhout, H J; Valken, E

    1990-08-01

    In a questionnaire survey the prevalence of back pain in 163 helicopter pilots was compared to that in a control group of 297 non-flying air force officers who underwent the same pre-employment medical examination. Since pilots document their hours of flight in a personal flight log, an accurate estimate of the duration of exposure could be made. In addition, vibration levels of the helicopters were measured and an accumulative vibration dose was calculated for each pilot. 'Transient' back pain of a short duration was more frequent amongst the pilots compared to the control group, and the prevalence of 'chronic' back pain of a persistent nature was also higher amongst the helicopter pilots. Transient back pain seemed to be most strongly related to the average hours of flight per day, whereas chronic back pain was more closely related to total hours of flight or the accumulative vibration dose. A significant higher prevalence of this chronic back pain was observed only after 2000 hours of flight or a vibration dose of 400 m2h/s4. The observed health effects may be due to vibration or constrained posture but are most likely due to concomitant exposure to both factors.

  3. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  4. Helicopter low-speed yaw control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C. (Inventor); Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor); Crowell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A system for improving yaw control at low speeds consists of one strake placed on the upper portion of the fuselage facing the retreating rotor blade and another strake placed on the lower portion of the fuselage facing the advancing rotor blade. These strakes spoil the airflow on the helicopter tail boom during hover, low speed flight, and right or left sidewards flight so that less side thrust is required from the tail rotor.

  5. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  6. Feasibility of Helicopter Support Seek Frost.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    of helicopters in this function as a straight forward appiication. Our past and current work activity has required solutions to the type of problems ...climatic conditions permitted, the problems associated, the capabilities thus proven, and the plans for the future. In view of the growing need for more...more of a visibility problem . Again, this can be obviated by climbing to higher altitudes. Performance Effect Based on the initial trials, the British

  7. Detection And Avoidance Of Obstacles By Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses problems relevant to control subsystems enabling helicopters on nap-of-the-Earth flight paths to detect and avoid obstacles automatically. Indicates similarities between this and obstacle-avoidance problem of industrial mobile robots. Two approaches extend two-dimensional obstacle-avoidance concept to three dimensions. First involves direct search of three-dimensional range-map data for indications of openings between obstacles. Second involves compression of data into two-dimensional map for path search.

  8. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  9. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  10. Manager-employee interaction in ambulance services: an exploratory study of employee perspectives on management communication.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Managers of ambulance stations face many communicative challenges in their interaction with employees working in prehospital first-line services. The article presents an exploratory study of how paramedics experience these challenges in communication with station leaders. On the basis of a dialogue perspective in qualitative method, 24 paramedics were interviewed in one-to-one and focus group settings. Naturalistic and phenomenological approaches were used to analyze the interviews. All the paramedics said that they wished to be more involved in decision processes and that station managers should provide better explanations of information "from above." The paramedics understood that it was difficult for the managers to find time for extensive dialogue, but many thought that the managers should give more priority to communication. The paramedics' views correspond to theoretical assumptions in human resource management. According to this model, employees should be involved in decision processes on management levels, as long as it is realistically possible to do so. Furthermore, expressing emotional support and positive attitudes does not take much time, and the study suggests that many ambulance managers should focus more on interpersonal relations to employees. It has been extensively documented that management communication affects organizational performance. The study indicates that managers of ambulance stations should be more aware of how their leadership style affects professional commitment and motivation in the first-line services.

  11. Design and validation of a platform robot for determination of ankle impedance during ambulation.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J; Peshkin, Michael A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide natural, biomimetic control to recently developed powered ankle prostheses, we must characterize the impedance of the ankle during ambulation tasks. To this end, a platform robot was developed that can apply an angular perturbation to the ankle during ambulation and simultaneously acquire ground reaction force data. In this study, we detail the design of the platform robot and characterize the impedance of the ankle during quiet standing. Subjects were perturbed by a 3° dorsiflexive ramp perturbation with a length of 150 ms. The impedance was defined parametrically, using a second order model to map joint angle to the torque response. The torque was determined using the inverted pendulum assumption, and impedance was identified by the least squares best estimate, yielding an average damping coefficient of 0.03 ± 0.01 Nms/° and an average stiffness coefficient of 3.1 ± 1.2 Nm/°. The estimates obtained by the proposed platform robot compare favorably to those published in the literature. Future work will investigate the impedance of the ankle during ambulation for powered prosthesis controller development.

  12. Energy cost of ambulation with different methods of foot and ankle immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, P.T.; Botte, M.J.; Byrne, T.P.; Sutherland, D.H. ); Mathewson, J.W.; Speth, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    In order to measure the energy cost of immobilization of the foot and ankle during ambulation, 14 healthy male volunteers exercised while wearing various immobilization devices. Oxygen consumption, oxygen cost, cardiac output, minute ventilation, heart rate, stroke volume, stride length, and stride frequency were determined at a steady state of exercise as the subjects walked on a treadmill at 80 m/min (equivalent to the comfortable walking speed of approximately 3 mi/h). Each subject was tested with three different types of immobilization devices: a short leg walking cast, a prefabricated lower leg orthosis, and a rigid-soled surgical shoe. The results were compared with those for the same men ambulating without an immobilization device. Ambulation with the short leg walking cast and the prefabricated lower leg orthosis required significantly more energy in comparison with control values (all p values <0.006) in terms of oxygen cost, cardiac index, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Emergency call work-load, deprivation and population density: an investigation into ambulance services across England.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Philip J; Peacock, Janet L

    2006-06-01

    Demand for emergency ambulance services has risen steeply over the recent years. This study examined differences in work-load of ambulance services across England and investigated factors linked to high demand. The number of emergency calls received by each ambulance service in 1997 and 2002 and population and area data were used to calculate call rates and population density for each of 27 service areas. Deprivation score and proportion of the population under age 15 and over age 65 were calculated for each service area. There was wide variation in emergency call rates across England, with London having the highest rate both in 1997 (125.6 calls per 1000 persons) and in 2002 (140.1 per 1000). Statistically significant positive associations were observed between call rates and deprivation (1997, r = 0.49; 2002, r = 0.53) and between call rates and population density (1997, r = 0.70; 2002, r = 0.68). Following multivariable regression, the effect of deprivation score was consistently weaker, but the effect of population density was virtually unchanged. We conclude that areas with higher population density have higher call rates, which is not explained by deprivation. Deprivation is associated with higher usage, but its effect is partly due to population density. There is no evidence that these relationships are confounded by age.

  14. Upper limb module in non-ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy: 12 month changes.

    PubMed

    Sivo, Serena; Mazzone, Elena; Antonaci, Laura; De Sanctis, Roberto; Fanelli, Lavinia; Palermo, Concetta; Montes, Jacqueline; Pane, Marika; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that in non-ambulant patients affected by spinal muscular atrophy the Upper Limb Module can increase the range of activities assessed by the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The aim of this study was to establish 12-month changes in the Upper Limb Module in a cohort of non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients and their correlation with changes on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The Upper Limb Module scores ranged between 0 and 17 (mean 10.23, SD 4.81) at baseline and between 1 and 17 at 12 months (mean 10.27, SD 4.74). The Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded scores ranged between 0 and 34 (mean 12.43, SD 9.13) at baseline and between 0 and 34 at 12 months (mean 12.08, SD 9.21). The correlation betweeen the two scales was 0.65 at baseline and 0.72 on the 12 month changes. Our results confirm that the Upper Limb Module can capture functional changes in non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients not otherwise captured by the other scale and that the combination of the two measures allows to capture changes in different subgroups of patients in whom baseline scores and functional changes may be influenced by several variables such as age.

  15. Analysis of muscle fatigue in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Dutt, Ashwani; Rai, Shobhit

    2011-11-01

    Helicopter pilots espouse ergonomically unfavourable postures and endure vibration which result in low back pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a helicopter flight on pilots back and shoulder muscles using surface Electromyography (sEMG) analysis. This study also correlates low back pain symptoms from Rehabilitation Bioengineering Group Pain Scale (RBGPS) questionnaire with muscle fatigue rates obtained. RBGPS was administered on 20 Coast Guard helicopter pilots. sEMG was acquired before and after flight from erector spinae and trapezius muscles in 8 of these 20 pilots. Statistical analysis of time and frequency domain parameters indicated significant fatigue in right trapezius muscle due to flying. Muscle fatigue correlated with average duration of flight (r² = 0.913), total service as pilot (r² = 0.825), pain (r² = 0.463) and total flying hours (r² = 0.507). However, muscle fatigue weakly correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) (r² = 0.000144) and age (r² = 0.033).

  16. Helicopter Airborne Laser Positioning System (HALPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, Joseph C.; Christiansen, Howard; Cross, Jeffrey; Totah, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The theory of operation, configuration, laboratory, and ground test results obtained with a helicopter airborne laser positioning system developed by Princeton University is presented. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, flight data could not be completed for presentation at this time. The system measures the relative position between two aircraft in three dimensions using two orthogonal fan-shaped laser beams sweeping across an array of four detectors. Specifically, the system calculates the relative range, elevation, and azimuth between an observation aircraft and a test helicopter with a high degree of accuracy. The detector array provides a wide field of view in the presence of solar interference due to compound parabolic concentrators and spectral filtering of the detector pulses. The detected pulses and their associated time delays are processed by the electronics and are sent as position errors to the helicopter pilot who repositions the aircraft as part of the closed loop system. Accuracies obtained in the laboratory at a range of 80 ft in the absence of sunlight were + or - 1 deg in elevation; +0.5 to -1.5 deg in azimuth; +0.5 to -1.0 ft in range; while elevation varied from 0 to +28 deg and the azimuth varied from 0 to + or - 45 deg. Accuracies in sunlight were approximately 40 deg (+ or - 20 deg) in direct sunlight.

  17. Automated Power Assessment for Helicopter Turboshaft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate indication of available power is required for helicopter mission planning purposes. Available power is currently estimated on U.S. Army Blackhawk helicopters by performing a Maximum Power Check (MPC), a manual procedure performed by maintenance pilots on a periodic basis. The MPC establishes Engine Torque Factor (ETF), an indication of available power. It is desirable to replace the current manual MPC procedure with an automated approach that will enable continuous real-time assessment of available power utilizing normal mission data. This report presents an automated power assessment approach which processes data currently collected within helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) units. The overall approach consists of: 1) a steady-state data filter which identifies and extracts steady-state operating points within HUMS data sets; 2) engine performance curve trend monitoring and updating; and 3) automated ETF calculation. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and currently runs on a PC. Results from the application of this technique to HUMS mission data collected from UH-60L aircraft equipped with T700-GE-701C engines are presented and compared to manually calculated ETF values. Potential future enhancements are discussed.

  18. Helicopter immobilization of elk in southcentral Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, S.M.; Eberhardt, L.E. ); Petron, S.E. )

    1988-01-01

    Free-ranging elk are commonly immobilized for research or management by rifle-fired darts shot from a helicopter. Compounds used for this purpose have included succinylcholine chloride (succinylcholine), etorphine hydrochloride (etorphine), and xylazine hydrochloride (xylazine). To assess the efficacy of various immobilizing drugs used in helicopter applications, we darted 38 elk from a helicopter on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Washington from 1983 to 1987. We used either succinylcholine, etorphine hydrochloride, or xylazine hydrochloride a primary immobilants. Unsuccessful immobilizations were most common in elk darted with succinylcholine. Yohimbine was used to reverse xylazine immobilizations. The use of xylazine and yohimbine provides an efficient, cost-effective alternative to etorphine, diprenorphine immobilization and reversal in elk while increasing handler safety. Etorphine appeared to be the best immobilant when extended pain-producing procedures (such as surgical telemetry implantation) are planned because it induced the longest and deepest anesthesia. When the potential to lose contact with darted animals exist, we believe succinylcholine may be the preferred immobilant because of rapid, spontaneous recovery.

  19. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Compound Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained with the increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was made. Performance optimization was conducted to find the optimum twist, collective, tip speed, and taper using the comprehensive analysis. Blade twist was an important parameter on the aircraft performance and most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of rotor tip speed. No stability issues were observed with the current design and the control derivatives did not change much with speed, but did exhibit significant coupling.

  20. Optimum Design of a Compound Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained when an increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region was implemented. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was conducted. Lower wing loading (larger wing area) and higher blade loading (smaller blade chord) increased aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. However, disk loading has a small influence on aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. A rotor parametric study showed that most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of the advancing blade tip Mach number. No stability issues were observed with the current design. Control derivatives did not change significantly with speed, but the did exhibit significant coupling.

  1. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  2. The Prehospital assessment of severe trauma patients` performed by the specialist ambulance nurse in Sweden – a phenomenographic study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A common feature of prehospital emergency care is the short and fragmentary patient encounters with increased demands for efficient and rapid treatment. Crucial decisions are often made and the premise is the specialist ambulance nurse’s ability to capture the situation instantaneously. The assessment is therefore a pre-requisite for decisions about appropriate actions. However, the low exposure to severe trauma cases in Sweden leads to vulnerability for the specialist ambulance nurse, which makes the assessment more difficult. Our objective was to describe specialist ambulance nurses’ perceptions of assessing patients exposed to severe trauma. Methods This study had a phenomenographic approach and was performed in 2011 as an interview study. 15 specialist ambulance nurses with a minimum of 2.5 years of experience from praxis were included. The analysis of data was performed using phenomenography according to Marton. Results The perceptions of assessing patients exposed to severe trauma were divided into: To be prepared for emergency situations, Confidence in one’s own leadership and Developing professional knowledge. Conclusions This study reveals that the specialist ambulance nurse, on the scene of accident, finds the task of assessment of severe trauma patients difficult and complicated. In some cases, even exceeding what they feel competent to accomplish. The specialist ambulance nurses feel that no trauma scenarios are alike and that more practical skills, more training, exercise and feedback are needed. PMID:22985478

  3. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.; Williams, Larry; Caiafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is conducting a research and development program to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS). The mission of NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project is to develop advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and decision support tools for eventual deployment and implementation by the FAA and the private sector. One major objective of the NASA AATT project is to understand and promote the needs of all user classes. The Gulf of Mexico (GoMex) airspace has unique needs. A large number of helicopters operate in this area with only limited surveillance and sometimes-severe environmental conditions. Thunderstorms are the most frequent weather hazard during the spring, summer, and fall. In winter, reduced hours of daylight, low ceilings, strong winds, and icing conditions may restrict operations. Hurricanes impose the most severe weather hazard. The hurricane season, from June through October, normally requires at least one mass evacuation of all offshore platforms.

  4. The Duke University Helicopter Observation Platform (HOP) for Environmental and Earth Science Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avissar, R.; Holder, H. E.; Bolch, A.

    2006-12-01

    Duke University purchased a new Bell 206B3 ("JetRanger") helicopter to perform various atmospheric in situ and remotely-sensed environmental observations (referred to as the Helicopter Observation Platform HOP). As compared to other aircraft, the helicopter has the unequaled flexibility and maneuverability to fly slowly and close to the ground. Furthermore, it can land and refuel at station, which allows performing long-term observations during field campaigns. It can also operate from a ship at sea. This presents significant advantages especially for the observations of aerosols, fluxes of heat, water and other gases important for various environmental and Earth science studies. The Duke HOP is currently equipped with high-frequency sensors that can measure the 3D components of the wind, temperature, moisture and CO2. It is also equipped with an inlet to sample undisturbed air outside of the zone of influence of the main rotor wake and it is designed to support many other remote and in-situ sensors. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to simulate the aerodynamical envelope of the HOP in flight at various airspeeds. Together with in- situ observations of turbulence in front of the helicopter nose where all the sensors are attached, the CFD results are used to demonstrate that the HOP can make high-quality observations of the above-mentioned environmental characteristics unaffected by the main-rotor wake at airspeeds as low as 15 m/s and as high as 60 m/s. This emphasizes the strong potential of this platform for environmental observations, especially of aerosols, which are sampled very inefficiently with other aircraft platforms. Flights conducted in the Neuse River Basin in North Carolina where atmospheric variables were collected simultaneously with a tethered sonde, a lidar, and on towers demonstrate the HOP capability and potential.

  5. Heat stress of helicopter aircrew wearing immersion suit.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Michel B

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to define the lowest ambient air and cabin temperatures at which aircrews wearing immersion protection are starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress during flight operations, and to characterize during a flight simulation in laboratory, the severity of the heat stress during exposure to a typical northern summer ambient condition (25 degrees C, 40% RH). Twenty male helicopter aircrews wearing immersion suits (insulation of 2.2 Clo in air) performed 26 flights within an 8-month period at ambient temperatures ranging between -15 and 25 degrees C, and cabin temperatures ranging between 3 and 28 degrees C. It was observed based on thermal comfort ratings that the aircrews were starting to experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient and cabin air conditions above 18 degrees C and at a WBGT index of 16 degrees C. In a subsequent study, seven aircrews dressed with the same clothing were exposed for 140 min to 25 degrees C and 40% RH in a climatic chamber. During the exposure, the aircrews simulated pilot flight maneuvers for 80 min followed with backender/flight engineer activities for 60 min. By the end of the 140 min exposure, the skin temperature, rectal temperature and heart rate had increased significantly to 35.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C, 38.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C and between 110 and 160 beats/min depending on the level of physical activity. The body sweat rate averaged 0.58 kg/h and the relative humidity inside the clothing was at saturation by the end of the exposure. It was concluded that aircrews wearing immersion suits during the summer months in northern climates might experience thermal discomfort and heat stress at ambient or cabin air temperature as low as 18 degrees C.

  6. Feasibility, Reliability and Predictive Value Of In-Ambulance Heart Rate Variability Registration

    PubMed Central

    van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Nagels, Guy; Hubloue, Ives; De Keyser, Jacques; Brouns, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) is a parameter of autonomic nervous system function. A decrease of HRV has been associated with disease severity, risk of complications and prognosis in several conditions. Objective We aim to investigate the feasibility and the reliability of in-ambulance HRV registration during emergency interventions, and to evaluate the association between prehospital HRV parameters, patient characteristics, vital parameters and short-term outcome. Methods We conducted a prospective study using a non-invasive 2-lead ECG registration device in 55 patients transported by the paramedic intervention team of the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel. HRV assessment included time domain parameters, frequency domain parameters, nonlinear analysis, and time-frequency analysis. The correlation between HRV parameters and patient and outcome characteristics was analyzed and compared to controls. Results Artifact and ectopic detection rates were higher in patients during ambulance transportation compared to controls in resting conditions, yet technical reasons precluding in-ambulance HRV analysis occurred in only 9.6% of cases. HRV acquisition was possible without safety issues or interference with routine emergency care. Reliability of the results was considered sufficient for Sample entropy (SampEn), good for the ratio of low frequency and high frequency components (LF/HF ratio) in the frequency and the time frequency domain, and excellent for the triangular interpolation of the NN interval histogram (TINN), and for the short-term scaling exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA α1). HRV indices were significantly reduced inpatients with unfavorable outcome compared to patients with favorable outcome and controls. Multivariate analysis identified lower DFA α1 as an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome (OR, 0.155; 95% CI 0.024–0.966; p = 0.049). Conclusion In-ambulance HRV registration is technically and operationally feasible and

  7. Tracking Helicopters with a Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher J.; Akerlie, Eggert

    2015-04-01

    We observed that the pressure or acoustic wave created by the rotor blades of a helicopter can couple to the ground even at 30 km distance where it creates a signal strong enough to be detected by a seismometer. The signal is harmonic tremor with a fundamental frequency downgliding with the inflection point at e.g. 14 Hz and two equally spaced overtones up to the Nyquist frequency of 50 Hz. No difference in the amplitudes between the fundamental frequency and higher harmonics was observed. Such a signature is a consequence of the regularly repeating pressure pulses generated by the helicopter's rotor blades. The signal was recorded by a seven station broadband array with an aperture of 1.6 km. Our spacing is close enough to record the signal at all stations and far enough to observe traveltime differences. The separation of the spectral lines corresponds to the time interval between the repeating sources. The highlighted harmonics contain information about the spectral content of the single source as our signal corresponds to the convolution of an infinite comb function and a single pulse. As we see all harmonics and they have the same amplitude up to the Nyquist frequency we can deduce that the frequency content of the single pulse is flat i.e. it is effectively a delta function up to the Nyquist frequency. We perform a detailed spectral and location analysis of the signal, and compare our results with the known information on the helicopter's speed, location, the frequency of the blades rotation and the amount of blades. This analysis is based on the characteristic shape of the curve i.e. speed of the gliding, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency, amplitudes at the inflection points at different stations and traveltimes deduced from the inflection points at different stations. This observation has an educative value, because the same principle could be used for the analysis of the volcanic harmonic tremor. Harmonic volcanic tremor usually has fundamental

  8. Scoop attachment makes helicopter recoveries easier and safer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, W. E.

    1965-01-01

    Helicopter with rigid boom and net attachment performs rescue or recovery operations easily and safely. The attachment in the front of the helicopter scoops objects from difficult and otherwise inaccessible areas and pivots to the side hatch of the aircraft so that no crew member need leave the craft.

  9. Summary of drive-train component technology in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weden, G. J.; Coy, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of current helicopters was conducted to determine the technology in the drive-train systems. The design features are highlighted including reliability characteristics in transmission systems for the OH-58, UH-1, CH-47, and UH-60 helicopters. In addition, trade-offs involving cost, reliability and life are discussed.

  10. 78 FR 23692 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... proposed AD are intended to prevent loss of a T/R blade tab, which could result in excessive vibration and..., and that the loss of the tab leads to a significant increase in the aircraft's vibration level. As a... in excessive vibration of the helicopter and loss of control of the helicopter. (c) Comments Due...

  11. USAF Combat Rescue Helicopter: Addressing Joint Force Capability Shortfalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-07

    Sikorsky Will Probably Win the Combat Rescue Helicopter Contract.” (blog) Wordpress , December 18, 2012 http://xbradtc.com/2012/12/18/sikorsky-will...Posture, 112th Cong., March 2012. XBRADTC (Pseudonym). “Sikorsky Will Probably Win the Combat Rescue Helicopter Contract.” (blog) Wordpress

  12. 77 FR 58794 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... rotor (M/R) blade pitch control and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive... pitch control of the main rotor blades and loss of helicopter control. FAA's Determination We are... condition exists and is likely to exist or develop on other products of these same type designs....

  13. Neural Network Based Method for Estimating Helicopter Low Airspeed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-24

    The present invention relates generally to virtual sensors and, more particularly, to a means and method utilizing a neural network for estimating...helicopter airspeed at speeds below about 50 knots using only fixed system parameters (i.e., parameters measured or determined in a reference frame fixed relative to the helicopter fuselage) as inputs to the neural network .

  14. Astronaut James Lovell hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot, waits in the raft to be hoisted aboard the helicopter.

  15. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... inspecting frame number (No.) 9 for a crack. This proposed AD is prompted by a report of a crack in frame No. 9 on an AS365 helicopter. The proposed actions are intended to detect a crack and prevent loss of... a crack was discovered during the ``T'' inspection of an AS365 helicopter. The crack started at...

  16. 78 FR 9634 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AS350 and AS355 helicopters, to require inspecting for a crack in the control lever attachment yokes... casting of TGB casing assemblies, which may lead to cracking. A crack in the control lever attachment... AS 350 and AS 355 helicopters. EASA advises that cracks were found on some TGB casing assemblies...

  17. Basic Helicopter Handbook, Revised. AC 61-13A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This technical manual was designed to assist applicants preparing for the private, commercial, and flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. The chapters outline general aerodynamics, aerodynamics of flight, loads and load factors, function of controls, other helicopter components and their functions, introduction to the…

  18. 78 FR 17076 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... deterioration of the MRH bearing of the rotating star installed on a Model AS332L1 helicopter. The actions of this AD are intended to detect deterioration of the MRH bearing and to prevent overloading the scissor... helicopters to require a one-time inspection of the main rotor head (MRH) swash-plate upper bearing...

  19. The elaboration of a new family of helicopter blade profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibert, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    An airfoil family of helicopter rotor blades was designed. Three airfoils with thickness to chord ratios of 12, 9, and 7% were designed. Their improved performance in two dimensional rotor mockup wind tunnel tests led to testing of the tapered blades on four bladed rotors in a wind tunnel and flight tests on the Dauphin series of helicopters, confirming the expected gains.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  1. The Helicopter Parent: Research toward a Typology (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    With 117,000 hits on a recent Google[TM] search, the phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported in the popular press. Yet the scholarly literature is anemic on the topic. This article, part one of a two-part series, presents the small body of research on helicopter parenting and describes a qualitative study of 190 participants…

  2. The Helicopter Parent (Part 2): International Arrivals and Departures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported, yet the research literature is anemic on the topic. Based on interviews and focus groups involving 190 academic and student services professionals, this article continues by discussing the social, psychological, economic, and cultural factors that influence helicoptering; exploring…

  3. Helicopter emergency medical service scene communications made easy.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Narrowbanding has caused numerous communication issues. The solution is to use a mutual aid frequency like 123.025. That frequency is 155.3400, and every helicopter emergency medical service operator and emergency medical service agency should name this frequency as "EMS [Emergency Medical Services] Mutual Aid" and preset this frequency for all helicopter emergency medical service scene operations.

  4. 78 FR 52407 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... helicopters with a certain emergency flotation gear (float) installed. This AD requires inspecting the float... Eurocopter Model EC120B helicopters with a left-hand (LH) emergency flotation gear, part number (P/N) 215674...) emergency flotation gear, P/N 215675-0, 215675-1, or 215675-2 installed, fitted with a float, P/N...

  5. 78 FR 12648 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Company AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Robinson Helicopter Company... identified in this proposed AD, contact Robinson Helicopter Company, 2901 Airport Drive, Torrance, CA...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external loads, the provisions of § 1926.551 of subpart N of this part shall be complied with....

  7. 29 CFR 1926.958 - External load helicopters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External load helicopters. 1926.958 Section 1926.958 Labor... External load helicopters. In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external loads, the provisions of § 1926.551 of subpart N of this part shall be complied with....

  8. 77 FR 18965 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by an analysis and tests performed... Civile (DGAC), which is the aviation authority for France, has issued French AD No. F-2004-070, dated...

  9. 78 FR 70202 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... coupling. This AD is prompted by a crack discovered in the area of the center cross-member at station X... helicopter fitted with the collective-to-yaw control coupling. The actions of this AD are intended to prevent... coupling. Since we issued AD No. 2010-21-01, we discovered that we included all helicopters in the...

  10. 78 FR 34288 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... could lead to failure of the MGB supporting structure, detachment of the MGB, and loss of helicopter... MGB supporting structure, detachment of the MGB, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. (c... change, and include supporting data. To ensure the docket does not contain duplicate comments,...

  11. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M), and S-70C(M1) helicopters with a... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn:...

  12. On the Use of Active Higher Harmonic Blade Pitch Control for Helicopter Vibration Reduction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    G., and Gabel, R.: Vibration Optimization of the CH-47C Helicopter Using NASTRAN . Symposium on Mathematical Modeling in Structural Engineering... helicopter . DESCRIPTION OF MODEL AND TESTS The basic wind tunnel model used in this investigation was the Structures Laboratory Aeroelastic Rotor...dynamically-scaled helicopter rotor model in which an active control system employing higher harmonic blade pitch was used for helicopter vibration

  13. The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Systems in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    REMOTE SENSING IN PREDICTING HELICOPTER BROWNOUT CONDITIONS by Christine Kay Rabaja September 2009 Thesis Advisor: Richard C. Olsen...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Systems in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions 6. AUTHOR...soils susceptible to helicopter brownout . Helicopter brownout occurs when downwash disturbs the dust and sand beneath the aircraft during takeoff

  14. Signal Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter Transmission Diagnostic Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the transmission of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter transmission.

  15. A neural network for the identification of measured helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, R. H.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study of the components of a novel acoustic helicopter identification system are described. The identification system uses the relationship between the amplitudes of the first eight harmonics in the main rotor noise spectrum to distinguish between helicopter types. Two classification algorithms are tested; a statistically optimal Bayes classifier, and a neural network adaptive classifier. The performance of these classifiers is tested using measured noise of three helicopters. The statistical classifier can correctly identify the helicopter an average of 67 percent of the time, while the neural network is correct an average of 65 percent of the time. These results indicate the need for additional study of the envelope of harmonic amplitudes as a component of a helicopter identification system. Issues concerning the implementation of the neural network classifier, such as training time and structure of the network, are discussed.

  16. NASA helicopter blades get new paint job for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A newly repainted NASA helicopter is transported to S.R. 3 for return to Patrick AFB. Workers painted the blades of four NASA UH-1H helicopters, changing the black to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen by a second helicopter from above. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  17. NASA helicopter blades get new paint job for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers get ready to move a NASA UH-1H helicopter outside. They have been painting the blades of four NASA UH-1H helicopters, changing the black to a pattern of white and yellow stripes. The pattern provides better visibility in smoke and fire conditions. When the rotors are turning, the stripes create a yellow and white circle that is more easily seen by a second helicopter from above. The helicopters, primarily used for security and medical evacuation for NASA, will be used to deliver water via buckets during brush fires. The change was made to comply with U.S. Fish and Wildlife and Department of Forestry regulations for helicopter-assisted fire control.

  18. Signal Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter Transmission Diagnostic Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the transmission of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter transmission.

  19. Theory of self-excited mechanical oscillations of helicopter rotors with hinged blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Robert P; Feingold, Arnold M

    1958-01-01

    Vibrations of rotary-wing aircraft may derive their energy from the rotation of the rotor rather than from the air forces. A theoretical analysis of these vibrations is described and methods for its application are explained in Chapter one. Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of the mechanical stability of a rotor having two vertically hinged blades mounted upon symmetrical supports, that is, of equal stiffness and mass in all horizontal directions. Chapter three presents the theory of ground vibrations of a two-blade helicopter rotor on anisotropic flexible supports.

  20. Establishment of a Remotely Piloted Helicopter Test Flight Program for Higher Harmonic Control Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    of aircraft grade 7075-T6 acid etched aluminum which has been painted with an anti-corrosion epoxy coating. The forward portion oi the fuselage...to the NiCd battery. 6. Powerplant a. Engine The helicopter is power by the two cylinder, two cycle, air cooled T 77i Super Tartan ® engine seen in...Maximum torque from the engine is 30.35 in. lb. at 7,000 R.P.M. The 27 Installed in RPH Without Propeller Spinner Figure 13. T77i Super Tartan ® Engine

  1. 78 FR 51126 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... 204B helicopters. This proposed AD would require inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) cable assembly for an... intended to prevent disengagement of the cable from the barrel, failure of the T/R pitch control, and... the cable, could result in disengagement of the cable, T/R pitch control failure in a fixed...

  2. 77 FR 36389 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada, Limited, Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    .... (ASU), Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) lighting modified by Supplemental Type Certificate SR01383SE... unfiltered turbine outlet temperature (TOT) internal over-temperature warning light, and based on those... prevent subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD is effective July 24, 2012....

  3. 78 FR 4762 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862 or (800) 363... based on those comments. Discussion Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) has issued AD No....

  4. 78 FR 23114 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... indicated airspeed when the helicopter was tested to the cold temperature limits (-40 degrees centigrade... revealed when testing at low temperatures to minus 40 degrees Centigrade (-40 C). The TCCA advises that modification to the instrumentation is required to reflect the Vne airspeed values tested at temperatures...

  5. Analysis of Helicopter Noise Data Using International Helicopter Noise Certification Procedures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    establishes noise levels using the basic testing, reduction and analysis procedures specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ...for helicopter noise certification supplemented with some procedural refinements contained in ICAO Working Group II recommendations for incorporation...Noise levels are plotted versus the logarithm of maximum gross takeoff weight and are shown relative to the ICAO noise level limits. Data from the ICAO

  6. 78 FR 34958 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... directive (AD) for the Bell Model 412, 412CF, and 412EP helicopters. The AD currently requires reidentifying... the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICAs) accordingly. Since we issued the AD, we have... requirements of the existing AD impossible. This proposed AD would retain the current requirements with...

  7. 78 FR 56592 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ..., for affected Model 205A-1 helicopters, replacing the chain and cable control system with a push- pull control system. This new AD requires, for Bell Model 204B, inspecting certain chains at specified..., replacing the chain and cable control system with an airworthy tail rotor push-pull control system kit....

  8. 78 FR 12646 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. and Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... 412EP helicopters with certain DART Aerospace Ltd. (Dart) high gear aft crosstubes (crosstube) installed... five separate reports of crosstube failures. The actions in this proposed AD are intended to prevent... Aerospace LTD., 1270 Aberdeen St, Hawkesbury, ON, K6A 1K7, Canada; telephone: 1 613 632 5200; Fax: 1 613...

  9. 64 FR 3819 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Model 212 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-26

    ...-hours TIS, or that has passed an x-ray diffraction inspection in accordance with Bell Helicopter Textron... airworthy yoke assembly that has zero-hours TIS, or that has passed an x-ray diffraction inspection in... assembly (regardless of TIS) that has passed an x-ray diffraction inspection in accordance with...

  10. Investigation of aeroelastic stability phenomena of a helicopter by in-flight shake test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miao, W. L.; Edwards, T.; Brandt, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical capability of the helicopter stability program is discussed. The parameters which are found to be critical to the air resonance characteristics of the soft in-plane hingeless rotor systems are detailed. A summary of two model test programs, a 1/13.8 Froude-scaled BO-105 model and a 1.67 meter (5.5 foot) diameter Froude-scaled YUH-61A model, are presented with emphasis on the selection of the final parameters which were incorporated in the full scale YUH-61A helicopter. Model test data for this configuration are shown. The actual test results of the YUH-61A air resonance in-flight shake test stability are presented. Included are a concise description of the test setup, which employs the Grumman Automated Telemetry System (ATS), the test technique for recording in-flight stability, and the test procedure used to demonstrate favorable stability characteristics with no in-plane damping augmentation (lag damper removed). The data illustrating the stability trend of air resonance with forward speed and the stability trend of ground resonance for percent airborne are presented.

  11. Daily variations in ambulance calls for selected causes in Arkhangelsk, Russia: potential role of excessive alcohol consumption on weekends

    PubMed Central

    Drachev, Sergei N.; Unguryanu, Tatiana N.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess daily variations in ambulance calls for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia, in 2000–2008. Study design A population-based study. Methods Data about all ambulance calls during the years 2000–2008 were obtained from the Arkhangelsk ambulance station. Information about patient's gender, age, doctor's diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and the date of call were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests were used for comparing proportions of ambulance calls across the week for CVDs (I00-99), mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99), and external causes (S00-T98, V01-Y98). The ratio of incidence of ambulance calls on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday versus the rest of week was also calculated. Results There is a significant daily variation (p < 0.001) in calls for CVDs in men and women aged 18–59 and women aged 60 years and older, with increased numbers of calls on weekends and Mondays varying between 2 and 3% excess calls. For mental and behavioral disorders, a similar pattern was found in the age group of 18–59 year-olds. Ratios for the number of calls during weekends and Mondays vs. the rest of the week were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02–1.08) among women and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00–1.05) among men. For external causes, a significant variation and an increase in ambulance calls during Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays from 4 to 17% excess calls was observed for both age and gender groups. Conclusions The observed daily variations in ambulance calls with an increased number of calls on weekends and Mondays for CVDs, mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes may be associated with excessive alcohol consumption on the weekends. Further research using data on individual levels of alcohol consumption are warranted. PMID:23130353

  12. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near

  13. Recommended Changes to ATC (Air Traffic Control) Procedures for Helicopters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    have had a system error. This could occur with aircraft on extended downwind pattern segments behind the tower, aircraft lost in haze, or controller...likely that if the pilot can sight and ps.ively identify the pr=%inent geograpical reference associated with the charted visual approach at an early

  14. Design of helicopter rotors to noise constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the initial phase of a research project to study the design constraints on helicopter noise are presented. These include the calculation of nonimpulsive rotor harmonic and broadband hover noise spectra, over a wide range of rotor design variables and the sensitivity of perceived noise level (PNL) to changes in rotor design parameters. The prediction methodology used correlated well with measured whirl tower data. Application of the predictions to variations in rotor design showed tip speed and thrust as having the most effect on changing PNL.

  15. Prediction of helicopter rotor rotational noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guohua; Gao, Zheng

    1991-06-01

    Based on Farassat (1981) formulation 1A for subsonic time domain, a method is developed for predicting the rotor rotational noise, which is valid for arbitrary observer positions and all linear flight conditions. Without considering the elasticity of the blade, the retarded time equation and all of the integrands in the formulation 1A are derived and expressed as the proper form for numerical calculation. As examples, the noise calculation of the helicopter Z-8 rotor and 1/4 scale UH-1 rotor in hover are carried out. Discussions are presented on the influence of rotor parameters, such as the tip Mach number, the disk loading, and the blade airfoil.

  16. Climatic Laboratory Survey Hughes YAH-64 Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    considerations. Airflow velocity data were ob- tained with a hot wire anemometer placed 8 to 10 inches (23.3 to 25.4 cm) from the left and right...tenqeo side If noaweea7 and identify by block numboer) Environmental Testing YAH-64 Hel 4 copter Climatic Laboratory 125, 70, -25, and -50°F Nine...Deficiencies Twenty-two Shortcomings 2M AftRACTr (urama inflf Se Na ffllmny ad ideltly 57 block mmbw) Environmental testing of the YAH-64 helicopter was

  17. Analysis of potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, A. J.; Davis, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Results of analytical investigations to develop, understand, and evaluate potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts are presented in the following areas: identification of the fundamental sources of vibratory loads, blade design for low vibration, application of design optimization techniques, active higher harmonic control, blade appended aeromechanical devices, and the prediction of vibratory airloads. Primary sources of vibration are identified for a selected four-bladed articulated rotor operating in high speed level flight. The application of analytical design procedures and optimization techniques are shown to have the potential for establishing reduced vibration blade designs through variations in blade mass and stiffness distributions, and chordwise center-of-gravity location.

  18. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre K; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M

    2016-06-16

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment.

  19. Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Pierre K.; Avedissian, Manuel; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen; Spungen, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have become available for overground ambulation in persons with paralyses due to spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact upper extremity function and are able to maintain upright balance using forearm crutches. To ambulate in an exoskeleton, the user must acquire the ability to maintain balance while standing, sitting and appropriate weight shifting with each step. This can be a challenging task for those with deficits in sensation and proprioception in their lower extremities. This manuscript describes screening criteria and a training program developed at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY to teach users the skills needed to utilize these devices in institutional, home or community environments. Before training can begin, potential users are screened for appropriate range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joints. Persons with SCI are at an increased risk of sustaining lower extremity fractures, even with minimal strain or trauma, therefore a bone mineral density assessment is performed to reduce the risk of fracture. Also, as part of screening, a physical examination is performed in order to identify additional health-related contraindications. Once the person has successfully passed all screening requirements, they are cleared to begin the training program. The device is properly adjusted to fit the user. A series of static and dynamic balance tasks are taught and performed by the user before learning to walk. The person is taught to ambulate in various environments ranging from indoor level surfaces to outdoors over uneven or changing surfaces. Once skilled enough to be a candidate for home use with the exoskeleton, the user is then required to designate a companion-walker who will train alongside them. Together, the pair must demonstrate the ability to perform various advanced tasks in order to be permitted to use the exoskeleton in their home/community environment. PMID:27340808

  20. Configuring a Powered Knee and Ankle Prosthesis for Transfemoral Amputees within Five Specific Ambulation Modes

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Ingraham, Kimberly A.; Fey, Nicholas P.; Finucane, Suzanne B.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Young, Aaron J.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-01-01

    Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies—which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide. PMID:24914674

  1. Clinical effectiveness of grip strength in predicting ambulation of elderly inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, MR; Rubio, C; Duarte, E; Hervás, D; Guevara, MC; Giner-Pascual, M; Viosca, E

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the clinical effectiveness of measuring grip strength as a prognostic tool in recovering ambulation in bed-confined frail elderly patients. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 50 elderly inpatients (mean age: 81.6 years old). Manual muscle test was used for checking strength of hip flexor muscles, hip abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. Grip strength was assessed by hydraulic dynamometer. Walking ability was assessed by functional ambulation categories and Functional Classification of Sagunto Hospital Ambulation. Existence of cognitive impairment (Short Portable Mental Status of Pfeiffer) and comorbidity (abbreviated Charlson index) were considered to be confounding variables. Statistical analysis Simple comparisons and mixed models of multiple ordinal regression. Results The sample presented generalized weakness in scapular (mean 4.22) and pelvic (mean 3.82) muscle. Mean hand grip values were similar: 11.98 kg right hand; 11.70 kg left hand. The patients had lost walking ability. After treatment, there was a statistically significant for scapular waist strength (P=0.001), pelvic waist strength (P=0.005) and walking ability (P=0.001). A statistically significant relationship in the regression analysis was found between the grip (right and left hands) and walking ability post-treatment (P=0.009; odds ratio 1.14 and P=0.0014 odds ratio 1.113 for each walking scale). The confounding variables showed no statistical significance in the results. Conclusion Grip strength is associated with walking ability in hospitalized frail elderly. Grip strength assessment by hydraulic dynamometry is useful in patients with poor collaboration. Walking ability training in frail elderly inpatients is useful. PMID:25395842

  2. Automated personnel-assets-consumables-drug tracking in ambulance services for more effective and efficient medical emergency interventions.

    PubMed

    Utku, Semih; Özcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Unluturk, Mehmet Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Patient delivery time is no longer considered as the only critical factor, in ambulatory services. Presently, five clinical performance indicators are used to decide patient satisfaction. Unfortunately, the emergency ambulance services in rapidly growing metropolitan areas do not meet current satisfaction expectations; because of human errors in the management of the objects onboard the ambulances. But, human involvement in the information management of emergency interventions can be reduced by electronic tracking of personnel, assets, consumables and drugs (PACD) carried in the ambulances. Electronic tracking needs the support of automation software, which should be integrated to the overall hospital information system. Our work presents a complete solution based on a centralized database supported by radio frequency identification (RFID) and bluetooth low energy (BLE) identification and tracking technologies. Each object in an ambulance is identified and tracked by the best suited technology. The automated identification and tracking reduces manual paper documentation and frees the personnel to better focus on medical activities. The presence and amounts of the PACD are automatically monitored, warning about their depletion, non-presence or maintenance dates. The computerized two way hospital-ambulance communication link provides information sharing and instantaneous feedback for better and faster diagnosis decisions. A fully implemented system is presented, with detailed hardware and software descriptions. The benefits and the clinical outcomes of the proposed system are discussed, which lead to improved personnel efficiency and more effective interventions.

  3. [Study of the quality of interhospital transport of sick neonates by selected ambulances in the Witwatersrand area].

    PubMed

    Roux, J C; Nolte, A G; Muller, M E

    1989-12-01

    The quality of the inter hospital transport of ill neonates, by selected ambulances in the Witwatersrand area, was investigated by means of the case study method. Of the fifteen case studies investigated, eleven neonates were transported by a private ambulance and four by provincial ambulances. Data regarding the maternal- and neonatal history, the optimal maintenance of the neonate's condition, the communication system, as well as aspects relating to the transport personnel, were collected by means of a structured instrument. Retrospective auditing of records, structured interviewing and direct observation/inspection were utilised as the research techniques. The quality of the inter hospital transport of ill neonates, especially by the private ambulance, is not up to standard. Deterioration of the neonate's body temperature, heart and respiration rates, as well as the serum glucose values after transport, were of the more important findings. The lack of equipment, especially in the private ambulance, increases the risk of transport. Staff development and formal control by a local committee, as well as a national control body, are recommended.

  4. Effect of maternal ambulation on labour with low-dose combined spinal-epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Collis, R E; Harding, S A; Morgan, B M

    1999-06-01

    Two hundred and twenty-nine nulliparous women who requested regional analgesia during labour were given a combined spinal-epidural block. They were randomly allocated to stay in bed or spend at least 20 min of every hour out of bed. There was no significant difference in duration of labour, analgesia requirements, mode of delivery or condition of the baby between the groups. Ambulation appeared to be safe for the mother and baby. Maternal satisfaction with the low-dose combined spinal-epidural was high in both groups.

  5. Should we be giving high concentration oxygen to all patients treated in an ambulance?

    PubMed

    Lavery, G G; Corris, P A

    2012-03-01

    Oxygen is one of the most widely used drugs. It is important to recognise that oxygen administration carries risks as well as benefits. While adequate oxygen saturation of arterial blood is an important factor in tissue oxygen delivery, oxygen administration to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can lead to decompensated type II respiratory failure. In this debate, Dr Lavery makes the case that high concentration oxygen should be given to all patients treated in an ambulance, while Professor Corris argues against this position.

  6. General equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system are examined. The system consists of the cargo attached by cables to the endpoints of a spreader bar which is suspended by cables below two helicopters. Results are given for the orientation angles of the suspension system and its internal forces, and for the helicopter thrust vector requirements under general circumstances, including nonidentical helicopters, any accelerating or static equilibrium reference flight condition, any system heading relative to the flight direction, and any distribution of the load to the two helicopters. Optimum tether angles which minimize the sum of the required thrust magnitudes are also determined. The analysis does not consider the attitude degrees of freedom of the load and helicopters in detail, but assumes that these bodies are stable, and that their aerodynamic forces in equilibrium flight can be determined independently as functions of the reference trajectory. The ranges of these forces for sample helicopters and loads are examined and their effects on the equilibrium characteristics are given parametrically in the results.

  7. Detection of Aeromagnetic Field Changes Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: Repeated Experiments at Tarumae Volcano (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Koyama, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions often prohibit humans from approaching active craters. Meanwhile, it is important, especially at the initial stage of an eruption, to perform visual surveillance, geophysical/chemical measurements and material sampling in the vicinity of the craters. Besides scientific purposes, information from such surveys is helpful for the local government in deciding the response to volcanic unrest. We started airborne surveys using an unmanned helicopter on a trial basis in cooperation with the Hokkaido Regional Development Bureau. As a part of the project, we repeated aeromagnetic surveys over Mt. Tarumae (1,041m), one of the active volcanoes in northern Japan in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Owing to its high accuracy of positioning control in the autonomous flight with the aid of GPS navigation and the fairly small magnetic field gradient in the air, temporal changes up to 30 nT were successfully detected through a direct comparison between separate surveys. The field changes in the air were mostly consistent with those on the ground surface, which suggested remagnetization due to cooling beneath the summit lava dome. Through our three-year experiments, the unmanned helicopter was proved to be useful for aeromagnetic monitoring. Although the system still has some limitations in terms of maximum flight altitude and operational range from the base station, we emphasize the following three advantages of this technique. (1) Operation without exposing human to volcanic hazards. (2) Straightforward data processing procedure to obtain temporal magnetic field changes, which is especially important in an emergency response such as an ongoing unrest. (3) Great reduction of the cost to maintain ground-based monitoring stations for many years. Acknowledgments: We express sincere thanks to Muroran and Sapporo Development and Construction Departments of the HRDB for the cooperation in the field experiments using their unmanned helicopter.

  8. Quantification of helicopter rotor downwash effects on electro-optical defensive aids suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffer, Dirk P.; Eisele, Christian; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars; Möller, Sebastian; Togna, Fabio; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-10-01

    The performance of electro-optical platform protection systems can be degraded significantly by the propagation environment around the platform. This includes aero-optical effects and zones of severe turbulence generated by engine exhausts. For helicopters rotor tip vortices and engine exhaust gases that are pressed down by the rotor airflow form the so called downwash phenomena. The downwash is a source for perturbations. A wide range of spatial and temporal fluctuations in the refractive index of air can occur. The perturbations from the turbulent flow cause detrimental effects on energy delivery, angle of arrival fluctuations, jam-code transmission, tracking accuracy and imaging performance in general. Therefore the effects may especially have a severe impact on the performance of laser-based protection systems like directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM). The chain from passive missile detection and warning to obtaining an optical break-lock by the use of an active laser system will be influenced. To anticipate the installed performance of an electro-optical defensive aids suite (DAS) for helicopter platforms it is necessary to develop models for the prediction of the perturbations. Modelled results have to be validated against experimental findings. However, the data available in open literature on the effects of rotor downwash from helicopters on optical propagation is very limited. To collect necessary data and to obtain a first impression about the magnitude of occurring effects the European defence agency group (EDA) on "airborne platform effects on lasers and warning sensors (ALWS)" decided to design and perform a field trial on the premises of the Italian Air Force Flight Test Center in Pratica di Mare, Italy. ALWS is a technical arrangement under the Europa MoU among France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

  9. Computer aiding for low-altitude helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generated algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a head-up display (HUD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor symbol. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that minimizes threat exposure by seeking valleys. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Sim Lab facility in both the fixed-base Interchangeable Cab (ICAB) simulator and the moving-base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HUD symbology. They were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  10. Support of Helicopter 'Free Flight' Operations in the 1996 Olympics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James R.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1996-01-01

    The microcosm of activity surrounding the 1996 Olympic Games provided researchers an opportunity for demonstrating state-of-the art technology in the first large-scale deployment of a prototype digital communication/navigation/surveillance system in a confined environment. At the same time it provided an ideal opportunity for transportation officials to showcase the merits of an integrated transportation system in meeting the operational needs to transport time sensitive goods and provide public safety services under real-world conditions. Five aeronautical CNS functions using a digital datalink system were chosen for operational flight testing onboard 91 aircraft, most of them helicopters, participating in the Atlanta Short-Haul Transportation System. These included: GPS-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance, Cockpit Display of Traffic Information, Controller-Pilot Communications, Graphical Weather Information (uplink), and Automated Electronic Pilot Reporting (downlink). Atlanta provided the first opportunity to demonstrate, in an actual operating environment, key datalink functions which would enhance flight safety and situational awareness for the pilot and supplement conventional air traffic control. The knowledge gained from such a large-scale deployment will help system designers in development of a national infrastructure where aircraft would have the ability to navigate autonomously.

  11. Unmanned Air Vehicle -Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Oppel, SNL 06134

    2013-04-17

    This package contains modules that model the mobility of systems such as helicopters and fixed wing flying in the air. This package currently models first order physics - basically a velocity integrator. UAV mobility uses an internal clock to maintain stable, high-fidelity simulations over large time steps This package depends on interface that reside in the Mobility package.

  12. Ambulance Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has devised a checklist for the skylab inflight medical support system that has been transferred for public emergencies. The checklist illustrates a procedure for diagnosis, treatment, and stabilization of a wide variety of emergencies. Handbook presents comprehensive ordered description of emergency medical equipment and its use in treating victims. Paramedics assigned to the Houston Fire Department are now using the checklist.

  13. System identification techniques for helicopter higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents and compares several system identification techniques proposed for use with higher harmonic control algorithms designed to alleviate helicopter vibration. All method for actively controlling helicopter vibration require the knowledge of how the vibration outputs are related to the control inputs. Off-line or batch identification methods for obtaining this knowledge are presented first. Then the more advanced, adaptive identification techniques proposed to track the helicopter model parameters in flight are discussed. Considerations regarding system identifiability, identification algorithm stability, and computer implementation are also discussed.

  14. Helicopter acoustic alerting system for high-security facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Robert L.; Hansen, Scott; Park, Chris; Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Helicopters present a serious threat to high security facilities such as prisons, nuclear sites, armories, and VIP compounds. They have the ability to instantly bypass conventional security measures focused on ground threats such as fences, check-points, and intrusion sensors. Leveraging the strong acoustic signature inherent in all helicopters, this system would automatically detect, classify, and accurately track helicopters using multi-node acoustic sensor fusion. An alert would be generated once the threat entered a predefined 3-dimension security zone in time for security personnel to repel the assault. In addition the system can precisely identify the landing point on the facility grounds.

  15. Optical Shaft-Angle Encoder For Helicopter Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Dennis, Dale V.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    1993-01-01

    Angular position of helicopter rotor blade determined precisely. Accomplished by use of optical shaft-angle encoder called "256 Ring" on rotor swashplate. Each 360 degree rotation of helicopter main rotor broken down into 256 reflective segments. As rotor rotates, beam of light reflected in turn from each segment into optoelectronic system. One of 256 segments reflects larger pulse than others do. Position of rotor determined by counting number of pulses after this reference pulse. While swashplate mounting requirements unique to each type of helicopter, concept applicable to all types of rotorcraft.

  16. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  17. Thermal and Structural Analysis of Helicopter Transmission Housings Using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howells, R. W.; Sciarra, J. J.; Ng, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    The application of NASTRAN to improve the design of helicopter transmission housings is described. A finite element model of the complete forward rotor transmission housing for the Boeing Vertol CH-47C helicopter was used to study thermal distortion and stress, stress and deflection due to static and dynamic loads, load paths, and design optimization by the control of structural energy distribution. The analytical results are correlated with test data and used to reduce weight and to improve strength, service life, failsafety, and reliability. The techniques presented, although applied herein to helicopter transmissions, are sufficiently general to be applicable to any power transmission system.

  18. [Anaesthesia under unfavorable conditions - rescue helicopter].

    PubMed

    Knacke, Peer G; Gehring, Hartmut; Saur, Petra

    2011-03-01

    Rescue helicopters are used for emergency care and transport of emergency patients. The dimension of the cabin is clearly limited. A transport is carried out under spatial narrowness and high noise levels. Acoustic alarms or noises caused by the patient are hardly to be perceived, so that the view at optical alarms is necessary. Environmental conditions affect the concentration on the patient. Rearrangement maneuvers represent the most critical phases. Always the whole apparative monitoring and respirator must be in the field of view of the emergency doctor, drugs to the care must be handy to be quickly administered, the quantity of oxygen has to be observed. Infusions and option of airway management are ready to set in advance. Standardized work with the aid of algorithms and knowledge of treatment recommendations and guidelines help to prevent errors. To optimize the care of emergency patients, special training courses for the crew of rescue helicopters are offered. A training simulator to practice different scenarios and the establishment of a CIRS system are recommended.

  19. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, Jere; Martin, John; Bradley, Curtiss

    1987-01-01

    The compound cycle engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power-compounded, ultra-high-power-density, lightweight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate-pressure-ratio, free-power-turbine gas turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military helicopter applications. Cycle thermodynamic specific fuel consumption (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configurations are presented. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical 2-hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a contemporary gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31 percent lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16 percent reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb/hp-hr and installed wet weight is 0.43 lb/hp. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  20. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  1. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA funded contract and Sikorsky research and development programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters. Selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a nine year time frame. Four horizontal stabilizers and thirteen tail rotor spars were returned from commercial service in West Palm Beach, Florida and in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana to determine the long term effects of operations in hot and humid climates on component performance. Concurrent with the flight component evaluation, panels of materials used in their fabrication were exposed to the environment in ground racks. Selected panels were tested annually to determine the effects of exposure on physical and mechanical properties. The results of 55,741 component flight hours and 911 months of field exposure are reported and compared with initial Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification data. The findings of this program have provided increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials used in helicopter structural applications.

  2. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, Jere G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded, ultra-high power density, light-weight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate pressure ratio, free power turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military light helicopter applications. This executive summary presents cycle thermodynamic (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configuration. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical two hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a T-800 class gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31% lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16% reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb-HP-HR and installed wet weight is 0.43 lbs/HP. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  3. An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan

    1988-01-01

    A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.

  4. Why did the patient die? The relationship between ambulance accidents and death of patients: forensic medical issues.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Gokhan; Ersoy, Ozlem; Yuksekbas, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Gulay; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Ekemen, Suheyla

    2012-11-01

    This article's aim is investigating traumatic consequences of ambulance accident on patients and discussing difficulties to give a decision about the relation between death and accident at these cases. The cases were selected among the forensic medical reports concluded between 1996 and 2005 years. They were documented for age, sex, causes of urgent call, localization and extent of traumatic lesion, properties of events and board decisions. A total of 21 cases were found. 15 cases died on the day of the accident. Skin injuries at head (8 cases) and legs (6 cases) were most common traumatic lesions. Totally 6 deaths were found related with ambulance accident. Death of patient after ambulance accidents may not be associated easily to the accident. Delay due to accident or concomitant contributing medical conditions may also facilitate the death in this type of cases. Reliable medical records were needed for accurate medicolegal evaluation.

  5. Investigating flight response of Pacific brant to helicopters at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska by using logistic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Nick, Todd G.; Ward, David H.; Peck, Roxy; Haugh, Larry D.; Goodman, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    Izembek Lagoon, an estuary in Alaska, is a very important staging area for Pacific brant, a small migratory goose. Each fall, nearly the entire Pacific Flyway population of 130,000 brant flies to Izembek Lagoon and feeds on eelgrass to accumulate fat reserves for nonstop transoceanic migration to wintering areas as distant as Mexico. In the past 10 years, offshore drilling activities in this area have increased, and, as a result, the air traffic in and out of the nearby Cold Bay airport has also increased. There has been a concern that this increased air traffic could affect the brant by disturbing them from their feeding and resting activities, which in turn could result in reduced energy intake and buildup. This may increase the mortality rates during their migratory journey. Because of these concerns, a study was conducted to investigate the flight response of brant to overflights of large helicopters. Response was measured on flocks during experimental overflights of large helicopters flown at varying altitudes and lateral (perpendicular) distances from the flocks. Logistic regression models were developed for predicting probability of flight response as a function of these distance variables. Results of this study may be used in the development of new FAA guidelines for aircraft near Izembek Lagoon.

  6. Improving community ambulation after hip fracture: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Orwig, D; Mangione, KK; Baumgarten, M; Terrin, M; Fortinsky, R; Kenny, AM; Gruber-Baldini, AL; Beamer, B; Tosteson, ANA; Shardell, M; Magder, L; Binder, E; Koval, K; Resnick, B; Craik, RL; Magaziner, J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction After a hip fracture in older persons, significant disability often remains; dependency in functional activities commonly persists beyond 3 months after surgery. Endurance, dynamic balance, quadriceps strength, and function are compromised, and contribute to an inability to walk independently in the community. In the United States, people aged 65 years and older are eligible to receive Medicare funding for physiotherapy for a limited time after a hip fracture. A goal of outpatient physiotherapy is independent and safe household ambulation 2 to 3 months after surgery. Current Medicare-reimbursed post-hip-fracture rehabilitation fails to return many patients to pre-fracture levels of function. Interventions delivered in the home after usual hip fracture physiotherapy has ended could promote higher levels of functional independence in these frail and older adult patients. Primary objective To evaluate the effect of a specific multicomponent physiotherapy intervention (PUSH), compared with a non-specific multi-component control physiotherapy intervention (PULSE), on the ability to ambulate independently in the community 16 weeks after randomisation. Design Parallel, two-group randomised multicentre trial of 210 older adults with a hip fracture assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after randomisation, and at 40 weeks after randomisation for a subset of approximately 150 participants. Participants and setting A total of 210 hip fracture patients are being enrolled at three clinical sites and randomised up to 26 weeks after admission. Study inclusion criteria are: closed, non-pathologic, minimal trauma hip fracture with surgical fixation; aged ≥ 60 years at the time of randomisation; community residing at the time of fracture and randomisation; ambulating without human assistance 2 months prior to fracture; and being unable to walk at least 300 m in 6 minutes at baseline. Participants are ineligible if the interventions are deemed to be unsafe or unfeasible

  7. Knee disarticulation: survival, wound healing and ambulation. A historic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ten Duis, K; Bosmans, J C; Voesten, H G J; Geertzen, J H B; Dijkstra, P U

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze survival, wound healing and ambulation after knee disarticulation (KD). A historic cohort study using medical records and nursing home records was performed. Data included demographics, reason for amputation, concomitant diseases, survival, wound healing, re-amputation and ambulation. Data of 80 patients (71 unilateral and nine bilateral amputees) were available for evaluation. Median follow-up was 9.9 years (IQR: 4.1; 14.3 years). Mean age of amputation was 76.9 (+/- 9.6) years. Reason for amputation was gangrene in 72 patients. Most common concomitant (96%) disease was peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Survival after 1, 6 and 12 months was 87%, 65% and 52%, respectively. Delayed wound healing occurred in 42% (n = 16) of the patients with two or three concomitant diseases and in 15% (n = 6) of the patients with no or one concomitant disease. Trans-femoral re-amputation was performed in nine (12%) patients. Of the 61 discharged KD amputees, 36 (59%) were provided with a prosthesis. Eventually 21 (34%) patients became household walkers.

  8. Reducing Ambulance Diversion at Hospital and Regional Levels: Systemic Review of Insights from Simulation Models

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, M. Kit; Meng, Lesley J.; Mercer, Mary P.; Pines, Jesse M.; Owens, Douglas K.; Zaric, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal solutions for reducing diversion without worsening emergency department (ED) crowding are unclear. We performed a systematic review of published simulation studies to identify: 1) the tradeoff between ambulance diversion and ED wait times; 2) the predicted impact of patient flow interventions on reducing diversion; and 3) the optimal regional strategy for reducing diversion. Methods: Data Sources: Systematic review of articles using MEDLINE, Inspec, Scopus. Additional studies identified through bibliography review, Google Scholar, and scientific conference proceedings. Study Selection: Only simulations modeling ambulance diversion as a result of ED crowding or inpatient capacity problems were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction by two authors using predefined data fields. Results: We identified 5,116 potentially relevant records; 10 studies met inclusion criteria. In models that quantified the relationship between ED throughput times and diversion, diversion was found to only minimally improve ED waiting room times. Adding holding units for inpatient boarders and ED-based fast tracks, improving lab turnaround times, and smoothing elective surgery caseloads were found to reduce diversion considerably. While two models found a cooperative agreement between hospitals is necessary to prevent defensive diversion behavior by a hospital when a nearby hospital goes on diversion, one model found there may be more optimal solutions for reducing region wide wait times than a regional ban on diversion. Conclusion: Smoothing elective surgery caseloads, adding ED fast tracks as well as holding units for inpatient boarders, improving ED lab turnaround times, and implementing regional cooperative agreements among hospitals are promising avenues for reducing diversion. PMID:24106548

  9. Benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees to limited community ambulators: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta; Pröbsting, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees (MPKs) have been well established in community ambulators (Medicare Functional Classification Level [MFCL]-3) with a transfemoral amputation (TFA). A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze whether limited community ambulators (MFCL-2) may also benefit from using an MPK in safety, performance-based function and mobility, and perceived function and satisfaction. We searched 10 scientific databases for clinical trials with MPKs and identified six publications with 57 subjects with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade. Using the criteria of a Cochrane Review on prosthetic components, we rated methodological quality moderate in four publications and low in two publications. MPK use may significantly reduce uncontrolled falls by up to 80% as well as significantly improve indicators of fall risk. Performance-based outcome measures suggest that persons with MFCL-2 mobility grade may be able to walk about 14% to 25% faster on level ground, be around 20% quicker on uneven surfaces, and descend a slope almost 30% faster when using an MPK. The results of this systematic review suggest that trial fittings may be used to determine whether or not individuals with TFA and MFCL-2 mobility grade benefit from MPK use. Criteria for patient selection and assessment of trial fitting success or failure are proposed.

  10. The Medical Duty Officer: An Attempt to Mitigate the Ambulance At-Hospital Interval

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Megan H.; Bouland, Andrew J.; Lawner, Benjamin J.; Comer, Angela C.; Ramos, Daniel C.; Fletcher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A lack of coordination between emergency medical services (EMS), emergency departments (ED) and systemwide management has contributed to extended ambulance at-hospital times at local EDs. In an effort to improve communication within the local EMS system, the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD) placed a medical duty officer (MDO) in the fire communications bureau. It was hypothesized that any real-time intervention suggested by the MDO would be manifested in a decrease in the EMS at-hospital time. Methods The MDO was implemented on November 11, 2013. A senior EMS paramedic was assigned to the position and was placed in the fire communication bureau from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., seven days a week. We defined the pre-intervention period as August 2013 – October 2013 and the post-intervention period as December 2013 – February 2014. We also compared the post-intervention period to the “seasonal match control” one year earlier to adjust for seasonal variation in EMS volume. The MDO was tasked with the prospective management of city EMS resources through intensive monitoring of unit availability and hospital ED traffic. The MDO could suggest alternative transport destinations in the event of ED crowding. We collected and analyzed data from BCFD computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system for the following: ambulance response times, ambulance at-hospital interval, hospital diversion and alert status, and “suppression wait time” (defined as the total time suppression units remained on scene until ambulance arrival). The data analysis used a pre/post intervention design to examine the MDO impact on the BCFD EMS system. Results There were a total of 15,567 EMS calls during the pre-intervention period, 13,921 in the post-intervention period and 14,699 in the seasonal match control period one year earlier. The average at-hospital time decreased by 1.35 minutes from pre- to post-intervention periods and 4.53 minutes from the pre- to seasonal match control

  11. Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. hoisted up to Navy helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. is hoisted up to a Navy helicopter during recovery operations in the Atlantic Ocean of the Gemini 5 spacecraft. The NASA Headquarter alternative photo number is 65-H-688.

  12. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... controls, and (2) The flotation system armed when the helicopter is over water and is flying at a speed that does not exceed the maximum speed prescribed in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual for flying with...

  13. A practical approach to helicopter internal noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. S.; Defelice, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A practical and well correlated procedure for predicting helicopter internal noise is presented. It accounts for the propagation of noise along multiple paths on an octave by octave basis. The method is sufficiently general to be applicable to conventional helicopters as well as other aircraft types, when the appropriate structural geometry, noise source strengths, and material acoustic properties are defined. A guide is provided for the prediction of various helicopter noise sources over a wide range of horsepower for use when measured data are not available. The method is applied to the prediction of the interior levels of the Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft (CHRA), both with and without soundproofing installed. Results include good correlation with measured levels and prediction of the speech interference level within 1.5 db at all conditions. A sample problem is also shown illustrating the use of the procedure. This example calculates the engine casing noise observed in the passenger cabin of the CHRA.

  14. Flight tests of IFR landing approach systems for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Peach, L. L.; Phillips, J. D.; Anderson, D. J.; Dugan, D. C.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    Joint NASA/FAA helicopter flight tests were conducted to investigate airborne radar approaches (ARA) and microwave landing system (MLS) approaches. Flight-test results were utilized to prove NASA with a data base to be used as a performance measure for advanced guidance and navigation concepts, and to provide FAA with data for establishment of TERPS criteria. The first flight-test investigation consisted of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, using weather/mapping radar, operational pilots, and a Bell 212 helicopter. The second flight-test investigation consisted of IFR MLS approaches at Crows Landing (near Ames Research Center), with a Bell UH-1H helicopter, using NASA, FAA, and operational industry pilots. Tests are described and results discussed.

  15. Component noise variables of a light observation helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    A test program was conducted to isolate and evaluate the individual noise sources of a light helicopter. To accomplish this, the helicopter was mounted on a special test rig, at a 6-foot skid height, in a simulated hover. The test rig contained by dynamometer for absorbing engine power and an exhaust silencing system for reducing engine noise. This test set-up allowed the various components of the helicopter to be run and listened to individually or in any combination. The sound pressure level was recorded at a point 200 feet from the helicopter as the component parameters were systematically varied. The tests were conducted in an open area, during the middle of the night, with no wind, and with all other known variables either eliminated or kept as constant as possible.

  16. 78 FR 24371 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., Aerospace Engineer, Los Angeles Aircraft Certification Office, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA,...

  17. 77 FR 39911 - The New York North Shore Helicopter Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... and eastern shores of Long Island. Unlike helicopter traffic in urban areas, where the destination.../oaqps001/greenbk/ancl.html . In addition, the state of New York is within the Ozone Transport...

  18. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  19. Helicopter transmission arrangements with split-torque gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, G.

    1983-01-01

    As an alternative to component development, the case for improved drive-train configuration is argued. In particular, the use of torque-splitting gear trains is proposed as a practicable means of improving the effectiveness of helicopter main gearboxes.

  20. 78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-100-AD; Amendment 39-17285; AD 2012-25-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... applies to certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3 helicopters. The reference to Title...