Science.gov

Sample records for air bag inflators

  1. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  2. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suitable material, or other dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators, air bag modules, and seat-belt... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and...

  3. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... suitable material, or other dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators, air bag modules, and seat-belt... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and...

  4. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An air... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to...

  5. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Definitions. An air bag inflator (consisting of a casing containing an igniter, a booster material, a gas... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An...

  6. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  7. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  8. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  9. Air bags and the skin.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide. The bag is inflated by nitrogen liberated during the combustion. Deployment releases various high-temperature gases, including nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and produces sodium hydroxide, a highly irritant alkaline substance. In about 7%-8% of cases, air bags cause dermatologic injuries such as traumatic lesions, irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Nondermatologic lesions, such as ocular damage (alkali keratitis, corneal abrasions), ear lesions, bone fractures, and contusive damage can also be caused by air bag deployment.

  10. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    proximity of the occupants to the airbag module; (5) the deployment time, which includes the time to sense the need for deployment, the inflator response parameters, the air bag response, and the reliability of the air bag. The requirements for an advanced air bag technology is discussed. These requirements includes that the system use information related to: (1) the crash severity; (2) the status of belt usage; (3) the occupant category; and (4) the proximity to the air bag to adjust air bag deployment. The parameters for the response of the air bag are: (1) deployment time; (2) inflator parameters; and (3) air bag response and reliability. The state of occupant protection advanced technology is reviewed. This review includes: the current safety restraint systems, and advanced technology characteristics. These characteristics are summarized in a table, which has information regarding the technology item, the potential, and an date of expected utilization. The use of technology and expertise at NASA centers is discussed. NASA expertise relating to sensors, computing, simulation, propellants, propulsion, inflatable systems, systems analysis and engineering is considered most useful. Specific NASA technology developments, which were included in the study are: (1) a capacitive detector; (2) stereoscopic vision system; (3) improved crash sensors; (4) the use of the acoustic signature of the crash to determine crash severity; and (5) the use of radar antenna for pre-crash sensing. Information relating to injury risk assessment is included, as is a summary of the areas of the technology which requires further development.

  11. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  12. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  13. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries.

  14. The effectiveness of air bags.

    PubMed

    Barry, S; Ginpil, S; O'Neill, T J

    1999-11-01

    Previous research has shown that the installation of air bags in vehicles significantly reduces crash related deaths, but these analyses have used statistical techniques which have not been capable of controlling for other major determinants of crash survival. This study analysed data from the US FARS database of fatal crashes using conditional logistic regression which is simultaneously able to estimate occupant protection effects for a range of variables. Results of the analysis provided a comparative quantification of both the effect of the air bag as well as other well known determinants of occupant crash survival (age, seat belt use, and gender). When potentially confounding variables were controlled, both the driver and passenger side air bag devices were shown to significantly reduce the probability of death in direct frontal collisions, but the effect size calculated was small compared to the effect of the seat belt. The effect size may also be very small in absolute terms depending on the severity of the crash involved. Given the limited benefit of the air bag, efforts to promote air bags seem particularly difficult to justify in countries such as the United States where the vastly superior occupant protection of the seat belt is under-utilised.

  15. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  16. [Ear dysfunction due to air bag detonation?].

    PubMed

    Brehmer, D; Geidel, O; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2000-10-01

    Air bags are among the latest developments in extensive automobile safety systems. They successfully have saved the lives of car occupants in road accidents. Many additional injuries caused by air bags from minor to severe have been reported. With the help of two acceleration sensors, the electronic tuner amplifier records the vehicle's deceleration. This is the adequate trigger for air bag deployment, which creates an intense noise of up to 170 dB sound pressure level. This noise level can cause cochlear damage. We present two patients with otologic symptoms after spontaneous air bag deployment.

  17. Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.

  18. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  19. Evaluation of Advanced Air Bag Deployment Algorithm Performance using Event Data Recorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Hampton C.; Hinch, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 for advanced air bags, through the use of Event Data Recorders (EDRs). Although advanced restraint systems have been extensively tested in the laboratory, we are only beginning to understand the performance of these systems in the field. Because EDRs record many of the inputs to the advanced air bag control module, these devices can provide unique insights into the characteristics of field performance of air bags. The study was based on 164 advanced air bag cases extracted from NASS/CDS 2002-2006 with associated EDR data. In this dataset, advanced driver air bags were observed to deploy with a 50% probability at a longitudinal delta-V of 9 mph for the first stage, and at 26 mph for both inflator stages. In general, advanced air bag performance was as expected, however, the study identified cases of air bag deployments at delta-Vs as low as 3-4 mph, non-deployments at delta-Vs over 26 mph, and possible delayed air bag deployments. PMID:19026234

  20. Sodium azide-associated laryngospasm after air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Francis, David; Warren, Samuel A; Warner, Keir J; Harris, William; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M

    2010-09-01

    The advent and incorporation of the air bag into motor vehicles has resulted in the mitigation of many head and truncal injuries in motor vehicle collisions. However, air bag deployment is not risk free. We present a case of sodium azide-induced laryngospasm after air bag deployment. An unrestrained male driver was in a moderate-speed motor vehicle collision with air bag deployment. Medics found him awake, gasping for air with stridorous respirations and guarding his neck. The patient had no external signs of trauma and was presumed to have tracheal injury. The patient was greeted by the Anesthesiology service, which intubated him using glidescope-assisted laryngoscopy. The patient was admitted for overnight observation and treatment of alkaline ocular injury and laryngospasm. Although air bags represent an important advance in automobile safety, their use is not without risk. Bruising and tracheal rupture secondary to air bag deployment have been reported in out-of-position occupants. Additionally, alkaline by-products from the combustion of sodium azide in air bags have been implicated in ocular injury and facial burns. Laryngospasm after sodium azide exposure presents another diagnostic challenge for providers. Therefore, it is incumbent to maintain vigilance in the physical examination and diagnosis of occult injuries after air bag deployment.

  1. Inflatable stretcher to transport patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.; Gordon, F. T., Jr.; Schmidt, C. B.

    1970-01-01

    Inflatable plastic bag inside strong, inflexible outer bag facilitates emergency transport of seriously burned or disabled patients. When the bag is inflated the patient is completely immobilized and cushioned from external shock. Air for breathing, temperature controls and communications may be provided by appropriate plug-in connections.

  2. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  3. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Chaplin, J. R.; Greaves, D. M.; Hann, M.

    2017-02-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  4. Air bags: a major advance in injury control.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K S

    1999-01-01

    Motor vehicle related injury is the number one cause of injury related to morbidity and mortality, exceeding 5 million injuries per year. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that motor vehicles equipped with air bags make a significant impact in reducing both the severity of injury and the overall fatality rate. Nurses are a key resource in the prevention and mitigation of motor vehicle related injury. Nurses must not only be knowledgeable in the vital role that air bags play in motor vehicle crashes, but actively promote and educate individuals and groups regarding injury prevention programs that focus on air bags. Nurses also play an essential role in this approach to injury through the development of partnerships among businesses, government, health care, community groups, and consumers.

  5. Inflation with air via a facepiece for facilitating insertion of a nasogastric tube: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D; Agarwal, A; Nath, S S; Goswami, D; Saraswat, V; Singh, P K

    2007-02-01

    Insertion of a nasogastric tube is a routine procedure but during anaesthesia it is often difficult and time consuming. One hundred and sixty adults undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. After induction of anaesthesia, neuromuscular blockade and tracheal intubation, a nasogastric tube was inserted through the nose with the head of the patient in the neutral position, either with or without prior inflation with air via a facepiece attached to a self-inflating bag applied firmly with the face. Insertion of the nasogastric tube was successful in 75/78 (96%) following inflation compared with 54/80 (68%) without inflation (p<0.001). In four patients receiving inflation, a fibreoptic endoscope was passed as far as the upper oesophageal sphincter; this revealed opening of the upper oesophageal sphincter during inflation.

  6. Report of the Building 9207 air bag test

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, T.E.; Fricke, K.E.; Jones, W.D.

    1992-12-01

    As part of a major testing program now underway at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), a full-scale air bag test was conducted in Building 9207. The test program, supported and managed by the Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), is intended to determine the stiffness and strength of unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTVS) in order to more accurately analyze and predict the response of buildings containing these type of walls, especially when subjected to seismic and high wind loadings. The air bag test was a very large undertaking that started more than a year before the test was actually performed. Preparation for the test included the following activities: (1) preparation of the wall and the adjacent building areas; (2) design and field fabrication of test supporting structures; (3) procurement of equipment and instrumentation; (4) development of supporting test procedures and checklists; (5) installation of over seventy linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and strain gages; (6) development of computer programs for use in the data acquisition systems; (7) extensive review into the existing engineering literature; (8) discussions with researchers with prior experience performing air bag tests; (9) coordination with the building operators; (10) plant safety reviews; and (11) dry runs of the test itself.

  7. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  8. The field performance of frontal air bags: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Viano, David C; Crandall, Jeff

    2005-03-01

    This article presents a broad review of the literature on frontal air bag field performance, starting with the initial government and industry projections of effectiveness and concluding with the most recent assessments of depowered systems. This review includes as many relevant metrics as practicable, interprets the findings, and provides references so the interested reader can further evaluate the limitations, confounders, and utility of each metric. The evaluations presented here range from the very specific (individual case studies) to the general (statistical analyses of large databases). The metrics used to evaluate air bag performance include fatality reduction or increase; serious, moderate, and minor injury reduction or increase; harm reduction or increase; and cost analyses, including insurance costs and the cost of life years saved for various air bag systems and design philosophies. The review begins with the benefits of air bags. Fatality and injury reductions attributable to the air bag are presented. Next, the negative consequences of air bag deployment are described. Injuries to adults and children and the current trends in air bag injury rates are discussed, as are the few documented instances of inadvertent deployments or non-deployment in severe crashes. In the third section, an attempt is made to quantify the influence of the many confounding factors that affect air bag performance. The negative and positive characteristics of air bags are then put into perspective within the context of societal costs and benefits. Finally, some special topics, including risk homeostasis and the performance of face bags, are discussed.

  9. Air Tight: Building Inflatables/Inflatable Construction: Planning and Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A design-build seminar consisting of students from Physics, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Robotic, Material Science, Art, and Architecture who will work together on a deployable "closed-loop" inflatable greenhouse for Mars in theory, and an Earth analogue physical mockup on campus.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  15. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... regulation that permits motor vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by...

  16. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by the agency. This regulation...

  17. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  18. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  19. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National... on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report... technical report is available on the Internet for viewing in PDF format at...

  20. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    PubMed

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  1. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2011-03-01

    We studied National Trauma Data Bank data to determine the effectiveness of car safety devices in reducing mortality and injury severity in 184,992 patients between 1988 and 2004. Safety device variables were seat belt used plus air bag deployed; only seat belt used; only air bag deployed; and, as explicitly coded, no device used. Overall mortality was 4.17%. Compared with the no-device group, the seat-belt-plus-air-bag group had a 67% reduction in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.33; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern.

  2. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael; Elliott, Michael; Cornejo, Rebecca A; Arbogast, Kristy B; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of children's exposure to passenger air bag (PAB) deployments and to determine the relative risk of both minor and more serious nonfatal injuries to restrained children exposed to PABs in frontal impact collisions. Data were collected from 1 December 1998 to 30 November 2001 from a large-scale, child-specific crash surveillance system based on insurance claims, a telephone survey, and on-site crash investigations. Vehicles qualifying for inclusion were State Farm-insured, model year 1990 or newer, and involved in a crash with at least one child occupant < or =15 years of age. Qualifying crashes were limited to those that occurred in 15 states and the District of Columbia. A stratified cluster sample was designed in order to select vehicles (the unit of sampling) for the conduction of a telephone survey with the driver. For cases in which child occupants were seriously injured or killed, in-depth crash investigations were performed. The prevalence of exposure to PABs was calculated as the number of children occupying the right front seat in a PAB deployment crash among all children occupying the right front seat in vehicles equipped with PABs. Complete interview data were obtained on 9,779 vehicles involving 15,341 children. Among PAB-exposed children, 175 (14%) suffered serious injuries versus 41 (7.5%) of those in the comparison group (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). The overall risk of any injury (both minor and serious) was 86% among children exposed to PABs, compared to 55% among the comparison group (OR 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.4). Exposure to PABs increased the risk of both minor injuries, including facial and chest abrasions, and more serious injuries, particularly upper extremity fractures.

  3. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    PubMed

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug.

  4. Inflation.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, A H

    1993-01-01

    A short review of inflation is given, starting with a description of the underlying mechanism and the scenario of events. Four variations--old inflation, new inflation, chaotic inflation, and extended inflation--are discussed. It is claimed that the inflationary model provides a plausible explanation for (i) the large number of particles in the universe, (ii) the Hubble expansion, (iii) the large-scale uniformity of the universe, (iv) the nearness of the universe to a critical density, (v) the absence of magnetic monopoles, and (vi) the scale-invariant spectrum of microwave background fluctuations observed by COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer). Finally, it is argued that the plausibility of inflation is enhanced by the fact that inflation is eternal. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607402

  5. The influence of air bags and restraining devices on extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    McGovern, M K; Murphy, R X; Okunski, W J; Wasser, T E

    2000-05-01

    The influence of air bags and other restraining devices on injury after motor vehicle collisions is not well defined. This study examined the relationship between the use of restraining devices and the incidence of extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions. A retrospective analysis was performed on motor vehicle collision data submitted to the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database from 1990 through 1995. Criteria for submission included trauma patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit, who died during hospitalization, who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours, or who were transferred in or out of the receiving hospital. A total of 21,875 patients met these criteria. These patients were analyzed for the presence or absence of upper and lower extremity injuries and were compared based on their use of restraining devices. Restraining devices were categorized into four groups: air bag alone, air bag and seat belt, seat belt or carseat without air bag, and no restraining device. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test of association. For contingency tables with small expected frequencies, Fisher's exact test was used. Study participants included 11,688 men and 10,185 women with a mean age of 38 +/- 20 years. There were 16,033 drivers and 5,842 passengers. Air bags were deployed in 472 instances. In 297 of these cases, additional restraint was provided with a seat belt. In 6,632 cases, air bags were not deployed; however, patients were restrained with either a seat belt or a carseat. In 14,771 cases, patients were not restrained. When comparing restraining devices as a group vs. no restraint, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of upper (p = 0.018) and lower (p < 0.001) extremity injuries. Air bags, however, were associated with an increased incidence of both upper (p = 0.033) and lower (p = 0.002) extremity injuries when compared with no restraint or when compared among patients who were restrained. As a group

  6. 76 FR 33406 - Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary... Cars Ltd. has petitioned the agency for renewal of a temporary exemption from certain advanced air bag... cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as ``advanced air bags.'' \\2\\ The upgrade...

  7. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Investigation of the Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle Having a Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System. An investigation was made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a reentry vehicle having a multiple-air-bag load-alleviation system. A 1/16-scale dynamic model having four canted air bags was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical), 45 degrees, and 27 degrees for a parachute or paraglider vertical letdown velocity of 30 feet per second (full scale). Landings were made on concrete at attitudes ranging from -l5 degrees to 20 degrees. The friction coefficient between the model heat shield and the concrete was approximately 0.4. An aluminum diaphragm, designed to rupture at 10.8 pounds per square inch gage, was used to maintain initial pressure in the air bags for a short time period. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030986. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  8. Driver and front seat passenger fatalities associated with air bag deployment. Part 1: A Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Shkrum, Michael J; McClafferty, Kevin J; Nowak, Edwin S; German, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Real world motor vehicle collision research of injuries due to deployment of "first-generation" air bags has been conducted by Transport Canada since 1993. Fifty-three fatal crashes (36 frontal impacts; 17 side collisions) involving 48 drivers and 10 right front passengers were reviewed. In the Canadian data, air bag deployment in five of nine low severity frontal crashes (delta-V (deltaV) < 25 km/h or 15 mph) was linked to five deaths, four of whom were autopsied (four adults with craniocervical (basal skull and C2 fracture with brainstem avulsion; "closed head injury"--no autopsy) or chest trauma (aortic or pulmonary artery tears); one child with atlanto-occipital dislocation). An occupant who is close ("out-of-position") to the air bag at the time of deployment is at risk for injury. In 27 high severity frontal impacts, unusual (e.g., pulmonary "blast" hemorrhage in one autopsied case) or isolated potentially survivable injuries (e.g., clinically documented ruptured right atrium; probable flail chest observed during the autopsy on a decomposed body) localized to the head, neck or chest in three possibly out-of-position drivers pointed to the deployed air bag as a source of injury. In one of 17 side collisions an out-of-position driver sustained a radiographically confirmed C1-C2 dislocation in a minimally intruded vehicle.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  10. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... Manufacturers In 2000, NHTSA upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks... completely new passenger car model. Design and development of the Karma began in late 2007. The Karma...

  11. Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olson, Carin M; Cummings, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-07-15

    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children. Second-generation air bags were developed to reduce the risks for children, despite the possibility of decreasing protection for others. Using a matched cohort design, the authors estimated risk ratios for death for use of each generation of air bag versus no air bag, adjusted for seat position, restraint use, sex, age, and all vehicle and crash characteristics, among 128,208 automobile occupants involved in fatal crashes on US roadways during 1990-2002. The authors then compared adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) between the two generations of air bags. Among front seat occupants, the aRR for death with a first-generation air bag was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94); the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.00) (p = 0.83 for comparison of aRRs). Among children under age 6 years, the aRR with a first-generation air bag was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.30), while the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) (p = 0.20 for comparison of aRRs). The differences in aRRs between first- and second-generation air bags among other subgroups were small and not statistically significant.

  12. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  13. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  14. Optimizing bag-valve-mask ventilation with a new mouth-to-bag resuscitator.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Wenzel, Volker; Stallinger, Angelika; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Rheinberger, Klaus; Augenstein, Sven; Herff, Holger; Idris, Ahamed H; Dörges, Volker; Lindner, Karl H; Hörmann, Christoph

    2003-02-01

    When ventilating an unintubated patient with a self-inflating bag, high peak inspiratory flow rates may result in high peak airway pressure with subsequent stomach inflation; this may occur frequently when rescuers without daily experience in bag-valve-mask ventilation need to perform advanced airway management. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed self-inflating bag (mouth-to-bag resuscitator; Ambu, Glostrup, Denmark) that limits peak inspiratory flow. A bench model simulating a patient with an unintubated airway was used, consisting of a face mask, manikin head, training lung (lung compliance, 100 ml/0.098 kPa (100 ml/cm H(2)O)); airway resistance, 0.39 kPa/l per second (4 cm H(2)O/l/s), oesophagus (LESP, 1.96 kPa (20 cm H(2)O)) and simulated stomach. Twenty nurses were randomised to ventilate the manikin for 1 min (respiratory rate: 12 per minute) with either a standard self-inflating bag or the mouth-to-bag resuscitator, which requires the rescuer to blow up a single-use balloon inside the self-inflating bag, which in turns displaces air towards the patient. When supplemental oxygen is added, ventilation with up to 100% oxygen may be obtained, since expired air is only used as the driving gas. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator therefore allows two instead of one hand sealing the mask on the patient's face. The volunteers were blinded to the experimental design of the model until completion of the experimental protocol. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator versus standard self-inflating bag resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher mean+/-S.D. mask tidal volumes (1048+/-161 vs. 785+/-174 ml) and lung tidal volumes (911+/-148 vs. 678+/-157 ml), longer inspiratory times (1.7+/-0.4 vs. 1.4+/-0.4 s), but significantly lower peak inspiratory flow rates (50+/-9 vs. 62+/-13 l/min) and mask leakage (10+/-4 vs. 15+/-9%); peak inspiratory pressure (17+/-2 vs. 17+/-2 cm H(2)O) and stomach tidal volumes (16+/-30 vs. 18+/-35 ml) were comparable. In

  15. Linear Heave Dynamics of an Air-Cushion Vehicle Bag-and-Finger Skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon; Sullivan, Phillip A.

    Results from a linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle equipped with a bag-and-finger skirt are described. A two-dimensional section of the cushion is subject to pure heave or long-wave surface motion inputs. The skirt mass is lumped in the fingers, with the bag being modelled as a combination of massless inelastic membranes and links. The airflows from bag to cushion and from cushion to atmosphere are assumed quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. For a configuration representative of a 37t vehicle, frequency response characteristics show the effect of skirt geometry and mass changes, and cushion capacitance. The results suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify an undesirable heave response, but reducing the skirt mass may be effective. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent at the low cushion-flow rates now used in practice.

  16. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  17. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  18. The Chemistry behind the Air Bag: High Tech in First-Year Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlung, Andreas

    1996-04-01

    The chemical process of air bag deployment provides practical applications of gas laws and stoichiometric equations appropriate for use in first-year chemistry. In case of an accident the mixture of NaN3, KNO3, and SiO2 in the gas generator is ignited through an electrical impulse which triggers deflagration and the liberation of a precalculated volume of nitrogen gas. Subsequent reactions transform byproducts into stable, non-toxic compounds. This process lends itself as an illustration of gas laws in modern technology.

  19. Inflation Is Pricing Out Quality. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Lavallee, Lise

    The way that inflation has created pressure points on quantity of resouces and quality of outcomes in postsecondary education is examined, along with the situation of the chemistry department of the University of Montreal. Data from the chemistry department for 1971-80 are used to assess the impact of inflation on various objects of expenditures…

  20. Risk of injury associated with the use of seat belts and air bags in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2008-01-01

    Although air bags have been reported to reduce passenger mortality in frontal collisions, they have also been reported as a cause of injury in motor vehicle collisions(MVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients involved in MVCs to determine mortality and the pattern of injuries associated with seat belt use and air bag deployment. Information on patients involved in MVCs from 1988 to 2004 was obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The data was evaluated based on four groups of safety devices: seat belt and deployed air bag (SBAB), seat belt only (SBO), deployed air bag only (ABO), and no safety devices (None). A total of 35,333 patients met study inclusion criteria. Air bags and seat belts used in combination decreased the risk of potentially fatal injuries, but increased the risk of lower extremity injuries (odds ratio, 1.35). The use of any type of restraint led to a decrease in the risk of injury or mortality in MVCs. Only half of all individuals in this study used any type of restraint device, which indicates the need for significant improvements in public health and safety seat belt utilization programs.

  1. Technology & Mechanics Overview of Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-04

    moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating materials such as urethane, PVC (poly vinyl chloride ), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer ) are...Compressibility Drop-Stitched Fabric Inflatable Wings Textile Architectures Optional Rigidification High Performance Fibers 16. PRICE CODE Seamless

  2. Acute cervical spinal cord injury secondary to air bag deployment without proper use of lap or shoulder harnesses.

    PubMed

    Hart, R A; Mayberry, J C; Herzberg, A M

    2000-02-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient with cervical central spinal cord syndrome caused by a hyperextension injury after a motor vehicle collision in which the air bag deployed in the absence of shoulder or lap belt harnesses. The potential for cervical spine and spinal cord hyperextension injuries in passengers positioned in front of air bags without proper use of shoulder or lap belt harnesses is discussed. Cervical central spinal cord quadriplegia occurred with cervical spondylosis and kyphosis that was managed by early three-level cervical corpectomy in a 58-year-old patient. Early improvement in the patient's neurological status occurred but was incomplete at the time of this report. Cervical hyperextension injuries are possible in passengers positioned in the front seat of cars with air bags when shoulder or lap belt harnesses are not used properly. Previous biomechanical studies have documented the potential for these types of injuries.

  3. Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule with a Torus-Shaped Air Bag for Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule by using torus-shaped air bags for impact-load alleviation. An impact bag was attached below the large end of the capsule to absorb initial impact loads and a second bag was attached around the canister to absorb loads resulting from impact on the canister when the capsule overturned. A 1/6-scale dynamic model of the configuration was tested for nominal flight paths of 60 deg. and 90 deg. (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -25 deg. to 30 deg., and a vertical contact velocity of 12.25 feet per second. Accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) by accelerometers rigidly installed at the center of gravity of the model. Actual flight path, contact attitudes, and motions were determined from high-speed motion pictures. Landings were made on concrete and on water. The peak accelerations along the X-axis for landings on concrete were in the order of 3Og for a 0 deg. contact attitude. A horizontal velocity of 7 feet per second, corresponding to a flight path of 60 deg., had very little effect upon the peak accelerations obtained for landings on concrete. For contact attitudes of -25 deg. and 30 deg. the peak accelerations along the Z-axis were about +/- l5g, respectively. The peak accelerations measured for the water landings were about one-third lower than the peak accelerations measured for the landings on concrete. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made by using Newton's second law of motion and the force-stroke characteristics of the air bag to determine accelerations for a flight path of 90 deg. (vertical) and a contact attitude of 0 deg. The computed and experimental peak accelerations and strokes at peak acceleration were in good agreement for the model. The special scaling appears to be applicable for predicting full-scale time and stroke at peak acceleration for a landing on concrete from a 90 deg

  4. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

  5. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs.

  6. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  7. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption... Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Wheego Electric Cars, Inc., has... 2000, NHTSA upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring...

  8. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for.... 208, Occupant Crash Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc... requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as...

  9. Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks.

  10. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  11. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ˜12 < We < ˜16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We = 12( {1 + 2/3 Oh^2 } ), is found to match well with experimental data {[L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545-560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, "Formation of drops and bubbles," in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]}. An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  12. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  13. Reliability of Single-Use PEEP-Valves Attached to Self-Inflating Bags during Manual Ventilation of Neonates – An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Julia C.; Wilitzki, Silke; Thio-Lluch, Marta; te Pas, Arjan B.; Schmalisch, Gerd; Roehr, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International resuscitation guidelines suggest to use positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during manual ventilation of neonates. Aim of our study was to test the reliability of self-inflating bags (SIB) with single-use PEEP valves regarding PEEP delivery and the effect of different peak inflation pressures (PIP) and ventilation rates (VR) on the delivered PEEP. Methods Ten new single-use PEEP valves from 5 manufacturers were tested by ventilating an intubated 1kg neonatal manikin containing a lung model with a SIB that was actuated by an electromechanical plunger device. Standard settings: PIP 20cmH2O, VR 60/min, flow 8L/min. PEEP settings of 5 and 10cmH2O were studied. A second test was conducted with settings of PIP 40cmH2O and VR 40/min. The delivered PEEP was measured by a respiratory function monitor (CO2SMO+). Results Valves from one manufacturer delivered no relevant PEEP and were excluded. The remaining valves showed a continuous decay of the delivered pressure during expiration. The median (25th and 75th percentile) delivered PEEP with standard settings was 3.4(2.7–3.8)cmH2O when set to 5cmH2O and 6.1(4.9–7.1)cmH2O when set to 10cmH2O. Increasing the PIP from 20 to 40 cmH2O led to a median (25th and 75th percentile) decrease in PEEP to 2.3(1.8–2.7)cmH2O and 4.3(3.2–4.8)cmH2O; changing VR from 60 to 40/min led to a PEEP decrease to 2.8(2.1–3.3)cmH2O and 5.0(3.5–6.2)cmH2O for both PEEP settings. Conclusion Single-use PEEP valves do not reliably deliver the set PEEP. PIP and VR have an effect on the delivered PEEP. Operators should be aware of these limitations when manually ventilating neonates. PMID:26914209

  14. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag and dialysis samplers in selected wells at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Pravecek, Tasha

    2002-01-01

    Field comparisons of chemical concentrations obtained from dialysis samplers, passive diffusion bag samplers, and low-flow samplers showed generally close agreement in most of the 13 wells tested during July 2001 at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. The data for chloride, sulfate, iron, alkalinity, arsenic, and methane appear to show that the dialysis samplers are capable of accurately collecting a passive sample for these constituents. In general, the comparisons of volatile organic compound concentrations showed a relatively close correspondence between the two different types of diffusion samples and between the diffusion samples and the low-flow samples collected in most wells. Divergence appears to have resulted primarily from the pumping method, either producing a mixed sample or water not characteristic of aquifer water moving through the borehole under ambient conditions. The fact that alkalinity was not detected in the passive diffusion bag samplers, highly alkaline waters without volatilization loss from effervescence, which can occur when a sample is acidified for preservation. Both dialysis and passive diffusion bag samplers are relatively inexpensive and can be deployed rapidly and easily. Passive diffusion bag samplers are intended for sampling volatile organic compounds only, but dialysis samplers can be used to sample both volatile organic compounds and inorganic solutes. Regenerated cellulose dialysis samplers, however, are subject to biodegradation and probably should be deployed no sooner than 2 weeks prior to recovery. 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia, South Carolina. 2 Air Florce Center for Environmental Excellence, San Antionio, Texas.

  15. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored.

  16. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  17. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  18. Inflatable partition for fighting mine fires

    DOEpatents

    Conti, Ronald S.; Lazzara, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    The seal is a lightweight, inflatable, bag which may be inflated by a portable air generator and is used to seal a burning mine passage. A collapsible tube-like aperture extends through the seal and allows passage of high expansion foam through the seal in a feed tube. The foam fills the passageway and extinguishes the fire. In other embodiments, the feed tubes incorporate means to prevent collapse of the aperture. In these embodiments a shroud connects the feed tube to a foam generator. This seal allows creation of a high expansion foam fire fighting barrier even in upward sloping passages.

  19. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  20. Dynamic PIV measurement of a compressible flow issuing from an airbag inflator nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Jang, Young Gil; Kim, Seok; Kim, Chang Soo

    2006-12-01

    Among many equipment for passenger safety, the air bag system is the most fundamental and effective device for an automobile. The inflator housing is a main part of the curtain-type air bag system, which supplies high-pressure gases in pumping up the air bag-curtain which is increasingly being adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. However, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measure the instantaneous velocity fields of a high-speed compressible flow issuing from the exit nozzle of an inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high frame-rate, we evaluate the variation of the mass flow rate with time. The dynamic PIV system consists of a high-repetition Nd:YLF laser, a high-speed CMOS camera, and a delay generator. The flow images are taken at 4000 fps with synchronization of the trigger signal for inflator ignition. From the instantaneous velocity field data of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing at the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing is found to have very high velocity fluctuations, with the maximum velocity at about 700 m/s. The time duration of the high-speed flow is very short, and there is no perceptible flow after 100 ms.

  1. Inflation pressure effect on performance of air-filled wheelchair cushions.

    PubMed

    Krouskop, T A; Williams, R; Noble, P; Brown, J

    1986-02-01

    Air-filled wheelchair cushions are frequently used in the prevention of pressure sores. Their effectiveness in reducing interface pressures and in redistributing body weight (BW) appears dependent on their internal inflation pressure. This pilot study examines and defines this relationship. Interface pressures were measured with the TIPE (Texas Interface Pressure Evaluator) system for 14 subjects while sitting on each of three commercially available air-filled wheelchair cushions. This relationship between interface pressure and internal pressure was then determined for each of the three body-build categories. In each category the interface pressure displayed a higher degree of sensitivity to underinflation than to overinflation. A high correlation found between BW and internal air pressure (IAP), may be useful in the design of a customized pressure indicator system. The study documents the influence of IAP on seating pressure and supports the need for further research in the development of an indicator system that alerts users to under- or overinflation of the cushion.

  2. Air Bag Parameter Study with Out-Of-Position Small Female Test Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Short; Steve Kozak

    2000-06-19

    The development of the Advanced Restraint System has lead to an innovative way in which we evaluate the systems effect on the occupant. This paper presents some initial investigation into the driver airbag system that consists of an inflator, cushion fold, tear seam pattern, and offset of the airbag cover to steering wheel rim plane. An initial DOE is reviewed to establish significant parameters and to identify equations for further investigation.

  3. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  4. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation.

  5. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  6. [Air bags and eye injuries: chemical burns and major traumatic ocular lesions--a case study].

    PubMed

    Bendeddouche, K; Assaf, E; Emadisson, H; Forestier, F; Salvanet-Bouccara, A

    2003-10-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral eye lesions with extended visual sequelae after the inflation of a driver's airbag during a head-on collision. The superficial facial lesions were accompanied by bilateral eye lesions, reaching both the anterior and posterior segments. Bilateral periorbital palpebral hematomas; voluminous bipalpebral edema combined with severe -conjunctival edema, corneal erosions, and edema; bilateral hyphema; pupillary changes with multiple iris sphincter breaks and weak pupillary light reflex only on the right eye; retrocession of the iridocorneal angle; and on fundus examination both retinas had posterior and peripheral hemorrhages and Berlin retinal edema. Five years after the trauma and 4 years after posttraumatic surgery for cataract that had progressively appeared on the left eye, the visual acuity is 25/20 in both eyes notwithstanding a small paracentral scotoma related to a break in the Bruch membrane. A review of the literature shows several types of ophthalmological lesions related to the airbag mechanism, which after combustion of an alkaline powder inflates at a very high speed, resulting in a risk of corneal-conjunctive-palpebral alkaline burns added to an eye contusion, which may be responsible for severe lesions. The American studies distinguish three factors affecting the seriousness of these airbag accidents: (a) wearing glasses, (b) position and size of the driver, and (c) inflation force of the airbag. Wearing a seatbelt is mandatory to minimize the violence of the oculofacial impact. After facial trauma from an airbag, an ophthalmological examination is necessary to assess of the chemical burns of the tissues exposed to the alkaline powder and possible major ocular lesions.

  7. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as

  8. Direct Initiation of Detonation in Unconfined Ethylene-Air Mixtures - Influence of Bag Size,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    preparation for...recording the time of ignition (det zero) on magnetic tape as a reference. The desired gas mixture was prepared by continuous flow of regulated quantities...constant velocity within 3% of the theoretical C-J velocity (Vcj) were observed in all ehtylene -air mixtures near stoichiometric composition (6.54%

  9. Liability and the marketing of high-tech law enforcement technologies: the air bag and barrier strip stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present information regarding the fate of technologies developed in the national laboratory, which were designed to meet a specific law enforcement user need, but were or were not successful in making it to market. The two examples, one successful and one not completely successful, will be presented in a perspective to provide discussion as too why their individual fates were as such. The two examples, air bag restraint and barriers strip, both law enforcement technologies, were both designed to meet a targeted need, and yet their success was different. One has been licensed to an industry partner and is currently on the shelf for purchase. The other is awaiting a licensee and its future is still undetermined. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the specific paths these technologies have taken to market, and to demonstrate that even when researchers have a good idea, their technology may never make it to the shelf. This paper also addresses some of the pitfalls of what occurs when researchers are too distant from the user community and what that distance can do to a successful or unsuccessful technology. Understanding this process is essential to the user communities that anticipate the market of technologies that they often help assist with or provide insight to. It is also important for users and manufacturers to understand why the research and development process can take years, and why some things do not fully actualize in accepted technologies.

  10. Biodynamic simulations of the effect of a neck-mounted air bag on the head/neck response during high G acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Freivalds, A; Lee, S Y

    1991-08-01

    New helmet-mounted devices (such as night-vision goggles, laser eye protection, etc.) have created new safety hazards for pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering. In order to prevent the resulting head/neck injuries, this study extends the air-bag protection system developed for ground vehicles to a neck mounted system for aircrew personnel. Results, carried out by computer biodynamic simulations using the Articulated Total Body Model (ATB), showed that: 1) helmet weight had little effect on head/neck torque, contact force and flexion angle; 2) initial head/neck position and center of gravity offsets of the helmet-mounted devices had significant effects on head-neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles; and 3) the neck mounted air bag significantly reduced neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles. We conclude that the neck-mounted air bag system could significantly reduce the severity of head/neck injuries to pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering.

  11. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  12. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  13. Comparison of the effects of room air and N2O + O2 used for ProSeal LMA cuff inflation on cuff pressure and oropharyngeal structure.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Murat; Kati, Ismail; Tomak, Yakup; Yuca, Koksal

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different inflating gases used for ProSeal LMA (PLMA) cuff inflation on cuff pressure, oropharyngeal structure, and the incidence of sore throat. Eighty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists; ASA I-II) were randomly divided into two groups. PLMA cuff inflation was achieved with appropriate volumes of 50% N2O + 50% O2 in group I and room air in group II, respectively. When the PLMA was removed, oropharyngeal examination was carried out immediately, using a rigid optical telescope. Patients were asked about sore throat symptoms postoperatively. Cuff pressures were significantly lower in group I, except at the initial pressure measurement. Cuff pressure was positively correlated with the length of the operation in group II, and negatively correlated in group I. PLMA cuff inflation with room air led to increased cuff pressure during the operation, possibly due to the diffusion of N2O into the cuff. We consider that a PLMA cuff inflated with an N2O-O2 mixture is convenient, especially in operations in which N2O has been used.

  14. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  15. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  17. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  18. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. 75 FR 69575 - Permission To Use Air Inflation of Meat Carcasses and Parts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... make clear that the current prohibition against injecting compressed air into the skulls of cattle... disallowance of air injection into the skull of cattle appears to be incorrect. The comment pointed out that... into the skull of cattle in conjunction with a captive bolt stunner (75 FR 28763). The 2004 rule...

  1. Evaluation of the vibration attenuation properties of an air-inflated cushion with two different heavy machinery seats in multi-axis vibration environments including jolts.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoxu; Eger, Tammy R; Dickey, James P

    2017-03-01

    Seats and cushions can attenuate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and minimize health risks for heavy machine operators. We successfully developed neural network (NN) algorithms to identify the vibration attenuation properties for four different seating conditions (seat/cushion combinations), and implemented each of the NN models to predict the equivalent daily exposure A(8) values for various vehicles in the forestry and mining environments. We also evaluated the performance of the new prototype No-Jolt™ air-inflated cushion and the original cushion of each seat with jolt exposures. We observed that the air cushion significantly improved the vibration attenuation properties of the seat that initially had good performance, but not for the seat that had relatively poor vibration attenuation properties. In addition, operator's anthropometrics and sex influenced the performance of the air-inflated cushion when the vibration environment included jolt exposures.

  2. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers in selected wells at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, March-April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Joshi, Manish; Morrell, Jeff; Peterson, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    During March-April 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Tech, and EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, tested diffusion samplers at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Samplers were deployed in three wells at the Main Base and two wells at Marianas Bonins (MARBO) Annex as potential ground-water monitoring alternatives. Prior to sampler deployment, the wells were tested using a borehole flowmeter to characterize vertical flow within each well. Three types of diffusion samplers were tested: passive diffusion bag (PDB) samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers. The primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tested in ground water at Andersen Air Force Base were trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. In most comparisons, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations in PDB samples closely matched concentrations in pumped samples. Exceptions were in wells where the pumping or ambient flow produced vertical translocation of water in a chemically stratified aquifer. In these wells, PDB samplers probably would be a viable alternative sampling method if they were placed at appropriate depths. In the remaining three test wells, the trichloroethene or tetrachloroethene concentrations obtained with the diffusion samplers closely matched the result from pumped sampling. Chloride concentrations in nylon-screen samplers were compared with chloride concentrations in dialysis and pumped samples to test inorganic-solute diffusion into the samplers across a range of concentrations. The test showed that the results from nylon-screen samplers might have underestimated chloride concentrations at depths with elevated chloride concentrations. The reason for the discrepancy in this investigation is unknown, but may be related to nylon-screen-mesh size, which was smaller than that used in previous investigations.

  3. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  4. Soft inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Junichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  5. Inflatable Launch and Recovery System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    and air line connections. Inflatable arch shaped tubes and spacer fabric form the ramp structure from which the tow body can be launched and...also includes power electronics and software controllers. [0015] Multiple, inflatable, arch shaped tubes and spacer fabric form the ramp structure...this manner maintain their shapes when inflated. The panel 36 can be fabricated of woven spacer fabrics, also known as drop stitch fabrics. Such

  6. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  7. Flavon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, S.; King, S. F.; Malinský, M.; Velasco-Sevilla, L.; Zavala, I.

    2008-08-01

    We propose an entirely new class of particle physics models of inflation based on the phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of family symmetry responsible for the generation of the effective quark and lepton Yukawa couplings. We show that the Higgs fields responsible for the breaking of family symmetry, called flavons, are natural candidates for the inflaton field in new inflation, or the waterfall fields in hybrid inflation. This opens up a rich vein of possibilities for inflation, all linked to the physics of flavour, with interesting cosmological and phenomenological implications. Out of these, we discuss two examples which realise flavon inflation: a model of new inflation based on the discrete non-Abelian family symmetry group A or Δ, and a model of hybrid inflation embedded in an existing flavour model with a continuous SU(3) family symmetry. With the inflation scale and family symmetry breaking scale below the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) scale, these classes of models are free of the monopole (and similar) problems which are often associated with the GUT phase transition.

  8. Blast-Absorbing Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed expandable bag contains debris from explosion. Permanently surrounds vessel or devices prone to explosive disintegration or slipped around small bomb. Finned cells shaped like outward-opening cups. Cells built up from overlapped sheets of fabric and stitched together to form expandable polyhedral bag. Cells pentagonal, triangular or square.

  9. Multiple Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Philip Joseph

    1987-09-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bound on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact.

  10. Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Seery, David; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: Claudia.deRham@unige.ch E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2011-01-01

    Galileon inflation is a radiatively stable higher derivative model of inflation. The model is determined by a finite number of relevant operators which are protected by a covariant generalization of the Galileon shift symmetry.We show that the nongaussianity of the primordial density perturbation generated during an epoch of Galileon inflation is a particularly powerful observational probe of these models and that, when the speed of sound is small, f{sub NL} can be larger than the usual result f{sub NL}∝c{sub s}{sup −2}.

  11. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  12. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  14. Polymer inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Syed Moeez; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2015-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a Gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semiclassical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by an epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow-roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckian initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  15. Bags Under Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home and lifestyle treatments may help reduce or eliminate puffy eyes. Medical and surgical treatments are available ... The following tips can help you reduce or eliminate bags under eyes: Use a cool compress. Wet ...

  16. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  17. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  18. Slinky inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    We present a new approach to quintessential inflation, in which both dark energy and inflation are explained by the evolution of a single scalar field. We start from a simple scalar potential with both oscillatory and exponential behavior.We employ the conventional reheating mechanism of new inflation, in which the scalar decays to light fermions with a decay width that is proportional to the scalar mass. Because our scalar mass is proportional to the Hubble rate, this gives adequate reheating at early times while shutting off at late times to preserve quintessence and satisfy nucleosynthesis constraints. We discuss a simple model which solves the horizon, flatness, and ''why now'' problems. Without any additional tuning of parameters, this model satisfies all constraints from CMB, large scale structure, and nucleosynthesis. The predictions for the inflationary spectral indices are n{sub S} = n{sub T} = 1. In this model we are currently beginning the third cosmic epoch of accelerated expansion.

  19. Symmetron inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Ruifeng; Kinney, William H.; Stojkovic, Dejan E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2014-01-01

    We define a new inflationary scenario in which inflation starts naturally after the Big Bang when the energy density drops below some critical value. As a model, we use recently proposed symmetron field whose effective potential depends on the energy density of the environment. At high densities, right after the Big Bang, the potential for the symmetron is trivial, and the field sits in equilibrium at the bottom of the potential. When the density drops below some critical value, the potential changes its shape into a symmetry breaking potential, and the field starts rolling down. This scenario does not require any special initial conditions for inflation to start. We also construct a concrete model with two fields, i.e. with symmetron as an inflaton and an additional scalar field which describes the matter content in the early universe. For the simplest coupling, the amplitude and shape of the power spectrum are the same as in the single field slow-roll inflation.

  20. Quasiopen inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1998-04-01

    We show that a large class of two-field models of single-bubble open inflation does not lead to infinite open universes, as was previously thought, but to an ensemble of very large but finite inflating ``islands.'' The reason is that the quantum tunneling responsible for the nucleation of the bubble does not occur simultaneously along both field directions and equal-time hypersurfaces in the open universe are not synchronized with equal-density or fixed-field hypersurfaces. The most probable tunneling trajectory corresponds to a zero value of the inflaton field; large values, necessary for the second period of inflation inside the bubble, only arise as localized fluctuations. The interior of each nucleated bubble will contain an infinite number of such inflating regions of comoving size of order γ-1, where γ is the supercurvature eigenvalue, which depends on the parameters of the model. Each one of these islands will be a quasi-open universe. Since the volume of the hyperboloid is infinite, inflating islands with all possible values of the field at their center will be realized inside of a single bubble. We may happen to live in one of those patches of comoving size d<~γ-1, where the universe appears to be open. In particular, we consider the ``supernatural'' model proposed by Linde and Mezhlumian. There, an approximate U(1) symmetry is broken by a tunneling field in a first order phase transition, and slow-roll inflation inside the nucleated bubble is driven by the pseudo Goldstone field. We find that the excitations of the pseudo Goldstone field produced by the nucleation and subsequent expansion of the bubble place severe constraints on this model. We also discuss the coupled and uncoupled two-field models.

  1. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  2. Hyperbolic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoonbai; Park, Seong Chan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a natural scenario for the cosmological inflation with the nonminimal coupling term invoking compact hyperbolic extra dimensions. Thanks to the unique mathematical properties of compact hyperbolic space, the large volume of extra dimensions, which provides a natural understanding of the proper size of couplings, does not necessarily accompany with the low Kaluza-Klein scale so that the model allows a single field inflation with a scale around 10{sup 13} GeV. The model fulfills all the observed data and predicts a sizable gravitational perturbation, r{approx_equal}3x10{sup -3}.

  3. Trapped Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Horn, Bart; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2009-06-19

    We analyze a distinctive mechanism for inflation in which particle production slows down a scalar field on a steep potential, and show how it descends from angular moduli in string compactifications. The analysis of density perturbations - taking into account the integrated effect of the produced particles and their quantum fluctuations - requires somewhat new techniques that we develop. We then determine the conditions for this effect to produce sixty e-foldings of inflation with the correct amplitude of density perturbations at the Gaussian level, and show that these requirements can be straightforwardly satisfied. Finally, we estimate the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity in the power spectrum and find a significant equilateral contribution.

  4. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  5. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  6. Unwinding inflation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Guido; Gobbetti, Roberto; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie E-mail: rg1509@nyu.edu E-mail: mls604@nyu.edu

    2013-03-01

    Higher-form flux that extends in all 3+1 dimensions of spacetime is a source of positive vacuum energy that can drive meta-stable eternal inflation. If the flux also threads compact extra dimensions, the spontaneous nucleation of a bubble of brane charged under the flux can trigger a classical cascade that steadily unwinds many units of flux, gradually decreasing the vacuum energy while inflating the bubble, until the cascade ends in the self-annihilation of the brane into radiation. With an initial number of flux quanta Q{sub 0}∼>N, this can result in N efolds of inflationary expansion while producing a scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations with amplitude and tilt consistent with observation. The power spectrum has an oscillatory component that does not decay away during inflation, relatively large tensor power, and interesting non-Gaussianities. Unwinding inflation fits naturally into the string landscape, and our preliminary conclusion is that consistency with observation can be attained without fine-tuning the string parameters. The initial conditions necessary for the unwinding phase are produced automatically by bubble formation, so long as the critical radius of the bubble is smaller than at least one of the compact dimensions threaded by flux.

  7. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  8. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  9. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  10. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  11. Clockwork inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the recently proposed clockwork mechanism delivering light degrees of freedom with suppressed interactions and show, with various examples, that it can be efficiently implemented in inflationary scenarios to generate flat inflaton potentials and small density perturbations without fine-tunings. We also study the clockwork graviton in de Sitter and, interestingly, we find that the corresponding clockwork charge is site-dependent. As a consequence, the amount of tensor modes is generically suppressed with respect to the standard cases where the clockwork set-up is not adopted. This point can be made a virtue in resurrecting models of inflation which were supposed to be ruled out because of the excessive amount of tensor modes from inflation.

  12. Natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    A pseduo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, with a potential of the form V({phi}) = {Lambda}{sup 4}(1 {plus minus} cos({phi}/f)), can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Successful inflation can be achieved if f {approximately} m{sub pl} and {Lambda} {approximately} m{sub GUT}. Such mass scales arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting a the GUT scale, e.g., as is expected to happen in the hidden sector of superstring theories. The density fluctuation spectrum is a non-scale-invariant power law, with extra power on large scales. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Khronon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Peña, Manuel; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2012-11-01

    We study the possibility that the approximate time shift symmetry during inflation is promoted to the full invariance under time reparametrization t → t-tilde (t), or equivalently under field redefinition of the inflaton φ → φ-tilde (φ). The symmetry allows only two operators at leading order in derivatives, so that all n-point functions of scalar perturbations are fixed in terms of the power spectrum normalization and the speed of sound. During inflation the decaying mode only decays as 1/a and this opens up the possibility to violate some of the consistency relations in the squeezed limit, although this violation is suppressed by the (small) breaking of the field reparametrization symmetry. In particular one can get terms in the 3-point function that are only suppressed by 1/k{sub L} in the squeezed limit k{sub L}→0 compared to the local shape.

  14. Goldstone inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica; Setford, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the inflaton with a pseudo-Goldstone boson explains the flatness of its potential. Successful Goldstone Inflation should also be robust against UV corrections, such as from quantum gravity: in the language of the effective field theory this implies that all scales are sub-Planckian. In this paper we present scenarios which realise both requirements by examining the structure of Goldstone potentials arising from Coleman-Weinberg contributions. We focus on single-field models, for which we notice that both bosonic and fermionic contributions are required and that spinorial fermion representations can generate the right potential shape. We then evaluate the constraints on non-Gaussianity from higher-derivative interactions, finding that axiomatic constraints on Goldstone boson scattering prevail over the current CMB measurements. The fit to CMB data can be connected to the UV completions for Goldstone Inflation, finding relations in the spectrum of new resonances. Finally, we show how hybrid inflation can be realised in the same context, where both the inflaton and the waterfall fields share a common origin as Goldstones.

  15. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  16. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  17. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  19. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  20. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  1. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  2. Cosmic Inflation

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    In 1964, scientists discovered a faint radio hiss coming from the heavens and realized that the hiss wasn’t just noise. It was a message from eons ago; specifically the remnants of the primordial fireball, cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero. Subsequent research revealed that the radio hiss was the same in every direction. The temperature of the early universe was uniform to at better than a part in a hundred thousand. And this was weird. According to the prevailing theory, the two sides of the universe have never been in contact. So how could two places that had never been in contact be so similar? One possible explanation was proposed in 1979. Called inflation, the theory required that early in the history of the universe, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light. Confused? Watch this video as Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln makes sense of this mind-bending idea.

  3. Cosmic Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-11-21

    In 1964, scientists discovered a faint radio hiss coming from the heavens and realized that the hiss wasn’t just noise. It was a message from eons ago; specifically the remnants of the primordial fireball, cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero. Subsequent research revealed that the radio hiss was the same in every direction. The temperature of the early universe was uniform to at better than a part in a hundred thousand. And this was weird. According to the prevailing theory, the two sides of the universe have never been in contact. So how could two places that had never been in contact be so similar? One possible explanation was proposed in 1979. Called inflation, the theory required that early in the history of the universe, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light. Confused? Watch this video as Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln makes sense of this mind-bending idea.

  4. The Inflatable Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    Inflatable devices are frequently used in advertising in order to grab the attention of consumers: one sees, for example, 20 foot tall inflatable drink containers, inflatable cell phones, inflatable bubble gum packets, as well as blimps wafting majestically over major sports events. More usefully, inflatable representations of scientifically-interesting items are widely available, including astronauts, space shuttles, dinosaurs and globes and can help to build and inspire the interest of the general public, and in particular children, in such ideas. How can such concepts be adapted to improve poster presentations? Possibility one is to use relevant existing commercially-available inflatables to dress the poster: skeletons, astronauts, globes and so forth. More exciting is to develop custom inflatables that represent three-dimensional renderings of objects that the poster is describing. Examples of individual objects might be an inflatable slab, inflatable avalanche, inflatable plume, or it's larger cousin, the 10 foot high inflatable superplume or 20 foot high inflatable megaplume. More elaborately, inflatables might represent isosurfaces in three-dimensional spherical convection, although other fabrication methods may be more suitable. More simply, inflatable spheres could be imprinted with the planform of convection, geoid, or other spherical fields of geophysical interest. Finally, it should be possible to put an entire poster on an inflatable object, possibly small ones (balloons) to hand out. A major concern, however, is that the presenter may use such techniques to inflate their scientific findings, or to present overblown ideas.

  5. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  7. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  8. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant... other standard specified by the Commandant. (e) Repair and maintenance of inflated rescue boats must...

  9. Constraining inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Adshead, Peter; Easther, Richard E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    We analyze the theoretical limits on slow roll reconstruction, an optimal algorithm for recovering the inflaton potential (assuming a single-field slow roll scenario) from observational data. Slow roll reconstruction is based upon the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the inflationary dynamics. We show that at low inflationary scales the Hamilton-Jacobi equations simplify considerably. We provide a new classification scheme for inflationary models, based solely on the number of parameters needed to specify the potential, and provide forecasts for the bounds on the slow roll parameters from future data sets. A minimal running of the spectral index, induced solely by the first two slow roll parameters ({epsilon} and {eta}), appears to be effectively undetectable by realistic cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. However, since the ability to detect any running increases with the lever arm in comoving wavenumber, we conjecture that high redshift 21 cm data may allow tests of second-order consistency conditions on inflation. Finally, we point out that the second-order corrections to the spectral index are correlated with the inflationary scale, and thus the amplitude of the CMB B mode.

  10. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  11. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  12. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  13. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  15. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  16. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for an... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food...

  17. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  18. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  19. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced... maintenance of inflatable rescue boats must follow the manufacturers' instructions. Each repair, except...

  20. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced... maintenance of inflatable rescue boats must follow the manufacturers' instructions. Each repair, except...

  1. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  2. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced... maintenance of inflatable rescue boats must follow the manufacturers' instructions. Each repair, except...

  3. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An... inflated rescue boats must be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All repairs must be...

  4. Grade Inflation: Reality or Myth? Student Preparation Level vs. Grades at Brigham Young University, 1975-1994. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Danny R.

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation has existed at Brigham Young University (BYU) after accounting for increased preparation levels of entering students over time. Analyses were conducted for the university at large and individual colleges. The study first developed a model to forecast student grade point…

  5. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  6. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  7. Fluid physics of parachute inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W. )

    1993-08-01

    This article describes the physics of the motion of the parachute and the surrounding air as the parachute emerges from the payload, inflates, and decelerates the payload. Precise calculation of parachute deployment, inflation and payload deceleration requires solution of the nonlinear, time-dependent equations of motion for turbulent, separated airflow around and through the parachute coupled to the equations of motion of the parachute. Because of the difficulty of this problem, parachute designers have for many years relied on empirical methods rather than on analysis. A description is given of the attempts to model the important events numerically so that parachutes can someday be designed on computers instead of by trial-and-error flight tests. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  9. A new device for the inflation of the antigravity suit.

    PubMed

    Brodrick, P M

    1986-02-01

    The 'Schuco' orthopaedic tourniquet inflator can be simply converted into a suitable device for inflating an antigravity suit (G-suit). The antigravity suit may be used on neurosurgical patients undergoing procedures in the sitting position to help prevent hypotension and air embolism. The availability of this device may encourage the more widespread use of an antigravity suit in neuro-anaesthetic practice.

  10. Inflatable nested toroid structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable structure comprises at least two generally toroidal, inflatable modules. When in a deployed mode, the first, inner module has a major diameter less than that of a second, outer module and is positioned within the inner circumference of the outer module such that the first module is nested circumferentially alongside the second module. The inflatable structure, in a non-deployed, non-inflated mode, is of compact configuration and adapted to be transported to a site of deployment. When deployed, the inflatable structure is of substantially increased interior volume. In one embodiment, access between the interior of the first module and the second module is provided by at least one port or structural pass-through. In another embodiment, the inflatable structure includes at least one additional generally toroidal module external of and circumferentially surrounding the second module.

  11. Mechanism of UES relaxation initiated by gastric air distension.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of initiation of transient upper esophageal sphincter relaxation (TUESR) caused by gastric air distension. Cats (n = 31) were decerebrated, EMG electrodes were placed on the cricopharyngeus, a gastric fistula was formed, and a strain gauge was sewn on the lower esophageal sphincter (n = 8). Injection of air (114 ± 13 ml) in the stomach caused TUESR (n = 18) and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR, n = 6), and this effect was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by thoracotomy. Free air or bagged air (n = 6) activated TLESR, but only free air activated TUESR. Closure of the gastroesophageal junction blocked TUESR (9/9), but not TLESR (4/4), caused by air inflation of the stomach. Venting air from distal esophagus during air inflation of the stomach prevented TUESR (n = 12) but did not prevent air escape from the stomach to the esophagus (n = 4). Rapid injection of air on the esophageal mucosa always caused TUESR (9/9) but did not always (7/9) cause an increase in esophageal pressure. The time delay between the TUESR and the rapid air pulse was significantly more variable (P < 0.05) than the time delay between the rapid air pulse and the rise in esophageal pressure. We concluded that the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is dependent on air escape from the stomach, which stimulates receptors in the esophagus, but is not dependent on distension of the stomach or esophagus, or the TLESR. Therefore, the TUESR caused by gastric air distension is initiated by stimulation of receptors in the esophageal mucosa.

  12. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  13. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  14. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  15. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  16. Reviews Toy: Air swimmers Book: Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Book: Physics Experiments for your Bag Book: Quantum Physics for Poets Equipment: SEP colour wheel kit Equipment: SEP colour mixing kit Software: USB DrDAQ App: iHandy Level Equipment: Photonics Explorer kit Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Air swimmers Helium balloon swims like a fish Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Ballistics book hits the spot Physics Experiments for your Bag Handy experiments for your lessons Quantum Physics for Poets Book shows the economic importance of physics SEP colour wheel kit Wheels investigate colour theory SEP colour mixing kit Cheap colour mixing kit uses red, green and blue LEDs iHandy Level iPhone app superbly measures angles Photonics Explorer kit Free optics kit given to schools WORTH A LOOK DrDAQ DrDAQ software gets an upgrade WEB WATCH Websites show range of physics

  17. New- vs. chaotic- inflations

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es

    2016-02-01

    We show that ''spiralized' models of new-inflation can be experimentally identified mostly by their positive spectral running in direct contrast with most chaotic-inflation models which have negative runnings typically in the range of O(10{sup −4}–10{sup −3})

  18. Inflation and Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, David

    Inflation is both a cause and consequence of changes in power and status. Competitive status activities create spiral situations which have an economic correlate. Ultimately, inflation leads to the creation of economically deprived and depressed social groups. Deflation can be achieved to some extent by redistribution of wealth dictated from…

  19. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  20. Inflation in inhomogeneous cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Sakellariadou, Maria

    1992-04-01

    We discuss the onset of inflation in an inhomogeneous, asymptotically Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe coupled to a scalar inflaton field. We consider a three-parameter family of inhomogeneous Cauchy data, for which we can solve analytically the constraint equations. Inflation only occurs if the Cauchy data are homogeneous over several horizon lengths.

  1. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  2. Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, R. D.

    I start with an elementary observation about the pressurein the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

  3. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  4. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL )

    1990-11-01

    In extended inflation the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. In this paper I discuss several effects that might obtain if the Universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition. 17 refs.

  5. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  6. Saving Natural Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica E-mail: v.sanz@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  7. Magnetic fields from inflation?

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.

  8. Radiative plateau inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  9. Foam inflated rigidized structures for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, D. M.; Warner, M. J.; Blair, M.

    1993-11-01

    Large lightweight stowable structures that can be deployed in space without astronaut extra vehicular activity are vital to expanding space exploration and utilization. To meet this challenge Foam Inflated Rigidized (FIR) structures have been developed by Thiokol Corporation on the Air Forces's Gossamer Baggie Torus program. In this paper the development, proof of concept demonstration of an eight foot diameter octagonal torus, and design application of this technology for structural elements to stabilize the solar collector of a solar thermal rocket are discussed. A FIR structure uses foam to inflate and pre-stress a resin impregnated fabric skin. The predeployed foam used was a solvent swelled polymer that foams immediately when exposed to vacuum due to rapid solvent loss. This property allows a very simple deployment mechanism to be used in erecting these structures. Once inflated, the skin resin is cured using the available ultraviolet radiation. By using high strength and stiffness fiber materials a stiff, strong lightweight structure was produced.

  10. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  11. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  12. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  13. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  14. NASA Now: Inflatable Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA senior research engineer Judith Watson is one of a team of engineers at NASA’s Langley Research Center who are studying inflatable structures that might one day be used to establish an outpo...

  15. Tribrid Inflation in Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Dutta, Koushik; Kostka, Philipp M.

    2010-02-10

    We propose a novel class of F-term hybrid inflation models in supergravity (SUGRA) where the eta-problem is resolved using either a Heisenberg symmetry or a shift symmetry of the Kaehler potential. In addition to the inflaton and the waterfall field, this class (referred to as tribrid inflation) contains a third 'driving' field which contributes the large vacuum energy during inflation by its F-term. In contrast to the 'standard' hybrid scenario, it has several attractive features due to the property of vanishing inflationary superpotential (W{sub inf} = 0) during inflation. While the symmetries of the Kaehler potential ensure a flat inflaton potential at tree-level, quantum corrections induced by symmetry breaking terms in the superpotential generate a slope of the potential and lead to a spectral tilt consistent with recent WMAP observations.

  16. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  17. Inflatable artificial sphincter - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100115.htm Inflatable artificial sphincter - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  18. Plausible double inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that extended inflation is followed by an epoch of slowroll inflation. Such a sequence of events may lead to a very interesting perturbation spectrum with significant power on the scale of the transition between the extended and slowroll phase, superimposed upon a power-law spectrum with deviations from the Harrison-Zeldovich slope. Normalization of the spectra above and below the transition scale is expected to differ.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and...

  1. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags.

  2. A new top-loading venous bag provides vacuum-assisted venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Y; Lee-Sensiba, K; Beck, J; Chan, R; Salogub, M; Hall, M; Lee, T; Ganju, R; Mongero, L

    2002-09-01

    A new venous bag has been developed, prototyped, and tested. The new bag has its inlet, outlet purge, and infusion tubes extending upward from the top of the bag, and are threaded through, bonded to, and sealed within a flat rigid top plate. This design allows the bag to be hung from its top plate by its tubes. It also allows the bag to be: 1) dropped into or removed from its holder, as is done with existing hard-shell reservoirs so that its weight pulls it into the holder without the need for eyelets and hooks and 2) placed closer to the floor so that gravity drainage is facilitated. The V-Bag (VB) is easily sealed within an accompanying rigid housing. Once sealed, vacuum applied to the housing is transmitted across the flexible walls of the bag to the venous blood. Thus, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) is obtained as it is with a hard-shell reservoir, but without any contact of air with the blood. Bench tests, using a circuit that simulated the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, showed that applying suction to the housing increased venous flow, and the fractional increase in flow was not a function of the venous cannula, but of the level of vacuum applied. In the gravity drainage mode, the bubble counts at the outlet of the V-Bag compared to two other bags were lower at any pumping condition. When used in the VAVD mode, bubble counts were two orders of magnitude lower than when using kinetically assisted venous drainage (KAVD) with a centrifugal pump. Results obtained with the VB suggest its clinical usefulness.

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  5. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(phi)F2 model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton phi and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(phi)F2 model.

  6. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator (AID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reza, Sajjad

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator not only enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and but may also eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell and cruise stage. This document is the viewgraph slides for the paper's presentation.

  7. Grade inflation: a problem in nursing?

    PubMed

    King-Jones, Malena; Mitchell, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article examines grade inflation in higher education and in nursing education. The factors related to grade inflation and consequences of grade inflation are explored. Actions that address grade inflation and recommendations for future research in nursing education are provided.

  8. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... patient. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  9. A chiral soliton bag model of nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi

    1984-11-01

    As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, a model Lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation using the hedgehog ansatz. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z=0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z=0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z=1 solution is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model.

  10. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  14. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  15. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  16. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  17. Inflation from geometrical tachyons

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steven; Ward, John

    2005-10-15

    We propose an alternative formulation of tachyon inflation using the geometrical tachyon arising from the time dependent motion of a BPS D3-brane in the background geometry due to k parallel NS5-branes arranged around a ring of radius R. Because of the fact that the mass of this geometrical tachyon field is {radical}(2/k) times smaller than the corresponding open-string tachyon mass, we find that the slow-roll conditions for inflation and the number of e-foldings can be satisfied in a manner that is consistent with an effective 4-dimensional model and with a perturbative string coupling. We also show that the metric perturbations produced at the end of inflation can be sufficiently small and do not lead to the inconsistencies that plague the open-string tachyon models. Finally we argue for the existence of a minimum of the geometrical tachyon potential which could give rise to a traditional reheating mechanism.

  18. Flipped GUT inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  19. Inflatable Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ˜MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  20. Disformally coupled inflation

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruck, Carsten van; Longden, Chris; Koivisto, Tomi E-mail: timoko@kth.se

    2016-03-01

    A disformal coupling between two scalar fields is considered in the context of cosmological inflation. The coupling introduces novel derivative interactions mixing the kinetic terms of the fields but without introducing superluminal or unstable propagation of the two scalar fluctuation modes. Though the typical effect of the disformal coupling is to inhibit one of the fields from inflating the universe, the energy density of the other field can drive viable near Sitter -inflation in the presence of nontrivial disformal dynamics, in particular when one assumes exponential instead of power-law form for the couplings. The linear perturbation equations are written for the two-field system, its canonical degrees of freedom are quantised, their spectra are derived and the inflationary predictions are reported for numerically solved exponential models. A generic prediction is low tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  1. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  2. Chiral bag model for the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi

    1996-12-01

    We review the chiral bag model for the nucleon at low energy. The model is a hybrid model of quark and meson degrees of freedom, interpolating the two limits of the Skyrme model at R → 0 and the MIT bag model at R → ∞, where R is the bag radius. Baryon number one ( B = 1) solutions are obtained in the semiclassical method, where the nucleon is regarded as a slowly rotating hedgehog. We investigate static properties of the nucleon such as masses and magnetic moments as functions of R, first in the original chiral bag model and second in the models with vector mesons. We find a reasonably good description for the nucleon in both cases at an intermediate bag radius R ~ 0.6 fm. Results of the model calculations are then re-derived using a group theoretical method in the large- Nc limit.

  3. Developing an Inflatable Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Patrick K.; Jankowski, Francis J.; Williams, Geoffery T.; Vendura, George J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs describing the development of an inflatable solar array as part of the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology (ITSAT) program are presented. Program phases, overall and subsystem designs, and array deployment are addressed.

  4. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  5. Inflation and cyclotron motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the Universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that slow roll conditions on the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field satisfying unconventional dispersion relations.

  6. Topological defects in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.

    1990-01-01

    The production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models was considered. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large scale structure via cosmic strings.

  7. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  8. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  9. Pneumatic inflatable end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.

  10. New shifted hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannerot, Rachel; Khalil, Shaaban; Lazarides, George

    2002-07-01

    A new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario is introduced which, in contrast to the older one, relies only on renormalizable superpotential terms. This scenario is automatically realized in a concrete extension of the `minimal' supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which naturally leads to a moderate violation of Yukawa unification so that, for μ>0, the predicted b-quark mass is acceptable even with universal boundary conditions. It is shown that this extended model possesses a classically flat `shifted' trajectory which acquires a slope via one-loop radiative corrections and can be used as inflationary path. The constraints from the cosmic background explorer can be met with natural values of the relevant parameters. Also, there is no disastrous production of magnetic monopoles after inflation since the Pati-Salam gauge group is already broken on the `shifted' path. The relevant part of inflation takes place at values of the inflaton field which are not much smaller than the `reduced' Planck scale and, thus, supergravity corrections could easily invalidate inflation. It is, however, shown that inflation can be kept intact provided that an extra gauge singlet with a superheavy vacuum expectation value, which originates from D-terms, is introduced and a specific form of the Kähler potential is used. Moreover, it is found that, although the supergravity corrections are sizable, the constraints from the cosmic background explorer can again be met by readjusting the values of the parameters which were obtained with global supersymmetry.

  11. Testing Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.

  12. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  13. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  14. Modular invariant inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-08

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  15. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  16. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  17. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  18. Bispectrum from open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ``open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ``vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ``Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as langleζk1ζk2ζk3ranglepropto1/k12k34 in the so-called squeezed configurations, k3 << k1 ≈ k2, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k1 = k2+k3, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius.

  19. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order

  20. Storing Crude Tea in a Daikai-bag Using Nitrogen Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinsho, Seiji; Sato, Shoichi; Iriki, Hiroyuki; Asai, Junya; Imada, Takahiro; Nishimura, Shinichi

    We developed a simple and low-cost storage method for keeping crude tea in a daikai-bag. (1) Oxygen in the daikai-bag could be replaced with nitrogen by allowing a continuous flow of nitrogen gas into the airtight container that fed the daikai-bag. (2) When the nitrogen gas mass flow per hour into the container was the same as the volume of a container and the pressure in the container was 0.01 MPa or more, the oxygen concentration in the daikai-bag became 1% or less within 10 hours. Moreover, since there was pressure, mixing with the open air was suppressed. (3) The oxygen concentration in the daikai-bag kept 1% or less for six months by maintaining pressure in the container. (4) The quality of crude tea after six months storage by the new storing method was changed very little compared with tea stored using the conventional storing method which put tea in the aluminum bag and was filled up with nitrogen gas.

  1. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    items currently found in the C-1 bag. Another limiting factor used was based on the location and type of units in the Air Force. OCONUS locations...excluded UTCs from OPLAN TPFDDs that had a CONUS destination . If a UTC was tasked to remain stateside to perform its wartime task, then the individual...is “a type of qualitative research in which in-depth data are gathered relative to a single individual, program, or event, for the purpose of learning

  2. Gauge fields and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  3. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  4. Deployment Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic deployment analyses of folded inflatable tubes are conducted to investigate modeling issues related to the deployment of solar sail booms. The analyses are necessary because ground tests include gravity effects and may poorly represent deployment in space. A control volume approach, available in the LS-DYNA nonlinear dynamic finite element code, and the ideal gas law are used to simulate the dynamic inflation deployment process. Three deployment issues are investigated for a tube packaged in a Z-fold configuration. The issues are the effect of the rate of inflation, the effect of residual air, and the effect of gravity. The results of the deployment analyses reveal that the time and amount of inflation gas required to achieve a full deployment are related to these issues.

  5. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  6. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  7. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  10. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  11. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  12. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  13. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  14. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  15. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality. PMID:28072835

  16. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  17. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  18. W-Z-top-quark bags

    SciTech Connect

    Crichigno, Marcos P.; Shuryak, Edward; Flambaum, Victor V.; Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    We discuss a new family of multiquanta-bound states in the standard model which exist due to the mutual Higgs-based attraction of the heaviest members of the standard model, namely, gauge quanta W, Z, and (anti)top quarks, t, t. We use a self-consistent mean-field approximation, up to a rather large particle number N. In this paper we do not focus on weakly bound, nonrelativistic bound states, but rather on 'bags' in which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is significantly modified or depleted. The minimal number N above which such states appear strongly depends on the ratio of the Higgs mass to the masses of W, Z, t, t: For a light Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}50 GeV, bound states start from N{approx}O(10), but for a ''realistic'' Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}100 GeV, one finds metastable/bound W, Z bags only for N{approx}O(1000). We also found that in the latter case pure top bags disappear for all N, although top quarks can still be well bound to the W bags. Anticipating the cosmological applications (discussed in the following Article [Phys. Rev. D 82, 073019]) of these bags as 'doorway states' for baryosynthesis, we also consider here the existence of such metastable bags at finite temperatures, when standard-model parameters such as Higgs, gauge, and top masses are significantly modified.

  19. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  20. Inflation expels runaways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2016-12-01

    We argue that moduli stabilization generically restricts the evolution following transitions between weakly coupled de Sitter vacua and can induce a strong selection bias towards inflationary cosmologies. The energy density of domain walls between vacua typically destabilizes Kähler moduli and triggers a runaway towards large volume. This decompactification phase can collapse the new de Sitter region unless a minimum amount of inflation occurs after the transition. A stable vacuum transition is guaranteed only if the inflationary expansion generates overlapping past light cones for all observable modes originating from the reheating surface, which leads to an approximately flat and isotropic universe. High scale inflation is vastly favored. Our results point towards a framework for studying parameter fine-tuning and inflationary initial conditions in flux compactifications.

  1. Slow-walking inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian; Núñez, Carlos; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: s.halter@physik.uni-muenchen.de E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model of slow-roll inflation in string cosmology, based on warped throat supergravity solutions displaying 'walking' dynamics, i.e. the coupling constant of the dual gauge theory slowly varies over a range of energy scales. The features of the throat geometry are sourced by a rich field content, given by the dilaton and RR and NS fluxes. By considering the motion of a D3-brane probe in this geometry, we are able to analytically calculate the brane potential in a physically interesting regime. This potential has an inflection point: in its proximity we realize a model of inflation lasting sixty e-foldings, and whose robust predictions are in agreement with current observations. We are also able to interpret some of the most interesting aspects of this scenario in terms of the properties of the QFT dual theory.

  2. Supersymmetric Hybrid Inflation Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Mansoor Ur; Shafi, Qaisar; Wickman, Joshua R.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the important role played during inflation by one of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the inflationary potential of supersymmetric hybrid inflation models. With minimal Kahler potential, the inclusion of this term allows the prediction for the scalar spectral index to agree with the value ns = 0.963^+0.014 -0.015 found by WMAP5. In the absence of this soft term, and by taking into account only radiative and supergravity corrections, it is well known that ns >= 0.985. This same soft term has previously been shown to play a key role in resolving the MSSM μ problem. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small in these models, taking on values r <= 10-5 in the WMAP5 2σ range of ns. )

  3. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  4. Inflatable Aeroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelt, Jennifer Van

    2005-01-01

    Aeroponics Internationals (AI) innovation is a self-contained, self-supporting, flexible low mass aeroponic crop production unit with integral environmental systems for the control and delivery of a nutrient mist to the roots. This FLEX Aeroponic System model was developed for commercialization as a result of the NASA SBIR Phase I contract for the research and development of a low-mass, Inflatable Aeroponic System (IAS) for producing pesticide-free lettuces, grains, peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables. The innovation addresses the needs of water and nutrient delivery systems technologies for food production in space. The inflatable nature of the innovation makes it lightweight, allowing it to be deflated so it takes up less volume during transportation and storage. It improves upon AI's current aeroponic system design that uses more rigid structures and takes advantage of vertical inclines to increase bio-mass production by over 600%.

  5. Notes on natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2014-10-01

    In the so-called natural inflation, an axion-like inflaton is assumed to have a cosine-type periodic potential. This is not the case in a very simple model in which the axion-like inflaton is coupled to an SU(N) (or other) pure Yang-Mills, at least in the large N limit as pointed out by Witten. It has a multi-valued potential, which is effectively quadratic, i.e., there is only a mass term in the large N limit. Thanks to this property, chaotic inflation can be realized more naturally with the decay constant of the axion-like inflaton less than the Planck scale. We demonstrate these points explicitly by using softly broken Script N=1 Super-Yang-Mills which allows us to treat finite N. This analysis also suggests that moderately large gauge groups such as E8 are good enough with a Planck scale decay constant.

  6. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Inflation from Intersecting Branes

    SciTech Connect

    Leblond, Louis

    2007-11-20

    We propose a new scenario for D-term inflation which appears quite straightforwardly in the open string sector of intersecting brane models. We take the inflaton to be a chiral field in a bifundamental representation of the hidden sector and we argue that a sufficiently flat potential can be brane engineered. This type of model generically predicts a near gaussian red spectrum with negligible tensor modes.

  8. String driven inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Turok, N.

    1987-11-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Inhomogeneous imperfect fluid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, E.; Silva, Luis G. T.

    2017-01-01

    A generalized equation of state corresponding to a model that includes a Chaplygin gas and a viscous term is investigated, in the context of the reconstruction program in scalar field cosmology. The corresponding inflationary model parameters can be conveniently adjusted in order to reproduce the most recent PLANCK data. The influence of the Chaplygin gas term contribution, in relation with previous models, is discussed. Exit from inflation is shown to occur quite naturally in the new model.

  10. String-driven inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turok, Neil

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.

  11. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  12. Inflatable Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less

  13. Gravitational waves from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  14. Cosmological perturbations without inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    A particularly attractive feature of inflation is that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton field may have seeded inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that a scalar field with zero active mass, i.e. with an equation of state ρ +3p=0 , where ρ and p are its energy density and pressure, respectively, could also have produced an essentially scale-free fluctuation spectrum, though without inflation. This alternative mechanism is based on the Hollands–Wald concept of a minimum wavelength for the emergence of quantum fluctuations into the semi-classical universe. A cosmology with zero active mass does not have a horizon problem, so it does not need inflation to solve this particular (non) issue. In this picture, the {{1}\\circ}{ {--}}{{10}\\circ} fluctuations in the CMB correspond almost exactly to the Planck length at the Planck time, firmly supporting the view that CMB observations may already be probing trans-Planckian physics.

  15. Inflatable Structures Technology Handbook. Chapter 21; Inflatable Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Raboin, Jasen; Spexarth, Gary; Valle, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    The technologies required to design, fabricate, and utilize an inflatable module for space applications has been demonstrated and proven by the TransHab team during the development phase of the program. Through testing and hands-on development several issues about inflatable space structures have been addressed , such as: ease of manufacturing, structural integrity, micrometeorite protection, folding , and vacuum deployment. The TransHab inflatable technology development program has proven that not only are inflatable structures a viable option, but they also offer significant advantages over conventional metallic structures.

  16. Inflation driven by unification energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Wilczek, Frank

    2017-03-01

    We examine the hypothesis that inflation is primarily driven by vacuum energy at a scale indicated by gauge coupling unification. Concretely, we consider a class of hybrid inflation models wherein the vacuum energy associated with a grand unified theory condensate provides the dominant energy during inflation, while a second "inflaton" scalar slow rolls. We show that it is possible to obtain significant tensor-to-scalar ratios while fitting the observed spectral index.

  17. Inflation and the Higgs Scalar

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-12-05

    This note makes a self-contained exposition of the basic facts of big bang cosmology as they relate to inflation. The fundamental problems with that model are then explored. A simple scalar model of inflation is evaluated which provides the solution of those problems and makes predictions which will soon be definitively tested. The possibility that the recently discovered fundamental Higgs scalar field drives inflation is explored.

  18. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  19. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  20. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time.

  1. Inflatable robotics for planetary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2001-01-01

    Space Inflatable vehicles have been finding popularity in recent years for applications as varied as spacecraft antennas, space-based telescopes, solar sails, and manned habitats [1]. Another branch of space inflatable technology has also considered developing ambient gasfilled, solar balloons for Mars as well as ambient gasfilled inflatable rovers [2]. More recently, some other intriguing space-inflatable vehicles have been proposed for the gas planets and Pluto, as well as for Saturn's moon, Titan, Neptune's moon, Triton, and Jupiter's moon, Io [3].

  2. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter, each compartment or cell must have a bag leak detector. For a negative-pressure or induced-air...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1184 - What do I need to know about the design specifications, installation, and operation of a bag leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... where appropriate plant personnel will be able to hear it. (e) For a positive-pressure fabric filter, each compartment or cell must have a bag leak detector. For a negative-pressure or induced-air...

  4. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  5. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  6. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    PubMed

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2016-10-19

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  7. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.

  8. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01). PMID:24959548

  9. How the design of a sleeping bag can support counter-measuring fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Vogel, Kaspar; Drudi, Laura

    2013-10-01

    The paper discusses six case studies of sleeping bag design, one used by astronauts onboard the Space Shuttle and another currently being used on the ISS, which was developed by a Russian company. Two inflatable designs, one by Wubbo Ockels for ESA and one by the University of Technology in Munich in cooperation with NASA are chosen as case studies as well. Two recent designs set a new paradigm and option of sleeping in zero-g. The cut of the sleeping bag of these two design case studies allows the person to relax and sleep in the neutral body position. They were developed by Toshiroh Ikegami from Kyoto City University of Arts and astronaut Chiaki Mukai for JAXA, and by the Vienna based team LIQUIFER Systems Group in cooperation with ESA-astronaut Gerhard Thiele. Currently there is an increased interest in astronauts' and cosmonauts' sleep quality and related comfort because analysis of their sleep quality showed that sleep during long exposure to microgravity does not always ensure good recovery of cognitive and functional capabilities. Present research in the area of sleep and performance preservation include studies by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow and the NASA-JSC study from the Behavioral Health and Performance Element Human Research Program about improving sleep quality on ISS. In the context of the paper the operational medical challenges of sleep quality will be described in order to establish the relevance of effective sleeping bag designs to support spaceflight crewmembers' well-being.

  10. Predictions From Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    We investigate the physics of eternal inflation, particularly the use of multiverse ideas to explain the observed values of the cosmological constant and the coincidences of cosmological timescales. We begin by reviewing eternal inflation, the multiverse, and the resulting measure problem. Then follows a detailed study of proposals to solve the measure problem, both analytical and numerical, including an analysis of their predictions for cosmological observables. A key outcome of this investigation is that the traditional anthropic calculations, which take into account the necessity of galaxies and heavy elements to produce observers, are redundant in our framework. The cosmological coincidence problem, the seemingly coincidental equality of the timescales of observation and of vacuum domination, is solved for the first time without appeal to detailed anthropic assumptions: very general geometric considerations do the job automatically. We also estimate a 10% likelihood that evidence for eternal inflation will be found in upcoming measurements of the energy density of the universe. Encouraged by this success, we go on to construct a modified version of the light-cone time measure which has conceptual advantages but also reproduces the phenomenology of its predecessor. We complete our study of the measure problem by noting that for a wide class of proposed solutions, including the one developed here, there is an implicit assumption being made about a catastrophic end to the universe. Finally, as a by-product of this research program we find geometries which violate some of the accepted common knowledge on holographic entropy bounds. We point this out and conjecture a general result.

  11. Testing sleeping bags according to EN 13537:2002: details that make the difference.

    PubMed

    Kuklane, Kalev; Dejke, Valter

    2010-01-01

    The European Standard on sleeping bag requirements (EN 13537:2002) describes a procedure to determine environmental temperature limits for safe usage of sleeping bags regarding their thermal insulation. However, there are several possible sources of error related to this procedure. The main aim of this work was to determine the influence of the various measuring parameters on the acuity of the respective parameters in order to judge the requirements. The results indicated that air velocity, mattress insulation and time between unpacking the bag and measurement had a significant impact on the result, with a difference of up to 5-15% in thermal insulation between minimum and maximum allowable parameter levels. On the other hand, manikin weight, thickness of the artificial ground and presence of a face mask were found to have a negligible influence. The article also discusses more general aspects of the standard including the calculation methods used.

  12. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  13. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1998-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  14. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  15. Quantum gravity slows inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsamis, N.C. |; Woodard, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the quantum gravitational back-reaction on an initially inflating, homogeneous and isotropic universe whose topology is T{sup 3} {times} {Re}. Although there is no secular effect at one loop, an explicit calculation shows that two-loop processes act to slow the rate of expansion by an amount which becomes non-pertubatively large at late times. By exploiting Feynman`s tree theorem we show that all higher loops act in the same sense. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  17. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  18. Therapeutic Play at Inflatable Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavorcik, Carin

    2009-01-01

    The environment at indoor inflatable playgrounds, featuring giant bounce houses and slides, can become an ideal place for children with autism to receive helpful sensations. This is the reasoning behind Sensory Nights hosted by the Autism Society of America and Pump It Up, a national franchise of giant, indoor inflatable playgrounds. The private…

  19. A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J.; Franek, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described. This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons.

  20. Testing inflation: a bootstrap approach.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2010-12-10

    We note that the essential idea of inflation, that the Universe underwent a brief period of accelerated expansion followed by a long period of decelerated expansion, can be encapsulated in a "closure condition" which relates the amount of accelerated expansion during inflation to the amount of decelerated expansion afterward. We present a protocol for systematically testing the validity of this condition observationally.

  1. Topological inflation with graceful exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a class of models of topological inflation in which a super-Hubble-sized global monopole seeds inflation. These models are attractive since inflation starts from rather generic initial conditions, but their not so attractive feature is that, unless symmetry is again restored, inflation never ends. In this work we show that, in presence of another nonminimally coupled scalar field, that is both quadratically and quartically coupled to the Ricci scalar, inflation naturally ends, representing an elegant solution to the graceful exit problem of topological inflation. While the monopole core grows during inflation, the growth stops after inflation, such that the monopole eventually enters the Hubble radius, and shrinks to its Minkowski space size, rendering it immaterial for the subsequent Universe's dynamics. Furthermore, we find that our model can produce cosmological perturbations that source CMB temperature fluctuations and seed large scale structure statistically consistent (within one standard deviation) with all available data. In particular, for small and (in our convention) negative nonminimal couplings, the scalar spectral index can be as large as ns simeq 0.955, which is about one standard deviation lower than the central value quoted by the most recent Planck Collaboration.

  2. Inflation and the Retired Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Dale R.

    1979-01-01

    Problems faced by a TIAA-CREF annuitant retiring in the late 1970s are examined in light of a continuing high rate of inflation. Options available to the annuitant are discussed and two strategies to provide significant inflation protection are suggested. (SF)

  3. Power Morcellation Using a Contained Bag System

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sasaki, Kirsten; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The well-known advantages of minimally invasive surgery make the approach well suited for hysterectomy and other gynecological procedures. The removal of specimens excised during surgery has been a challenge that has been answered by the use of power morcellation. With this study we sought to assess the feasibility of power morcellation within a specimen bag. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients from a private practice in suburban Chicago, Illinois, who underwent contained electromechanical power morcellation during a laparoscopic or robot-assisted hysterectomy or myomectomy from May 2014 through December 2015. Contained power morcellation was performed with the Espiner EcoSac 230 (Espiner Medical Ltd., North Somerset, United Kingdom) specimen bag. Descriptive statistics were performed for both categorical and continuous data. Results: Of the 187 procedures performed, 73.8% were myomectomies, and 26.2% were hysterectomies. The patients' mean age was 40 (range, 25–54) years and mean body mass index was 28.7 (range, 17.3–57.6). The average specimen weight was 300 g, with the largest weighing 2134 g. Estimated blood loss averaged 98.4 mL. The postoperative admission rate was 12.3%, most of which were due to nausea and urinary retention. Seventeen patients (9.1%) had postoperative complications, most of which were minor, and 4 (2.1%) were readmitted. There were no bag failures or complications that were due to the use of the specimen bag or to power morcellation. Conclusions: Performing electromechanical power morcellation within the Espiner EcoSac 230 specimen bag was successfully performed in 187 patients with no bag-related complications. This method of contained power morcellation is feasible, reliable, and reproducible, even for a large specimen. PMID:28352146

  4. Poly-instanton inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Pedro, Francisco G.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: f.pedro1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new inflationary scenario in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications, where the inflaton is a Kähler modulus parameterising the volume of an internal four-cycle. The inflaton potential is generated via poly-instanton corrections to the superpotential which give rise to a naturally flat direction due to their double exponential suppression. Given that the volume mode is kept stable during inflation, all the inflaton-dependent higher dimensional operators are suppressed. Moreover, string loop effects can be shown to be negligible throughout all the inflationary dynamics for natural values of the underlying parameters. The model is characterised by a reheating temperature of the order T{sub rh} ≅ 10{sup 6} GeV which requires N{sub e} ≅ 54 e-foldings of inflation. All the inflationary observables are compatible with current observations since the spectral index is n{sub s} ≅ 0.96, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r ≅ 10{sup −5}. The volume of the Calabi-Yau is of order 10{sup 3} in string units, corresponding to an inflationary scale around 10{sup 15} GeV.

  5. Inflation in supersymmetric SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Rehman, M. U.; Shafi, Q.; Zaakouk, E. A.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the adjoint field inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) SU(5) model. In minimal SUSY SU(5) hybrid inflation monopoles are produced at the end of inflation. We therefore explore the nonminimal model of inflation based on SUSY SU(5), like shifted hybrid inflation, which provides a natural solution for the monopole problem. We find that the supergravity corrections with nonminimal Kaehler potential are crucial to realize the central value of the scalar spectral index n{sub s{approx_equal}}0.96 consistent with the 7 yr WMAP data. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small, taking on values r < or approx. 10{sup -5}. Because of R symmetry massless SU(3) octet and SU(2) triplet supermultiplets are present and could spoil gauge coupling unification. To keep gauge coupling unification intact, light vectorlike particles are added which are expected to be observed at LHC.

  6. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  7. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  8. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  9. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  10. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  11. Best options for the exposure of traditional and innovative moss bags: A systematic evaluation in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Aboal, J R; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Boquete, T; Di Palma, A; Real, C; Reski, R; Spagnuolo, V; Steinbauer, K; Tretiach, M; Varela, Z; Zechmeister, H; Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To develop an internationally standardized protocol for the moss bag technique application, the research team participating in the FP7 European project "MOSSclone" focused on the optimization of the moss bags exposure in terms of bag characteristics (shape of the bags, mesh size, weight/surface ratio), duration and height of exposure by comparing traditional moss bags to a new concept bag, "Mossphere". In particular, the effects of each variable on the metal uptake from the air were evaluated by a systematic experimental design carried out in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of three European countries with oceanic, Mediterranean and continental climate. The results evidenced that the shape, the mesh size of the bags and the exposure height (in the tested ranges), did not significantly influence the uptake capacity of the transplanted moss. The aspects more affecting the element uptake were represented by the density of the moss inside the bags and the relative ratio between its weight and the surface area of the bag. We found that, the lower the density, the higher the uptake recorded. Moreover, three weeks of exposure were not enough to have a consistent uptake signal in all the environments tested, thus we suggest an exposure period not shorter than 6 weeks, which is appropriate in most situations. The above results were confirmed in all the countries and scenarios tested. The adoption of a shared exposure protocol by the research community is strongly recommended since it is a key aspect to make biomonitoring surveys directly comparable, also in view of its recognition as a monitoring method by the EU legislation.

  12. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. 42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VARIOUS LOADING STATIONS ON PRODUCTION LINE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  15. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  16. Physical and chemical changes of ACD-preserved blood: a comparison of blood in glass bottles and plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, S; Tokunaga, E

    1976-01-01

    ACD blood was preserved in glass bottles with or without aeration and in plastic bags in air or nitrogen gas at 4.5 degrees C. The blood was examined for physical and chemical changes of erythrocyte membrane resistance, hemoglobin in the plasma, the viscosity of the blood, pH of plasma, and ATP and 2,3-DPG content of erythrocytes. The blood preserved in plastic bags showed less changes than blood in glass bottles. The presence of air or nitrogen gas in blood seems to increase the pH perhaps by elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) which in turn causes the different rates of glycolysis in the erythrocytes.

  17. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  18. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  20. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  1. Constraining monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz

    2013-09-01

    We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the 9-year WMAP release to derive constraints on monodromy inflation, which is characterized by a linear inflaton potential with a periodic modulation. We identify two possible periodic modulations that significantly improve the fit, lowering χ{sup 2} by approximately 10 and 20. However, standard Bayesian model selection criteria assign roughly equal odds to the modulated potential and the unmodulated case. A modulated inflationary potential can generate substantial primordial non-Gaussianity with a specific and characteristic form. For the best-fit parameters to the WMAP angular power spectrum, the corresponding non-Gaussianity might be detectable in upcoming CMB data, allowing nontrivial consistency checks on the predictions of a modulated inflationary potential.

  2. Kahler moduli inflation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Buck, Duncan; Copeland, Edmund J.; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a detailed numerical analysis of inflationary solutions in Kahler moduli of type IIB flux compactifications. We show that there are inflationary solutions even when all the fields play an important role in the overall shape of the scalar potential. Moreover, there exists a direction of attraction for the inflationary trajectories that correspond to the constant volume direction. This basin of attraction enables the system to have an island of stability in the set of initial conditions. We provide explicit examples of these trajectories, compute the corresponding tilt of the density perturbations power spectrum and show that they provide a robust prediction of n s ≈ 0.96 for 60 e-folds of inflation.

  3. Inflation and shadow matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, L. M.; Guth, A. H.; Spergel, D. N.; Field, G. B.; Press, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible production of shadow matter during the period of cosmic inflation is considered. The superstring theory of Gross et al. (1985), which results in a gauge group E8 x E8, could, at low energies, result in the existence of two sectors: an observed sector associated with all familiar particles and interactions, and a hidden one whose particles couple only through gravitational interactions with ordinary matter. It is demonstrated here that if, in the early universe, an inflationary phase is associated with the breaking of one of the symmetries in the E8 x E8 theory, this strongly constrains the physics of both sectors if shadow matter is to be the missing mass in the universe.

  4. Vector inflation and vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M. )

    1991-09-15

    A vector field {ital A}{sub {mu}} is coupled to the Einstein equations with a linearly perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, constructed to generate first-order vector perturbations. A working classical chaotic vector inflation is demonstrated and then quantum fluctuations of the field are used to constrain the cosmological perturbations. In particular, the vector momentum flux {ital T}{sub 0{ital i}} is tracked to the epoch where radiation-dominated matter exists. Matching conditions using observational constraints of the cosmic microwave background radiation give rise to a peculiar cosmological velocity of the order of 10{sup {minus}100}{ital c}. Amplification of this number, e.g., by breaking the conformal invariance of the field, could be used to generate cosmic magnetic fields using a dynamo mechanism.

  5. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  6. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  7. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  9. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  10. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  11. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  12. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  13. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  14. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  15. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  16. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  19. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  20. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  1. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  2. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  3. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  4. Leptogenesis in smooth hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannerot, R.; Khalil, S.; Lazarides, G.

    2001-05-01

    We present a concrete supersymmetric grand unified model based on the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R and leading naturally to smooth hybrid inflation, which avoids the cosmological disaster encountered in the standard hybrid inflationary scenario from the overproduction of monopoles at the end of inflation. Successful `reheating' which satisfies the gravitino constraint takes place after the termination of inflation. Also, adequate baryogenesis via a primordial leptogenesis occurs consistently with the solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data as well as the SU(4)c symmetry.

  5. Paresev 1-C Inflatable Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aboard a truck and ready for a test flight is the Paresev 1-C on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The half-scale version of the inflatable Gemini parawing was pre-flighted by being carried across the Rosamond dry lakebed on the back of a truck before a tow behind an International Harvester Carry- All. The inflatable center spar ran fore and aft and measured 191 inches, two other inflatable spars formed the leading edges. The three compartments were filled with nitrogen under pressure to make them rigid. The Paresev 1-C was very unstable in flight with this configuration.

  6. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  7. Performing a Launch Depressurization Test on an Inflatable Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Patrick J.; Van Velzer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In July, 2014 JPL's Environmental Test Laboratory successfully performed a launch depressurization test on an inflatable space habitat proposed to be installed on the International Space Station. The inflatable habitat is to be launched in the SpaceX Dragon Trunk. During the launch, the unpressurized Dragon Trunk will rapidly change from ground level atmospheric pressure to the vacuum of space. Since the inflatable habitat is tightly folded during launch with multiple layers of bladder, Kevlar fabric sections, and micro-meteoroid shielding, it was not possible to analyze or simulate how the residual air pockets would behave during the launch. If the inflatable habitat does not vent adequately and expands, it could rupture the payload bay of the launch vehicle. A launch depressurization test was chosen as the best way to qualify the inflatable habitat. When stowed, the inflatable habitat measured approximately 241 cm (95 inches) in diameter by 152 cm (60 inches) high and weighed close to 1361 kg (3,000 pounds). Two vacuum chambers connected by a large vacuum line were used to perform this test. The inflatable habitat was mounted in the smaller chamber, which was 396 cm (13 feet) in diameter and 1128 cm (37 feet) high. The larger chamber, which was 823 cm (27 feet) in diameter and 2,591 cm (85 feet) high, was rough pumped and used as a vacuum reservoir. A two stage axial type compressor and ten Stokes vacuum pumps were also used during the depressurization. Opening a butterfly valve on the vacuum line, at the smaller chamber, was manually controlled so that the smaller chamber's depressurization rate matched the launch pressure profile.

  8. Supernatural inflation: inflation from supersymmetry with no (very) small parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Lisa; SoljačiĆ, Marin; Guth, Alan H.

    1996-02-01

    Most models of inflation have small parameters, either to guarantee sufficient inflation or the correct magnitude of the density perturbations. In this paper we show that, in supersymmetric theories with weak-scale supersymmetry breaking, one can construct viable inflationary models in which the requisite parameters appear naturally in the form of the ratio of mass scales that are already present in the theory. Successful inflationary models can be constructed from the flat-direction fields of a renormalizable supersymmetric potential, and such models can be realized even in the context of a simple GUT extension of the MSSM. We evade naive ``naturalness'' arguments by allowing for more than one field to be relevant to inflation, as in ``hybrid inflation'' models, and we argue that this is the most natural possibility if inflation fields are to be associated with flat direction fields of a supersymmetric theory. Such models predict a very low Hubble constant during inflation, of order 103-104 GeV, a scalar density perturbation index n which is very close to or greater than unity, and negligible tensor perturbations. In addition, these models lead to a large spike in the density perturbation spectrum at short wavelengths.

  9. Tachyon field in intermediate inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Toloza, Adolfo

    2009-04-15

    The tachyonic inflationary universe model in the context of intermediate inflation is studied. General conditions for this model to be realizable are discussed. In the slow-roll approximation, we describe in great detail the characteristics of this model.

  10. Consistency of warm k -inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhi-Peng; Yu, Jia-Ning; Zhu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2016-11-01

    We extend k -inflation which is a type of kinetically driven inflationary model under the standard inflationary scenario to a possible warm inflationary scenario. The dynamical equations of this warm k -inflation model are obtained. We rewrite the slow-roll parameters which are different from the usual potential driven inflationary models and perform a linear stability analysis to give the proper slow-roll conditions in warm k -inflation. Two cases, a power-law kinetic function and an exponential kinetic function, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ =Γ0 and Γ =Γ (ϕ ), respectively. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both concrete cases of warm k -inflation. We find a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ =Γ0) is not a workable choice for these two cases while the two cases with Γ =Γ (ϕ ) are self-consistent warm inflationary models.

  11. Coherent phase argument for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Dodelson

    2004-03-17

    Cosmologists have developed a phenomenally successful picture of structure in the universe based on the idea that the universe expanded exponentially in its earliest moments. There are three pieces of evidence for this exponential expansion--inflation--from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. First, the shape of the primordial spectrum is very similar to that predicted by generic inflation models. Second, the angular scale at which the first acoustic peak appears is consistent with the flat universe predicted by inflation. Here the author describes the third piece of evidence, perhaps the most convincing of all: the phase coherence needed to account for the clear peak/trough structure observed by the WMAP satellite and its predecessors. The author also discusses alternatives to inflation that have been proposed recently and explain how they produce coherent phases.

  12. Linear inflation from quartic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, Kristjan; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti

    2016-01-01

    We show that if the inflaton has a non-minimal coupling to gravity and the Planck scale is dynamically generated, the results of Coleman-Weinberg inflation are confined in between two attractor solutions: quadratic inflation, which is ruled out by the recent measurements, and linear inflation which, instead, is in the experimental allowed region. The minimal scenario has only one free parameter — the inflaton's non-minimal coupling to gravity — that determines all physical parameters such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the reheating temperature of the Universe. Should the more precise future measurements of inflationary parameters point towards linear inflation, further interest in scale-invariant scenarios would be motivated.

  13. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers.

  14. New Millenium Inflatable Structures Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollerick, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Specific applications where inflatable technology can enable or enhance future space missions are tabulated. The applicability of the inflatable technology to large aperture infra-red astronomy missions is discussed. Space flight validation and risk reduction are emphasized along with the importance of analytical tools in deriving structurally sound concepts and performing optimizations using compatible codes. Deployment dynamics control, fabrication techniques, and system testing are addressed.

  15. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  16. Oil prices and world inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, R.G.; Kelly, N.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the causal relationships between oil prices and US inflation using a procedure developed by Granger to assess causality or, more precisely stated, informativeness. The results confirm that higher oil prices have increased the US wholesale price index (WPI). The results also support OPEC's contention that their price increases have, in part, been a result of worldwide inflation. 9 references, 2 tables.

  17. Dissipative axial inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notari, Alessio; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term phi/fγ F ~F, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρR, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff fγ, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if fγ is smaller than the field excursion phi0 by about a factor of at least Script O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4-5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with fγ. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρR rather than dot phi2/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/fγ to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/fG to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed phi0~ fG.

  18. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  19. Inflation in Flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of inflation in 2+1 dimensions. In particular, we show that the asymptotic symmetries of three-dimensional de Sitter space are in one-to-one correspondence with cosmological adiabatic modes for the curvature perturbation. In 2+1 dimensions, the asymptotic symmetry algebra is infinite-dimensional, given by two copies of the Virasoro algebra, and can be traced to the conformal symmetries of the two-dimensional spatial slices of de Sitter. We study the consequences of this infinite-dimensional symmetry for inflationary correlation functions, finding new soft theorems that hold only in 2+1 dimensions. Expanding the correlation functions as a power series in the soft momentum q, these relations constrain the traceless part of the tensorial coefficient at each order in q in terms of a lower-point function. As a check, we verify that the Script O(q2) identity is satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit of small sound speed.

  20. Two tunnels to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2006-06-15

    We investigate the formation via tunneling of inflating (false-vacuum) bubbles in a true-vacuum background, and the reverse process. Using effective potentials from the junction condition formalism, all true- and false-vacuum bubble solutions with positive interior and exterior cosmological constant, and arbitrary mass are catalogued. We find that tunneling through the same effective potential appears to describe two distinct processes: one in which the initial and final states are separated by a wormhole (the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism), and one in which they are either in the same hubble volume or separated by a cosmological horizon. In the zero-mass limit, the first process corresponds to the creation of an inhomogenous universe from nothing, while the second mechanism is equivalent to the nucleation of true- or false-vacuum Coleman-De Luccia bubbles. We compute the probabilities of both mechanisms in the WKB approximation using semiclassical Hamiltonian methods, and find that--assuming both process are allowed--neither mechanism dominates in all regimes.

  1. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  2. An electronic flight bag for NextGen avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazo, D. Eyton

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) initiative by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will impose new requirements for cockpit avionics. A similar program is also taking place in Europe by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) called the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) initiative. NextGen will require aircraft to utilize Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) in/out technology, requiring substantial changes to existing cockpit display systems. There are two ways that aircraft operators can upgrade their aircraft in order to utilize ADS-B technology. The first is to replace existing primary flight displays with new displays that are ADS-B compatible. The second, less costly approach is to install an advanced Class 3 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) system. The installation of Class 3 EFBs in the cockpit will allow aircraft operators to utilize ADS-B technology in a lesser amount of time with a decreased cost of implementation and will provide additional benefits to the operator. This paper describes a Class 3 EFB, the NexisTM Flight-Intelligence System, which has been designed to allow users a direct interface with NextGen avionics sensors while additionally providing the pilot with all the necessary information to meet NextGen requirements.

  3. Theoretical aspects of hybrid chiral bag models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.

    1984-09-01

    In hybrid chiral bag models (HCBM's) the quarks are the source for the pion field outside the bag. If we want to solve this model with a classical external soliton solution and quantized fermions, it is necessary to evaluate the vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of those operators that contain fermion fields and appear in the boundary conditions. When the external solution is the so-called hedgehog solution, π-->(r-->,t)=fπθ(r)r^, the relevant VEV is i16π<0 | d2s[ψ―,(τ-->.r^)γ5exp(iτ-->.r^γ5θ)ψ] | 0>=2θ16πη+C0(θ)R, where η is a cutoff parameter (η-->0). To obtain this result we have used a multiple-reflection expansion of the Green's function, while C0(θ) is evaluated numerically. We discuss the infinite contribution in the above VEV, and show that 4πC0(θ)R is precisely the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to θ. We also discuss some solutions of the HCBM for bag radii varying from 0 to ∞.

  4. How thermal inflation can save minimal hybrid inflation in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Owen, Charlotte

    2016-10-12

    Minimal hybrid inflation in supergravity has been ruled out by the 2015 Planck observations because the spectral index of the produced curvature perturbation falls outside observational bounds. To resurrect the model, a number of modifications have been put forward but many of them spoil the accidental cancellation that resolves the η-problem and require complicated Kähler constructions to counterbalance the lost cancellation. In contrast, in this paper the model is rendered viable by supplementing the scenario with a brief period of thermal inflation, which follows the reheating of primordial inflation. The scalar field responsible for thermal inflation requires a large non-zero vacuum expectation value (VEV) and a flat potential. We investigate the VEV of such a flaton field and its subsequent effect on the inflationary observables. We find that, for large VEV, minimal hybrid inflation in supergravity produces a spectral index within the 1-σ Planck bound and a tensor-to-scalar ratio which may be observable in the near future. The mechanism is applicable to other inflationary models.

  5. Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a water-filled tray. Furthermore, a theoretical baby model was developed based on relations valid for heat and mass transfer rates from a cylinder and flat surface. Convective and radiative (dry) and evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated from this model agreed well with the measured values. The maximum heat dissipation from a baby was calculated for combinations of air temperatures (22-30 degrees C) and relative humidities (70-90% rh). The results indicate that a naked baby can dissipate about 100% more heat than is produced during basal conditions when the bag is ventilated (70 1 min(-1)) and the ambient climate is 30 degrees C and 90% rh. If the ventilation rate is 40 1 min(-1), the margin is reduced to 50%. Clothing reduces the margin further. Ventilating the bag with 70 1 min(-1), a dressed baby can dissipate only 10-20% more heat than is produced during basal conditions in a climate (27 degrees C and 80% rh) that is obtained in a crowded shelter after about 24 h of occupation.

  6. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1998-12-08

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  7. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1997-11-18

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  8. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  9. Concentric Nested Toroidal Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Assemblies comprising multiple limited- height toroidal inflatable structures nested in a concentric arrangement have been invented to obtain more design flexibility than can be obtained in single taller, wider toroidal inflatable structures (see figure). Originally intended for use as containers for habitats for humans in outer space or on remote planets, these and related prior inflatable structures could also be useful on Earth as lightweight, compactly stowable, portable special-purpose buildings that could be transported to remote locations and there inflated to full size and shape. In the case of a single inflatable toroidal structure, one important source of lack of design flexibility is the fact that an increase in outer diameter (which is sometimes desired) is necessarily accompanied by an increase in height (which is sometimes undesired). Increases in diameter and height can also cause difficulty in utilization of the resulting larger volume, in that it can become necessary to partition the volume by means of walls and floors, and features (e.g., stairs or ladders) must be added to enable vertical movement between floors. Moreover, ascending and descending between floors in a gravitational environment could pose unacceptable difficulty for the inhabitants under some circumstances. Another source of lack of design flexibility in a single toroidal inflatable structure is that for a given inflation pressure, an increase in the outer diameter of the structure necessarily entails an increase in the maximum stress in the structure. Because it is necessary to keep the maximum stress within the load-bearing capability of the structural materials, consistent with other aspects of the design, this may translate to a limit on the outer diameter. In an assembly comprising concentric nested toroidal structures, an increase in outer diameter does not necessarily entail an increase in height or a maximum stress in excess of the load-bearing capability of the structural

  10. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  11. miR-BAG: Bagging Based Identification of MicroRNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG’s performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version. PMID:23049860

  12. Spatial curvature falsifies eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie E-mail: mls604@nyu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Inflation creates large-scale cosmological density perturbations that are characterized by an isotropic, homogeneous, and Gaussian random distribution about a locally flat background. Even in a flat universe, the spatial curvature measured within one Hubble volume receives contributions from long wavelength perturbations, and will not in general be zero. These same perturbations determine the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, which are O(10{sup −5}). Consequently, the low-l multipole moments in the CMB temperature map predict the value of the measured spatial curvature Ω{sub k}. On this basis we argue that a measurement of |Ω{sub k}| > 10{sup −4} would rule out slow-roll eternal inflation in our past with high confidence, while a measurement of Ω{sub k} < −10{sup −4} (which is positive curvature, a locally closed universe) rules out false-vacuum eternal inflation as well, at the same confidence level. In other words, negative curvature (a locally open universe) is consistent with false-vacuum eternal inflation but not with slow-roll eternal inflation, and positive curvature falsifies both. Near-future experiments will dramatically extend the sensitivity of Ω{sub k} measurements and constitute a sharp test of these predictions.

  13. Topological phases of eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Shenker, Stephen; Susskind, Leonard

    2010-06-15

    ''Eternal inflation'' is a term that describes a number of different phenomena that have been classified by Winitzki. According to Winitzki's classification, these phases can be characterized by the topology of the percolating structures in the inflating, 'white', region. In this paper we discuss these phases, the transitions between them, and the way they are seen by a 'Census Taker', a hypothetical observer inside the noninflating, 'black', region. We discuss three phases that we call 'black island', 'tubular', and 'white island'. The black island phase is familiar, composed of rare Coleman De Luccia bubble nucleation events. The Census Taker sees an essentially spherical boundary, described by the conformal field theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker/conformal field theory (FRW/CFT) correspondence. In the tubular phase the Census Taker sees a complicated infinite genus structure composed of arbitrarily long tubes. The white island phase is even more mysterious from the black side. Surprisingly, when viewed from the noninflating region this phase resembles a closed, positively curved universe that eventually collapses to a singularity. Nevertheless, pockets of eternal inflation continue forever. In addition, there is an 'aborted' phase in which no eternal inflation takes place. Rigorous results of Chayes, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle establish the existence of all of these phases, separated by first order transitions, in Mandelbrot percolation, a simple model of eternal inflation.

  14. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  15. High-sensitivity strain sensor based on inflated long period fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yiping; Qu, Junle; Liao, Changrui; Liu, Shen; Tang, Jian; Wang, Qiao; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Kaiming; Li, Zhengyong

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrated a high-sensitivity strain sensor based on an inflated long period fiber grating (I-LPFG). The I-LPFG was inscribed, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, by use of the pressure-assisted CO(2) laser beam scanning technique to inflate periodically air holes of a photonic crystal fiber. Such periodic inflations enhanced the sensitivity of the LPFG-based strain sensor to -5.62 pm/με. After high temperature annealing, the I-LPFG achieved a good repeatability and stability of temperature response with a sensitivity of 11.92 pm/°C.

  16. Numerical prediction of deployment, initial fill, and inflation of parachute canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting parachute deployment and inflation in incompressible flow. Equations of motion are developed from first principles as applied to a discrete element representation of the canopy, suspension lines, payload, and deployment bag/pilot chute. Fluid conservation equations for deforming, accelerating control volumes are solved to determine the flow properties of the captured fluid. The unsteady pressure distribution in the internal flow is used to drive the equations of motion for the discrete element representation of the system, which in turn provides the unsteady boundary conditions for the fluid conservation equations.

  17. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  18. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  19. Scalar-tensor linear inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowski, Michał; Racioppi, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigate two approaches to non-minimally coupled gravity theories which present linear inflation as attractor solution: a) the scalar-tensor theory approach, where we look for a scalar-tensor theory that would restore results of linear inflation in the strong coupling limit for a non-minimal coupling to gravity of the form of f(varphi)R/2; b) the particle physics approach, where we motivate the form of the Jordan frame potential by loop corrections to the inflaton field. In both cases the Jordan frame potentials are modifications of the induced gravity inflationary scenario, but instead of the Starobinsky attractor they lead to linear inflation in the strong coupling limit.

  20. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  1. Downhole tool inflatable packer assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Brandell, J.T.

    1984-07-10

    A downhole tool inflatable packer assembly includes an upper packer shoe having a bypass mandrel connected thereto. A packer mandrel adapter has an upper end connected to a lower end of the bypass mandrel. A mandrel cover tube extends downwardly from the packer mandrel adapter. A packer mandrel has an upper portion connected to the packer mandrel adapter. A flow connector and a lower packer adapter are connected in that order below the packer mandrel. A packer flow tube has an upper end received in the bypass mandrel and a lower end received in the flow connector. An inflatable bladder has an upper end connected to the upper packer shoe and a lower end connected to a floating packer shoe which slidably engages the mandrel cover tube. A central flow passage, a packer bypass passage, and an inflation passage are disposed in the packer assembly.

  2. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  3. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  4. Large inflated-antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, W. F.; Keafer, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that for inflatable antenna systems, technology feasibility can be demonstrated and parametric design and scalability (scale factor 10 to 20) can be validated with an experiment using a 16-m-diameter antenna attached to the Shuttle. The antenna configuration consists of a thin film cone and paraboloid held to proper shape by internal pressure and a self-rigidizing torus. The cone and paraboloid would be made using pie-shaped gores with the paraboloid being coated with aluminum to provide reflectivity. The torus would be constructed using an aluminum polyester composite that when inflated would erect to a smooth shell that can withstand loads without internal pressure.

  5. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  6. Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.

  7. Dynamics of gauge field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marcianò, Antonino

    2015-05-05

    We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.

  8. Preventing eternality in phantom inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Chaojun; Li Xinzhou; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2010-07-15

    We have investigated the necessary conditions that prevent phantom inflation from being eternal. Allowing additionally for a nonminimal coupling between the phantom field and gravity, we present the slow-climb requirements, perform an analysis of the fluctuations, and finally we extract the overall conditions that are necessary in order to prevent eternality. Furthermore, we verify our results by solving explicitly the cosmological equations in a simple example of an exponential potential, formulating the classical motion plus the stochastic effect of the fluctuations through Langevin equations. Our analysis shows that phantom inflation can be finite without the need of additional exotic mechanisms.

  9. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  11. 77 FR 19937 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... using existing inflatable PFDs, and would enable marketing of existing inflatable PFDs to youth. The... approved, and thus does not affect the availability, use, or marketing of existing PFDs to or by the youth... marketing any inflatable PFD that is not approved by the Coast Guard (provided that it is not marked...

  12. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  13. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…

  14. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  15. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  16. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  17. Inflatable antennas for microwave pwoer transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Geoff

    1989-01-01

    Operational phase of the inflatable radiator; inflatable space structures; advantages; inflated thin-film satellites; antenna configuration; 3 meter diameter test paraboloid (HAIR program); and weight breakdown for the 100 meter diameter reflector are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  18. Inflation of stressed cylindrical tubes: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiming; Wang, Shibin; Li, Linan; Ji, Hongwei; Wang, Zhiyong; Cai, Songbao

    2014-06-01

    The inflation of an initially stressed cylindrical shell provides a good illustration of the phenomenon of the initiation and propagation of an instability, which shares the same mathematical and mechanical features with a variety of other strain localization phenomena in engineering structures and materials. The high speed CCD camera and digital image processing system were used to measure the 3D shape of the inflated cylindrical tube. The localized bulge of a cylindrical tube with closed ends forms when the internal pressure reaches a critical value Pcr. As more air is filled into the tube, the pressure drops but the radius at the centre of the bulge will increase until it reaches a maximum value rmax. With continued inflation, the pressure stays at a constant value Pp. The purpose of this study is to investigate the critical and propagation pressures in the tubes and the profile outside when the shells under axial tension and internal pressure were inflating. We focus on the influence of the axial tension on the critical pressure. In this paper the problem is explored through experimental efforts. A series of experiments were conducted on commercially available natural rubber latex tubes involving different geometries and initial axial tensions, which were regarded as isotropic, homogeneous, incompressible and hyper-elastic materials.

  19. Space Shuttle inflatable training articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, construction, and testing of the Long Duration Exposure Facility inflatable and the space telescope training articles are discussed. While these articles are of similar nature, materials, and construction, they vary in size and present different problems with regards to size, shape, gross/net lift, and balance.

  20. Langevin analysis of eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2005-08-15

    It has been widely claimed that inflation is generically eternal to the future, even in models where the inflaton potential monotonically increases away from its minimum. The idea is that quantum fluctuations allow the field to jump uphill, thereby continually revitalizing the inflationary process in some regions. In this paper we investigate a simple model of this process, pertaining to {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} inflation, in which analytic progress may be made. We calculate several quantities of interest, such as the expected number of inflationary efolds, first without and then with various selection effects. With no additional weighting, the stochastic noise has little impact on the total number of inflationary efoldings in the model even if the inflaton starts with a Planckian energy density. A 'rolling' volume factor, i.e. weighting in proportion to the volume at that time, also leads to a monotonically decreasing Hubble constant and hence no eternal inflation. We show how stronger selection effects including a constraint on the initial and final states and weighting with the final volume factor can lead to a picture similar to that usually associated with eternal inflation.

  1. Inflation as de Sitter instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Franzin, Edgardo; Mignemi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    We consider cosmological inflation generated by a scalar field slowly rolling off from a de Sitter maximum of its potential. The models belong to the class of hilltop models and represent the most general model of this kind in which the scalar potential can be written as the sum of two exponentials. The minimally coupled Einstein-scalar gravity theory obtained in this way is the cosmological version of a two-scale generalization of known holographic models, allowing for solitonic solutions interpolating between an AdS spacetime in the infrared and scaling solutions in the ultraviolet. We then investigate cosmological inflation in the slow-roll approximation. Our model reproduces correctly, for a wide range of its parameters, the most recent experimental data for the power spectrum of primordial perturbations. Moreover, it predicts inflation at energy scales of four to five orders of magnitude below the Planck scale. At the onset of inflation, the mass of the tachyonic excitation, i.e. of the inflaton, turns out to be seven to eight orders of magnitude smaller than the Planck mass.

  2. Non-metric chaotic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@astro.uio.no

    2012-05-01

    We consider inflation within the context of what is arguably the simplest non-metric extension of Einstein gravity. There non-metricity is described by a single graviscalar field with a non-minimal kinetic coupling to the inflaton field Ψ, parameterized by a single parameter γ. There is a simple equivalent description in terms of a massless field and an inflaton with a modified potential. We discuss the implications of non-metricity for chaotic inflation and find that it significantly alters the inflaton dynamics for field values Ψ∼>M{sub P}/γ, dramatically changing the qualitative behaviour in this regime. In the equivalent single-field description this is described as a cuspy potential that forms of barrier beyond which the inflation becomes a ghost field. This imposes an upper bound on the possible number of e-folds. For the simplest chaotic inflation models, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio receive small corrections dependent on the non-metricity parameter. We also argue that significant post-inflationary non-metricity may be generated.

  3. Anisotropic power-law inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  4. Topological phases of eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Shenker, Stephen; Susskind, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    “Eternal inflation” is a term that describes a number of different phenomena that have been classified by Winitzki. According to Winitzki’s classification, these phases can be characterized by the topology of the percolating structures in the inflating, “white,” region. In this paper we discuss these phases, the transitions between them, and the way they are seen by a “Census Taker,” a hypothetical observer inside the noninflating, “black,” region. We discuss three phases that we call “black island,” “tubular,” and “white island.” The black island phase is familiar, composed of rare Coleman De Luccia bubble nucleation events. The Census Taker sees an essentially spherical boundary, described by the conformal field theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker/conformal field theory (FRW/CFT) correspondence. In the tubular phase the Census Taker sees a complicated infinite genus structure composed of arbitrarily long tubes. The white island phase is even more mysterious from the black side. Surprisingly, when viewed from the noninflating region this phase resembles a closed, positively curved universe that eventually collapses to a singularity. Nevertheless, pockets of eternal inflation continue forever. In addition, there is an “aborted” phase in which no eternal inflation takes place. Rigorous results of Chayes, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle establish the existence of all of these phases, separated by first order transitions, in Mandelbrot percolation, a simple model of eternal inflation.

  5. MOSES - Inflatable Causeway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    buoyant. Kevlar and Zylon are good alternatives, but they are denser then water, hence they will not float. The draw back from Supreme Protector...Retention % (due to UV rays after 6 Months) Zylon AS 5.8 1.54 3.5 90 35 Zylon HM 5.8 1.56 2.5 N/A 35 p-Aramid 2.8 1.45 2.4 100 N/A m-Aramid...Sites. Off- Shore Air Compressors. 15 June 2007. < http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/index.html> Toyobo Family of Sites. Zylon Fabric. 19

  6. Real-time imaging of inflation-induced ATP release in the ex vivo rat lung.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kishio; Tan, Ju Jing; Boudreault, Francis; Sokabe, Masahiro; Berthiaume, Yves; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular ATP and other nucleotides are important autocrine/paracrine mediators that regulate diverse processes critical for lung function, including mucociliary clearance, surfactant secretion, and local blood flow. Cellular ATP release is mechanosensitive; however, the impact of physical stimuli on ATP release during breathing has never been tested in intact lungs in real time and remains elusive. In this pilot study, we investigated inflation-induced ATP release in rat lungs ex vivo by real-time luciferin-luciferase (LL) bioluminescence imaging coupled with simultaneous infrared tissue imaging to identify ATP-releasing sites. With LL solution introduced into air spaces, brief inflation of such edematous lung (1 s, ∼20 cmH2O) induced transient (<30 s) ATP release in a limited number of air-inflated alveolar sacs during their recruitment/opening. Released ATP reached concentrations of ∼10(-6) M, relevant for autocrine/paracrine signaling, but it remained spatially restricted to single alveolar sacs or their clusters. ATP release was stimulus dependent: prolonged (100 s) inflation evoked long-lasting ATP release that terminated upon alveoli deflation/derecruitment while cyclic inflation/suction produced cyclic ATP release. With LL introduced into blood vessels, inflation induced transient ATP release in many small patchlike areas the size of alveolar sacs. Findings suggest that inflation induces ATP release in both alveoli and the surrounding blood capillary network; the functional units of ATP release presumably consist of alveolar sacs or their clusters. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of real-time ATP release imaging in ex vivo lungs and provides the first direct evidence of inflation-induced ATP release in lung air spaces and in pulmonary blood capillaries, highlighting the importance of purinergic signaling in lung function.

  7. Efficacy of humidity retention bags for the reduced adsorption and improved cleaning of tissue proteins including prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Secker, T J; Pinchin, H E; Hervé, R C; Keevil, C W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drying time adversely affects attachment of tissue proteins and prion-associated amyloid to surgical stainless steel, and reduces the efficacy of commercial cleaning chemistries. This study tested the efficacy of commercial humidity retention bags to reduce biofouling on surgical stainless steel and to improve subsequent cleaning. Surgical stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with ME7-infected brain homogenates and left to dry for 15 to 1,440 min either in air, in dry polythene bags or within humidity retention bags. Residual contamination pre/post cleaning was analysed using Thioflavin T/SYPRO Ruby dual staining and microscope analysis. An increase in biofouling was observed with increased drying time in air or in sealed dry bags. Humidity retention bags kept both protein and prion-associated amyloid minimal across the drying times both pre- and post-cleaning. Therefore, humidity bags demonstrate a cheap, easy to implement solution to improve surgical instrument reprocessing and to potentially reduce associated hospital acquired infections.

  8. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  9. Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2012-12-01

    We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f{sub NL}, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.

  10. Mathematical issues in eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Kohli, Ikjyot; Haslam, Michael C.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Einstein field equations for a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe in the context of stochastic eternal inflation, where the stochastic mechanism is modelled by adding a stochastic forcing term representing Gaussian white noise to the Klein-Gordon equation. We show that under these considerations, the Klein-Gordon equation actually becomes a stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einstein’s equations depend on whether the coefficients of this stochastic differential equation obey Lipschitz continuity conditions. We show that for any choice of V(φ ), the Einstein field equations are not globally well-posed, hence, any solution found to these equations is not guaranteed to be unique. Instead, the coefficients are at best locally Lipschitz continuous in the physical state space of the dynamical variables, which only exist up to a finite explosion time. We further perform Feller’s explosion test for an arbitrary power-law inflaton potential and prove that all solutions to the Einstein field equations explode in a finite time with probability one. This implies that the mechanism of stochastic inflation thus considered cannot be described to be eternal, since the very concept of eternal inflation implies that the process continues indefinitely. We therefore argue that stochastic inflation based on a stochastic forcing term would not produce an infinite number of universes in some multiverse ensemble. In general, since the Einstein field equations in both situations are not well-posed, we further conclude that the existence of a multiverse via the stochastic eternal inflation mechanism considered in this paper is still very much an open question that will require much deeper investigation.

  11. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  12. Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics for an Inflatable Solar Concentrator in Atmospheric and Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slade, Kara N.; Tinker, Michael L.; Lassiter, John O.; Engberg, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic testing of an inflatable solar concentrator structure in a thermal vacuum chamber as well as in ambient laboratory conditions is described in detail. Unique aspects of modal testing for the extremely lightweight inflatable are identified, including the use of a noncontacting laser vibrometer measurement system. For the thermal vacuum environment, mode shapes and frequency response functions are compared for three different test article inflation pressures at room temperature. Modes that persist through all the inflation pressure regimes are identified, as well as modes that are unique for each pressure. In atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions, dynamic measurements were obtained for the expected operational inflation pressure of 0.5 psig. Experimental mode shapes and frequency response functions for ambient conditions are described and compared to the 0.5 psig results from the thermal vacuum tests. Only a few mode shapes were identified that occurred in both vacuum and atmospheric environments. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in detail, and attributed at least partly to 1.) large differences in modal damping, and 2.) significant differences in the mass of air contained by the structure, in the two environments. Results of this investigation point out the necessity of testing inflatable space structures in vacuum conditions before they can be launched. Ground testing in atmospheric pressure is not sufficient for predicting on-orbit dynamics of non-rigidized inflatable systems.

  13. Length of Inflation and Non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Shiro; Takami, Tomoyuki

    Certain inflation models are shown to have large non-Gaussianity in special cases. Namely, slow-roll inflation models with an effective higher derivative interaction, in which the length of inflation is finite and a scalar-matter-dominated period or power inflation is adopted as pre-inflation, are considered. Using Holman and Tolley's formula of the nonlinearity parameter in the flattened triangle configurations f flattened NL, we calculate the value of f flattened NL. The value of f flattened NL is found to be largest (f flattened NL>10) when the inflation length is approximately 60 e-folds, and f flattened NL is found to depend strongly on the length of inflation and the cut-off scale.

  14. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  15. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY (HOWITZER AND ALIQUOT BAG LOADING), LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 448-C, GENERAL STOREHOUSE (HIGH EXPLOSIVES MAGAZINE-WEIGHING & MIXING), IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. 43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL OF EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRICAL SWITCH BOX (SWITCH GEAR INSIDE BOX SUBMERGED IN OIL TO QUENCH SPARKS), SWITCH EQUIPMENT MADE BY GENERAL ELECTRIC. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  1. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  2. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  3. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  4. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  5. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212 Section... Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined) identified as... any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the MHI...

  6. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212... Fisheries § 665.212 Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined... landed by any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the...

  7. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  8. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  9. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bags are as follows: (1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material... 178.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS...

  10. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be sift-proof. (2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more... ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp,...

  11. 26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  12. 25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT EAST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures... section taken in the EEZ by a person subject to the bag limits may not be transferred at sea, regardless... bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (vi) Red porgy—3. (vii) Black sea bass—5. (viii)...

  14. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  15. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand... antidumping duty order is polyethylene retail carrier bags, which are currently classified under...

  16. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than l0^{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  17. Inflation, Reionization, and All That: The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  18. Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings continue deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  19. Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings fully deployed during flight following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Californiaornia. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  20. Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings begin deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  1. The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft maintains a steady attit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft maintains a steady attitude following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  2. Engineers Jim Murray and Joe Pahle prepare a deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator exp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers Jim Murray and Joe Pahle prepare a deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  3. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  4. Advanced Structural and Inflatable Hybrid Spacecraft Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); Kennedy, Kriss J. (Inventor); Lester, James D. (Inventor); Gupta, Shalini (Inventor); Hess, Linda F. (Inventor); Lin, Chin H. (Inventor); Malecki, Richard H. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  5. Planck constraints on monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael E-mail: flauger@ias.edu

    2014-02-01

    We use data from the nominal Planck mission to constrain modulations in the primordial power spectrum associated with monodromy inflation. The largest improvement in fit relative to the unmodulated model has Δχ{sup 2} ≈ 10 and we find no evidence for a primordial signal, in contrast to a previous analysis of the WMAP9 dataset, for which Δχ{sup 2} ≈ 20. The Planck and WMAP9 results are broadly consistent on angular scales where they are expected to agree as far as best-fit values are concerned. However, even on these scales the significance of the signal is reduced in Planck relative to WMAP, and is consistent with a fit to the ''noise'' associated with cosmic variance. Our results motivate both a detailed comparison between the two experiments and a more careful study of the theoretical predictions of monodromy inflation.

  6. Dark energy view of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Stephane; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2010-05-15

    Traditionally, inflationary models are analyzed in terms of parameters such as the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor to scalar ratio r, while dark energy models are studied in terms of the equation of state parameter w. Motivated by the fact that both deal with periods of accelerated expansion, we study the evolution of w during inflation, in order to derive observational constraints on its value during an earlier epoch likely dominated by a dynamic form of dark energy. We find that the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure data is consistent with w{sub inflation}=-1 and provides an upper limit of 1+w < or approx. 0.02. Nonetheless, an exact de Sitter expansion with a constant w=-1 is disfavored since this would result in n{sub s}=1.

  7. Permutation on hybrid natural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Ramos, Raymundo; Sher, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We analyze a model of hybrid natural inflation based on the smallest non-Abelian discrete group S3. Leading invariant terms in the scalar potential have an accidental global symmetry that is spontaneously broken, providing a pseudo-Goldstone boson that is identified as the inflaton. The S3 symmetry restricts both the form of the inflaton potential and the couplings of the inflaton field to the waterfall fields responsible for the end of inflation. We identify viable points in the model parameter space. Although the power in tensor modes is small in most of the parameter space of the model, we identify parameter choices that yield potentially observable values of r without super-Planckian initial values of the inflaton field.

  8. UV-extending ghost inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch

    2014-05-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predicts rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 0.02÷0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f{sub NL} in the range from -50 to -5.

  9. General sGoldstino inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, Sergio; Roest, Diederik

    2016-10-24

    We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.

  10. Sneutrino chaotic inflation and landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-11-01

    The most naive interpretation of the BICEP2 data is the chaotic inflation by an inflaton with a quadratic potential. When combined with supersymmetry, we argue that the inflaton plays the role of right-handed scalar neutrino based on rather general considerations. The framework suggests that the right-handed sneutrino tunneled from a false vacuum in a landscape to our vacuum with a small negative curvature and suppressed scalar perturbations at large scales.

  11. Duality cascade in brane inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Rachel; Chen Xingang; Hailu, Girma; Henry Tye, S-H; Xu Jiajun E-mail: xgchen@mit.edu E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu

    2008-03-15

    We show that brane inflation is very sensitive to tiny sharp features in extra dimensions, including those in the potential and in the warp factor. This can show up as observational signatures in the power spectrum and/or non-Gaussianities of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). One general example of such sharp features is a succession of small steps in a warped throat, caused by Seiberg duality cascade using gauge/gravity duality. We study the cosmological observational consequences of these steps in brane inflation. Since the steps come in a series, the prediction of other steps and their properties can be tested by future data and analysis. It is also possible that the steps are too close to be resolved in the power spectrum, in which case they may show up only in the non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations and/or EE polarization. We study two cases. In the slow-roll scenario, where steps appear in the inflaton potential, the sensitivity of brane inflation to the height and width of the steps is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in previously studied large field models. In the IR DBI scenario, where steps appear in the warp factor, we find that the glitches in the power spectrum caused by these sharp features are generally small or even unobservable, but associated distinctive non-Gaussianity can be large. Together with its large negative running of the power spectrum index, this scenario clearly illustrates how rich and different a brane inflationary scenario can be when compared to generic slow-roll inflation. Such distinctive stringy features may provide a powerful probe of superstring theory.

  12. Chaotic inflation and supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Rube, Tomas; Olive, Keith A.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the recently proposed class of chaotic inflation models in supergravity with an arbitrary inflaton potential V({phi}). These models are extended to include matter fields in the visible sector and we employ a mechanism of supersymmetry breaking based on a particular phenomenological version of the KKLT mechanism (the KL model). We describe specific features of reheating in this class of models and show how one can solve the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems in this context.

  13. Inflation in the scaling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

    1989-07-15

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

  14. Reheating for closed string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-09-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N = 1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation.

  15. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Meyer, Stephan; Moseley, S. Harvey; Seiffert, Michael D.; Spergel, David N.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded non-imaging optics feed a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to produce a set of interference fringes, proportional to the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from the two input beams. Multiple levels of symmetry and signal modulation combine to reduce the instrumental signature and confusion from unpolarized sources to negligible levels. PIXIE will map the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters with angular resolution 2.6 deg and sensitivity 0.2 µK per 1 deg square pixel. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r less than 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. In addition, PIXIE will measure the absolute frequency spectrum to constrain physical processes ranging from inflation to the nature of the first stars to the physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. We describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture with an emphasis on the expected level of systematic error suppression.

  16. Unity of cosmological inflation attractors.

    PubMed

    Galante, Mario; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik

    2015-04-10

    Recently, several broad classes of inflationary models have been discovered whose cosmological predictions, in excellent agreement with Planck, are stable with respect to significant modifications of the inflaton potential. Some classes of models are based on a nonminimal coupling to gravity. These models, which we call ξ attractors, describe universal cosmological attractors (including Higgs inflation) and induced inflation models. Another class describes conformal attractors (including Starobinsky inflation and T models) and their generalization to α attractors. The aim of this Letter is to elucidate the common denominator of these attractors: their robust predictions stem from a joint pole of order 2 in the kinetic term of the inflaton field in the Einstein frame formulation prior to switching to the canonical variables. Model-dependent differences only arise at subleading level in the kinetic term. As a final step towards the unification of the different attractors, we introduce a special class of ξ attractors which is fully equivalent to α attractors with the identification α=1+(1/6ξ). While r is generically predicted to be of the order 1/N^{2}, there is no theoretical lower bound on r in this class of models.

  17. Inflection point inflation within supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Mazumdar, Anupam; Stephens, Philip E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-06-01

    We propose to address the fine tuning problem of inflection point inflation by the addition of extra vacuum energy that is present during inflation but disappears afterwards. We show that in such a case, the required amount of fine tuning is greatly reduced. We suggest that the extra vacuum energy can be associated with an earlier phase transition and provide a simple model, based on extending the SM gauge group to SU(3){sub C} × SU(2){sub L} × U(1){sub Y} × U(1){sub B−L}, where the Higgs field of U(1){sub B−L} is in a false vacuum during inflation. In this case, there is virtually no fine tuning of the soft SUSY breaking parameters of the flat direction which serves as the inflaton. However, the absence of radiative corrections which would spoil the flatness of the inflaton potential requires that the U(1){sub B−L} gauge coupling should be small with g{sub B−L} ≤ 10{sup −4}.

  18. Generalised tensor fluctuations and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, Dario; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: g.tasinato@swansea.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    Using an effective field theory approach to inflation, we examine novel properties of the spectrum of inflationary tensor fluctuations, that arise when breaking some of the symmetries or requirements usually imposed on the dynamics of perturbations. During single-clock inflation, time-reparameterization invariance is broken by a time-dependent cosmological background. In order to explore more general scenarios, we consider the possibility that spatial diffeomorphism invariance is also broken by effective mass terms or by derivative operators for the metric fluctuations in the Lagrangian. We investigate the cosmological consequences of the breaking of spatial diffeomorphisms, focussing on operators that affect the power spectrum of fluctuations. We identify the operators for tensor fluctuations that can provide a blue spectrum without violating the null energy condition, and operators for scalar fluctuations that lead to non-conservation of the comoving curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales even in single-clock inflation. In the last part of our work, we also examine the consequences of operators containing more than two spatial derivatives, discussing how they affect the sound speed of tensor fluctuations, and showing that they can mimic some of the interesting effects of symmetry breaking operators, even in scenarios that preserve spatial diffeomorphism invariance.

  19. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  20. BICEP2 constrains composite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-07-01

    In light of BICEP2, we re-examine single field inflationary models in which the inflation is a composite state stemming from various four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. We study in the Einstein frame a set of cosmological parameters, the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, predicted by such models. We confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We find that the minimal composite inflationary model is fully consistent with the Planck data. However it is in tension with the recent BICEP2 data. The observables predicted by the glueball inflationary model can be consistent with both Planck and BICEP2 contours if a suitable number of e-foldings are chosen. Surprisingly, the super Yang-Mills inflationary prediction is significantly consistent with the Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  1. Graceful entrance to braneworld inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lidsey, James E.; Mulryne, David J.

    2006-04-15

    Positively-curved, oscillatory universes have recently been shown to have important consequences for the preinflationary dynamics of the early universe. In particular, they may allow a self-interacting scalar field to climb up its potential during a very large number of these cycles. The cycles are naturally broken when the potential reaches a critical value and the universe begins to inflate, thereby providing a 'graceful entrance' to early universe inflation. We study the dynamics of this behavior within the context of braneworld scenarios which exhibit a bounce from a collapsing phase to an expanding one. The dynamics can be understood by studying a general class of braneworld models that are sourced by a scalar field with a constant potential. Within this context, we determine the conditions a given model must satisfy for a graceful entrance to be possible in principle. We consider the bouncing braneworld model proposed by Shtanov and Sahni and show that it exhibits the features needed to realise a graceful entrance to inflation for a wide region of parameter space.

  2. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hung, Ling-Yan; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  3. Vacuum transitions and eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew C.

    In this thesis, we focus on aspects of inflation and eternal inflation arising in scalar field theories coupled to gravity which possess a number of metastable states. Such theories contain instantons that interpolate between the metastable potential minima, corresponding to the nucleation of bubbles containing a new phase in a background of the old phase. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the classical dynamics and quantum nucleation of vacuum bubbles. We classify all possible spherically symmetric, thin-wall solutions with arbitrary interior and exterior cosmological constant, and find that bubbles possessing a turning point are unstable to aspherical perturbations. Next, we turn to the quantum nucleation of bubbles with zero mass. Focusing on instantons interpolating between positive and negative energy minima, we find that there exists a "Great Divide" in the space of potentials, across which the lifetime of metastable states differs drastically. Generalizing a semi-classical Hamiltonian formalism to treat the nucleation of bubbles with nonzero mass, we show that a number of tunneling mechanisms can be unified in the thin-wall limit, and directly compare their probabilities. In the second part of this thesis, we discuss the measure problem in eternal inflation. We give a detailed analysis of the prospects for making predictions in eternal inflation, and describe the existing probability measures and the connections between them. We then show that all existing measures exhibit a number of rather generic phenomena, for example strongly weighting vacua that can undergo rapid transitions between each other. It is argued that making predictions will require a measure that weights histories as opposed to vacua, and we develop a formalism to addresses this. Finally, we assess the prospects for observing collisions between vacuum bubbles in an eternally inflating universe. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that under certain assumptions most

  4. Grade inflation: should we be concerned?

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Judith M; Care, W Dean

    2004-10-01

    Grade inflation is defined as an increase in grade point average without an associated increase in overall student ability. The literature supports the idea that grade inflation is rampant throughout higher education. Shoemaker and DeVos described the scope of the problem in higher education in general and note the lack of existing empirical information in nursing education. Given the perceived problem in faculties of nursing, the widespread nature of the issue of grade inflation across universities and colleges, and the lack of empirical data, understanding the nature of grade inflation is important. This article will discuss a study designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation is an issue within a western Canadian faculty of nursing. Recommendations related to grade inflation are discussed.

  5. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  6. Graceful exit from Higgs G inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Kunimitsu, Taro; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Higgs G inflation is a Higgs inflation model with a generalized Galileon term added to the standard model Higgs field, which realizes inflation compatible with observations. Recently, it was claimed that the generalized Galileon term induces instabilities during the oscillation phase and that the simplest Higgs G-inflation model inevitably suffers from this problem. In this paper, we extend the original Higgs G-inflation Lagrangian to a more general form, namely introducing a higher-order kinetic term and generalizing the form of the Galileon term, so that the Higgs field can oscillate after inflation without encountering instabilities. Moreover, it accommodates a large region of the ns-r plane, most of which is consistent with current observations, leading us to expect the detection of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background in the near future.

  7. Microwave background anisotropies in quasiopen inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1999-10-01

    Quasiopenness seems to be generic to multifield models of single-bubble open inflation. Instead of producing infinite open universes, these models actually produce an ensemble of very large but finite inflating islands. In this paper we study the possible constraints from CMB anisotropies on existing models of open inflation. The effect of supercurvature anisotropies combined with the quasiopenness of the inflating regions make some models incompatible with observations, and severely reduces the parameter space of others. Supernatural open inflation and the uncoupled two-field model seem to be ruled out due to these constraints for values of Ω0<~0.98. Others, such as the open hybrid inflation model with suitable parameters for the slow roll potential can be made compatible with observations.

  8. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.

  9. F(R)-gravity and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-08-01

    In this short review, we revisit inflation in F(R)-gravity. We find several F(R)-models for viable inflation by applying some reconstruction techniques. A special attention is payed in the reproduction of the last Planck satellite data. The possible generalizations of Starobinsky-like inflation are found and discussed. The early-time acceleration is analyzed in a higher derivative quantum gravitational model which mainly reduces to F(R)-gravity.

  10. New Sources of Gravitational Waves During Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We point out that detectable inflationary tensor modes can be generated by particle or string sources produced during inflation, consistently with the requirements for inflation and constraints from scalar fluctuations. We show via examples that this effect can dominate over the contribution from quantum fluctuations of the metric, occurring even when the inflationary potential energy is too low to produce a comparable signal. Thus a detection of tensor modes from inflation does not automatically constitute a determination of the inflationary Hubble scale.

  11. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  12. Dynamic Deployment Simulations of Inflatable Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of using Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method in LSDYNA to simulate the dynamic deployment of inflatable space structures is investigated. The CV and ALE methods were used to predict the inflation deployments of three folded tube configurations. The CV method was found to be a simple and computationally efficient method that may be adequate for modeling slow inflation deployment sine the inertia of the inflation gas can be neglected. The ALE method was found to be very computationally intensive since it involves the solving of three conservative equations of fluid as well as dealing with complex fluid structure interactions.

  13. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation and backreaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-01

    We study the backreaction problem in a mechanism of magnetogenesis from inflation. In usual analysis, it has been assumed that the backreaction due to electromagnetic fields spoils inflation once it becomes important. However, there exists no justification for this assumption. Hence, we analyze magnetogenesis from inflation by taking into account the backreaction. On the contrary to the naive expectation, we show that inflation still continues even after the backreaction begins to work. Nevertheless, it turns out that creation of primordial magnetic fields is significantly suppressed due to the backreaction.

  14. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  15. An experimental study of permeability within an out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only CFRP laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Landon F.

    The out-of-autoclave vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) manufacturing process is a process that eliminates an autoclave when manufacturing aerospace quality carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). OOA-VBO pre-impregnated resin tow systems rely on air channel networks that guide unwanted voids out of the laminate. The air path networks can be characterized by measuring the permeability of a pre-cured laminate. Permeability results were successfully obtained for a laminate with a compaction similar to that found in a typical vacuum bagging setup. A study was done to find the relationship between compaction of the laminate and permeability. Permeability was measured as the laminate cured, using a constant temperature ramp rate. An experimental nodal analysis was performed to find the permeability at the midpoint of the in-plane direction.

  16. BAG: A code for predicting the performance of a gas bag impact attenuation system for the PATHFINDER lander

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Waye, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning to launch a network of scientific probes to Mars beginning in late 1996. The precursor to this network will be PATHFINDER. Decelerating PATHFINDER from the high speed of its approach to Mars will require the use of several deceleration techniques working in series. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed that gas bags be used to cushion the payload`s ground impact on Mars. This report presents the computer code, BAG, which has been developed to calculate the pneumatic performance of gas bag impact attenuators and the one-dimensional rigid-body dynamic performance of a payload during ground impact.

  17. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  18. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... person or, if more than 4 persons are aboard, 12 per boat. (f) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel, whichever is less, except,...

  19. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... person or, if more than 4 persons are aboard, 12 per boat. (f) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel, whichever is less, except,...

  20. View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, ooking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  1. View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North half of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House southeast corner, looking east - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of concrete sand bag form concentration in the Merry Generator House Southeast corner, looking north - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. Is the Capsular Bag Perimeter Round or Elliptical?

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, Alfredo; Bonaque-González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report findings that could suggest an elliptical shape of the capsular bag. Methods: Five eyes of three patients with axial length greater than 24 mm underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery with plate-haptic multifocal toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation oriented in the vertical meridian. Results: In all cases, correct orientation of the IOLs was verified 30 minutes after surgery. After 24 hours, all eyes demonstrated unwanted rotation of the IOLs ranging from 15 to 45 degrees. The IOLs remained stable in the new position in all cases until adhesion of the capsular bag took place. Conclusion: These observations could suggest that the perimeter of the capsular bag has an elliptical shape. Therefore, the IOL tends to become fixated in a meridian of the capsular bag that best fits the diagonal diameter of the IOL. PMID:27413495

  4. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS...

  5. 5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of a section of the bag house from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. . New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  6. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  7. 50 CFR 622.38 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.38 Bag and possession limits. (a) Additional applicability...

  8. Lab Creates 'Fake Vomit' To Test Space Trash Bag

    NASA Video Gallery

    After answering the question of how the space potty works, astronaut Mike Massimino now visits a NASA lab where chemists have been working hard to develop a next-generation trash bag for future exp...

  9. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  10. F-Term Hybrid Inflation Followed by Modular Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallis, C.

    2009-05-01

    We consider the well motivated model of the (standard)supersymmetric(SUSY)F-term hybrid inflation(FHI) which can be realized close to the grand unification(GUT) scale. The predicted scalar spectral index n{sub s} cannot be smaller than 0.98 and can exceed unity including corrections from minimal supergravity(SUGRA), if the number of e-foldings corresponding to the pivot scale k{sub *} = 0.002/Mpc is around 50. These results are marginally consistent with the fitting of the five-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe(WMAP5) data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant, {lambda}CDM. However, n{sub s} can be reduced by restricting the number of e-foldings that k{sub *} suffered during FHI. The additional e-foldings required for solving the horizon and flatness problems can be generated by a subsequent stage of fast-roll [slow-roll]modular inflation(MI) realized by a string modulus which does [does not] acquire effective mass (m{sub s|eff}) before the onset of MI.

  11. The spin bag mechanism of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1989-01-01

    In oxide superconductors the local suppression of antiferromagnetic correlations in the vicinity of a hole lowers the energy of the system. This quasi two-dimensional bag of weakened spin order follows the hole in its motion. In addition, holes prefer to share a bag, leading to a strong pairing attraction and a high Tc superconductivity. There are many experimental consequences of this mechanism for both the superconducting and normal phases.

  12. Holographic Probabilities in Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2006-11-01

    In the global description of eternal inflation, probabilities for vacua are notoriously ambiguous. The local point of view is preferred by holography and naturally picks out a simple probability measure. It is insensitive to large expansion factors or lifetimes and so resolves a recently noted paradox. Any cosmological measure must be complemented with the probability for observers to emerge in a given vacuum. In lieu of anthropic criteria, I propose to estimate this by the entropy that can be produced in a local patch. This allows for prior-free predictions.

  13. Inflation from supersymmetric quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Socorro, J.; D'Oleire, Marco

    2010-08-15

    We derive a special scalar field potential using the anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model from canonical quantum cosmology under determined conditions in the evolution to anisotropic variables {beta}{sub {+-}}. In the process, we obtain a family of potentials that has been introduced by hand in the literature to explain cosmological data. Considering supersymmetric quantum cosmology, this family is scanned, fixing the exponential potential as more viable in the inflation scenario V({phi})=V{sub 0}e{sup -{radical}(3){phi}}.

  14. Foam rigidized inflatable structural assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L. (Inventor); Schnell, Andrew R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An inflatable and rigidizable structure for use as a habitat or a load bearing structure is disclosed. The structure consists of an outer wall and an inner wall defining a containment member and a bladder. The bladder is pressurized to erect the structure from an initially collapsed state. The containment member is subsequently injected with rigidizable fluid through an arrangement of injection ports. Exhaust gases from the curing rigidizable fluid are vented through an arrangement of exhaust ports. The rate of erection can be controlled by frictional engagement with a container or by using a tether. A method for fabricating a tubular structure is disclosed.

  15. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  16. Analysis of Inflatable Rock Bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Charlie C.

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable bolt is integrated in the rock mass through the friction and mechanical interlock at the bolt-rock interface. The pullout resistance of the inflatable bolt is determined by the contact stress at the interface. The contact stress is composed of two parts, termed the primary and secondary contact stresses. The former refers to the stress established during bolt installation and the latter is mobilized when the bolt tends to slip in the borehole owing to the roughness of the borehole surface. The existing analysis of the inflatable rock bolt does not appropriately describe the interaction between the bolt and the rock since the influence of the folded tongue of the bolt on the stiffness of the bolt and the elastic rebound of the bolt tube in the end of bolt installation are ignored. The interaction of the inflatable bolt with the rock is thoroughly analysed by taking into account the elastic displacements of the rock mass and the bolt tube during and after bolt installation in this article. The study aims to reveal the influence of the bolt tongue on the contact stress and the different anchoring mechanisms of the bolt in hard and soft rocks. A new solution to the primary contact stress is derived, which is more realistic than the existing one in describing the interaction between the bolt and the rock. The mechanism of the secondary contact stress is also discussed from the point of view of the mechanical behaviour of the asperities on the borehole surface. The analytical solutions are in agreement with both the laboratory and field pullout test results. The analysis reveals that the primary contact stress decreases with the Young's modulus of the rock mass and increases with the borehole diameter and installation pump pressure. The primary contact stress can be easily established in soft and weak rock but is low or zero in hard and strong rock. In soft and weak rock, the primary contact stress is crucially important for the anchorage of the bolt, while

  17. Distinguishing between extra natural inflation and natural inflation after BICEP2

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we carefully calculated the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running spectral index, and the running of running spectrum for (extra) natural inflation in order to compare with recent BICEP2 data, PLANCK satellite data and future 21 cm data. We discovered that the prediction for running spectral index and the running of running spectrum in natural inflation is different from that in the case of extra natural inflation. Near future observation for the running spectral index can only provide marginal accuracy which may not allow us distinguishing between extra natural inflation from natural inflation clearly unless the experimental accuracy can be further improved.

  18. An innovative methodology for measurement of stress distribution of inflatable membrane structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bing; Chen, Wujun; Hu, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwen; Qiu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Jinyu; Gao, Chengjun

    2016-02-01

    The inflatable membrane structure has been widely used in the fields of civil building, industrial building, airship, super pressure balloon and spacecraft. It is important to measure the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure because it influences the safety of the structural design. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the measurement and determination of the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure under different internal pressures, combining photogrammetry and the force-finding method. The shape of the inflatable membrane structure is maintained by the use of pressurized air, and the internal pressure is controlled and measured by means of an automatic pressure control system. The 3D coordinates of the marking points pasted on the membrane surface are acquired by three photographs captured from three cameras based on photogrammetry. After digitizing the markings on the photographs, the 3D curved surfaces are rebuilt. The continuous membrane surfaces are discretized into quadrilateral mesh and simulated by membrane links to calculate the stress distributions using the force-finding method. The internal pressure is simplified to the external node forces in the normal direction according to the contributory area of the node. Once the geometry x, the external force r and the topology C are obtained, the unknown force densities q in each link can be determined. Therefore, the stress distributions of the inflatable membrane structure can be calculated, combining the linear adjustment theory and the force density method based on the force equilibrium of inflated internal pressure and membrane internal force without considering the mechanical properties of the constitutive material. As the use of the inflatable membrane structure is attractive in the field of civil building, an ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) cushion is used with the measurement model to validate the proposed methodology. The comparisons between the

  19. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  20. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    PubMed

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.