Science.gov

Sample records for air bags compared

  1. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    PubMed Central

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. METHODS. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. RESULTS. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. CONCLUSION. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%. PMID:8484445

  2. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    PubMed

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-05-01

    The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%.

  3. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  4. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  5. The effectiveness of air bags.

    PubMed

    Barry, S; Ginpil, S; O'Neill, T J

    1999-11-01

    Previous research has shown that the installation of air bags in vehicles significantly reduces crash related deaths, but these analyses have used statistical techniques which have not been capable of controlling for other major determinants of crash survival. This study analysed data from the US FARS database of fatal crashes using conditional logistic regression which is simultaneously able to estimate occupant protection effects for a range of variables. Results of the analysis provided a comparative quantification of both the effect of the air bag as well as other well known determinants of occupant crash survival (age, seat belt use, and gender). When potentially confounding variables were controlled, both the driver and passenger side air bag devices were shown to significantly reduce the probability of death in direct frontal collisions, but the effect size calculated was small compared to the effect of the seat belt. The effect size may also be very small in absolute terms depending on the severity of the crash involved. Given the limited benefit of the air bag, efforts to promote air bags seem particularly difficult to justify in countries such as the United States where the vastly superior occupant protection of the seat belt is under-utilised.

  6. Noise trauma from air bags.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  7. Air bags and the skin.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide. The bag is inflated by nitrogen liberated during the combustion. Deployment releases various high-temperature gases, including nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and produces sodium hydroxide, a highly irritant alkaline substance. In about 7%-8% of cases, air bags cause dermatologic injuries such as traumatic lesions, irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Nondermatologic lesions, such as ocular damage (alkali keratitis, corneal abrasions), ear lesions, bone fractures, and contusive damage can also be caused by air bag deployment.

  8. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  9. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  10. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  11. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic or metal containers or dedicated handling devices are authorized for shipment of air bag inflators... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners....

  12. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 2C FIGURE 2D FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:10703118

  13. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    PubMed

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  14. Air bag injury and the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Foley, E; Helm, T N

    2000-10-01

    Most new car models have driver-side air bags and many also have passenger-side and side-impact air bags. Air bags are known to be dangerous to small children and may cause death, fractures, and cerebral spinal injury. However, the cutaneous manifestations of air bag injury are less well known. Additional potential air bag injuries include retinal damage and high-frequency hearing loss. The following case report illustrates significant burns from a low-impact air bag injury and reviews the pertinent literature.

  15. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a supplemental restraint system in a motor vehicle. An air bag module is the air bag inflator plus... used in the operation of a seat-belt restraining system in a motor vehicle. (b) Classification. An air... manufacturer has submitted each design type air bag inflator, air bag module, or seat-belt pretensioner to...

  16. [Ear dysfunction due to air bag detonation?].

    PubMed

    Brehmer, D; Geidel, O; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2000-10-01

    Air bags are among the latest developments in extensive automobile safety systems. They successfully have saved the lives of car occupants in road accidents. Many additional injuries caused by air bags from minor to severe have been reported. With the help of two acceleration sensors, the electronic tuner amplifier records the vehicle's deceleration. This is the adequate trigger for air bag deployment, which creates an intense noise of up to 170 dB sound pressure level. This noise level can cause cochlear damage. We present two patients with otologic symptoms after spontaneous air bag deployment.

  17. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  18. Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Scerbo, Marge; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    US air bag regulations were changed in 1997 to allow tests of unbelted male dummies in vehicles mounted and accelerated on sleds, resulting in longer crash pulses than rigid-barrier crashes. This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths. Controversy ensued as to whether sled-certified air bags could increase adult fatality risk. A matched-pair cohort study of two-vehicle, head-on, fatal collisions between drivers involving first-generation versus sled-certified air bags during 1998-2005 was conducted by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Sled certification was ascertained from public information and a survey of automakers. Conditional Poisson regression for matched-pair cohorts was used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, seat belt status, vehicle type, passenger car size, and model year for driver deaths in vehicles with sled-certified air bags versus first-generation air bags. For all passenger-vehicle pairs, the adjusted risk ratio was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98). In head-on collisions involving only passenger cars, the adjusted risk ratio was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.29). Increased fatality risk for drivers with sled-certified air bags was not observed. A borderline significant interaction between vehicle type and air bag generation suggested that sled-certified air bags may have reduced the risk of dying in head-on collisions among drivers of pickup trucks.

  19. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  20. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). For domestic transport, air bag inflators, air bag modules or seat-belt pretensioners that meet the... for transportation, the shipping paper must contain the EX number or product code for each approved... this subchapter. Product codes must be traceable to the specific EX number assigned to the inflator...

  1. Burn injuries caused by air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2001-03-01

    Automobile air bags have gained acceptance as an effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents. As more cars have become equipped with them, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the bag itself. An increasing variety of associated injuries has been reported, including minor burns. We present two automobile drivers who were involved in front-impact crashes with air bag inflation. They sustained superficial and partial-thickness burns related to the deployment. The evaluation of these cases shows mechanisms involved in burn injuries caused by the air bag system. Most of the burns are chemical and usually attributed to sodium hydroxide in the aerosol created during deployment. Also direct thermal burns from high-temperature gases or indirect injuries due to the melting of clothing, as well as friction burns from physical contact are possible. However, the inherent risks of air bag-related burns are still outweighed by the benefits of preventing potentially life-threatening injuries.

  2. Performance tests of three types of air-sampling bags on organic solvent vapor retention.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinari; Kanemaru, Ai; Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Takuya; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of two new air sampling bags [the transparent bag (TP bag) and the semi-transparent bag (ST bag)] was examined as possible surrogates for the traditional PVF bag (the Ref bag). Solvent vapor mixture of butyl acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene at administrative control levels were introduced to each bag (n=5 for each of the three types), and the decay in the concentrations (by%) was followed by use of a gas auto-sampler - FID-GC system. A trend of time-dependent decay was noted for all types including the Ref bag. When the performance was compared, the TP bag was equal to or even better than the Ref bag. In contrast, the performance of the ST bag was comparable to that of the other two types of bags with regard to toluene and chloroform when the storage time was short, but poorer than others for the other three solvents throughout the test period. The TP bag may be a bag of choice when the storage time is extended (e.g., up to 48 h) although this bag is physically less robust and requires careful handling. The ST bag may be used when analysis will be completed within 24 h.

  3. Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kristin S; Fanciullo, Lisa M

    2005-07-01

    Although air bags are placed in automobiles to act as safety devices, they have been shown to carry a risk of injury themselves. Ocular injury, in particular, can often be a direct consequence of air bag deployment. A case of ocular air bag injury is presented. A discussion and review of the current literature on this issue follows. A 63-year-old man was transferred to our clinic after sustaining injuries related to a motor vehicle accident, during which the automobile's air bag was deployed. Initial examination revealed many signs of blunt ocular trauma of the O.D., including iridodialysis, dislocated lens with traumatic cataract, and traumatic/inflammatory glaucoma. Initial B-scan showed an attached retina O.D. One month later, the patient underwent an attempted pars plana vitrectomy with lensectomy, iris repair, and insertion of an anterior chamber intraocular lens. Complications arose during the procedure, and a total retinal detachment developed. Resultant acuity is no light perception O.D. Although ocular morbidity can be a direct consequence of air bag deployment, most eye injuries are minimal, and seem to be outweighed by the benefits of air bags. Drivers, as well as passengers, can minimize associated injuries by adhering to specific safety guidelines. This, as well as continual modification and improvement in air bag design, will maximize the safety of air bags and decrease the incidence of vision-threatening ocular injury caused by air bag deployment.

  4. The effect of frontal air bags on eye injury patterns in automobile crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Jernigan, M Virginia; Stitzel, Joel D; Herring, Ian P; Crowley, John S; Brozoski, Fred T; Bass, Cameron R

    2002-11-01

    To investigate eye injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal air bags. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999, were examined in a 3-part study that included an investigation of 22 236 individual crashes that occurred in the United States. A new 4-level eye injury severity scale that quantifies injuries based on recovery time, need for surgery, and possible loss of sight was developed. Of all occupants who were exposed to an air bag deployment, 3% sustained an eye injury. In contrast, 2% of occupants not exposed to an air bag deployment sustained an eye injury. A closer examination of the type of eye injuries showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of corneal abrasions for occupants who were exposed to an air bag compared with those who were not (P =.03). Of occupants exposed to an air bag deployment, 0.5% sustained a corneal abrasion compared with 0.04% of occupants who were not exposed to an air bag. Using the new injury levels, it was shown that although occupants exposed to an air bag deployment had a higher risk of sustaining minor eye injuries, the air bag appears to have provided a beneficial exchange by reducing the number of severe eye injuries.

  5. Sodium azide-associated laryngospasm after air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Francis, David; Warren, Samuel A; Warner, Keir J; Harris, William; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M

    2010-09-01

    The advent and incorporation of the air bag into motor vehicles has resulted in the mitigation of many head and truncal injuries in motor vehicle collisions. However, air bag deployment is not risk free. We present a case of sodium azide-induced laryngospasm after air bag deployment. An unrestrained male driver was in a moderate-speed motor vehicle collision with air bag deployment. Medics found him awake, gasping for air with stridorous respirations and guarding his neck. The patient had no external signs of trauma and was presumed to have tracheal injury. The patient was greeted by the Anesthesiology service, which intubated him using glidescope-assisted laryngoscopy. The patient was admitted for overnight observation and treatment of alkaline ocular injury and laryngospasm. Although air bags represent an important advance in automobile safety, their use is not without risk. Bruising and tracheal rupture secondary to air bag deployment have been reported in out-of-position occupants. Additionally, alkaline by-products from the combustion of sodium azide in air bags have been implicated in ocular injury and facial burns. Laryngospasm after sodium azide exposure presents another diagnostic challenge for providers. Therefore, it is incumbent to maintain vigilance in the physical examination and diagnosis of occult injuries after air bag deployment.

  6. The Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Air Bag Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R.; Dowdy, M.; Ebbeler, D.; Kim, E.; Moore, N.; Van Zandt, T.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) signed a memorandum of understanding for NASA to assess the capability of advanced technology to reduce air bag inflation-induced injuries and increase air bag effectiveness.

  7. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  8. Air bag-mediated fatal craniocervical trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Büyük, Yalçin; Uzün, Ibrahim; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Ustündağ, Kasim T

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes a four-year-old girl (102 cm, 17 kg) who sustained fatal craniocerebral injuries as a result of an inflating automobile air bag. The car struck the lid of the sewer system, which was 15 cm above the ground level, at a low speed, and both the driver and passenger air bags inflated. Despite the fact that air bag usage has lessened both the possibility and severity of occupant injuries in frontal collisions, case reports of serious injuries and even deaths especially in children due to air bag deployment, particularly during low speed impacts, highlight the need for changes in both system design and possibly the threshold speed of air bag deployment.

  9. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    PubMed Central

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  10. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    PubMed

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged < 12 years) were associated with passenger-side air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1).

  11. Air bags: reducing the toll of brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Jagger, J; Vernberg, K; Jane, J A

    1987-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for approximately one-half of all hospitalized patients with brain injury. Therefore, measures to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes have the potential for making a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of brain trauma. Occupant restraints, including seat belts and air bags, have been proven highly effective in preventing injuries, yet the specific benefits for the brain, the face, and the cervical spine provided by air bags have not been widely publicized. Air bags prevent the violent whiplash motion of the head in a frontal crash, resulting in a more controlled deceleration of the brain. Wrenching forces exerted on the cervical spine are attenuated, and the face is protected from contact with hard or lacerating surfaces. Furthermore, compliance is not a problem with air bags. When a car is equipped with air bags, they are in effect 100% of the time, which is important for the protection of high risk groups, such a teenage boys, who tend to wear seat belts less often than other groups. It is estimated from national data and from epidemiological studies that air bags could have prevented or reduced brain injury for 25% of the hospitalized, brain-injured population. If provided as standard equipment on both the driver and the passenger side, air bags could do more to reduce the toll of brain trauma than any other available intervention. Air bags were ready for introduction into the marketplace 15 years ago. Since then, approximately 150,000 preventable deaths and more than 1,500,000 preventable brain injuries have occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Driver air bag effectiveness by severity of the crash.

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis provided effectiveness estimates of the driver-side air bag while controlling for severity of the crash and other potential confounders. METHODS: Data were from the National Automotive Sampling System (1993-1996). Injury severity was described on the basis of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, Functional Capacity Index, and survival. Ordinal, linear, and logistic multivariate regression methods were used. RESULTS: Air bag deployment in frontal or near-frontal crashes decreases the probability of having severe and fatal injuries (e.g., Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 4-6), including those causing a long-lasting high degree of functional limitation. However, air bag deployment in low-severity crashes increases the probability that a driver (particularly a woman) will sustain injuries of Abbreviated Injury Scale level 1 to 3. Air bag deployment exerts a net injurious effect in low-severity crashes and a net protective effect in high-severity crashes. The level of crash severity at which air bags are protective is higher for female than for male drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Air bag improvement should minimize the injuries induced by their deployment. One possibility is to raise their deployment level so that they deploy only in more severe crashes. PMID:11029991

  13. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Chaplin, J. R.; Greaves, D. M.; Hann, M.

    2017-02-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  14. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2011-03-01

    We studied National Trauma Data Bank data to determine the effectiveness of car safety devices in reducing mortality and injury severity in 184,992 patients between 1988 and 2004. Safety device variables were seat belt used plus air bag deployed; only seat belt used; only air bag deployed; and, as explicitly coded, no device used. Overall mortality was 4.17%. Compared with the no-device group, the seat-belt-plus-air-bag group had a 67% reduction in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.33; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern.

  15. Deaths among drivers and right-front passengers in frontal collisions: redesigned air bags relative to first-generation air bags.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Scerbo, Marge; Kufera, Joseph A; Alexander, Melvin T; Volpini, Karen; Lloyd, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    After automakers were allowed the option of using sled tests for unbelted male dummies to certify the frontal crash performance of vehicles, most frontal air bags were depowered, starting in model year 1998, to reduce deaths and serious injuries arising from air bag deployments. Concern has been expressed that depowering air bags could compromise the protection of adult occupants. This study aimed to determine the effects of changes in air bag designs on risk of death among front-seat occupants. Deaths among drivers and right-front passengers per involvement in frontal police-reported crashes during calendar years 1998-2004 were compared among vehicles with sled-certified air bags (model years 1998-2004) and first-generation air bags (model years 1994-97). Frontal crash deaths were identified from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. National estimates of police-reported crashes were derived from the National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System. Sled certification status for model years 1998-2004 was ascertained from published federal data and a survey of automobile manufacturers. Passenger cars, pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles, and minivans were studied. Stratified analyses were done to compute risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for driver and right-front passenger deaths by air bag generation and crash, vehicle, and driver characteristics. In frontal crashes, overall RRs were 0.89 for driver deaths (95% CI = 0.74-1.08) and 0.89 for right-front passenger deaths (95% CI = 0.74-1.07) in sled-certified vehicles compared with first-generation air bag-equipped vehicles. Child right-front passengers (ages 0-4, 5-9) in vehicles with sled-certified air bags had statistically significant reductions in risk of dying in frontal collisions, including a 65% reduced risk among ages 0-4 (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.21-0.60). No differences in effects of sled-certified air bags were observed between drivers ages 15-59 and 60-74 in sled

  16. Air bags: a major advance in injury control.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K S

    1999-01-01

    Motor vehicle related injury is the number one cause of injury related to morbidity and mortality, exceeding 5 million injuries per year. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that motor vehicles equipped with air bags make a significant impact in reducing both the severity of injury and the overall fatality rate. Nurses are a key resource in the prevention and mitigation of motor vehicle related injury. Nurses must not only be knowledgeable in the vital role that air bags play in motor vehicle crashes, but actively promote and educate individuals and groups regarding injury prevention programs that focus on air bags. Nurses also play an essential role in this approach to injury through the development of partnerships among businesses, government, health care, community groups, and consumers.

  17. Front air bag nondeployments in frontal crashes fatal to drivers or right-front passengers.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; McCartt, Anne T; Sherwood, Christopher P; Zuby, David S; Blanar, Laura; Scerbo, Marge

    2010-04-01

    Public concern has arisen about the reliability of front air bags because Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data indicate many nondeployed air bags in fatal frontal crashes. However, the accuracy of air bag deployment, the variable in question, is uncertain. This study aimed to provide more certain estimates of nondeployment incidence in fatal frontal crashes. Fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers and right-front passengers in frontal crashes were identified in two U.S. databases for calendar years 1998-2006 and model years 1994-2006: FARS, a census of police-reported fatal crashes on public roads, and National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), a probability sample of tow-away crashes. NASS/CDS contains subsets of fatal crashes in FARS and collects detailed data using crash investigators. Front air bag deployment coding for front-seat occupant fatalities was compared in FARS and NASS/CDS, and case reviews were conducted. Among FARS frontal deaths with available deployment status (N = 43,169), front air bags were coded as not deployed for 18 percent of front occupants. In comparison, NASS/CDS (N = 628) reported 9 percent (weighted estimate) nondeployment among front occupants killed. Among crashes common to both databases, NASS/CDS reported deployments for 45 percent of front occupant deaths for which FARS had coded nondeployments. Detailed case reviews of NASS/CDS crashes indicated highly accurate coding for deployment status. Based on this case review, 8 percent (weighted estimate) of front occupant deaths in frontal crashes appeared to involve air bag nondeployments; 1-2 percent of front occupant deaths represented potential system failures where deployments would have been expected. Air bag deployments appeared unwarranted in most nondeployments based on crash characteristics. FARS data overstate the magnitude of the problem of air bag deployment failures; steps should be taken to improve coding. There are inherent

  18. Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olson, Carin M; Cummings, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-07-15

    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children. Second-generation air bags were developed to reduce the risks for children, despite the possibility of decreasing protection for others. Using a matched cohort design, the authors estimated risk ratios for death for use of each generation of air bag versus no air bag, adjusted for seat position, restraint use, sex, age, and all vehicle and crash characteristics, among 128,208 automobile occupants involved in fatal crashes on US roadways during 1990-2002. The authors then compared adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) between the two generations of air bags. Among front seat occupants, the aRR for death with a first-generation air bag was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94); the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.00) (p = 0.83 for comparison of aRRs). Among children under age 6 years, the aRR with a first-generation air bag was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.30), while the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) (p = 0.20 for comparison of aRRs). The differences in aRRs between first- and second-generation air bags among other subgroups were small and not statistically significant.

  19. The influence of air bags and restraining devices on extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    McGovern, M K; Murphy, R X; Okunski, W J; Wasser, T E

    2000-05-01

    The influence of air bags and other restraining devices on injury after motor vehicle collisions is not well defined. This study examined the relationship between the use of restraining devices and the incidence of extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions. A retrospective analysis was performed on motor vehicle collision data submitted to the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database from 1990 through 1995. Criteria for submission included trauma patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit, who died during hospitalization, who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours, or who were transferred in or out of the receiving hospital. A total of 21,875 patients met these criteria. These patients were analyzed for the presence or absence of upper and lower extremity injuries and were compared based on their use of restraining devices. Restraining devices were categorized into four groups: air bag alone, air bag and seat belt, seat belt or carseat without air bag, and no restraining device. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test of association. For contingency tables with small expected frequencies, Fisher's exact test was used. Study participants included 11,688 men and 10,185 women with a mean age of 38 +/- 20 years. There were 16,033 drivers and 5,842 passengers. Air bags were deployed in 472 instances. In 297 of these cases, additional restraint was provided with a seat belt. In 6,632 cases, air bags were not deployed; however, patients were restrained with either a seat belt or a carseat. In 14,771 cases, patients were not restrained. When comparing restraining devices as a group vs. no restraint, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of upper (p = 0.018) and lower (p < 0.001) extremity injuries. Air bags, however, were associated with an increased incidence of both upper (p = 0.033) and lower (p = 0.002) extremity injuries when compared with no restraint or when compared among patients who were restrained. As a group

  20. Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.

  1. [Injuries to car passengers protected by air bags].

    PubMed

    Sefrin, P; Kuhnigk, H; Koburg, R

    2004-11-01

    The air bag, like the seatbelt, is a further development of the inside protection of motorcar passengers. However, the airbag has also been made responsible for severe internal injuries. In a retrospective case control study, 394 accidents in which the air bag was released were analysed. At least medium severe injuries (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale: MAIS > or = 2) occurred in 69 cases. Three different patterns of injury were distinguished depending on the level of difficulty of diagnosis by the emergency physician. Damage to the vehicles was scored in five intensities or damage grades. Thoracic injury was most frequently diagnosed in the patients (in 61.5 % of cases), followed by injuries to the lower (50.8 %) and upper extremities (47.7 %). Single injuries with a grade of severity of 2 (MAIS) predominated (59.7 %). In most of the cases the injury was easy to diagnose (64.6 %) because of external signs, in 24.6 % internal injuries were assumed and in only 10.8 % were there no sings of damage to body cavities. Most frequent were occult injuries in the thoracic region (100 %) and in the abdomen (74.4 %). However, occult injuries did not always conform to the grade of deformation to the vehicle, since in 66.7 % the grade of damage was 3. This was not true for the remaining types of injury because external injuries increased with the grade of damage to the vehicle. After the release of the air bag, occult injuries of the body cavities have to be expected, even if there are no signs of external injury. Women under 35 years of age are particularly endangered. There exists no minimum velocity for the occurrence of injuries to the body cavities because harm can simply be a result of the release of the air bag.

  2. Report of the Building 9207 air bag test

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, T.E.; Fricke, K.E.; Jones, W.D.

    1992-12-01

    As part of a major testing program now underway at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), a full-scale air bag test was conducted in Building 9207. The test program, supported and managed by the Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), is intended to determine the stiffness and strength of unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTVS) in order to more accurately analyze and predict the response of buildings containing these type of walls, especially when subjected to seismic and high wind loadings. The air bag test was a very large undertaking that started more than a year before the test was actually performed. Preparation for the test included the following activities: (1) preparation of the wall and the adjacent building areas; (2) design and field fabrication of test supporting structures; (3) procurement of equipment and instrumentation; (4) development of supporting test procedures and checklists; (5) installation of over seventy linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and strain gages; (6) development of computer programs for use in the data acquisition systems; (7) extensive review into the existing engineering literature; (8) discussions with researchers with prior experience performing air bag tests; (9) coordination with the building operators; (10) plant safety reviews; and (11) dry runs of the test itself.

  3. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  4. The field performance of frontal air bags: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Viano, David C; Crandall, Jeff

    2005-03-01

    This article presents a broad review of the literature on frontal air bag field performance, starting with the initial government and industry projections of effectiveness and concluding with the most recent assessments of depowered systems. This review includes as many relevant metrics as practicable, interprets the findings, and provides references so the interested reader can further evaluate the limitations, confounders, and utility of each metric. The evaluations presented here range from the very specific (individual case studies) to the general (statistical analyses of large databases). The metrics used to evaluate air bag performance include fatality reduction or increase; serious, moderate, and minor injury reduction or increase; harm reduction or increase; and cost analyses, including insurance costs and the cost of life years saved for various air bag systems and design philosophies. The review begins with the benefits of air bags. Fatality and injury reductions attributable to the air bag are presented. Next, the negative consequences of air bag deployment are described. Injuries to adults and children and the current trends in air bag injury rates are discussed, as are the few documented instances of inadvertent deployments or non-deployment in severe crashes. In the third section, an attempt is made to quantify the influence of the many confounding factors that affect air bag performance. The negative and positive characteristics of air bags are then put into perspective within the context of societal costs and benefits. Finally, some special topics, including risk homeostasis and the performance of face bags, are discussed.

  5. Air Bag Protection of the Gunner in the U.S. Army Cobra AH-1Q

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    4 Si CHAPTER II REFERENCES EVALUATION Present Day Air Bags Much infortnation concerning air bags has been published in recent years. General Motors Corporation...Restraint Systems." Presented in their paper is a discussion of the air bag restraint system developed by General Motors along with problems...service needs. (Klove, E.H. and Oglesby, Robert N., May, 1972) A paper was prepared by Klove for General Motors ’ 1973 Report on 14 Progress in Areas of

  6. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael; Elliott, Michael; Cornejo, Rebecca A; Arbogast, Kristy B; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of children's exposure to passenger air bag (PAB) deployments and to determine the relative risk of both minor and more serious nonfatal injuries to restrained children exposed to PABs in frontal impact collisions. Data were collected from 1 December 1998 to 30 November 2001 from a large-scale, child-specific crash surveillance system based on insurance claims, a telephone survey, and on-site crash investigations. Vehicles qualifying for inclusion were State Farm-insured, model year 1990 or newer, and involved in a crash with at least one child occupant < or =15 years of age. Qualifying crashes were limited to those that occurred in 15 states and the District of Columbia. A stratified cluster sample was designed in order to select vehicles (the unit of sampling) for the conduction of a telephone survey with the driver. For cases in which child occupants were seriously injured or killed, in-depth crash investigations were performed. The prevalence of exposure to PABs was calculated as the number of children occupying the right front seat in a PAB deployment crash among all children occupying the right front seat in vehicles equipped with PABs. Complete interview data were obtained on 9,779 vehicles involving 15,341 children. Among PAB-exposed children, 175 (14%) suffered serious injuries versus 41 (7.5%) of those in the comparison group (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). The overall risk of any injury (both minor and serious) was 86% among children exposed to PABs, compared to 55% among the comparison group (OR 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.4). Exposure to PABs increased the risk of both minor injuries, including facial and chest abrasions, and more serious injuries, particularly upper extremity fractures.

  7. Evaluation of Advanced Air Bag Deployment Algorithm Performance using Event Data Recorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Hampton C.; Hinch, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 for advanced air bags, through the use of Event Data Recorders (EDRs). Although advanced restraint systems have been extensively tested in the laboratory, we are only beginning to understand the performance of these systems in the field. Because EDRs record many of the inputs to the advanced air bag control module, these devices can provide unique insights into the characteristics of field performance of air bags. The study was based on 164 advanced air bag cases extracted from NASS/CDS 2002-2006 with associated EDR data. In this dataset, advanced driver air bags were observed to deploy with a 50% probability at a longitudinal delta-V of 9 mph for the first stage, and at 26 mph for both inflator stages. In general, advanced air bag performance was as expected, however, the study identified cases of air bag deployments at delta-Vs as low as 3-4 mph, non-deployments at delta-Vs over 26 mph, and possible delayed air bag deployments. PMID:19026234

  8. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  10. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... regulation that permits motor vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by...

  11. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose request for a switch has been approved by the agency. This regulation...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 595 - Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches C Appendix C to Part 595 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... EXEMPTIONS Pt. 595, App. C Appendix C to Part 595—Installation of Air Bag On-Off Switches ER21NO97.012 ...

  16. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  17. Effect of Vehicle type on the Performance of Second Generation Air Bags for Child Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars – those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury – and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  18. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  19. Air-bag-associated fatal injuries to infants and children riding in front passenger seats--United States.

    PubMed

    1995-11-17

    Air bags, when used as a supplement to safety belts, effectively prevent deaths and serious injuries in frontal motor-vehicle crashes. Air bags are standard equipment in most new cars; federal safety standards require that all new passenger cars and light trucks be equipped with both driver- and passenger-side air bags by 1999. The safety of air bags is well documented, and air bags have saved an estimated 900 lives since the late 1980s (1); however, special precautions are needed to safely transport children in vehicles equipped with air bags. Reports of eight deaths of child passengers in crashes involving air-bag deployment are of special concern because they involved low-speed crashes that the children otherwise might have survived. This report summarizes three of these eight cases (2).

  20. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    PubMed

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  1. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National... on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report... technical report is available on the Internet for viewing in PDF format at...

  2. Association of driver air bags with driver fatality: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Rivara, Frederick P; Grossman, David C

    2002-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of driver air bag presence with driver fatality in road traffic crashes. Design Matched pair cohort study. Setting All passenger vehicle crashes in the United States during 1990-2000 inclusive. Subjects 51 031 driver-passenger pairs in the same vehicle. Main outcome measures Relative risk of death within 30 days of a crash. Results Drivers with an air bag were less likely to die than drivers without an air bag (adjusted relative risk 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.96)). This estimate was nearly the same whether drivers wore a seat belt (adjusted relative risk 0.93) or not (0.91). Air bags were associated with more protection for women (0.88 (0.82 to 0.93)), than for men (0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)). Drivers wearing a seat belt were less likely to die than unbelted drivers (0.35 (0.33 to 0.36)). Belted drivers with an air bag were less likely to die than unbelted drivers without an air bag (0.32 (0.30 to 0.34)). Conclusions If the associations are causal the average risk of driver death was reduced 8% (95% confidence interval 4% to 12%) by an air bag. Benefit was similar for belted and unbelted drivers and was slightly greater for women. However, seat belts offered much more protection than air bags. What is already known on this topicStudies have estimated that driver air bags reduce the risk of death in a road vehicle crash by 10-14%These studies disagree as to whether benefit is greater for drivers wearing a seat belt or for unbelted driversWhat this study addsHaving an air bag was associated with an 8% reduction in the risk of death, whether the driver was belted or notThe reduction in risk was greater for women (12%) than for men (6%)Seat belts provided much greater protection, with seat belt use reducing the risk of death by 65% (or by 68% in combination with an air bag) PMID:12003882

  3. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    PubMed

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug.

  4. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, A; Chaplin, J R; Hann, M R; Greaves, D M; Farley, F J M

    2017-04-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are generally in good agreement with numerical predictions. Both show that the trajectory of possible combinations of pressure and elevation at which the device is in static equilibrium takes the shape of an S. This means that statically the device can have three different draughts, and correspondingly three different bag shapes, for the same pressure. The behaviour in waves depends on where the mean pressure-elevation condition is on the static trajectory. The captured power is highest for a mean condition on the middle section.

  5. [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential].

    PubMed

    Björnstig, Ulf; Haraldsson, Per-Olle; Polland, Werner; Sandström, Thomas

    2002-07-11

    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects. In a frontal air bag deployment the cushion expands with a speed of about 200 km/h towards the driver. A person within the expansion zone, i.e. within 20 centimetres from the steering wheel hub, may experience a considerable injury risk. Short people, pregnant women and people "out of normal position" are especially at risk, as well as paramedics exposed for accidentally deployed air bags during rescue work. The gas generator in the air bag produces nitrogen in a chemical process. However, small amounts of NaOH (caustic soda) may leak out of the gas generator and may contaminate eyes and wounds and cause injuries and delay healing. The air bag gases may provoke an asthmatic attack in sensible individuals and a few will experience a hearing loss, often in the range of 4,000-6,000 Hz, from the sound impulse that may reach a level of 170 dB. Correct handling, based on a familiarity of the effects and side effects of modern restraint systems, would minimise the risk of adverse effects of this safety equipment.

  6. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car collisions in the United States. They used a matched case-control design of all head-on collisions involving two passenger cars reported to the Fatality Analysis Reporting System in 1992-1997, and driver mortality differences between the paired crash vehicles for air bag deployment and seat belt use were measured with matched-pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple effects. There were 9,859 head-on collisions involving 19,718 passenger cars and drivers. Air bag deployment reduced mortality 63% (crude odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.42), while lap-shoulder belt use reduced mortality 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.31). In a conditional logistic model that adjusted for vehicle (rollover, weight, age) and driver (age, sex) factors, air bags (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) and any combination of seat belts (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.29) were both associated with reduced mortality. Combined air bag and seat belt use reduced mortality by more than 80% (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.25). Thus, this study confirms the independent effect of air bags and seat belts in reducing mortality.

  7. A fatal case of air-bag-mediated liver injury in an unrestrained driver.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Koichi; Uchida, Kyoko; Nara, Akina; Ochiai, Eriko

    2009-04-01

    A middle-aged man, who drove a small vehicle while drunken and not wearing a seat belt, crashed head on into a pier wall at a high speed. The rapid air-bag deployment caused abdominal compression of the driver, who was found dead 2 m away from the car. There were facial front-glass injuries and multiple rib fractures, but no head injury. Autopsy disclosed liver laceration with intra-abdominal hemorrhage (2,000 mL), resulting in hemorrhagic shock. This is the first autopsy report of liver laceration caused by the rapid expansion of an air-bag during an automobile crash.

  8. 76 FR 33406 - Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Lotus Cars Ltd. Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary... Cars Ltd. has petitioned the agency for renewal of a temporary exemption from certain advanced air bag... cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as ``advanced air bags.'' \\2\\ The upgrade...

  9. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... Manufacturers In 2000, NHTSA upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks... completely new passenger car model. Design and development of the Karma began in late 2007. The Karma...

  10. Driver and front seat passenger fatalities associated with air bag deployment. Part 1: A Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Shkrum, Michael J; McClafferty, Kevin J; Nowak, Edwin S; German, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Real world motor vehicle collision research of injuries due to deployment of "first-generation" air bags has been conducted by Transport Canada since 1993. Fifty-three fatal crashes (36 frontal impacts; 17 side collisions) involving 48 drivers and 10 right front passengers were reviewed. In the Canadian data, air bag deployment in five of nine low severity frontal crashes (delta-V (deltaV) < 25 km/h or 15 mph) was linked to five deaths, four of whom were autopsied (four adults with craniocervical (basal skull and C2 fracture with brainstem avulsion; "closed head injury"--no autopsy) or chest trauma (aortic or pulmonary artery tears); one child with atlanto-occipital dislocation). An occupant who is close ("out-of-position") to the air bag at the time of deployment is at risk for injury. In 27 high severity frontal impacts, unusual (e.g., pulmonary "blast" hemorrhage in one autopsied case) or isolated potentially survivable injuries (e.g., clinically documented ruptured right atrium; probable flail chest observed during the autopsy on a decomposed body) localized to the head, neck or chest in three possibly out-of-position drivers pointed to the deployed air bag as a source of injury. In one of 17 side collisions an out-of-position driver sustained a radiographically confirmed C1-C2 dislocation in a minimally intruded vehicle.

  11. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Investigation of the Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle Having a Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System. An investigation was made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a reentry vehicle having a multiple-air-bag load-alleviation system. A 1/16-scale dynamic model having four canted air bags was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical), 45 degrees, and 27 degrees for a parachute or paraglider vertical letdown velocity of 30 feet per second (full scale). Landings were made on concrete at attitudes ranging from -l5 degrees to 20 degrees. The friction coefficient between the model heat shield and the concrete was approximately 0.4. An aluminum diaphragm, designed to rupture at 10.8 pounds per square inch gage, was used to maintain initial pressure in the air bags for a short time period. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030986. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  13. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  14. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  15. Baby sleeping bag and conventional bedding conditions--comparative investigations by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Sauseng, W; Kerbl, R; Thaller, S; Hanzer, M; Zotter, H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal stress is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recently, baby sleeping bags have been recommended as a preventive measure against SIDS. The aim of this study was to describe in which way the use of baby sleeping bags might influence thermoregulation of sleeping infants and maybe the incidence of SIDS. Body surface temperature was recorded by use of infrared thermography in 15 infants (median age 49 days). Recordings were done twice: after sleeping for 60 min under a blanket and after sleeping for 60 min in a baby sleeping bag. Temperature was recorded and compared for defined sites of body surface. Infants' mean body surface temperature as well as core temperature after sleeping in a baby sleeping bag did not show significant differences when compared to infants sleeping under a conventional blanket. Under controlled conditions, core temperature and mean body surface temperature are comparable, equally if using a baby sleeping bag or conventional bedding. However, under the more uncontrolled conditions of baby care at home, sleeping bags might provide a more constant temperature profile, while other bedding conditions may lead to significant variations of temperature pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Linear Heave Dynamics of an Air-Cushion Vehicle Bag-and-Finger Skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon; Sullivan, Phillip A.

    Results from a linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle equipped with a bag-and-finger skirt are described. A two-dimensional section of the cushion is subject to pure heave or long-wave surface motion inputs. The skirt mass is lumped in the fingers, with the bag being modelled as a combination of massless inelastic membranes and links. The airflows from bag to cushion and from cushion to atmosphere are assumed quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. For a configuration representative of a 37t vehicle, frequency response characteristics show the effect of skirt geometry and mass changes, and cushion capacitance. The results suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify an undesirable heave response, but reducing the skirt mass may be effective. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent at the low cushion-flow rates now used in practice.

  17. [Air bags influence the pattern of injury in severe thoracic trauma].

    PubMed

    Pillgram-Larsen, J; Geiran, O

    1997-06-30

    Severe intrathoracic cardiovascular injuries were found in three patients who were drivers of cars involved in head on collisions causing air bags to be released. A 32 year old male had not worn a seat belt, while a 39 year old female was restrained by a seat belt. The male patient suffered an intimal lesion of the brachiocephalic artery. Extensive soft tissue haematomas were seen subcutaneously and retrosternally. The female suffered a rupture of the aortic isthmus and a dislocated pelvic fracture. Vascular repair was performed in both patients. The female died after two months without having regained consciousness. The third patient, a 47 year old male, had not worn a seat belt. He lost his pulse within minutes. Midline emergency thoracotomy showed a complete rupture of the right atrium. An air bag protects against injuries caused by hitting internal parts of the vehicle. It does not necessarily protect against deceleration trauma in high speed collisions.

  18. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  19. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of sample recovery of malodorous livestock gases from air sampling bags, solid-phase microextraction fibers, Tenax TA sorbent tubes, and sampling canisters.

    PubMed

    Koziel, Jacek A; Spinhirne, Jarett P; Lloyd, Jenny D; Parker, David B; Wright, Donald W; Kuhrt, Fred W

    2005-08-01

    Odorous gases associated with livestock operations are complex mixtures of hundreds if not thousands of compounds. Research is needed to know how best to sample and analyze these compounds. The main objective of this research was to compare recoveries of a standard gas mixture of 11 odorous compounds from the Carboxen/PDMS 75-microm solid-phase microextraction fibers, polyvinyl fluoride (PVF; Tedlar), fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP; Teflon), foil, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET; Melinex) air sampling bags, sorbent 2,b-diphenylene-oxide polymer resin (Tenax TA) tubes, and standard 6-L Stabilizer sampling canisters after sample storage for 0.5, 24, and 120 (for sorbent tubes only) hrs at room temperature. The standard gas mixture consisted of 7 volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from acetic to hexanoic, and 4 semivolatile organic compounds including p-cresol, indole, 4-ethylphenol, and 2'-aminoacetophenone with concentrations ranging from 5.1 ppb for indole to 1270 ppb for acetic acid. On average, SPME had the highest mean recovery for all 11 gases of 106.2%, and 98.3% for 0.5- and 24-hr sample storage time, respectively. This was followed by the Tenax TA sorbent tubes (94.8% and 88.3%) for 24 and 120 hr, respectively; PET bags (71.7% and 47.2%), FEP bags (75.4% and 39.4%), commercial Tedlar bags (67.6% and 22.7%), in-house-made Tedlar bags (47.3% and 37.4%), foil bags (16.4% and 4.3%), and canisters (4.2% and 0.5%), for 0.5 and 24 hr, respectively. VFAs had higher recoveries than semivolatile organic compounds for all of the bags and canisters. New FEP bags and new foil bags had the lowest and the highest amounts of chemical impurities, respectively. New commercial Tedlar bags had measurable concentrations of N,N-dimethyl acetamide and phenol. Foil bags had measurable concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and hexanoic acids.

  1. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  2. Sampling of trace volatile metal(loid) compounds in ambient air using polymer bags: a convenient method.

    PubMed

    Haas, K; Feldmann, J

    2000-09-01

    The sampling of volatile metal(loid) compounds (VOMs) such as hydrides, methylated, and permethylated species of arsenic, antimony, and tin is described using Tedlar bags. Advantages as well as limitations and constraints are discussed and compared to other widely used sampling techniques within this area, namely, stainless steel canisters, cryotrapping, and solid adsorbent cartridges. To prove the suitability of Tedlar bags for the sampling of volatile metal(loid) compounds, series of stability tests have been run using both laboratory synthetic and real samples analyzed periodically after increasing periods of storage. The samples have been stored in the dark at 20 degrees C and at 50 degrees C. Various volatile arsenic species (AsH3, MeAsH2, Me2AsH, Me3As), tin species (SnH4, MeSnH3, Me2SnH2, Me3SnH, Me4Sn, BuSnH3), and antimony species (SbH3, MeSbH2, Me2SbH, Me3Sb) have been generated using hydride generation methodology and mixed with moisturized air. Three static gaseous atmospheres with concentrations of 0.3-18 ng/L for the various compounds have been generated in Tedlar bags, and the stability of the VOMs has been monitored over a period of 5 weeks. Sewage sludge digester gas samples have been stored only at 20 degrees C for a period of 48 h. Cryotrapping GC/ICPMS has been used for the determination of the VOMs with a relative standard deviation of 5% for 100 pg. After 8 h, the recovery rate of all the compounds in the air atmospheres was better than 95% at 20 and 50 degrees C, whereas the recovery after 24 h was found to be between 81 and 99% for all VOMs at 20 and 50 degrees C except for Me3Sb and Me3As. These species show a loss between 48 and 73% at both temperatures. After 5 weeks at 20 degrees C, a loss of only 25-50% for arsine and stibine and the above-mentioned tin compounds was determined. Only Me3Sb, Me3Bi, and Me2Te were present in the digester gas sample. After 24 h, losses of 44, 10, and 12%, respectively, could be determined. Given these

  3. The Chemistry behind the Air Bag: High Tech in First-Year Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madlung, Andreas

    1996-04-01

    The chemical process of air bag deployment provides practical applications of gas laws and stoichiometric equations appropriate for use in first-year chemistry. In case of an accident the mixture of NaN3, KNO3, and SiO2 in the gas generator is ignited through an electrical impulse which triggers deflagration and the liberation of a precalculated volume of nitrogen gas. Subsequent reactions transform byproducts into stable, non-toxic compounds. This process lends itself as an illustration of gas laws in modern technology.

  4. Risk of injury associated with the use of seat belts and air bags in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2008-01-01

    Although air bags have been reported to reduce passenger mortality in frontal collisions, they have also been reported as a cause of injury in motor vehicle collisions(MVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients involved in MVCs to determine mortality and the pattern of injuries associated with seat belt use and air bag deployment. Information on patients involved in MVCs from 1988 to 2004 was obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The data was evaluated based on four groups of safety devices: seat belt and deployed air bag (SBAB), seat belt only (SBO), deployed air bag only (ABO), and no safety devices (None). A total of 35,333 patients met study inclusion criteria. Air bags and seat belts used in combination decreased the risk of potentially fatal injuries, but increased the risk of lower extremity injuries (odds ratio, 1.35). The use of any type of restraint led to a decrease in the risk of injury or mortality in MVCs. Only half of all individuals in this study used any type of restraint device, which indicates the need for significant improvements in public health and safety seat belt utilization programs.

  5. Crash scene photography in motor vehicle crashes without air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Newgard, Craig D; Martens, Katherine A; Lyons, Evelyn M

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether vehicle characteristics, measured using crash scene photography, are associated with anatomic patterns of injury and severity of injury sustained in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) without air bag deployment. A prospective observational study was conducted over 22 months, using 12 fire departments serving two hospitals. Two vehicle photographs (exterior and interior) were taken at each MVC. Vehicular variables were assigned by grading the photographs with a standardized scoring system, and outcome information on each patient was collected by chart review. Five hundred fifty-nine patients were entered into the study. Frontal crashes and increasing passenger space intrusion (PSI) were associated with head, facial, and lower-extremity injuries, while rear crashes were associated with spinal injuries. Restraint use had a protective effect in head, facial, and upper and lower extremity injuries, yet was associated with higher odds of spinal injury. Lack of restraint use, increasing PSI, and steering wheel deformity were associated with an increased hospital length of stay and hospital charges, yet only steering wheel deformity was associated with increasing injury severity when adjusting for other crash variables. Out-of-hospital variables, as obtained from crash vehicle photography, are associated with injury site, injury severity, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in patients involved in MVCs without air bag deployment.

  6. Acute cervical spinal cord injury secondary to air bag deployment without proper use of lap or shoulder harnesses.

    PubMed

    Hart, R A; Mayberry, J C; Herzberg, A M

    2000-02-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient with cervical central spinal cord syndrome caused by a hyperextension injury after a motor vehicle collision in which the air bag deployed in the absence of shoulder or lap belt harnesses. The potential for cervical spine and spinal cord hyperextension injuries in passengers positioned in front of air bags without proper use of shoulder or lap belt harnesses is discussed. Cervical central spinal cord quadriplegia occurred with cervical spondylosis and kyphosis that was managed by early three-level cervical corpectomy in a 58-year-old patient. Early improvement in the patient's neurological status occurred but was incomplete at the time of this report. Cervical hyperextension injuries are possible in passengers positioned in the front seat of cars with air bags when shoulder or lap belt harnesses are not used properly. Previous biomechanical studies have documented the potential for these types of injuries.

  7. Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule with a Torus-Shaped Air Bag for Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule by using torus-shaped air bags for impact-load alleviation. An impact bag was attached below the large end of the capsule to absorb initial impact loads and a second bag was attached around the canister to absorb loads resulting from impact on the canister when the capsule overturned. A 1/6-scale dynamic model of the configuration was tested for nominal flight paths of 60 deg. and 90 deg. (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -25 deg. to 30 deg., and a vertical contact velocity of 12.25 feet per second. Accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) by accelerometers rigidly installed at the center of gravity of the model. Actual flight path, contact attitudes, and motions were determined from high-speed motion pictures. Landings were made on concrete and on water. The peak accelerations along the X-axis for landings on concrete were in the order of 3Og for a 0 deg. contact attitude. A horizontal velocity of 7 feet per second, corresponding to a flight path of 60 deg., had very little effect upon the peak accelerations obtained for landings on concrete. For contact attitudes of -25 deg. and 30 deg. the peak accelerations along the Z-axis were about +/- l5g, respectively. The peak accelerations measured for the water landings were about one-third lower than the peak accelerations measured for the landings on concrete. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made by using Newton's second law of motion and the force-stroke characteristics of the air bag to determine accelerations for a flight path of 90 deg. (vertical) and a contact attitude of 0 deg. The computed and experimental peak accelerations and strokes at peak acceleration were in good agreement for the model. The special scaling appears to be applicable for predicting full-scale time and stroke at peak acceleration for a landing on concrete from a 90 deg

  8. Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule with a Torus-Shaped Air Bag for Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule by using torus-shaped air bags for impact-load alleviation. An impact bag was attached below the large end of the capsule to absorb initial impact loads and a second bag was attached around the canister to absorb loads resulting from impact on the canister when the capsule overturned. A 1/6-scale dynamic model of the configuration was tested for nominal flight paths of 60 deg. and 90 deg. (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -25 deg. to 30 deg., and a vertical contact velocity of 12.25 feet per second. Accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) by accelerometers rigidly installed at the center of gravity of the model. Actual flight path, contact attitudes, and motions were determined from high-speed motion pictures. Landings were made on concrete and on water. The peak accelerations along the X-axis for landings on concrete were in the order of 3Og for a 0 deg. contact attitude. A horizontal velocity of 7 feet per second, corresponding to a flight path of 60 deg., had very little effect upon the peak accelerations obtained for landings on concrete. For contact attitudes of -25 deg. and 30 deg. the peak accelerations along the Z-axis were about +/- l5g, respectively. The peak accelerations measured for the water landings were about one-third lower than the peak accelerations measured for the landings on concrete. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made by using Newton's second law of motion and the force-stroke characteristics of the air bag to determine accelerations for a flight path of 90 deg. (vertical) and a contact attitude of 0 deg. The computed and experimental peak accelerations and strokes at peak acceleration were in good agreement for the model. The special scaling appears to be applicable for predicting full-scale time and stroke at peak acceleration for a landing on concrete from a 90 deg

  9. Differences in the effectiveness of frontal air bags by body size among adults involved in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Newgard, Craig D; McConnell, K John

    2008-10-01

    There is concern that small stature occupants (particularly women) involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) may be at risk of injury or death from frontal air bags, though evidence to substantiate this concern is lacking. We sought to assess how occupant body size (measured through height and weight) affects air bag effectiveness in mitigating the risk of serious injury, after adjusting for important crash factors. This was a retrospective cohort study using a national population-based cohort of adult front-seat occupants involved in MVCs as included in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System database (NASS CDS) from 1995 to 2006. Drivers and front-seat passengers 15 years and older involved in MVCs involving passenger vehicles and light trucks were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was serious injury, defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score >or=3 in any body region. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test interaction terms (effect modification) between air bags, body size, and injury. The predicted probability of injury across body sizes was plotted to further illustrate potential differences. Sixty-nine thousand three hundred eighty-seven adult front-seat occupants during the 12-year period were included in the analysis, of which 9333 (2.3%) were seriously injured. There was no evidence that height or weight modified air bag effectiveness among all crashes (p > .40). In primary frontal collisions, there was some evidence for effect modification by weight (p = .04) but not by height (p = .59). When assessed using air bag deployment, height was a strong effect modifier (p = .0078), but not weight (p = .43). Predicted probability figures confirmed that occupant height modifies the effect of air bag deployment, but there was no similar visual evidence for body weight. In this sample, we found no consistent evidence that body size modifies the overall effectiveness of frontal air bags. However

  10. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

  11. Cool Space Bags Filled With Funny Voice Air Studying Space Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, A. J.; MacDonald, E.

    2016-12-01

    Today I will tell you a bit about our work: big bags of funny voice air looking at space rain into the top of the sky, where there's not much sky left. So what makes stuff, both hot and cold tiny stuff, and I mean tiny tiny things, like really tiny things, fall into the top of the sky? Many different things. Some of these things are really really long waves, long waves, short waves that make angry cat noises, and short waves that sound like animals that fly in the morning along with other things. But how do we study this? We use big bags filled with funny voice air to fly near the top of the sky. When the tiny things that can't be seen rain into the top of the sky they make lights that can not be seen by eye, some move fast like the tiny things and many move slower. Our big bags of funny voice air carry computers and things that can see this light that can not be seen by eye. We use this not seen light to tell us what stuff fell into the top of the sky. Some waves will push the slower tiny stuff and some waves will push the faster tiny stuff. By looking at the number of slow and fast stuff we can help find out what pushed it. With our friends, computers who fly in space, we can see the different waves in space and see if it was where the tiny things rained into the top of the sky. Why do we study this? These tiny things can hurt our friends in space, both the computers as well as people in space and here in the world. We want to be able to know when this space rain will happen. But in order to know when these tiny tiny things will fall into the sky we have to first learn how to best look at and study them. Then we will know how often they rain down, where this space rain happens, and how large of an area this space rain falls in.

  12. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs.

  13. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  14. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption... Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Wheego Electric Cars, Inc., has... 2000, NHTSA upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring...

  15. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for.... 208, Occupant Crash Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc... requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly known as...

  16. 78 FR 15114 - Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... exemption from a provision of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash... manufacturers were not subject to these advanced air bag requirements until the end of the phase-in period, which was September 1, 2006. A second phase-in period required vehicles to be certified as meeting the...

  17. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... forth in the heading of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: William H. Shakely, Office of...-3820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Advanced Air Bag Requirements and Small Volume Manufacturers In... petitioner must provide specified information in submitting a petition for exemption. These requirements are...

  18. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ˜12 < We < ˜16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We = 12( {1 + 2/3 Oh^2 } ), is found to match well with experimental data {[L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545-560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, "Formation of drops and bubbles," in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]}. An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  19. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  20. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  1. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  2. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag and dialysis samplers in selected wells at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Pravecek, Tasha

    2002-01-01

    Field comparisons of chemical concentrations obtained from dialysis samplers, passive diffusion bag samplers, and low-flow samplers showed generally close agreement in most of the 13 wells tested during July 2001 at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. The data for chloride, sulfate, iron, alkalinity, arsenic, and methane appear to show that the dialysis samplers are capable of accurately collecting a passive sample for these constituents. In general, the comparisons of volatile organic compound concentrations showed a relatively close correspondence between the two different types of diffusion samples and between the diffusion samples and the low-flow samples collected in most wells. Divergence appears to have resulted primarily from the pumping method, either producing a mixed sample or water not characteristic of aquifer water moving through the borehole under ambient conditions. The fact that alkalinity was not detected in the passive diffusion bag samplers, highly alkaline waters without volatilization loss from effervescence, which can occur when a sample is acidified for preservation. Both dialysis and passive diffusion bag samplers are relatively inexpensive and can be deployed rapidly and easily. Passive diffusion bag samplers are intended for sampling volatile organic compounds only, but dialysis samplers can be used to sample both volatile organic compounds and inorganic solutes. Regenerated cellulose dialysis samplers, however, are subject to biodegradation and probably should be deployed no sooner than 2 weeks prior to recovery. 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia, South Carolina. 2 Air Florce Center for Environmental Excellence, San Antionio, Texas.

  3. Comparative study of the sorption of clomipramine and viloxazine hydrochlorides in Stedim 6 and PVC bags.

    PubMed

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C

    1998-01-01

    The stability of two antidepressant drugs, clomipramine and viloxazine hydrochlorides, was studied as was their possible sorption on Stedim 6, a new multilayer polyethylene-lined film, which was considered comparatively to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass surfaces. Appropriate amounts of the drugs were added to 500 ml of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions in Stedim 6 and PVC bags, and in glass flasks, in order to obtain the concentrations currently used in clinical practice. All the containers were stored at room temperature in daylight for 72 hours. Samples were taken at various times and evaluated for remaining drug concentrations by UV spectrometry. The two drugs appeared stable under the given conditions. No concentration decrease was observed in glass flasks. Viloxazine hydrochloride showed an excellent compatibility with the PVC bags, but a slight concentration decrease (about 6-7% in 72 hours) was observed for clomipramine hydrochloride, depending on the contact duration. The compatibility of the two drugs with the new material Stedim 6 was found to be perfect. The behavioral differences observed between the two drugs with regard to PVC are explained in terms of differences of lipophilicity of the drugs. Those observed for a given drug with regard to the two materials are due to the crystalline structure of polyethylene and the amorphous one of PVC.

  4. Clinical, Ergonomic, and Economic Outcomes With Multichamber Bags Compared With (Hospital) Pharmacy Compounded Bags and Multibottle Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Jorge Emilio; Berlana, David; Ukleja, Andrew; Boullata, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Multichamber bags (MCBs) may offer potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic advantages compared with (hospital) pharmacy compounded bags (COBs) and multibottle systems (MBSs). A systematic literature review was performed to identify and assess the available evidence regarding advantages of MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Databases, and EconLit were searched for articles reporting clinical, ergonomic, and economic outcomes for MCBs compared with COBs or MBSs. The search was limited to studies conducted in hospitalized patients >2 years of age that were published in English between January 1990 and November 2014. The Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes Study Design (PICOS) framework was used for the analysis. From 1307 unique citations, 74 potentially relevant publications were identified; review of references identified 2 additional publications. Among the 76 publications, 18 published studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were retrospective in design. Ten studies reported clinical outcomes, including 1 prospective randomized trial and multiple retrospective analyses that reported a lower risk of bloodstream infection for MCBs compared with other delivery systems. Sixteen studies reported ergonomic and/or economic outcomes; most reported a potential cost benefit for MCBs, with consistent reports of reduced time and labor compared with other systems. The largest cost benefit was observed in studies evaluating total hospitalization costs. The systematic literature review identified evidence of potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic benefits for MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs; however, methodological factors limited evidence quality. More prospective studies are required to corroborate existing evidence. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored.

  6. A comparison study of sampling and analyzing volatile organic compounds in air in Kuwait by using Tedlar bags/canisters and GC-MS with a cryogenic trap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongmao; Beg, Khaliq R; Al-Otaiba, Yousef

    2006-05-12

    Kuwait experiences desert climatic weather. Due to the extreme hot and dry conditions in this country, some analytical phenomena have been discovered. Therefore, a systematic study of sampling and analyzing volatile organic compounds in air by using GC-MS with a cryogenic trap is reported in this paper. This study included comparisons of using different sample containers such as Tedlar bags and SUMMA canisters, and different cryogenic freezing-out air volumes in the trap. Calibration curves for different compounds and improvement of replicated analysis results were also reported here. The study found that using different sample containers produced different results. Analysis of ambient air samples collected in Tedlar bags obtained several volatile organic compounds with large concentrations compared to using SUMMA canisters. Therefore, to choose a sample container properly is a key element for successfully completing a project. Because GC-MS with a cryogenic trap often generates replicated results with poor agreement, an internal standard added to gas standards and air samples by using a gas syringe was tested. The study results proved that it helped to improve the replicated results.

  7. The Exposure of Children to Deploying Side Air Bags: An Initial Field Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0–15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side airbag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury – none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs. PMID:18184496

  8. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  9. Retention of ventilation skills of emergency nurses after training with the SMART BAG compared to a standard bag-valve-mask.

    PubMed

    De Regge, Melissa; Vogels, Catherine; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Calle, Paul A

    2006-03-01

    Studies show that nurses retain resuscitation skills poorly and that retention of ventilation skills is particularly difficult. We formed the hypothesis that the SMART BAG (SB, O-Two Medical Technologies Inc., Canada), i.e. a bag-valve-mask device with a pressure/flow responsive valve, would assist nurses in providing more efficient ventilation six months after training. Prior to training, 39 emergency nurses performed CPR for 2 min, in pairs, using a standard bag-valve-mask device (STBVM, Laerdal, Norway) to assess their base line skills. A CPR training manikin (Simulaids, USA) equipped with a PEEP valve in the oesophagus set at 20 cm H2O was used to measure inspiratory time, tidal volume (Vt), peak pressure and gastric insufflation (GI). Immediately following training they were tested using an O-Two STBVM and a SB. Half of the nurses were retested after three months, the other half after six months. Efficient ventilation was defined as a mean Vt>400 ml and GI<50 ml in 1 min. Before training, only 16% of nurses ventilated efficiently: 63% had GI and 28% had Vt<400 ml. Three months after training the efficiency of the STBVM and the SB was high (81 and 75%, respectively). Six months after training, there was a trend towards higher efficiency for the SB (63%) compared to the STBVM (25%) (p=0.07). For instances with the STBVM producing a Vt>400 ml, those without GI had a lower peak pressure than those with GI (7.8 cm H2O versus 17.7 cm H2O, p=0.0001) and showed a trend towards a longer inspiratory time (1.28 s versus 1.08 s, p=0.08). Of all efficient ventilations with a STBVM, 26% had a Vt>600 ml. Six months after training, nurses ventilated at least as efficiently with the SB, compared with the STBVM. This illustrates the ability of the SB to compensate for the deterioration over time in skill. On the other hand, training with a STBVM should focus primarily on prolonging the inspiratory time, and therefore the peak pressure, whilst maintaining an adequate Vt.

  10. The effects of adsorption on the reusability of Tedlar air sampling bags.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, L J; Shorten, C V

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the adsorption and desorption behavior of six different organic compounds in Tedlar bags. Triplicate bags were filled with a gas mixture to yield concentrations of approximately 90 ppm of each analyte, then sampled and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography at predetermined intervals over a 3-week period. A first-order kinetic rate equation was fitted to the data, and measured rate coefficients for the six compounds ranged from zero for the nonadsorbing methyl tert-butyl ether to 0.09/day for the rapidly adsorbed methanol. Adsorptive losses of allyl alcohol, styrene, ethylbenzene, and propylene oxide were slower and less significant; rate coefficients ranged from 0.01 to 0.03/day. Following the adsorption phase of the study, the bags were put through a simple cleaning procedure consisting of N2-flushing and gentle heating steps. Analysis of variance was used to assess the effectiveness of each step. Five N2 flushes were adequate to remove residual methyl tert-butyl ether, allyl alcohol, and propylene oxide, but there seemed to be a degree of hysteresis for styrene and ethylbenzene. Combinations of flushing and heating also failed to remove all the styrene and ethylbenzene. Neither flushing nor heating removed any of the adsorbed methanol. Depending on the compound of concern, the reuse of Tedlar and other similar polyvinyl fluoride sample collection bags should be carefully considered before the start of any sampling program.

  11. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  12. It's in the Bag!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  13. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  14. Phacoemulsification versus extracapsular cataract extraction: a comparative study of cell survival and growth on the human capsular bag in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, M; Wormstone, I; Duncan, G; Davies, P

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Phacoemulsification is rapidly replacing conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) as the method of choice for cataract surgery in the Western world. However, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) still remains the major postoperative complication, affecting 20-50% of patients, and results from persistent cell growth of epithelial cells remaining after surgery. This study aimed to compare cell survival and growth on capsular bags following ECCE and phacoemulsification surgery using an established human capsular bag culture system.
METHODS—Sham ECCE and phacoemulsification cataract operations were performed on pairs of human donor eyes. Capsular bags were dissected free, pinned flat on a petri dish, and incubated with Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM) alone or EMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Ongoing observations were made using phase contrast microscopy.
RESULTS—Cell growth was observed across the posterior capsule of all preparations studied. It was found that there was no significant difference in the rate of cell growth on the posterior capsule with the two extraction methods, such that 50% confluency was achieved in 7.0 (SD 1.8) (n=7) days for ECCE and 7.43 (2.1) (n=7) days for phacoemulsification surgery. The physical changes to the capsule as a result of cell growth, such as wrinkling and capsular tensioning, were also seen in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Cell survival and growth is dependent on the donor, rather than the surgical technique performed. There is no significant difference between phacoemulsification and ECCE surgery on the rate and nature of cell growth on the posterior capsule in vitro.

 PMID:9486036

  15. Direct Initiation of Detonation in Unconfined Ethylene-Air Mixtures - Influence of Bag Size,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    preparation for...recording the time of ignition (det zero) on magnetic tape as a reference. The desired gas mixture was prepared by continuous flow of regulated quantities...constant velocity within 3% of the theoretical C-J velocity (Vcj) were observed in all ehtylene -air mixtures near stoichiometric composition (6.54%

  16. Liability and the marketing of high-tech law enforcement technologies: the air bag and barrier strip stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overlin, Trudy K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present information regarding the fate of technologies developed in the national laboratory, which were designed to meet a specific law enforcement user need, but were or were not successful in making it to market. The two examples, one successful and one not completely successful, will be presented in a perspective to provide discussion as too why their individual fates were as such. The two examples, air bag restraint and barriers strip, both law enforcement technologies, were both designed to meet a targeted need, and yet their success was different. One has been licensed to an industry partner and is currently on the shelf for purchase. The other is awaiting a licensee and its future is still undetermined. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the specific paths these technologies have taken to market, and to demonstrate that even when researchers have a good idea, their technology may never make it to the shelf. This paper also addresses some of the pitfalls of what occurs when researchers are too distant from the user community and what that distance can do to a successful or unsuccessful technology. Understanding this process is essential to the user communities that anticipate the market of technologies that they often help assist with or provide insight to. It is also important for users and manufacturers to understand why the research and development process can take years, and why some things do not fully actualize in accepted technologies.

  17. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  18. Biodynamic simulations of the effect of a neck-mounted air bag on the head/neck response during high G acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Freivalds, A; Lee, S Y

    1991-08-01

    New helmet-mounted devices (such as night-vision goggles, laser eye protection, etc.) have created new safety hazards for pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering. In order to prevent the resulting head/neck injuries, this study extends the air-bag protection system developed for ground vehicles to a neck mounted system for aircrew personnel. Results, carried out by computer biodynamic simulations using the Articulated Total Body Model (ATB), showed that: 1) helmet weight had little effect on head/neck torque, contact force and flexion angle; 2) initial head/neck position and center of gravity offsets of the helmet-mounted devices had significant effects on head-neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles; and 3) the neck mounted air bag significantly reduced neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles. We conclude that the neck-mounted air bag system could significantly reduce the severity of head/neck injuries to pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering.

  19. Optimizing bag-valve-mask ventilation with a new mouth-to-bag resuscitator.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Wenzel, Volker; Stallinger, Angelika; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Rheinberger, Klaus; Augenstein, Sven; Herff, Holger; Idris, Ahamed H; Dörges, Volker; Lindner, Karl H; Hörmann, Christoph

    2003-02-01

    When ventilating an unintubated patient with a self-inflating bag, high peak inspiratory flow rates may result in high peak airway pressure with subsequent stomach inflation; this may occur frequently when rescuers without daily experience in bag-valve-mask ventilation need to perform advanced airway management. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a newly developed self-inflating bag (mouth-to-bag resuscitator; Ambu, Glostrup, Denmark) that limits peak inspiratory flow. A bench model simulating a patient with an unintubated airway was used, consisting of a face mask, manikin head, training lung (lung compliance, 100 ml/0.098 kPa (100 ml/cm H(2)O)); airway resistance, 0.39 kPa/l per second (4 cm H(2)O/l/s), oesophagus (LESP, 1.96 kPa (20 cm H(2)O)) and simulated stomach. Twenty nurses were randomised to ventilate the manikin for 1 min (respiratory rate: 12 per minute) with either a standard self-inflating bag or the mouth-to-bag resuscitator, which requires the rescuer to blow up a single-use balloon inside the self-inflating bag, which in turns displaces air towards the patient. When supplemental oxygen is added, ventilation with up to 100% oxygen may be obtained, since expired air is only used as the driving gas. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator therefore allows two instead of one hand sealing the mask on the patient's face. The volunteers were blinded to the experimental design of the model until completion of the experimental protocol. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator versus standard self-inflating bag resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher mean+/-S.D. mask tidal volumes (1048+/-161 vs. 785+/-174 ml) and lung tidal volumes (911+/-148 vs. 678+/-157 ml), longer inspiratory times (1.7+/-0.4 vs. 1.4+/-0.4 s), but significantly lower peak inspiratory flow rates (50+/-9 vs. 62+/-13 l/min) and mask leakage (10+/-4 vs. 15+/-9%); peak inspiratory pressure (17+/-2 vs. 17+/-2 cm H(2)O) and stomach tidal volumes (16+/-30 vs. 18+/-35 ml) were comparable. In

  20. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers in selected wells at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, March-April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Joshi, Manish; Morrell, Jeff; Peterson, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    During March-April 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Tech, and EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, tested diffusion samplers at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Samplers were deployed in three wells at the Main Base and two wells at Marianas Bonins (MARBO) Annex as potential ground-water monitoring alternatives. Prior to sampler deployment, the wells were tested using a borehole flowmeter to characterize vertical flow within each well. Three types of diffusion samplers were tested: passive diffusion bag (PDB) samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers. The primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tested in ground water at Andersen Air Force Base were trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. In most comparisons, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations in PDB samples closely matched concentrations in pumped samples. Exceptions were in wells where the pumping or ambient flow produced vertical translocation of water in a chemically stratified aquifer. In these wells, PDB samplers probably would be a viable alternative sampling method if they were placed at appropriate depths. In the remaining three test wells, the trichloroethene or tetrachloroethene concentrations obtained with the diffusion samplers closely matched the result from pumped sampling. Chloride concentrations in nylon-screen samplers were compared with chloride concentrations in dialysis and pumped samples to test inorganic-solute diffusion into the samplers across a range of concentrations. The test showed that the results from nylon-screen samplers might have underestimated chloride concentrations at depths with elevated chloride concentrations. The reason for the discrepancy in this investigation is unknown, but may be related to nylon-screen-mesh size, which was smaller than that used in previous investigations.

  1. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  2. Investigation of the safety effects of knee bolster air bag deployment in similar real-world crash comparisons.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    The lower extremity is the most frequently injured body region and knee-thigh-hip (KTH) injuries account for half of these injuries. Knee bolster air bags (KBABs) have been incorporated in some vehicles to serve as an additional restraint for the occupant's knees and reduce KTH injuries. To investigate the safety benefits of KBABs, similar frontal crashes with opposing KBAB deployment were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database. An 8-point similarity scoring algorithm was used to quantify crash and occupant similarity and select case comparisons. A total of 183 cases without a KBAB were scored for similarity to 9 KBAB cases. These similarity scores were used to select 31 final case comparisons. The effect of KBAB deployment on occupant injury patterns was investigated with a particular focus on KTH injuries. Over half of the occupants exposed to a KBAB sustained no KTH injuries and a reduction in femur fractures was observed in KBAB occupants (P = .036). However, increases in proximal tibia/fibula and foot/ankle fractures were observed in KBAB occupants (P = .022 and .002, respectively). Mildly significant decreases in pelvic fractures and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ head injuries were observed in the KBAB occupants, supporting the notion that KBABs reduce forward occupant excursion (P = .094 and .055, respectively). Investigation of each case comparison yielded further insight into the reasons for injury pattern differences between cases with opposing KBAB deployment. In addition to KBAB deployment status, differences in occupant factors (age, height, and weight) and crash factors (delta V and belt use) between the cases for a particular comparison could explain variation in injury patterns. The current study presents a preliminary in-depth qualitative and quantitative assessment of KBAB safety benefits. However, further investigation is recommended to provide conclusive evidence of KBAB effectiveness.

  3. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  4. [Injuries in the throat-nose-ear area by automobile air bags].

    PubMed

    Klask, J

    2001-03-01

    Airbags are successful in avoiding or in reducing serious injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents. On the other hand airbag deployment has led to a new kind of injuries. Only a few publications about that item exist. The experiences made with two patients after airbag deployment are described. The relevant literature is discussed. Two patients after airbag injuries were examined. The face of the first patient hit a regularly expanding airbag. Afterwards his nose was obviously deformed. In the other case both front airbags of a car burst triggered by a frontal crash. The symptoms of this patient were painful itching skinlesions in his face, unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. The first described patient had a clinical and radiological provable fracture of his nasal bone with a frontal impression. The facial skin of the other patient was etched by the filling gas of the airbags. He was also suffering from an acoustic trauma. These cases are compared to other cases found in the literature. Oto-rhino-laryngological injuries can be caused by airbag deployment, especially by bursting airbags. Beside of outward injuries like dermatological hurts and fractures of the facial skeleton also more serious and life-threatening traumata can occur with damage of the cervical spine and upper airway. Moreover otologic handicaps like temporary or permanent hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, otalgia and tympanic membrane perforations are possible consequences.

  5. In-depth survey report: Evaluation of a custom-fabricated negative air glove bag during the removal of asbestos-containing pipe lagging, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1991-03-01

    A study was conducted to document and evaluate effective control techniques that minimize the risk of potential health hazards during the removal of asbestos (1332214) containing lagging from pipes. The project, under study at the University of Massachusetts, involved the construction of a Custom Fabricated Negative Air Glove Bag enclosure on site to fit the task and the removal of thermal insulation from three hot water pipes. About 145 feet of Aircel thermal insulation was removed from approximately equal lengths of 1 inch, 2 inch, and 3 inch hot water pipes as was the asbestos magnesium insulation on 13 tees. The Aircel contained 45 to 60% chrysotile (12001295) and the joint cement 10 to 20% amosite (12172735) and 30 to 40% chrysotile. Waste disposal chutes were built into the bottom of the bag at convenient intervals and waste bags were attached with adhesive and duct tape to receive the debris. The bags were fitted into fiber drums which sat on the floor. The removal work inside the bag was performed under a net negative pressure. When the asbestos removal was completed the pipes and the bag and its supporting structure were washed thoroughly, then the wet bag was collapsed by removing the pipe framework while the vacuum was operating. The PVC pipe was wiped clean with a wet rag as it was extracted. The containment bag was cut free along the top and simultaneously rolled up under the pipes, and bagged for disposal. The authors concluded that the concept of a negative pressure glove bag was clearly better than that of standard glove bags.

  6. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap.

  7. A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Bredie, Wender L P; Nielsen, Belinda; Tománková, Jana; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate beef quality of longissimus muscle after ageing in dry ageing bags, traditional dry ageing or vacuum for 8 or 19 days. Lower ageing weight loss, odour score and microbial growth were found in meat aged in dry ageing bags than after traditional dry ageing. The sensory panel detected no differences for most of the sensory attributes between samples using the two dry ageing methods, except for the odour of the cutting surface. The dry-aged steaks had more umami and butter fried meat taste compared with vacuum-aged steaks. Ageing time affected most of the sensory traits in this study, which improved as ageing time increased from 8 to 19 days. In a consumer test, meat aged for 21 days in dry ageing bags was preferred than the samples aged in vacuum. This may be due to the higher tenderness and juiciness obtained during storage in dry ageing bags than meat aged in vacuum.

  8. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  9. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  10. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  11. Testing odorants recovery from a novel metallized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald; Kuhrt, Fred

    2015-12-01

    Industry-standard Tedlar bags for odor sample collection from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been challenged by the evidence of volatile organic compound (VOC) losses and background interferences. Novel impermeable aluminum foil with a thin layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film on the surface that is in contact with a gas sample was developed to address this challenge. In this research, Tedlar and metallized FEP bags were compared for (a) recoveries of four characteristic CAFO odorous VOCs (ethyl mercaptan, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and p-cresol) after 30 min and 24 hr sample storage time and for (b) chemical background interferences. All air sampling and analyses were performed with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Mean target gas sample recoveries from metallized FEP bags were 25.9% and 28.0% higher than those in Tedlar bags, for 30 min and 24 hr, respectively. Metallized FEP bags demonstrated the highest p-cresol recoveries after 30-min and 24-hr storage, 96.1±44.5% and 44.8±10.2%, respectively, among different types of sampling bags reported in previous studies. However, a higher variability was observed for p-cresol recovery with metallized FEP bags. A 0% recovery of ethyl mercaptan was observed with Tedlar bags after 24-hr storage, whereas an 85.7±7.4% recovery was achieved with metallized FEP bags. Recoveries of butyric and isovaleric acids were similar for both bag types. Two major impurities in Tedlar bags' background were identified as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol, while backgrounds of metallized FEP bags were significantly cleaner. Reusability of metallized FEP bags was tested. Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be

  12. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  13. The mouth-to-bag resuscitator during standard anaesthesia induction in apnoeic patients.

    PubMed

    Herff, Holger; Paal, Peter; Mitterlechner, Thomas; von Goedecke, Achim; Stadlbauer, Karl H; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Zecha-Stallinger, Angelika; Wenzel, Volker

    2009-10-01

    Ventilation of a non-intubated emergency patient by inexperienced rescuers with a standard bag-valve device may result in high inspiratory flow rates and subsequently high airway pressures with stomach inflation. Therefore, a self-inflating bag has been developed that requires lay rescuers to blow up a single-use balloon inside an adult bag-valve device, which, in turn, displaces air within the bag towards the patient. This concept has been compared to standard adult bag-valve devices earlier in bench models but not in patients. An anaesthetist who was blinded to all monitor tracings ventilated the lungs of 40 apnoeic patients during routine anaesthesia induction either with a standard bag-valve device or with the mouth-to-bag resuscitator in a random order. Study endpoints were peak inspiratory flow rates, peak airway pressure, tidal volumes and inspiratory time. Peak inspiratory flow was 40+/-10lmin(-1) for the standard bag-valve device versus 33+/-13lmin(-1) for the mouth-to-bag resuscitator (P<0.0001); peak airway pressure was 17+/-5cmH(2)O versus 14+/-5cmH(2)O (P<0.0001); inspiratory tidal volume was 477+/-133ml versus 644+/-248ml (P<0.001) and inspiratory time was 1.1+/-0.3s versus 1.9+/-0.6s (P<0.0001). Employing the mouth-to-bag resuscitator during simulated ventilation of a non-intubated patient in respiratory arrest significantly decreased peak inspiratory flow and peak airway pressure and increased inspiratory tidal volume and inspiratory times compared to a standard bag-valve device.

  14. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Mary C; Hoover, Heidi; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2010-07-29

    We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1) whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation) and 2) whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Extending the duration of time on a LoBAG30 diet from 5 to 10

  15. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  17. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  18. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags.

  19. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  20. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality. PMID:28072835

  1. [Gas embolism and flexible Ecoflac type bag].

    PubMed

    Freys, G; Burgun, G; L'Haridon, V; Otteni, J C; Pottecher, T

    2002-01-01

    Gas embolism at the end of infusion is a well known hazard, that should have disappeared with the use of flexible bags. However, some cases have been reported after pressure infusion. This experimental study evaluates the risk for gas embolism with Ecoflac type flexible bags. These bags are safe under normal pressure infusion conditions with a pneumatic sleeve, because of their texture and pliability; indeed, only minimal air volumes could be expelled, without any risk even in children. However, to be on the safe side, the manufacturer recommends to expel any residual air before pressure administration. This recommendation applies to any bag containing residual air, and since many people are not aware of this, it is rarely put into practice.

  2. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  3. A new top-loading venous bag provides vacuum-assisted venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Y; Lee-Sensiba, K; Beck, J; Chan, R; Salogub, M; Hall, M; Lee, T; Ganju, R; Mongero, L

    2002-09-01

    A new venous bag has been developed, prototyped, and tested. The new bag has its inlet, outlet purge, and infusion tubes extending upward from the top of the bag, and are threaded through, bonded to, and sealed within a flat rigid top plate. This design allows the bag to be hung from its top plate by its tubes. It also allows the bag to be: 1) dropped into or removed from its holder, as is done with existing hard-shell reservoirs so that its weight pulls it into the holder without the need for eyelets and hooks and 2) placed closer to the floor so that gravity drainage is facilitated. The V-Bag (VB) is easily sealed within an accompanying rigid housing. Once sealed, vacuum applied to the housing is transmitted across the flexible walls of the bag to the venous blood. Thus, vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) is obtained as it is with a hard-shell reservoir, but without any contact of air with the blood. Bench tests, using a circuit that simulated the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, showed that applying suction to the housing increased venous flow, and the fractional increase in flow was not a function of the venous cannula, but of the level of vacuum applied. In the gravity drainage mode, the bubble counts at the outlet of the V-Bag compared to two other bags were lower at any pumping condition. When used in the VAVD mode, bubble counts were two orders of magnitude lower than when using kinetically assisted venous drainage (KAVD) with a centrifugal pump. Results obtained with the VB suggest its clinical usefulness.

  4. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  5. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  6. Purple urine bags.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Belfield, P W; Bedford, M; Whitley, A J; Mulley, G P

    1989-09-01

    Purple urine drainage bags were found in 7 of 71 chronically catheterized elderly women. The purple staining of the bags is due to a violet discoloration (indirubin) of the plastic of the catheter bag and fine blue crystals of indigo in the urine. The colors are formed from the substrate indoxyl sulfate (indican) and all 7 patients had bacteria in the urine that would produce blue colonies on agar enriched with the urine (filter sterilized) of the patients involved. Organisms identified were Providencia or Klebsiella species. Indican excretion was higher in patients with purple urinary catheter bags than in controls.

  7. Improving Web image search by bag-based reranking.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Li, Wen; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Xu, Dong

    2011-11-01

    Given a textual query in traditional text-based image retrieval (TBIR), relevant images are to be reranked using visual features after the initial text-based search. In this paper, we propose a new bag-based reranking framework for large-scale TBIR. Specifically, we first cluster relevant images using both textual and visual features. By treating each cluster as a "bag" and the images in the bag as "instances," we formulate this problem as a multi-instance (MI) learning problem. MI learning methods such as mi-SVM can be readily incorporated into our bag-based reranking framework. Observing that at least a certain portion of a positive bag is of positive instances while a negative bag might also contain positive instances, we further use a more suitable generalized MI (GMI) setting for this application. To address the ambiguities on the instance labels in the positive and negative bags under this GMI setting, we develop a new method referred to as GMI-SVM to enhance retrieval performance by propagating the labels from the bag level to the instance level. To acquire bag annotations for (G)MI learning, we propose a bag ranking method to rank all the bags according to the defined bag ranking score. The top ranked bags are used as pseudopositive training bags, while pseudonegative training bags can be obtained by randomly sampling a few irrelevant images that are not associated with the textual query. Comprehensive experiments on the challenging real-world data set NUS-WIDE demonstrate our framework with automatic bag annotation can achieve the best performances compared with existing image reranking methods. Our experiments also demonstrate that GMI-SVM can achieve better performances when using the manually labeled training bags obtained from relevance feedback.

  8. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging.

  9. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  10. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  11. Storing Crude Tea in a Daikai-bag Using Nitrogen Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinsho, Seiji; Sato, Shoichi; Iriki, Hiroyuki; Asai, Junya; Imada, Takahiro; Nishimura, Shinichi

    We developed a simple and low-cost storage method for keeping crude tea in a daikai-bag. (1) Oxygen in the daikai-bag could be replaced with nitrogen by allowing a continuous flow of nitrogen gas into the airtight container that fed the daikai-bag. (2) When the nitrogen gas mass flow per hour into the container was the same as the volume of a container and the pressure in the container was 0.01 MPa or more, the oxygen concentration in the daikai-bag became 1% or less within 10 hours. Moreover, since there was pressure, mixing with the open air was suppressed. (3) The oxygen concentration in the daikai-bag kept 1% or less for six months by maintaining pressure in the container. (4) The quality of crude tea after six months storage by the new storing method was changed very little compared with tea stored using the conventional storing method which put tea in the aluminum bag and was filled up with nitrogen gas.

  12. Blast-Absorbing Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed expandable bag contains debris from explosion. Permanently surrounds vessel or devices prone to explosive disintegration or slipped around small bomb. Finned cells shaped like outward-opening cups. Cells built up from overlapped sheets of fabric and stitched together to form expandable polyhedral bag. Cells pentagonal, triangular or square.

  13. Measurements of rates of cooling of a manikin insulated with different mountain rescue casualty bags.

    PubMed

    Press, Christopher; Duffy, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan; Cooper, Ben; Chapman, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia is common in those who sustain injuries in remote environments. This is unpleasant and associated with adverse effects on subsequent patient outcomes. To minimise further heat loss, a range of insulating systems are available to mountain rescue teams although the most effective and cost-efficient have yet to be determined. Under ambient, still, dry, air conditions, a thermal manikin was filled with water at a temperature of 42 °C and then placed into a given insulation system. Water temperature was then continuously observed via an in-dwelling temperature sensor linked to a PROPAQ 100 series monitor and recorded every 10 min for 130 min. This method was repeated for each insulating package. The vacuum mattress/Pertex©/fibrepile blanket system, either on its own or coupled with the Wiggy bag, was the most efficient with water temperatures only decreasing by 3.2 °C over 130 min. This was followed by the heavy-weight casualty bags without the vacuum mattress/Pertex©/fibrepile blanket system, decreasing by 4.2-4.3 °C. With the Blizzard bag, a decline in water temperature of 5.4 °C was seen over the study duration while a decrease of 9.5 °C was noted when the plastic survival bag was employed. Under the still-air conditions of the study, the vacuum mattress/Pertex©/fibrepile blanket was seen to offer comparable insulation effectiveness compared to be both heavy-weight casualty bags. In turn, these three systems appeared more efficient at insulating the manikin than the Blizzard bag or plastic survival bag.

  14. Smart Bag vs. Standard bag in the temporary substitution of the mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Robin; Watremez, Christine; Van Dyck, Michel; Van Caenegem, Olivier; Verschuren, Franck; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquet, Luc-Marie

    2008-02-01

    To compare in intubated patients manually ventilated in order to mirror the ventilator, the respiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by a bag device equipped with an inspiratory gas flow-limiting valve (Smart Bag, 0-Two Medical Technologies Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) and a Standard bag. Non-randomized crossover study comparing 13 respiratory and eight hemodynamically paired parameters. Eight intubated patients were manually ventilated, each by three different intensive care workers yielding 24 sets of data for comparison. Data were collected during two sessions of manual ventilation, first with the Standard bag and then with the Smart Bag. Between each session, the patient was reconnected to the ventilator until return to the baseline. Patients, included after coronary surgery, were sedated and paralyzed. Intensive Care Unit, university hospital. Compared with Standard bag, the Smart Bag provided a decrease of inspiratory flow (23 +/- 4.7 vs. 47.3 +/- 16.5 l/min) with a decrease of peak pressure (13.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 21.9 +/- 7.3 cmH2O) and tidal volume (9.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 12.4 +/- 2.7 ml/kg). While the expiratory time was similar, the inspiratory time increased (1.83 +/- 0.58 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.46 s) with the Smart Bag, limiting the respiratory rate (14 +/- 5 vs. 17 +/- 6 cycles/min) and the minute volume (8.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.4 +/- 4.9 l/min). Finally, it limited the fall of the ETCO2 (27.9 +/- 5.1 vs. 24.3 +/- 5.7 mmHg) and probably the risks of severe respiratory alkalosis. The bags similarly affected hemodynamic states. In intubated patients manually ventilated, the Smart Bag limits the risks of excessive airway pressure and the fall of the ETCO2, with hemodynamic effects similar to those of the Standard bag.

  15. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  16. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  17. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method.

  18. Best options for the exposure of traditional and innovative moss bags: A systematic evaluation in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Aboal, J R; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Boquete, T; Di Palma, A; Real, C; Reski, R; Spagnuolo, V; Steinbauer, K; Tretiach, M; Varela, Z; Zechmeister, H; Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To develop an internationally standardized protocol for the moss bag technique application, the research team participating in the FP7 European project "MOSSclone" focused on the optimization of the moss bags exposure in terms of bag characteristics (shape of the bags, mesh size, weight/surface ratio), duration and height of exposure by comparing traditional moss bags to a new concept bag, "Mossphere". In particular, the effects of each variable on the metal uptake from the air were evaluated by a systematic experimental design carried out in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of three European countries with oceanic, Mediterranean and continental climate. The results evidenced that the shape, the mesh size of the bags and the exposure height (in the tested ranges), did not significantly influence the uptake capacity of the transplanted moss. The aspects more affecting the element uptake were represented by the density of the moss inside the bags and the relative ratio between its weight and the surface area of the bag. We found that, the lower the density, the higher the uptake recorded. Moreover, three weeks of exposure were not enough to have a consistent uptake signal in all the environments tested, thus we suggest an exposure period not shorter than 6 weeks, which is appropriate in most situations. The above results were confirmed in all the countries and scenarios tested. The adoption of a shared exposure protocol by the research community is strongly recommended since it is a key aspect to make biomonitoring surveys directly comparable, also in view of its recognition as a monitoring method by the EU legislation.

  19. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  1. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  2. Bag of Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A teacher describes the procedures used by students to mount skeletons of small animals. Equipped with ziplock bags and papain, students can make the cumbersome task of mounting more time efficient and easy. (ZWH)

  3. Mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling of two-wheeled waste containers compared with lifting and carrying of bags and bins.

    PubMed

    Schibye, B; Søgaard, K; Martinsen, D; Klausen, K

    2001-08-01

    Compare the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling a two-wheeled container with the load during lifting and carrying the same amount of waste. Only little is known about risk factors and mechanical loads during push/pull operations. A complete 2(3) factor push/pull experiment. A two-wheeled container with 25 or 50 kg was pushed in front of and pulled behind the body by seven waste collectors. Further, the same subjects lifted and carried a paper bag and a dustbin both loaded with 7 and 25 kg. All operations were video recorded and the push/pull force was measured by means of a three-dimensional force transducer. Peak Motus and Watbak software were used for digitising and calculation of torque at L4/L5 and the shoulder joints and compression and shear forces at L4/L5. During pushing and pulling the compression at L4/L5 is from 605 to 1445 N. The extension torque at L4/L5 produced by the push/pull force is counteracted by the forward leaning of the upper body. The shear force is below 202 N in all situations. The torque at the shoulders is between 1 and 38 Nm. In the present experiments the torques at the low back and the shoulders are low during pushing and pulling. No relation exists between the size of the external force and the torque at the low back and the shoulder. Pushing and pulling are common in many workplaces and have often replaced lifting and carrying situations. This has emphasised the need for more knowledge of the internal mechanical load on the body during these activities.

  4. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  5. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  6. Gravitating lepton bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  7. Reducing workers' dust exposure during bag stacking in enclosed vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cecala, A B; Covelli, A; Thimons, E D

    1989-02-01

    The Bureau of Mines has evaluated cost effective systems to ventilate enclosed vehicles being loaded directly with bagged product material at mineral processing plants. This evaluation included both forms of transportation: railcars and trailer trucks. The goal of this research was to lower the dust exposure of workers stacking bags in these enclosed vehicles; these workers usually have the highest dust exposures in the entire processing plant. The problem occurs because there is no mechanical ventilation inside these vehicles. As the vehicle is being loaded, dust concentrations increase to substantial levels because released dust has no means of exiting the vehicle or of being diluted with fresh air. In cases where the dust is hazardous, as with silica sand, this may present a serious health hazard. This research project was a two-step effort. The first step was a qualitative laboratory evaluation performed in a railcar to compare different types of ventilation systems (blowing, exhaust, and push-pull systems) using a methane (CH4) tracer gas technique. An exhaust system located over the snake conveyor was the most effective system at reducing gas levels in and around the bag stacker's work area. The second step then involved a field evaluation at a silica sand processing plant to determine the system's effectiveness in the actual work environment. Three different versions were evaluated in an attempt to optimize the exhaust ventilation system's effectiveness. The most effective version involved exhausting 54.5 m3/min (2000 ft3/min) through a fiberglass tube located 1.1 m past the end of the slinger at a 2.0-m height so as not to interfere with the bag stacker's job function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Bias of Tedlar bags in the measurement of agricultural odorants.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Anhalt, Jennifer C; Zahn, James A

    2006-01-01

    Odor regulations typically specify the use of dynamic dilution olfactometery (DDO) as a method to quantify odor emissions, and Tedlar bags are the preferred holding container for grab samples. This study was conducted to determine if Tedlar bags affect the integrity of sampled air from animal operations. Air samples were collected simultaneously in both Tedlar bags and Tenax thermal desorption tubes. Sample sources originated from either a hydrocarbon-free air tank, dynamic headspace chamber (DHC), or swine-production facility, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Several background contaminants were identified from Tedlar bags, which included the odorous compounds N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAC), acetic acid, and phenol. Samples from the DHC demonstrated that recovery of malodor compounds was dependent on residence time in the Tedlar bag with longer residence time leading to lower recovery. After 24 h of storage, recovery of C3-C6 volatile fatty acids (VFA) averaged 64%, 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol averaged 10%, and indole and 3-methylindole were below the detection limits of GC-MS-O. The odor activity value (OAV) of grab samples collected in Tedlar bags were 33 to 65% lower following 24 h of storage. These results indicate that significant odorant bias occurs when using Tedlar bags for the sampling of odors from animal production facilities.

  9. It's in the Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betterton, Maribelle H.; Ensworth, Lynne C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the "thematic literacy bags" project they created to help them integrate language arts across the curriculum, promoting differentiated instruction while taking into account various learning styles and multiple intelligences. This idea became a reality when they were awarded a local grant to develop innovative educational…

  10. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  11. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  12. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  14. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman.

  15. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Parker, David

    2012-08-13

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analysis. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H(2)S, CH(3)SH, DMS, CS(2), DMDS and SO(2)) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA)) at five initial concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000ppb). The response factors (RF) of these samples were determined after storage periods of 0, 1, and 3 days by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) combined with an air server (AS)/thermal desorber (TD) system. Although concentration reduction occurred more rapidly from samples of the high concentration standards (1000 and 10,000ppb), such trends were not evident in their low concentration counterparts (1, 10, and 100ppb). As such, temporal changes in RF values and the associated loss rates of most sulfur gases were greatly affected by their initial concentration levels. Moreover, the storability of oxidized sulfur compound (SO(2)) was greatly distinguished from that of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), as the former almost disappeared in the PVF bag even after one day. The results of our study confirm that storability of gaseous sulfur species is affected interactively by such variables as initial gas concentration level, bag material type, and oxidation status with the associated reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  17. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01). PMID:24959548

  18. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  19. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  20. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    PubMed

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  1. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing

    PubMed Central

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F.; Reardon, Leanna M.; Heberger, John R.; Dempsey, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the “flowering” method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the “snaking” method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing

  2. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  3. ASTP - EQUIPMENT (GIFT BAG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-01

    S75-27952 (July 1975) --- A close-up view of the special ?gift bag? in which several exchange/gift items will be carried aboard the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Some of these items are seen here alongside the bag. They are the sectionized ASTP Commemorative Plaque, ten 8x12 inch American flags, ten 8.07x16.14 inch (205mm x 410mm) Soviet Union flags, a special box of white spruce tree seeds, and the ASTP Certification to authorize the ASTP docking. The gifts will be presented and the exchange made while the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft are docked in Earth orbit.

  4. Material bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, Charles G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Brak, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  5. [Purple urine bag syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fain-Ghironi, Nathalie; Le Gonidec, Patricia; Schaeffer, Mathilde

    2003-06-14

    The report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (P.U.B.S.) is rarely described in the literature. In an 85 year-old woman, with permanent indwelling urinary catheter, the appearance of purple coloration in the urine collecting bag, without change in the colour of the urine, was observed four times in one year. During these different episodes, a Gram negative lower urinary infection diagnoses. The germs identified were Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter koseri. Symptoms resolved completely after treatment with ceftriaxone. The clinical and biological symptoms usually described in cases of P.U.B.S. are observed in the medical history of this elderly woman: indwelling catheter with delay before onset of coloration greater than 15 days following catheterization, alkaline urinary pH, Gram negative lower urinary tract infection. However, during one of the episodes of PUBS in our patient, Citrobacter koseri was identified, germ not mentioned, as far as we know, in the literature. Moreover, in the published cases, Proteus species was identified as potentially associated with P.U.B.S., but a Proteus mirabilis urinary infection with was diagnosed in our patient, without any purple coloration of the urine in the collection bag.

  6. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  8. Comparison of a 'two-bag system' versus conventional treatment protocol ('one-bag system') in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Munir, Iqbal; Fargo, Ramiz; Garrison, Roger; Yang, Almira; Cheng, Andy; Kang, Ilho; Motabar, Ali; Xu, Karen; Loo, Lawrence K; Kim, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    We compared the conventional 'one-bag protocol' of management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with the 'two-bag protocol' which utilizes two bags of fluids, one containing saline and supplemental electrolytes and the other containing the same solution with the addition of 10% dextrose. A retrospective chart review and analysis was done on adult patients admitted for DKA to the Riverside University Health System Medical Center from 2008 to 2015. There were 249 cases of DKA managed by the one-bag system and 134 cases managed by the two-bag system. The baseline patient characteristics were similar in both groups. The anion gap closed in 13.56 hours in the one-bag group versus 10.94 hours in the two-bag group (p value <0.0002). None of the individual factors significantly influenced the anion gap closure time; only the two-bag system favored earlier closure of the anion gap. Plasma glucose levels improved to <250 mg/dL earlier with two-bag protocol (9.14 vs 7.82 hours, p=0.0241). The incidence of hypoglycemic events was significantly less frequent with the two-bag protocol compared with the standard one-bag system (1.49% vs 8.43%, p=0.0064). Neither the time to improve serum HCO3 level >18 mg/dL nor the hospital length of stay differed between the two groups. Our study indicates that the two-bag protocol closes the anion gap earlier than the one-bag protocol in adult patients with DKA. Blood glucose levels improved faster with the two-bag protocol compared with the one-bag protocol with fewer associated episodes of hypoglycemia. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.

  9. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  10. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  11. Bag separation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-04-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) performs a series of X-ray scans of the luggage being checked, then various 2D projection images of the luggage are generated from the collected data set and sometimes 3D volumetric images of the luggage are generated in addition. Automatic explosives determination as to the presence of an explosive in the luggage is determined through extensive data manipulation of the 2D and 3D image sets, the results are then forwarded to a human interface for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the projection images and the renderings of the automated explosive results from detection to determine if the luggage needs to be suspected and consequently searched. Unlike conventional X-ray systems, the user interface for EDS systems are usually designed to display one bag at a time. However, in airport environments, there is usually more than one bag being processed. Therefore, segmentation is a crucial part of higher quality screening. If the screeners have to manually manipulate (zoom, pan, separate) the image, this increases overall screening time and decreases screener efficiency. This paper presents a novel image segmentation technique that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of this algorithm is to correctly separate each bag image to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates.

  12. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  13. Making air quality indices comparable--assessment of 10 years of air pollutant levels in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To address the incomparability of the large number of existing air quality indices, we propose a new normalization method that is suited to directly compare air quality indices based on the common European World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for NO2, O3, and PM10. Using this method, we compared three air quality indices based on the European guidelines, related them to another air quality index based on the relative risk concept, and used them to assess the air quality and its trends in northwest central Europe. The average air quality in the area of investigation is below the recommended European guidelines. The majority of index values exceeding this threshold are caused by PM10, which is also, in most cases, responsible for the degrading trends in air quality. Eleven out of 29 stations tested showed significant trends, of which eight indicated trends towards better air quality.

  14. Tight reservoir bag: the bag itself may be the culprit.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur

    2010-06-01

    Numerous possibilities exist which may cause obstruction to ventilation under anesthesia resulting in a tight reservoir bag with low compliance. We report an interesting case where a reservoir bag twisted around its own neck and resulted in a tight bag situation. The neck portion of the reservoir bag would be hidden from the view of anesthesiologists in head and neck surgery and hence it is easier to miss early recognition of the twist. We caution all anesthesiologists using the disposable modified Jackson-Rees breathing system to be aware of such an eventuality. We also urge the manufacturer to consider strengthening the neck of the reservoir bag by improving the quality of the material used for its construction.

  15. miR-BAG: bagging based identification of microRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Chauhan, Rohit; Mehra, Mrigaya; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG's performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version.

  16. Bag model and quark star

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Luo Xinlian; Zong Hongshi

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, incorporating the property of the vacuum negative pressure, namely, the bag constant, we present a new model of the equation of state (EOS) of quark matter at finite chemical potential and zero temperature. By comparing our EOS with Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model, one finds that our EOS is softer than Fraga et al.'s EOS and SQM1 model. The reason for this difference is analyzed. With these results we investigate the structure of a quark star. A comparison between our model of the quark star and other models is made. The obtained mass of the quark star is 1.3{approx}1.66M{sub {center_dot}}and the radius is 9.5{approx}14 Km. One can see that our star's compactness is smaller than that of the other two models.

  17. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  18. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. In-the-bag scleral suturing of intraocular lens in eyes with severe zonular dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Hirata, A; Hayashi, H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the degree of tilt and decentration of an intraocular lens (IOL), refractive status, and prediction error between eyes that underwent trans-scleral suturing of the IOL within the capsular bag (in-the-bag scleral suturing) and eyes that underwent scleral suturing outside of the bag (out-of-the-bag scleral suturing) because of severe zonular dehiscence. Patients and methods Thirty eyes that underwent in-the-bag scleral suturing of an IOL and 38 eyes that underwent out-of-the-bag scleral suturing were recruited sequentially. The tilt and decentration of the IOL, anterior chamber depth, manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), prediction error, and incidence of complications were examined. Results The mean tilt angle and the decentration length of the IOL of the in-the-bag suturing group were significantly less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0003 in tilt and P=0.0391 in decentration), although the anterior chamber depth was similar. The mean MRSE and prediction error of the in-the-bag suturing group were less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0006 in MRSE and P=0.0034 in error). The incidence of vitreous loss was less in the in-the-bag suturing group than in the out-of-the-bag suturing group (20% vs63.2%, P=0.0009). Conclusions The tilt and decentration of the IOL after in-the-bag scleral suturing are significantly less than those after out-of-the-bag scleral suturing, which may lead to less MRSE and less prediction error. As the incidence of vitreous loss is less after in-the-bag scleral suturing, in-the-bag suturing is advantageous for eyes of younger patients and of less complicated cases. PMID:21941359

  1. Evaluation of the Two-Bag System for Fluid Management in Pediatric Patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    So, Tsz-Yin; Grunewalder, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A one-bag and a two-bag system have both been used to manage intravenous fluid administration in pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The one-bag system, however, has been noted to have limitations, such as slow response time. This study evaluates whether the two-bag system provides any clinical benefit in pediatric DKA patients as compared to the one-bag system. METHODS This was a retrospective, non-blinded chart review. Inclusion criteria were patients ≤ 18 years old and whose admission had the code of DKA as the diagnosis. Baseline clinical and demographic data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. RESULTS A total of 31 patients were included, 9 (29%) in the one-bag group and 22 (71%) in the two-bag group. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Mean (SD) rate of complete blood glucose (CBG) correction was 31.04 mg/dL/hr (20.61) in the two-bag group and 21.04 mg/dL/hr (16.26) in the one-bag group (p = 0.297). The rate of bicarbonate correction, however, was faster with the two-bag system than the one-bag system (0.949 ± 0.553 mEq/L/hr and 0.606 ± 0.297 mEq/L/hr, respectively) (p = 0.047). The two-bag system also had a faster time to ketone (p = 0.04), but not pH (p = 0.172), correction. CONCLUSIONS The two-bag system provided a faster rate of bicarbonate and ketone correction compared to the one-bag system. The two-bag system also provided a trend towards a faster rate of blood glucose and pH correction. PMID:23055897

  2. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  3. Preparation for Bagging OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians are preparing Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module for bagging. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  4. miR-BAG: Bagging Based Identification of MicroRNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Non-coding elements such as miRNAs play key regulatory roles in living systems. These ultra-short, ∼21 bp long, RNA molecules are derived from their hairpin precursors and usually participate in negative gene regulation by binding the target mRNAs. Discovering miRNA candidate regions across the genome has been a challenging problem. Most of the existing tools work reliably only for limited datasets. Here, we have presented a novel reliable approach, miR-BAG, developed to identify miRNA candidate regions in genomes by scanning sequences as well as by using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. miR-BAG utilizes a bootstrap aggregation based machine learning approach, successfully creating an ensemble of complementary learners to attain high accuracy while balancing sensitivity and specificity. miR-BAG was developed for wide range of species and tested extensively for performance over a wide range of experimentally validated data. Consideration of position-specific variation of triplet structural profiles and mature miRNA anchored structural profiles had a positive impact on performance. miR-BAG’s performance was found consistent and the accuracy level was observed to be >90% for most of the species considered in the present study. In a detailed comparative analysis, miR-BAG performed better than six existing tools. Using miR-BAG NGS module, we identified a total of 22 novel miRNA candidate regions in cow genome in addition to a total of 42 cow specific miRNA regions. In practice, discovery of miRNA regions in a genome demands high-throughput data analysis, requiring large amount of processing. Considering this, miR-BAG has been developed in multi-threaded parallel architecture as a web server as well as a user friendly GUI standalone version. PMID:23049860

  5. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  6. Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2010-05-01

    As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

  7. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m2) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults. PMID:27065085

  8. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults.

  9. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  10. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  11. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of...

  12. Visiting bags: a labile thermal environment.

    PubMed Central

    Rudland, S. V.; Jacobs, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define usual colour and site of storage of visiting bags in general practitioners' cars and to investigate effect of these variables on temperature inside bag. DESIGN--Questionnaire to general practitioners; serial temperature measurements from paired black visiting bags at different storage sites and from bags of different colour. SETTING--South Devon coastal town during May and June. SUBJECTS--200 general practitioners, of whom 145 returned legible questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bag colour, duration and site of storage, temperature inside black bags at defined storage sites, and effects of bag colour on internal temperature. RESULTS--111 (77%) of the general practitioners carried a black visiting bag, and 76 kept their bag in their car all day. The bag was coolest in the car boot, but irrespective of storage site, maximum internal temperature of the bag was always over 25 degrees C and reached up to 80 degrees C. Spraying a black bag silver significantly reduced the bag's internal temperature (mean difference 8.37 degrees C (95% confidence interval 6.68 to 9.86 degrees C) df = 59, t = 10.29, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--General practitioners should use a silver coloured visiting bag; when visiting, they should store it in their car boot; at other times they should remove it to a cooler site. PMID:8173404

  13. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  14. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at <31 weeks' gestation who were placed in bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  16. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  17. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A. Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. PMID:26958811

  18. Surface pre-conditioning with bioactive glass air-abrasion can enhance enamel white spot lesion remineralization.

    PubMed

    Milly, Hussam; Festy, Frederic; Andiappan, Manoharan; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-conditioning enamel white spot lesion (WSL) surfaces using bioactive glass (BAG) air-abrasion prior to remineralization therapy. Ninety human enamel samples with artificial WSLs were assigned to three WSL surface pre-conditioning groups (n=30): (a) air-abrasion with BAG-polyacrylic acid (PAA-BAG) powder, (b) acid-etching using 37% phosphoric acid gel (positive control) and (c) unconditioned (negative control). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the following remineralization therapy (n=10): (I) BAG paste (36 wt.% BAG), (II) BAG slurry (100 wt.% BAG) and (III) de-ionized water (negative control). The average surface roughness and the lesion step height compared to intra-specimen sound enamel reference points were analyzed using non-contact profilometry. Optical changes within the lesion subsurface compared to baseline scans were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Knoop microhardness evaluated the WSLs' mechanical properties. Raman micro-spectroscopy measured the v-(CO3)(2-)/v1-(PO4)(3-) ratio. Structural changes in the lesion were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). All comparisons were considered statistically significant if p<0.05. PAA-BAG air-abrasion removed 5.1 ± 0.6 μm from the lesion surface, increasing the WSL surface roughness. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion reduced subsurface light scattering, increased the Knoop microhardness and the mineral content of the remineralized lesions (p<0.05). SEM-EDX revealed mineral depositions covering the lesion surface. BAG slurry resulted in a superior remineralization outcome, when compared to BAG paste. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion modified the lesion surface physically and enhanced remineralization using BAG 45S5 therapy. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier

  19. Quark gluon bags as reggeons

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.; Petrov, V. K.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2009-05-15

    The influence of the medium-dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state is analyzed within an exactly solvable model. It is argued that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. The model allows us to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and get that the minimal resonance width at zero temperature is about 600 MeV, whereas the minimal resonance width at the Hagedorn temperature is about 2000 MeV. As shown, these estimates are almost insensitive to the number of the elementary degrees of freedom. The recent lattice QCD data are analyzed and it is found that in addition to the {sigma}T{sup 4} term the lattice QCD pressure contains T-linear and T{sup 4}lnT terms in the range of temperatures between 240 and 420 MeV. The presence of the last term in the pressure bears almost no effect on the width estimates. Our analysis shows that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Since the model explicitly contains the Hagedorn mass spectrum, it allows us to remove an existing contradiction between the finite number of hadronic Regge families and the Hagedorn idea of the exponentially growing mass spectrum of hadronic bags.

  20. Letting the CAT out of the Bag: Comparing Computer Adaptive Tests and an Eleven-Item Short Form of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F.; Choi, Seung W.; Crane, Paul K.; Deyo, Richard A.; Johnson, Kurt L.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A post-hoc simulation of a computer adaptive administration of the items of a modified version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of adaptive administration of back pain-related disability items compared to a fixed 11-item short form. Summary of Background Data Short form versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire have been developed. An alternative to paper-and -pencil short forms is to administer items adaptively so that items are presented based on a person’s responses to previous items. Theoretically, this allows precise estimation of back pain disability with administration of only a few items. Materials and Methods Data were gathered from two previously conducted studies of persons with back pain. An item response theory model was used to calibrate scores based on all items, items of a paper-and-pencil short form, and several computer adaptive tests (CATs). Results Correlations between each CAT condition and scores based on a 23-item version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. Compared to an 11-item short form, an 11-item CAT produced scores that were significantly more highly correlated with scores based on the 23-item scale. CATs with even fewer items also produced scores that were highly correlated with scores based on all items. For example, scores from a five-item CAT had a correlation of 0.93 with full scale scores. Seven- and nine-item CATs correlated at 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. A CAT with a standard-error-based stopping rule produced scores that correlated at 0.95 with full scale scores. Conclusions A CAT-based back pain-related disability measure may be a valuable tool for use in clinical and research contexts. Use of CAT for other common measures in back pain research, such as other functional scales or measures of psychological distress, may offer similar advantages. PMID:18496352

  1. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  2. Reviews Toy: Air swimmers Book: Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Book: Physics Experiments for your Bag Book: Quantum Physics for Poets Equipment: SEP colour wheel kit Equipment: SEP colour mixing kit Software: USB DrDAQ App: iHandy Level Equipment: Photonics Explorer kit Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Air swimmers Helium balloon swims like a fish Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Ballistics book hits the spot Physics Experiments for your Bag Handy experiments for your lessons Quantum Physics for Poets Book shows the economic importance of physics SEP colour wheel kit Wheels investigate colour theory SEP colour mixing kit Cheap colour mixing kit uses red, green and blue LEDs iHandy Level iPhone app superbly measures angles Photonics Explorer kit Free optics kit given to schools WORTH A LOOK DrDAQ DrDAQ software gets an upgrade WEB WATCH Websites show range of physics

  3. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  4. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  5. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  6. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  7. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  8. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  9. Polansky with EMU stowage bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-361-016 (7-20 February 2001) --- Astronaut Mark L. Polansky, STS-98 pilot, moves one of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suits in its storage bag onboard the International Space Station (ISS). William M. (Bill) Shepherd, Expedition One mission commander, can be seen as he works in the background.

  10. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031615 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  11. Drew in his sleeping bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    ISS026-E-031616 (3 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Alvin Drew, STS-133 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  12. Brown Bag Ideas: The Parfleche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Art objects are often unique reflections of a culture. Procedures are described for having intermediate or secondary level students make a parfleche, a form of carrying case used by the Plains Indians. Materials for making the parfleche include two large grocery bags, pencil, white glue, wax crayons, string, and water. (RM)

  13. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    PubMed

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. 50 CFR 622.494 - Bag limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.494 Bag limit. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for queen...

  15. 50 CFR 622.456 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.456 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limit. The bag limit for spiny...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reservoir bag. 868.5320 Section 868.5320 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5320 Reservoir bag. (a) Identification. A reservoir bag is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir...

  1. Tedlar bag sampling technique for vertical profiling of carbon dioxide through the atmospheric boundary layer with high precision and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kristen; Jensen, Michael L; Balsley, Ben B; Davis, Kenneth; Birks, John W

    2004-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas other than water vapor, and its modulation by the biosphere is of fundamental importance to our understanding of global climate change. We have developed a new technique for vertical profiling of CO2 and meteorological parameters through the atmospheric boundary layer and well into the free troposphere. Vertical profiling of CO2 mixing ratios allows estimates of landscape-scale fluxes characteristic of approximately100 km2 of an ecosystem. The method makes use of a powered parachute as a platform and a new Tedlar bag air sampling technique. Air samples are returned to the ground where measurements of CO2 mixing ratios are made with high precision (< or =0.1%) and accuracy (< or =0.1%) using a conventional nondispersive infrared analyzer. Laboratory studies are described that characterize the accuracy and precision of the bag sampling technique and that measure the diffusion coefficient of CO2 through the Tedlar bag wall. The technique has been applied in field studies in the proximity of two AmeriFlux sites, and results are compared with tower measurements of CO2.

  2. Odour assessment: determining the optimum temperature and time for Tedlar sampling bag pre-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bokowa, A H

    2012-01-01

    Odours present in new Tedlar bags can impact the assessment of emissions from sewer collection systems and wastewater treatment plants. Conditioning protocols are needed to minimise the impact of background materials emissions on the sampling and assessment of odourous emissions. Olfactometry analysis has shown that background odour concentrations for new Tedlar bags can be as high as 130 OU(E)/m(3). Experimental studies were undertaken to investigate the impact of different conditioning temperatures in order to determine the optimum temperature for cleaning new Tedlar bags to a level when no detectable odours were present in the sampling bags via dilution olfactometry. For the purpose of this study, new Tedlar bags were cleaned in a temperature-controlled oven that had a constant filtered air flow-rate. From the analysis of odour and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations found in new Tedlar bags during the cleaning process, it was observed that odour and VOCs concentrations decreased with time. It was also found that the temperature setting plays a significant role in the cleaning of the Tedlar bags as large concentrations of phenols and acetamide, N,N-dimethyl were found in new Tedlar bags and their concentrations decreased following the temperature pre-conditioning.

  3. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method.

  4. Analysis of BAG3 plasma concentrations in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Parul U; Gaggin, Hanna K; Belcher, Arianna M; Harisiades, Jamie E; Basile, Anna; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Piscione, Federico; Januzzi, James L; Turco, M Caterina

    2015-05-20

    BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a protein implicated in the cardiomyocyte stress response and genesis of cardiomyopathy. Extracellular BAG3 is measurable in patients with heart failure (HF), but the relationship of BAG3 with HF prognosis is unclear. BAG3 plasma concentrations were measured in 39 acutely decompensated HF patients; the primary endpoint was death at 1 year. Baseline characteristics were compared by vital status and median BAG3 concentration. Correlation of BAG3 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other biomarkers was performed. Prognostic value was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. At baseline, median BAG3 was significantly higher in decedents (N=11) than survivors (N=28; 1489 ng/mL versus 50 ng/mL; P=0.04); decedents also had worse renal function and higher median natriuretic peptide (NP) and sST2. BAG3 was not significantly correlated with NPs, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, sST2, or eGFR, however. Mortality was increased in patients with supra-median BAG3 (>336 ng/mL; 42.1% versus 15.0%, P=0.06). In age and LVEF-adjusted Cox proportional hazards, BAG3 remained a significant mortality predictor (HR=3.20; 95% CI=1.34-7.65; P=0.02); those with supra-median BAG3 had significantly shorter time-to-death (P=0.04). The stress response protein BAG3 is measurable in patients with ADHF and may be prognostic for death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparisons of the gait parameters of young Korean women carrying a single-strap bag.

    PubMed

    An, Duk-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the gait parameters of young women using various methods to carry a single-strap bag during walking. Twenty-one Korean healthy women walked on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet at a self-paced speed for each of the four following conditions in random order: no bag, carrying a bag over the shoulder, carrying a bag on the forearm, and carrying a bag by the hand on the dominant (right) side. There was a significant reduction in the stride length for the contralateral leg when carrying a bag on the forearm, a significant decrease in the heel-to-heel base of support, and a significant increase in the toe angle on the ipsilateral leg when carrying a bag by hand. The results of our study suggest that, among the asymmetric bag-carrying methods preferred by Korean young women during walking, the "over-the-shoulder" method has the least effect on gait parameters relative to not carrying a bag.

  6. Cost Analysis of Premixed Multichamber Bags Versus Compounded Parenteral Nutrition: Breakeven Point

    PubMed Central

    Bozat, Erkut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Materials and Methods: Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. Results: It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. Conclusion: In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial. PMID:24623870

  7. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized.

    PubMed

    Berlana, David; Sabin, Pilar; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Zapata-Rojas, Amalia; Marquez, Esther; Martínez-Cutillas, Julio; Schoenenberger-Arnaiz, Joan Anton

    2013-11-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions) versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag), both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls) in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment) were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16±5.63€ versus 39.69±3.00€ respectively (p.

  8. Clean Air Now: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    The fourth unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. Using a documentary approach, this unit analyzes the concept of political change by examining the changes in Riverside, California, as that community confronts the issue of smog. The unit is divided into…

  9. Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, R. D.

    I start with an elementary observation about the pressurein the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

  10. Improved material-bagging device

    DOEpatents

    Wach, C.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Brak, S.B.

    1982-01-19

    A bagging device for transferring material; specifically contaminated material, from one chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes a cylindrical housing communicating with the opening and defining a passage between the chambers. A cylindrical cartridge is slidably received within the housing. The cartridge has a substantially rigid cylindrical sleeve to which is affixed a pliable tube. The pliable tube is positioned concentrically about the sleeve and has a pleated portion capable of unfolding from the sleeve and a closed end extending over a terminal end of the sleeve. Sealing means are interposed in sealed relationship between the cartridge and the housing. Material from one chamber is inserted into the cartridge secured in the housing and received in the closed end of the tube which unfolds into the other chamber enclosing the material therein. The tube may then be sealed behind the material and then severed to form a bag-like enclosure defined by the tube's closed terminal end and the new seal. The new seal then forms a terminal end for the unsevered portion of the pliable tube into which additional material may be placed and the bagging process repeated.

  11. A Comparative Study of Antegrade Air Pyelogram and Retrograde Air Pyelogram for Initial Puncture Access during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Govind; Yadav, S. S.; Tomar, Vinay; Mathur, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Access into the collecting system is considered to be the most critical step for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Aim The present study provides a comparative view into antegrade air pyelography and retrograde air pyelography procedures for percutaneous renal access. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients with radiopaque renal calculi indicated for PCNL procedure. These patients were randomly assigned to two groups namely antegrade air pyelogram group (Group I) and retrograde air pyelogram group (Group II). In antegrade air pyelogram group, the collecting system was delineated by targeting the renal stone using a 22 gauge spinal needle where the patients were in the prone position. In another group, the collecting system was delineated by retrograde air pyelogram under fluoroscopy guidance. The method of tract dilatation and stone extraction were the same in both groups for comparison of outcome and complication. Results The mean age of patients was 41.7±13 and 41.4±13.6 years in Group-I and Group-II respectively. The male to female ratio in Groups I and II was 35/15 (70.00%) and 38/12 (76.00%) respectively. In Group-I the average duration of access was 2.66±1.0 minutes after prone positioning whereas it was recorded to be 19.48±5.0 minutes in Group-II, after lithotomy followed by prone positioning of the patient. Duration of radiation exposure was almost similar in both groups. Additional procedural cost was significantly higher in Group II. Conclusion Our study indicated that access for PCNL using antegrade air pyelogram can be a cost-effective and acceptable alternative to retrograde air pyelogram with decreased access time. PMID:28571203

  12. SIMULATION OF AEROSOL DYNAMICS: A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF ALGORITHMS USED IN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative review of algorithms currently used in air quality models to simulate aerosol dynamics is presented. This review addresses coagulation, condensational growth, nucleation, and gas/particle mass transfer. Two major approaches are used in air quality models to repres...

  13. SIMULATION OF AEROSOL DYNAMICS: A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF ALGORITHMS USED IN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative review of algorithms currently used in air quality models to simulate aerosol dynamics is presented. This review addresses coagulation, condensational growth, nucleation, and gas/particle mass transfer. Two major approaches are used in air quality models to repres...

  14. Spin-bag mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrieffer, J. R.; Wen, X.-G.; Zhang, S.-C.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity is proposed, based on the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin correlations observed in these materials over distances large compared to the lattice spacing. The spin ordering produces an electronic pseudogap which is locally suppressed by the addition of a hole. This suppression forms a bag inside which the hole is self-consistently trapped. Two holes are attracted by sharing a common bag. The resulting pairing interaction leads to a superconducting energy gap which is nodeless over the Femri surface.

  15. Comparing air quality in Italy, Germany and Poland using BC indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Olha; Cameletti, Michela; Fassò, Alessandro; Schmid, Wolfgang

    In this paper we discuss air quality assessment in three Italian, German and Polish regions using the index methodology proposed by Bruno and Cocchi. This analysis focuses first of all on the air quality in each of the considered countries, and then adopts a more general approach in order to compare pollution severity and toxicity. In this context, air quality indexes are a powerful data-driven tool since they are easily calculated and summarize a complex phenomenon, such as air pollution, in indicators which are immediately understandable. The use of a unique index should be encouraged in a global European perspective where all countries are commonly involved in assessing air quality and taking proper measures for improving it. In particular, the main objective of this work is to evaluate the index performances in distinguishing different health risk related air pollution patterns.

  16. The Bag-1 inhibitor, Thio-2, reverses an atypical 3D morphology driven by Bag-1L overexpression in a MCF-10A model of ductal carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, E S; Barker, C R; Syed, H; Reeves, T; Schwaiger, S; Stuppner, H; Troppmair, J; Blaydes, J P; Cutress, R I

    2016-01-01

    Mammary MCF-10A cells seeded on reconstituted basement membrane form spherical structures with a hollow central lumen, termed acini, which are a physiologically relevant model of mammary morphogenesis. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a multifunctional protein overexpressed in breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. When present in the nucleus Bag-1 is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Bag-1 exists as three main isoforms, which are produced by alternative translation initiation from a single mRNA. The long isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1L, contains a nuclear localisation sequence not present in the other isoforms. When present in the nucleus Bag-1L, but not the other Bag-1 isoforms, can interact with and modulate the activities of estrogen-, androgen- and vitamin D-receptors. Overexpression of Bag-1 mRNA in MCF-10A is known to produce acini with luminal filling reminiscent of ductal carcinoma in situ. As this mRNA predominantly overexpresses the short isoform of Bag-1, Bag-1S, we set out to examine whether the nuclear Bag-1L isoform is sufficient to drive premalignant change by developing a Bag-1L-overexpressing MCF-10A model. Two clones differentially overexpressing Bag-1L were grown in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures and compared with an established model of HER2-driven transformation. In 2D cultures, Bag-1L overexpression reduced proliferation but did not affect growth factor responsiveness or clonogenicity. Acini formed by Bag-1L-overexpressing cells exhibited reduced luminal clearing when compared with controls. An abnormal branching morphology was also observed which correlated with the level of Bag-1L overexpression, suggesting further malignant change. Treatment with Thio-2, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bag-1, reduced the level of branching. In summary, 3D cultures of MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Bag-1L demonstrate a premalignant phenotype with features of ductal carcinoma in situ. Using this

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. Inclined air to air heat exchangers with heat pipes: Comparing experimental data with theoretical results

    SciTech Connect

    Beckert, K.; Herwig, H.

    1996-12-31

    A set of two-phase closed thermosyphons was systematically investigated to find out how far they can be inclined without appreciable decrease in the heat transfer rate. It turned out that even in a nearly horizontal position (up to {+-}6{degree} with respect to the horizontal) the overall performance is still satisfactory. These experimental results could be corroborated by theoretical considerations using well established heat transfer correlations for convective, evaporation and condensation heat transfer. As a consequence of these findings a remarkable extra feature of the system of thermosyphons appears: Turning the set of pipes by an angle of about 12{degree} from {minus}6{degree} to +6{degree} with respect to the horizontal will switch the overall heat transfer from one direction to the other. It is discussed how this can be applied in an air conditioning system.

  19. Effect of texture of platelet bags on bacterial and platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Schubert, Peter; Fallah Toosi, Salma; Chen, Zhongming; Culibrk, Brankica; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2016-11-01

    Missed detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis contamination in platelet (PLT) storage bags by the standard 24-hour-postcollection BacT/ALERT screening test has been documented. A slow growth rate and the strong tendency of this bacterium to adhere to surfaces can contribute to missed detection of the pathogen. Topography of two different PLT storage bag surfaces, textured (rough) and smooth surfaces of Terumo 80440 bags (designated A15), was studied. Adhesion of biofilm-positive and -negative S. epidermidis strains on these surfaces was evaluated under static conditions. Quality of stored PLTs in A15 bags under blood bank conditions was compared for two different bag orientations (rough vs. smooth surface down) on Days 2, 5, and 7 of storage. PLT adhesion on the surfaces was evaluated after 7 days of storage. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation were significantly higher on the rough surfaces of A15 bags compared to the smooth surfaces. After 7 days of storage in A15 bags, PLTs showed similar metabolite levels, pH, and response capacity in the bags with different orientation and more PLT adhesion and aggregation was observed on rough surfaces. Higher bacterial adhesion on rough surfaces can contribute to missed detection of bacterial strains that tend to adhere on surfaces. PLT adhesion and aggregation on rough surfaces can affect the quality and safety of PLTs by promoting more bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces. © 2016 AABB.

  20. Technical note: Air compared to nitrogen as nebulizing and drying gases for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, P; Silberring, J; Smoluch, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we tested the application of compressed air instead of pure nitrogen as the nebulizing and drying gas, and its influence on the quality of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. The intensities of the signals corresponding to protonated molecules were significantly (twice) higher when air was used. Inspection of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios revealed that, in both cases, sensitivity was comparable. A higher ion abundance after the application of compressed air was followed by a higher background. Another potential risk of using air in the ESI source is the possibility for sample oxidation due to the presence of oxygen. To test this, we selected five easily oxidizing compounds to verify their susceptibility to oxidation. In particular, the presence of methionine was of interest. For all the compounds studied, no oxidation was observed. Amodiaquine oxidizes spontaneously in water solutions and its oxidized form can be detected a few hours after preparation. Direct comparison of the spectra where nitrogen was used with the corresponding spectra obtained when air was applied did not show significant differences. The only distinction was slightly different patterns of adducts when air was used. The difference concerns acetonitrile, which forms higher signals when air is the nebulizing gas. It is also important that the replacement of nitrogen with air does not affect quantitative data. The prepared calibration curves also visualize an intensity twice as high (independent of concentration within tested range) of the signal where air was applied. We have used our system continuously for three months with air as the nebulizing and drying gas and have not noticed any unexpected signal deterioration caused by additional source contamination from the air. Moreover, compressed air is much cheaper and easily available using oil-free compressors or pumps.

  1. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with ice that is used to apply dry cold therapy to an area of...

  6. Air elimination capability in rapid infusion systems.

    PubMed

    Zoremba, N; Gruenewald, C; Zoremba, M; Rossaint, R; Schaelte, G

    2011-11-01

    Pressure infusion devices are used in clinical practice to apply large volumes of fluid over a short period of time. Although air infusion is a major complication, they have limited capability to detect and remove air during pressure infusion. In this investigation, we tested the air elimination capabilities of the Fluido(®) (The Surgical Company), Level 1(®) (Level 1 Technologies Inc.) and Ranger(®) (Augustine Medical GmbH) pressure infusion devices. Measurements were undertaken with a crystalloid solution during an infusion flow of 100, 200, 400 and 800 ml.min(-1). Four different volumes of air (25, 50, 100 and 200 ml) were injected as boluses in one experimental setting, or infused continuously over the time needed to perfuse 2 l saline in the other setting. The perfusion fluid was collected in an airtight infusion bag and the amount of air obtained in the bag was measured. The delivered air volume was negligible and would not cause any significant air embolism in all experiments. In our experimental setting, we found, during high flow, an increased amount of uneliminated air in all used devices compared with lower perfusion flows. All tested devices had a good air elimination capability. The use of ultrasonic air detection coupled with an automatic shutoff is a significant safety improvement and can reliably prevent accidental air embolism at rapid flows. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must contain the EX number or product code for each approved inflator, module or pretensioner in association with the basic description required by § 172.202(a) of this subchapter. Product codes must be... Administrator. The EX number or product code is not required to be marked on the outside package. (d) Exceptions...

  8. Dry under water: comparative morphology and functional aspects of air-retaining insect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Alexander; Florian Bohn, Holger; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent certain body parts of semiaquatic and aquatic insects from getting wet while submerged in water. The air layer on these surfaces can serve the insects as a physical gill. Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the morphology of air-retaining surfaces in five insect species with different levels of adaptation to aquatic habitats. We found surfaces with either large and sparse hairs (setae), small and dense hairs (microtrichia), or hierarchically structured surfaces with both types of hairs. The structural parameters and air-film persistence of these surfaces were compared. Air-film persistence varied between 2 days in the beetle Galerucella nymphaea possessing only sparse setae and more than 120 days in the bugs Notonecta glauca and Ilyocoris cimicoides possessing dense microtrichia (up to 6.6 × 10(6) microtrichia per millimeter square). From our results, we conclude that the density of the surface structures is the most important factor that affects the persistence of air films. Combinations of setae and microtrichia are not decisive for the overall persistence of the air film but might provide a thick air store for a short time and a thin but mechanically more stable air film for a long time. Thus, we assume that a dense cover of microtrichia acts as a "backup system" preventing wetting of the body surface in case the air-water interface is pressed toward the surface. Our findings might be beneficial for the development of biomimetic surfaces for long-term air retention and drag reduction under water. In addition, the biological functions of the different air retention capabilities are discussed.

  9. Influence of face mask design on bag-valve-mask ventilation performance: a randomized simulation study.

    PubMed

    Na, J U; Han, S K; Choi, P C; Cho, J H; Shin, D H

    2013-10-01

    Different face mask designs can influence bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation performance during resuscitation. We compared a single-use, air-cushioned face mask (AM) with a reusable silicone face mask (SM) for quality of BVM ventilation on a manikin simulating cardiac arrest. Thirty-two physicians were recruited, and a prospective, randomized, crossover observational study was conducted after an American Heart Association-accredited basic life support provider course and standardized practice time were completed. Participants performed 12 cycles of BVM ventilation with both the AM and SM on a SmartMan lung simulator. Mean tidal volume was significantly higher in ventilations performed using the AM vs. the SM (548 ± 159 ml vs. 439 ± 163 ml, P < 0.01). In addition, the proportion of low-volume ventilation was significantly lower with the AM than the SM [6/12 (2-11) vs. 9/12 (5-12), P = 0.03]. Bag-valve-AM ventilation volume was not affected by the physical characteristics of the rescuers, except for sex. In contrast, bag-valve-SM ventilation volume was affected by most of the characteristics tested, including sex, height, weight, hand width, hand length, and grip power. The AM seems to be a more efficient face mask than the SM at delivering sufficient ventilation volumes. The performance of the AM did not seem to be associated with the physical characteristics of the rescuers, whereas that of the SM was affected by these factors. The SM may not be an appropriate face mask for performing one-person BVM ventilation during resuscitation for rescuers who are smaller in stature, have a smaller hand size, or have weaker grip power. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. COMPARING PERIPHERAL VITRECTOMY UNDER AIR AND FLUID INFUSION FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Unlu, Cihan; Karasu, Bugra; Kardes, Esra; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion in comparison with fluid infusion in patients undergoing 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. A total of 80 eyes of 80 patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were enrolled into the study. Forty cases underwent peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion (air group), and a control group of equal number underwent peripheral vitrectomy under fluid infusion (fluid group). Peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks during peripheral vitrectomy, postoperative visual acuities, and retinal redetachment rates were compared. The number of eyes with peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks in air group during peripheral vitrectomy was statistically comparable with that in fluid group (1/40 and 4/40, 2.5% and 10%, respectively; P = 0.16). Scleral depression was necessitated in 7 of 40 cases (17.5%) during the operation in the air group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in means of postoperative visual acuity and retinal redetachment (P = 0.18 and P = 1.0, respectively). Peripheral vitrectomy under air infusion for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment revealed comparable results with fluid infusion in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications and surgical outcomes.

  11. Gauge invariance in the cloudy bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Koepf, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    We investigate the question, whether the conventional analysis of the electromagnetic form factors, calculated in the frame-work of the cloudy bag model (CBM), is gauge invariant. In order to address that point, we first formulate the model in a way that resembles the technique of loop integrals. Evaluating the self energy and the electromagnetic form factors in that manner and comparing with the standard analysis where non-relativistic perturbation theory is used, allows us to show, that our approach is appropriate, and to point out, what approximations are made in the usual derivation of the CBM. From the form of the loop integrals, we then show whether a seagull correction is needed to preserve gauge invariance, and we discuss corresponding corrections for various models.

  12. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  13. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  14. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  15. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by <5%. In conclusion, the concentrations of odorants in air samples from pig production facilities significantly decrease during storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. The earliest mention of a black bag

    PubMed Central

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Kousoulis, Antonis A.; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums. PMID:22126217

  17. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An...

  2. 50 CFR 622.437 - Bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.437 Bag limits. (a) Applicability. Section 622.11(a... fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Bag limits. (1) Groupers, snappers...

  3. A chiral soliton bag model of nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Ohta, Shigemi

    1984-11-01

    As a possible phenomenological model of nucleons, a model Lagrangian is numerically solved in the semiclassical approximation using the hedgehog ansatz. Soliton solutions with winding numbers Z=0 and 1 are examined as functions of the pion decay constant. The Z=0 solution is similar to the cloudy bag model, but the Z=1 solution is quite different from the little (chiral) bag model.

  4. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  5. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008146 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  6. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008155 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  7. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008143 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  8. Chiral bag model for the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi

    1996-12-01

    We review the chiral bag model for the nucleon at low energy. The model is a hybrid model of quark and meson degrees of freedom, interpolating the two limits of the Skyrme model at R → 0 and the MIT bag model at R → ∞, where R is the bag radius. Baryon number one ( B = 1) solutions are obtained in the semiclassical method, where the nucleon is regarded as a slowly rotating hedgehog. We investigate static properties of the nucleon such as masses and magnetic moments as functions of R, first in the original chiral bag model and second in the models with vector mesons. We find a reasonably good description for the nucleon in both cases at an intermediate bag radius R ~ 0.6 fm. Results of the model calculations are then re-derived using a group theoretical method in the large- Nc limit.

  9. Water bag modeling of a multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, P.; Gravier, E.; Besse, N.; Klein, R.; Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.

    2011-03-15

    We report in the present paper a new modeling method to study multiple species dynamics in magnetized plasmas. Such a method is based on the gyrowater bag modeling, which consists in using a multistep-like distribution function along the velocity direction parallel to the magnetic field. The choice of a water bag representation allows an elegant link between kinetic and fluid descriptions of a plasma. The gyrowater bag model has been recently adapted to the context of strongly magnetized plasmas. We present its extension to the case of multi ion species magnetized plasmas: each ion species being modeled via a multiwater bag distribution function. The water bag modelization will be discussed in details, under the simplification of a cylindrical geometry that is convenient for linear plasma devices. As an illustration, results obtained in the linear framework for ion temperature gradient instabilities are presented, that are shown to agree qualitatively with older works.

  10. Air concentrations of organochlorine compounds related to wind direction and compared with biota concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Egebaeck, A.L.; Wideqvist, U.; Asplund, L.; Strandell, M.; Alsberg, T.; Litzen, K.; Eriksson, U.; Haeggberg, L.; Zakrisson, S.; Oisson, M.; Bignert, A.

    1995-12-31

    Persistent organic compounds are long-range transported by air. Air samples were collected at two background meteorological stations, one southern at Gotland in the central Baltic and one northern, close to the polar circle. The collection was a part of the Swedish Dioxin Survey Project. Air sampling was carried out from fall 1990 to spring 1991 using a high-volume sampler. Air trajectories suggesting stable weather conditions decided which samples to be analyzed for e.g. PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), chloroparaffines, HCHs and Toxaphene. The gas-phase concentrations of the seven PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 were in the low pg/m{sup 3} range, while the concentration of the nonortho PCB 77 was about two orders of magnitude lower. High concentrations were usually correlated with SW winds and low concentrations with N to NW winds. Air masses coming from N to both sampling sites, resulted in nearly equal concentrations of the seven PCB congeners. PCNs were found in the gas phase of all samples at the pg/m{sup 3} level (total PCNs). The relative concentrations of the various contaminants were compared between air and four biological matrices collected in the vicinity of the air sampling locations. Cod, Herring and Herring feeding Guillemot from the Baltic and Pike from the northern sampling site were all collected within the Swedish National Monitoring Program.

  11. Aviary air-handler design and its relationship to fungal spore loads in the air.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Michael J; Reininger, Kenneth

    2007-12-01

    Fungal spore loads in the air of cool-temperature, temperate, and tropical aviaries were collected with an Andersen N-6 air sampler. The relationship of spore loads to air-handler and exhibit design in these three environments was examined. In addition, a 2-yr longitudinal study of fungal spore loads in the air of a newly designed and installed air-handling system in the R. J. Reynolds Forest Aviary at the North Carolina Zoological Park was compared to the earlier air-handling system that it replaced. High-efficiency particulate air filters installed in cool-temperature aviaries produced the cleanest air, although pleated filters showed only marginally higher spore loads. Temperate and tropical aviaries with pleated filters or bag filters with variable-velocity fans had much higher spore loads. Tropical and temperate exhibits with bag filters and constant-velocity fans produced the cleanest air in tropical and temperate exhibits. Information on the relative effectiveness of different air-handling system designs and related costs/benefits should be used by zoo managers when they are designing or retrofitting aviary air-handling systems.

  12. Comparative analysis of air pollution emissions by electric utilities: Public policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

    1991-09-01

    One of the objectives of US environmental regulations was to reduce industrial air pollution emissions, especially from the electric utility industry, the major industrial air polluter. In this study, a comparative analysis of air pollution emissions from fossil-fuel-burning electric utility plants is conducted. The analysis focuses on a 12-yr period from 1975 to 1987 for three air pollutants: particulates, surfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that particulate emissions have been significantly reduced but that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are still major problems for a number of plants. Furthermore, the disparity in the performance by plants indicates that by using current technology, the industry as a whole could greatly reduce these emissions. These results have policy implication for future environmental legislation.

  13. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material.

  14. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). PMID:26125024

  15. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  16. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Over-expression of BAG-1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is associated with cisplatin-resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shutong; Ren, Bo; Gao, Hang; Liao, Suchan; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Li, Shirong; Su, Xue-Jin; Jin, Ping; Stroncek, David; Xu, Zhixiang; Zeng, Qinghua; Li, Yulin

    2017-09-06

    In order to improve therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), biomarkers associated with local and/or distant tumor relapses and cancer drug resistance are urgently needed. This study identified a potential biomarker, Bcl-2 associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1), that is implicated in HNSCC insensitive to cisplatin and tumor progression. Primary and advanced (relapsed from parental) University of Michigan squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were tested for sensitivity to cisplatin and gene expression profiles were compared between primary (cisplatin sensitive) and the relapsed (cisplatin resistant) cell lines by using Agilent microarrays. Additionally, differentially expressed genes phosphorylated AKT, and BAG-1, and BCL-xL were evaluated for expression using HNSCC tissue arrays. Advanced HNSCC cells revealed resistant to cisplatin accompanied by increased expression of BAG-1 protein. siRNA knockdown of BAG-1 expression resulted in significant improvement of HNSCC sensitivity to cisplatin. BAG-1 expression enhanced stability of BCL-xL and conferred cisplatin resistant to the HNSCC cells. In addition, high levels of expression of phosphorylated AKT, BAG-1, and BCL-xL were observed in advanced HNSCC compared to in that of primary HNSCC. Increased expression of BAG-1 was associated with cisplatin resistance and tumor progression in HNSCC patients and warrants further validation in larger independent studies. Over expression of BAG-1 may be a biomarker for cisplatin resistance in patients with primary or recurrent HNSCCs and targeting BAG-1 could be helpful in overcoming cisplatin resistance.

  18. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  19. Comparative Performance of Male and Female Enlistees on Air Force Selection Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitola, Bert M.; Wilbourn, James M.

    Male and female enlistee samples were compared for total groups and by enlistment region in terms of their performance on the Airman Qualifying Examination and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Women in the Air Force test-retest performance were evaluated on the Armed Forces Women's Selection Test. WAF performance on the AFWST was…

  20. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  1. Body Density Estimates from Upper-Body Skinfold Thicknesses Compared to Air-Displacement Plethysmography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Summary Objectives: Determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the accuracy of body density (Db) estimated with skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in adults. Subjects/Methods: We estimated Db with SFT and ADP in 131 healthy men an...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Leasing versus Buying General Purpose Vehicles (Sedan) in the Korean Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEASING VERSUS BUYING GENERAL PURPOSE VEHICLES (SEDAN) IN THE KOREAN AIR FORCE...leasing versus buying vehicle study started from the recognition of this situation in which ROKAF needs an efficient and effective vehicle procurement...versus buying vehicles , which has been used in buying versus leasing decision. This research analyzed two variables, logistics benefits and costs, and

  3. Odor concentration decay and stability in gas sampling bags.

    PubMed

    van Harreveld, A Ph

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study into factors contributing to decay of odor samples during storage, between 4 and 40 hr after sample collection. The odor studied was sampled from a tobacco processing plant as part of collaborative research with a view to establishing a manual outlining methods for odor annoyance management, specifically for the tobacco industry. In August and September 1997, an experimental program was carried out in which two types of tobacco odor were sampled: Burley Toaster and Mix. The dependent variable was odor concentration in the bag, measured by dynamic olfactometry in accordance with the draft Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) standard EN13725 "Air Quality-Determination of Odor Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry." The independent variables were sampling bag material, degree of dilution during sampling, dilution gas used, particle removal during sampling, and age of sample in hours. In the first phase, 94 odor analyses were carried out. In a second test, 32 samples were analyzed for odor concentration. In addition, 16 samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of the results (analysis of variance) led to the unexpected conclusion that Nalophan film bags performed significantly better than metalized Cali-Bond layered film as a bag material. The odor concentration of samples in Nalophan bags remained relatively stable between 4 and 12 hr after sampling. After 30 hr, decay to about half the initial concentration, as measured at 4 hr, was observed. Particle removal during sampling caused the odor concentration in the bags to be reduced by approximately 20%. For practical reasons, particle removal remains useful, to avoid contamination of equipment. Using air or nitrogen as the neutral gas for pre-dilution during sampling or the dilution factor used (between factor 2 and 6) did not appear to have an effect on the decay characteristic of odor samples. The following

  4. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  5. Hot air electric hand driers compared with paper towels for potential spread of airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J A; Newsom, S W

    1987-01-01

    Hot air hand driers are increasingly used in both public areas and hospitals, but there is little literature on their bacteriology. Four units were examined by comparing the bacterial aerosols released from hands during use by sets of twelve subjects with those released by paper towels. Tests on two units also included hand imprints on agar plates for detection of residual bacteria. No significant difference between aerosols liberated by towels and driers were observed for two units, while the other two generated significantly fewer aerosols than towels. Impression plates revealed similar numbers of bacteria on the hands after drying by either method. Hot air hand driers appear safe from a bacteriological viewpoint.

  6. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  7. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Michel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag) and display condition (single vs. motion imaging). There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others), the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop) and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view). In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening. PMID:24151457

  8. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  9. The Comparative Reactivity Method - a new tool to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Crowley, J. N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals) in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X), not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s-1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s-1) and the urban atmosphere of Mainz (~10 s-1) Germany, show the promise of the new method and indicate that a significant fraction of OH reactive species in the tropical forests is likely missed by current measurements. Suggestions for improvements to the technique and future applications are discussed.

  10. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  11. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  12. Garan in sleeping bag in Columbus module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007980 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Ron Garan, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  13. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007975 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, sleeps in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  14. Burbank opens a CWC-I Bag

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-06

    ISS030-E-122089 (6 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, opens a Contingency Water Container-Iodinated (CWC-I) bag in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. An update on purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

    2012-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.

  16. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  17. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  18. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  20. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  3. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  4. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  5. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  7. W-Z-top-quark bags

    SciTech Connect

    Crichigno, Marcos P.; Shuryak, Edward; Flambaum, Victor V.; Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    We discuss a new family of multiquanta-bound states in the standard model which exist due to the mutual Higgs-based attraction of the heaviest members of the standard model, namely, gauge quanta W, Z, and (anti)top quarks, t, t. We use a self-consistent mean-field approximation, up to a rather large particle number N. In this paper we do not focus on weakly bound, nonrelativistic bound states, but rather on 'bags' in which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is significantly modified or depleted. The minimal number N above which such states appear strongly depends on the ratio of the Higgs mass to the masses of W, Z, t, t: For a light Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}50 GeV, bound states start from N{approx}O(10), but for a ''realistic'' Higgs mass, m{sub H{approx}}100 GeV, one finds metastable/bound W, Z bags only for N{approx}O(1000). We also found that in the latter case pure top bags disappear for all N, although top quarks can still be well bound to the W bags. Anticipating the cosmological applications (discussed in the following Article [Phys. Rev. D 82, 073019]) of these bags as 'doorway states' for baryosynthesis, we also consider here the existence of such metastable bags at finite temperatures, when standard-model parameters such as Higgs, gauge, and top masses are significantly modified.

  8. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  9. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  10. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  11. Parachute/flotation bag recovery system for a large RV nose cone

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes the design and development of a single-stage recovery system consisting of a 6-ft dia guide surface parachute with a 3.5 ft/sup 3/ ram-air-filled flotation bag for ocean recovery of a 120-lb nose cone. Recovery procedures start with jettisoning a portion of the initial reentry mass before deploying the parachute.

  12. The Comparative Reactivity Method - a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Williams, J.; Crowley, J. N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals) in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X), not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s-1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s-1 and up to 50% between 6-8 s-1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s

  13. The Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Joanne B; Kanade, Trupti; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a modification of the Shibley single-port technique suitable for morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a contained environment within the abdominal cavity [1]. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using descriptive text and an educational video. In light of recent concern about the use of power morcellators and increasing the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous myoma fragments throughout the abdominal cavity, we propose this new technique for management of morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy, to contain the morcellation process and minimize the risk. This technique, which we have coined "Sydney Contained in Bag Morcellation" involves introduction of a sterile plastic bag (Dual Drawstring Bag, 460 × 460 mm; Southern Cross Hospital Supplies, Northmead, NSW, Australia) before introducing an optical port and the power morcellator. Before insertion this bag is modified in several ways to facilitate bag opening and specimen retrieval. The dual drawstring is removed and replaced with a 150-cm length of PDS I (polydioxanone) suture material as the new drawstring, with its exit at the mouth of the bag in the 6 o'clock position. Five stay sutures are placed around the bag mouth, corresponding to the 12, 1, 5, 7, and 11 o'clock positions. This assists with opening the mouth of the bag intraabdominally and enables orientation to be maintained. The bag is then inserted in a McCartney tube (Gates Healthcare, Cheshire, UK). Corresponding slits are made in the tip of the tube to enable the end of the stay sutures to be securely held in place during tube insertion. These ends are then retrieved using atraumatic graspers and exteriorized and clipped alongside their corresponding port sites. After hysterectomy the uterus is placed in the bag, and the stay sutures maintain the mouth opening. The bag is closed and its mouth exteriorized onto the abdominal wall at the site

  14. Streamline similarity analysis using bag-of-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifei; Wang, Chaoli; Shene, Ching-Kuang

    2013-12-01

    Streamline similarity comparison has become an active research topic recently. We present a novel streamline similarity comparison method inspired by the bag-of-features idea from computer vision. Our approach computes a feature vector, spatially sensitive bag-of-features, for each streamline as its signature. This feature vector not only encodes the statistical distribution of combined features (e.g., curvature and torsion), it also contains the information on the spatial relationship among different features. This allows us to measure the similarity between two streamlines in an efficient and accurate way: the similarity between two streamlines is defined as the weighted Manhattan distance between their feature vectors. Compared with previous distribution based streamline similarity metrics, our method is easier to understand and implement, yet producing even better results. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by considering two common tasks in flow field exploration: streamline similarity query and streamline clustering.

  15. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  16. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

  17. Comparative evaluation of outcomes of phacoemulsification in vitrectomized eyes: silicone oil versus air/gas group.

    PubMed

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Agarwal, Esha; Angmo, Dewang; Sharma, Namrata; Kumar, Atul

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the morphology of cataract, intraoperative and postoperative complications (IPC), and surgical outcomes of phacoemulsification in post 23G vitrectomized eyes in silicone oil versus air/gas group. This prospective interventional clinical study took place in the Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Eighty-nine eyes of 89 consecutive vitrectomized patients with cataract were included. All underwent phacoemulsification and evaluated for cataract morphology, surgical difficulties, IPC, visual acuity, and specular count. Mean age of patients was 50.24 ± 15.19 years. There were 65 males and 24 females and 48 eyes in silicone oil group and 41 in air/gas group. Combination type was the commonest morphology seen in both silicone oil (52.08 %) and air/gas group (70.33 %) followed by posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) in 31.25 % silicone group and 12.2 % air/gas group. Posterior capsular plaque (PCP) was seen in 41.67 % of silicone oil versus 7.32 % air/gas group; p < 0.005. Pupillary abnormalities were significantly more in oil (31.25 %) than in air/gas group (9.76 %); p = 0.014. Mean duration between vitrectomy and phacoemulsification in oil group versus air/gas group was 8.39 ± 4.7 months and 10.9 ± 5.22 months, respectively; p < 0.005. Mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity was better in air/gas (0.43 ± 0.25) than in oil (0.66 ± 0.29) group, p < 0.005. There was no significant difference in mean endothelial cell loss postoperatively in either groups (p = 0.25). Morphology of cataract differs in the two groups with PSC being more common in oil group. The mean time of cataract onset was significantly less in patients with oil group, and poor visual outcome in oil group may be attributable to the increased PCP noted.

  18. Pit and Fissure Sealant Retention Following Air Abrasion Preparation with Bioactive Glass and Aluminum Oxide Particles.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Eshghi, Alireza; Naderibeni, Fatemeh

    2016-09-15

    Alumina air abrasion is an alternative for acid-etch technique for tooth preparation before placement of a fissure sealant. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of sealants placed subsequent to air abrasion with alumina and bioactive glass (BAG) particles. Sixty-two 6-12 year old children were included in this study. Using a halfmouth design, the fissures were prepared using air abrasion with alumina particles on randomly assigned permanent mandibular or/and maxillary first molars on one side of the mouth (Group 1) and air abrasion with BAG on the contralateral side of the mouth (Group 2). Sealants were applied on 180 teeth, and were scored as missing, partially retained, and completely retained after three, six, nine and 12 months. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05). Sealant retention rates in the alumina group were higher than those in the BAG group at all time periods (P<0.001). Sealant retention after air abrasion with alumina particles was higher than BAG over 12 months.

  19. Air pollution and DNA methylation alterations in lung cancer: A systematic and comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Lan; He, Shui-Wang; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Duan, He-Xian; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yun-Chao; Li, Gao-Feng; Wang, Ping; Ma, Li-Ju; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to down-regulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer. PMID:27901495

  20. Bubble generation and venous air filtration by hard-shell venous reservoirs: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S J; Willcox, T; Gorman, D F

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of five HSVRs with respect to bubble formation and venous air filtration. Salvaged clinical CPB circuits containing different HSVRs were studied by downstream Doppler monitoring under fixed flow-decreasing volume, fixed volume-increasing flow, and entrained venous air conditions. Bubbles formed in the Medtronic Maxima top entry HSVR at volumes below 800 ml and flows above 3.5 l min-1, and were incompletely removed by a membrane oxygenator and arterial line filter. Decreased bubbling was seen when the reservoir atmosphere was flushed with CO2, suggesting that these bubbles formed in a fountain at the venous inflow. The Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR formed significantly fewer bubbles at low volumes, and filtered venous air effectively. Negligible bubble formation occurred in the Sorin, Terumo, or Baxter reservoirs. The minimum recommended operating volume for the Medtronic Maxima top entry reservoir should be reset at 600 ml and this device should always be used with an arterial filter. Bubble formation is substantially reduced in the new Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR and this device is a good filter for venous air.

  1. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution.

  2. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time.

  3. Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalmers, R.J.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about recent amphibian declines has led to research on amphibian populations, but few statistically tested, standardized methods of counting amphibians exist. We tested whether counts of northern two-lined salamander larvae (Eurycea bislineata) sheltered in leaf litter bags--a relatively new, easily replicable survey technique--had a linear correlation to total number of larvae. Using experimental enclosures placed in streams, we compared number of salamanders found in artificial habitat (leaf litter bags) with total number of salamanders in each enclosure. Low numbers of the animals were found in leaf litter bags, and the relative amount of variation in the index (number of animals in leaf litter bags compared to total number of animals in stream enclosures) was high. The index of salamanders in leaf litter bags was not significantly related to total number of salamanders in enclosures for two-thirds of the replicates or with pooled replicates (P= 0.066). Consequently, we cannot recommend using leaf litter bags to index populations of northern two-lined salamanders.

  4. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  5. Investigation of organic vapor losses to condensed water vapor in Tedlar bags used for exhaled-breath sampling.

    PubMed

    Groves, W A; Zellers, E T

    1996-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential loss of organic vapors to condensed water in bags used for breath sampling. "Wet" test atmospheres were prepared by transferring nitrogen into 1-L Tedlar bags and spiking with water and each of several organic solvents (methanol, acetone, 2-butanone,m-xylene, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, and perchloroethylene) to yield atmospheres representative of a 500-mL breath sample collected at 37 degrees C and cooled to 25 degrees C. Vapor concentrations were compared with those in bags prepared without water. Differences between mean concentrations in wet and dry bags were significant only for methanol, which yielded a mean wet-bag concentration approximately 10% lower than for dry bags. In a second series of experiments the same initial concentration of solvent vapor was generated in 1 dry bag and 5 bags containing 1 to 20 times the amount of water expected to condense in a 500-mL breath sample. Significant differences between wet and dry bag concentrations were seen for methanol, acetone, and 2-butanone; however, the quantity of water required to produce this difference in the acetone and 2-butanone bags exceeded three times that expected to condense in a breath sample. Results were in good agreement with predictions based on Henry's law. In both experiments permeation of water vapor out of the bags led to a decrease in the quantity of condensed water, thereby reducing the extent of organic vapor partitioning. These results indicate that solvent vapor loss to condensed water is not likely to be significant under typical conditions.

  6. Demonstration of a Benchmarking Technique to Compare Graduate Education Level of Air Force Project Managers and Selected Benchmarking Partners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    the 1,450th file. This 46 technique sampled files on a nonprobability representation basis; some files did not have a nonzero chance of being reviewed...04 ELECTE: 4 t- OF A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING * ’~ TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE GRADUATE EDUCATION LEVELS OF AIR FORCE PROJECT MANAGERS AND SELECTED...8217,- -AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GSM/LAS/94S-3 A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE

  7. Comparison of new Ampac bags and FireDebrisPAK® bags as packaging for fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafal

    2012-07-01

    The FireDebrisPAK(®) bags that were produced by Kapak were considered to be one of the best containers for fire debris. Kapak bags were discontinued; however, from July 2010, Ampac is offering a new packaging material. The aim of the presented research was to compare the properties (durability, background interferences, and permeability) of Kapak bags and packaging material offered by Ampac. The analysis was conducted by passive adsorption from the headspace with subsequent thermal desorption and analysis by GC-MS. The results proved that the properties of the compared materials are similar. Their greatest advantage is that they are impermeable for components of flammable liquids, so there is no danger of losing analytes or cross-contamination. Their one significant drawback is that they should not be exposed to temperatures above 80°C. At this temperature, they become soft, their inner layer is compromised (becomes sticky), and they emit some volatile organic compounds. Among them, there are compounds that constitute the components of some of flammable liquids.

  8. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  9. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    PubMed

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  10. Robust ANCOVA using a smoother with bootstrap bagging.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2009-05-01

    Many robust analogs of the classic analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method have been proposed, some of which are based on some type of regression smoother. A method that first appeared in this journal, which is relatively simple and performs well in simulations, is based on a running interval smoother combined with comparing medians or 20% trimmed means. It makes no parametric assumption about the regression lines and does not assume that the regression lines are parallel. A possible way of improving the efficiency of the running interval smoother is to use bootstrap bagging and a minor goal here is to report some results supporting this approach. The major goal is to consider how ANCOVA might be performed when bootstrap bagging is used. Simple extensions of extant approaches that use some type of bootstrap method were found to be unsatisfactory. However, a basic percentile bootstrap method was found to perform well in simulations. And a reanalysis of data dealing with teachers' expectations about the cognitive ability of students illustrates that bootstrap bagging can make a practical difference.

  11. Evaluation of Double-Vacuum-Bag Process For Composite Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Jensen, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A non-autoclave vacuum bag process using atmospheric pressure alone that eliminates the need for external pressure normally supplied by an autoclave or a press is an attractive method for composite fabrication. This type of process does not require large capital expenditures for tooling and processing equipment. In the molding cycle (temperature/pressure profile) for a given composite system, the vacuum application point has to be carefully selected to achieve the final consolidated laminate net shape and resin content without excessive resin squeeze-out. The traditional single-vacuum- bag (SVB) process is best suited for molding epoxy matrix based composites because of their superior flow and the absence of reaction by-products or other volatiles. Other classes of materials, such as polyimides and phenolics, generate water during cure. In addition, these materials are commonly synthesized as oligomers using solvents to facilitate processability. Volatiles (solvents and reaction byproducts) management therefore becomes a critical issue. SVB molding, without additional pressure, normally fails to yield void-free quality composites for these classes of resin systems. A double-vacuum- bag (DVB) process for volatile management was envisioned, designed and built at the NASA Langley Research Center. This experimental DVB process affords superior volatiles management compared to the traditional SVB process. Void-free composites are consistently fabricated as measured by C-scan and optical photomicroscopy for high performance polyimide and phenolic resins.

  12. Vacuum energy in the bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, P.

    1986-04-01

    The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies is shown to be inconsistent since this would result in the bag constant and certain of the shape tensions being infinite. The manner in which the boundary conditions should be relaxed at high frequency is discussed. The most naive procedure for relaxing the boundary conditions, which is to apply confining conditions only on modes of frequency less than some cutoff frequency, results in a negative bag constant and surface tension and would render the vacuum unstable against the spontaneous breaking of Poincaré invariance. Consideration of the manner by which the interacting electromagnetic field avoids a similar instability suggests that a more realistic way to relax the boundary conditions on the bag surface is to endow the vacuum exterior to the bag with a frequency-dependent dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In this picture the stability of the vacuum is restored, the surface tension is finite and positive, and the bag constant is zero at least to lowest order in the coupling. It is pointed out that the fermion contributions to the bag constant and the surface tension may relate to the spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance. The aim throughout is to examine the bag model, as it relates to vacuum energy, strictly in its own terms with an emphasis on questions of principle. All too often is heard the alibi that since the theory itself is only approximate, the mathematics need be no better. In truth the opposite follows. Granted that the model represents but a part of nature, we are to find what such an ideal picture implies, a result strictly derived serves to test

  13. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2017-07-11

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.

  15. Object shape extraction from cluttered bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2017-05-01

    The passengers flow at the US airports increased in the recent years. The larger number of passengers demands for lower number of false alarms and higher accuracy of threat detection at the time of baggage screening. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and extract possible explosive containers in X-Ray- CT bags images. The algorithm is composed by three main stages. The 1st one makes the threat container excels among the other objects in the bag image. The 2nd approach: Extracts the SURF features from the query and the bag images; Matches the SURF feature vectors from the two images. The bag image points (pixels), at which the best match is found, define regions of interest (RoI). Different RoI in a bag are identified by separate clusters of points. At the 3rd stage of the algorithm an enlarging active contour (AC) extracts the boundary of every RoI. The starting point of every AC is the mass center of the corresponding cluster of SURF points. The theory is validated on a number of X-ray/CT images. A qualitative comparison with contemporary methods outlines the advantages and the contribution of the present algorithm.

  16. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQT), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  17. Testing sleeping bags according to EN 13537:2002: details that make the difference.

    PubMed

    Kuklane, Kalev; Dejke, Valter

    2010-01-01

    The European Standard on sleeping bag requirements (EN 13537:2002) describes a procedure to determine environmental temperature limits for safe usage of sleeping bags regarding their thermal insulation. However, there are several possible sources of error related to this procedure. The main aim of this work was to determine the influence of the various measuring parameters on the acuity of the respective parameters in order to judge the requirements. The results indicated that air velocity, mattress insulation and time between unpacking the bag and measurement had a significant impact on the result, with a difference of up to 5-15% in thermal insulation between minimum and maximum allowable parameter levels. On the other hand, manikin weight, thickness of the artificial ground and presence of a face mask were found to have a negligible influence. The article also discusses more general aspects of the standard including the calculation methods used.

  18. Biodegradable plastic bags on the seafloor: A future threat for seagrass meadows?

    PubMed

    Balestri, Elena; Menicagli, Virginia; Vallerini, Flavia; Lardicci, Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Marine plastic litter is a global concern. Carrier bags manufactured from non-biodegradable polymers constitute a large component of this litter. Because of their adverse impact on marine life, non-biodegradable bags have recently been replaced by biodegradable ones. However, growing evidence shows that these latter are not readily degradable in marine sediments and can alter benthic assemblages. The potential impact of biodegradable bags on seagrasses inhabiting sandy bottoms, which are the most widespread and productive ecosystems of the coastal zones, has been ignored. Mesocosm experiments were conducted to assess the effect of a commercialized biodegradable bag on a common seagrass species of the Mediterranean, Cymodocea nodosa, both at the level of individual plant (clonal growth) and of plant community (plant-plant relationships), under three culture regimes (plant alone, in combination with a neighbour of the same species or of the co-existing seagrass Zostera noltei) simulating different natural conditions (bare substrate, monospecific meadows or mixed meadows). The bag behaviour in marine sediment and sediment physical/chemical variables were also examined. After six months of sediment exposure, the bag retained considerable mass (85% initial weight) and reduced sediment pore-water oxygen concentration and pH. In the presence of bag, C. nodosa root spread and vegetative recruitment increased compared to controls, both intra- and interspecific interactions shifted from neutral to competitive, and the growth form changed from guerrilla (loosely arranged group of widely spaced ramets) to phalanx form (compact structure of closed spaced ramets) but only with Z. noltei. These findings suggest that biodegradable bags altering sediment geochemistry could promote the spatial segregation of seagrass clones and influence species coexistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Bag-Sampler: A Simple Device for Collecting Zooplankton in Shallow Vegetated Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Dagmar; Wohltmann, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Zooplankton in temporary ponds is often collected with gear originally designed for lakes, and mostly unsuitable for sampling shallow habitats. We describe a new simple and inexpensive device for sampling zooplankton in very shallow, vegetated temporary ponds. We tested the sampling efficiency by comparing species composition and density of cyclopoid copepods, an important component of the zooplankton, by sampling with both the new bag sampler and a plastic beaker frequently employed for collections of zooplankton in small waterbodies. With the bag sampler we collected a larger number of species and higher densities of copepods due to its higher efficiency in vegetated areas and near the sediment. The beaker appeared to sample almost only the water surface. The samples collected with the bag sampler revealed a distinct distribution of copepod life cycle stages in a shallow pond, which differed between depths and microhabitats. Additional advantages of the bag sampler are its small size and weight, and the possibility of fast exchange of sample bags between sample locations, thus preventing accidental faunal exchange between sample locations. We conclude that the bag sampler is a device especially useful for sampling zooplankton of shallow ponds and wetlands rich in vegetation, for diversity studies as well as for quantitative sampling.

  20. Disinfection of the Peritoneal Dialysis Bag Medication Port: Comparison of Disinfectant Agent and Disinfection Time.

    PubMed

    Conti, Adriana; Katzap, Roberta Monteiro; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Pagnussatti, Vany; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth

    2017-07-13

    To compare different disinfection techniques for the peritoneal dialysis bag medication port (MP). An experimental study was conducted testing different cleaning agents (70% alcohol vs 2% chlorhexidine) and time periods (5, 10 and 60 seconds) for disinfection of the MP. Five microorganisms (S. aureus, E.coli, A. baumannii and C. parapsilosis, CNS) were prepared for use as contaminants of the MP. MP were incubated in Tryptic soy broth at 36 °C for 24 h, after which, they were seeded on a Biomérieux® blood agar plate and incubated for 24 h at 36 °C. 300 peritoneal dialysis bags were analyzed regarding the time expose to the disinfectant showed a statistically significant difference in the number of culture positive (7/100) p = 0.001; Gram positive (6/100) p = 0.006 for five seconds, one positive culture and turbid bag with ten seconds, while friction for 60 seconds showed all negative results. The comparison between disinfectant, alcohol or chlorhexidine, 150 bag in each group, showed that the ones disinfected with alcohol had 5 turbid bags, 8 positive cultures and 7 germs identified, while all bags disinfected with chlorhexidine were negative for all parameters, with a difference statistically significant (p = 0.004). Our results suggest that the MP should be scrubbed with 2% chlorhexidine for at least 5 seconds; if alcohol 70% is used the length of friction should not be inferior to 10 seconds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of sampling bags for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Lomonaco, T; Bellagambi, F G; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M; Trivella, M G; Ceccarini, A; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-12-14

    Nalophan, Tedlar and Cali-5-Bond polymeric bags were compared to determine the most suitable type for breath sampling and storage when volatile organic compounds are to be determined. Analyses were performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For each bag, the release of contaminants and the chemical stability of a gaseous standard mixture containing eighteen organic compounds, as well as the CO2 partial pressure were assessed. The selected compounds were representative of breath constituents and belonged to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulfurs and esters). In the case of Nalophan, the influence of the surface-to-volume ratio, related to the bag's filling degree, on the chemical stability was also evaluated. Nalophan bags were found to be the most suitable in terms of contaminants released during storage (only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxalane), good sample stability (up to 24 h for both dry and humid samples), and very limited costs (about 1 € for a 20 liter bag). The (film) surface-to-(sample) volume ratio was found to be an important factor affecting the stability of selected compounds, and therefore we recommended to fill the bag completely.

  2. The metabolic cost of carrying a single- versus double-strap golf bag.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Elizabeth R; Cooper, Laura; Gulick, Patrick; Nguyen, Phong

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure and perceived comfort using two modes of carrying a golf bag. Fifteen men completed 2 trials of walking on a treadmill while carrying a golf bag. During 1 of 2 trials, an extra strap was added to convert a single-strap bag to a double-strap bag. The order was randomized. Oxygen consumption (L x min(-1)), heart rate, perceived exertion, and perceived comfort were measured during the 5-minute walk. Oxygen consumption was significantly lower carrying the double-strap golf bag (L x min(-1), p = 0.0004; ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), p < 0.0003), as were heart rate (p = 0.0013) and rate of perceived exertion (p < 0.005) During the double strap trial, the perceived comfort was higher (p < 0.005). Improvements in metabolic demands and comfort while carrying a double-strap golf bag should increase walking tolerance in golf.

  3. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  4. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  5. An instructional video enhanced bag-mask ventilation quality during simulated newborn resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Philipp; Schwindt, Jens; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20% of newborns infants need respiratory support at birth. This study evaluated whether video-based education could improve quality of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) performed by inexperienced staff during neonatal resuscitation. Fourth-year medical students were randomly paired and instructed to give PPV to a modified manikin as single-person resuscitators and as two-person-paired resuscitators using either an air cushion rim mask or a round mask before and after watching a self-instructional video. Airway pressure, gas flow, tidal volume and mask leak were recorded. PPV performance quality was analysed using video recording. Mask leak was lower during one-person ventilation when using the air cushion rim mask (56 ± 16%) compared to the round mask (71 ± 19%). Round mask leak during one-person ventilation was significantly lower when using the two point top hold in contrast to the 'o.k.' rim hold (before training: 63 ± 22% vs. 72 ± 18%, after training: 57 ± 17% vs. 77 ± 12%). Watching a self-instructional video improved performance quality scores of both correct head positioning, and the quality of airway manoeuvres compared to baseline, however mask leak was not significantly reduced. A self-instructional video significantly improved bag mask PPV performance in inexperienced providers but did not improve mask leak in a model of neonatal resuscitation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Power Morcellation Using a Contained Bag System

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sasaki, Kirsten; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The well-known advantages of minimally invasive surgery make the approach well suited for hysterectomy and other gynecological procedures. The removal of specimens excised during surgery has been a challenge that has been answered by the use of power morcellation. With this study we sought to assess the feasibility of power morcellation within a specimen bag. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients from a private practice in suburban Chicago, Illinois, who underwent contained electromechanical power morcellation during a laparoscopic or robot-assisted hysterectomy or myomectomy from May 2014 through December 2015. Contained power morcellation was performed with the Espiner EcoSac 230 (Espiner Medical Ltd., North Somerset, United Kingdom) specimen bag. Descriptive statistics were performed for both categorical and continuous data. Results: Of the 187 procedures performed, 73.8% were myomectomies, and 26.2% were hysterectomies. The patients' mean age was 40 (range, 25–54) years and mean body mass index was 28.7 (range, 17.3–57.6). The average specimen weight was 300 g, with the largest weighing 2134 g. Estimated blood loss averaged 98.4 mL. The postoperative admission rate was 12.3%, most of which were due to nausea and urinary retention. Seventeen patients (9.1%) had postoperative complications, most of which were minor, and 4 (2.1%) were readmitted. There were no bag failures or complications that were due to the use of the specimen bag or to power morcellation. Conclusions: Performing electromechanical power morcellation within the Espiner EcoSac 230 specimen bag was successfully performed in 187 patients with no bag-related complications. This method of contained power morcellation is feasible, reliable, and reproducible, even for a large specimen. PMID:28352146

  7. Comparing exposure assessment methods for traffic-related air pollution in an adverse pregnancy outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Wilhelm, Michelle; Chung, Judith; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported adverse impacts of traffic-related air pollution exposure on pregnancy outcomes. Yet, little information exists on how effect estimates are impacted by the different exposure assessment methods employed in these studies. Objectives To compare effect estimates for traffic-related air pollution exposure and preeclampsia, preterm birth (gestational age less than 37 weeks), and very preterm birth (gestational age less than 30 weeks) based on four commonly-used exposure assessment methods. Methods We identified 81,186 singleton births during 1997–2006 at four hospitals in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Exposures were assigned to individual subjects based on residential address at delivery using the nearest ambient monitoring station data [carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and particulate matter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) or less than 10 (PM10) μm in aerodynamic diameter], both unadjusted and temporally-adjusted land-use regression (LUR) model estimates (NO, NO2, and NOx), CALINE4 line-source air dispersion model estimates (NOx and PM2.5), and a simple traffic-density measure. We employed unconditional logistic regression to analyze preeclampsia in our birth cohort, while for gestational age-matched risk sets with preterm and very preterm birth we employed conditional logistic regression. Results We observed elevated risks for preeclampsia, preterm birth, and very preterm birth from maternal exposures to traffic air pollutants measured at ambient stations (CO, NO, NO2, and NOx) and modeled through CALINE4 (NOx and PM2.5) and LUR (NO2 and NOx). Increased risk of preterm birth and very preterm birth were also positively associated with PM10 and PM2.5 air pollution measured at ambient stations. For LUR-modeled NO2 and NOx exposures, elevated risks for all the outcomes were observed in Los Angeles only – the region for which the LUR models were initially

  8. Comparing exposure assessment methods for traffic-related air pollution in an adverse pregnancy outcome study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wilhelm, Michelle; Chung, Judith; Ritz, Beate

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies reported adverse impacts of traffic-related air pollution exposure on pregnancy outcomes. Yet, little information exists on how effect estimates are impacted by the different exposure assessment methods employed in these studies. To compare effect estimates for traffic-related air pollution exposure and preeclampsia, preterm birth (gestational age less than 37 weeks), and very preterm birth (gestational age less than 30 weeks) based on four commonly used exposure assessment methods. We identified 81,186 singleton births during 1997-2006 at four hospitals in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Exposures were assigned to individual subjects based on residential address at delivery using the nearest ambient monitoring station data [carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ozone (O(3)), and particulate matter less than 2.5 (PM(2.5)) or less than 10 (PM(10))μm in aerodynamic diameter], both unadjusted and temporally adjusted land-use regression (LUR) model estimates (NO, NO(2), and NO(x)), CALINE4 line-source air dispersion model estimates (NO(x) and PM(2.5)), and a simple traffic-density measure. We employed unconditional logistic regression to analyze preeclampsia in our birth cohort, while for gestational age-matched risk sets with preterm and very preterm birth we employed conditional logistic regression. We observed elevated risks for preeclampsia, preterm birth, and very preterm birth from maternal exposures to traffic air pollutants measured at ambient stations (CO, NO, NO(2), and NO(x)) and modeled through CALINE4 (NO(x) and PM(2.5)) and LUR (NO(2) and NO(x)). Increased risk of preterm birth and very preterm birth were also positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) air pollution measured at ambient stations. For LUR-modeled NO(2) and NO(x) exposures, elevated risks for all the outcomes were observed in Los Angeles only--the region for which the LUR models were initially developed

  9. Comparative Study on a Solving Model and Algorithm for a Flush Air Data Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanbin; Xiao, Dibo; Lu, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    With the development of high-performance aircraft, precise air data are necessary to complete challenging tasks such as flight maneuvering with large angles of attack and high speed. As a result, the flush air data sensing system (FADS) was developed to satisfy the stricter control demands. In this paper, comparative stuides on the solving model and algorithm for FADS are conducted. First, the basic principles of FADS are given to elucidate the nonlinear relations between the inputs and the outputs. Then, several different solving models and algorithms of FADS are provided to compute the air data, including the angle of attck, sideslip angle, dynamic pressure and static pressure. Afterwards, the evaluation criteria of the resulting models and algorithms are discussed to satisfy the real design demands. Futhermore, a simulation using these algorithms is performed to identify the properites of the distinct models and algorithms such as the measuring precision and real-time features. The advantages of these models and algorithms corresponding to the different flight conditions are also analyzed, furthermore, some suggestions on their engineering applications are proposed to help future research. PMID:24859025

  10. Comparative study on a solving model and algorithm for a flush air data sensing system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Xiao, Dibo; Lu, Yuping

    2014-05-23

    With the development of high-performance aircraft, precise air data are necessary to complete challenging tasks such as flight maneuvering with large angles of attack and high speed. As a result, the flush air data sensing system (FADS) was developed to satisfy the stricter control demands. In this paper, comparative stuides on the solving model and algorithm for FADS are conducted. First, the basic principles of FADS are given to elucidate the nonlinear relations between the inputs and the outputs. Then, several different solving models and algorithms of FADS are provided to compute the air data, including the angle of attck, sideslip angle, dynamic pressure and static pressure. Afterwards, the evaluation criteria of the resulting models and algorithms are discussed to satisfy the real design demands. Futhermore, a simulation using these algorithms is performed to identify the properites of the distinct models and algorithms such as the measuring precision and real-time features. The advantages of these models and algorithms corresponding to the different flight conditions are also analyzed, furthermore, some suggestions on their engineering applications are proposed to help future research.

  11. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  12. Comparative AFM nanoscratching tests in air of bulk copper and electrogenerated cuprous oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaal, Lila; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine; Deslouis, Claude; Maurin, Georges; Pailleret, Alain; Saidani, Boualem

    2011-01-01

    The normal and lateral spring constants of rectangular silicon AFM cantilevers bearing pyramidal silicon tips were accurately calibrated using a procedure that takes into account their tilt compared to horizontal orientation and their trapezoidal cross section. Such systems were used to carry out nanoscratching tests in air on technical substrates presenting a moderate roughness (RMS ≈ 40 nm) and made either from bulk copper or from cuprous oxide thin films electrogenerated on copper. The various events occurring during these nanoscratching procedures were characterized in details. In particular, the features of the scars appearing on the scratched zones and SEM observations of the AFM tips used during the nanoscratching procedures are described and exploited to establish a better understanding of the effects of the nanoscratching procedures on the targeted samples. In the case of electrodeposited Cu 2O films, these effects are discussed with the help of chemical and structural characterizations using XPS and XRD studies. All this set of information is used i) to describe the history of the nanoscratching tests and ii) to compare mechanical resistance of bulk copper and electrogenerated Cu 2O thin films using these nanoscratching tests carried out in air. The wear mechanism occurring during nanoscratching tests is discussed for both kinds of samples and compared with the one observed during erosion in erosion-corrosion tests.

  13. Comparative analysis of post-focal filamentation of focused UV and IR laser pulses in air

    SciTech Connect

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, A A; Mokrousova, D V; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

    2015-04-30

    We report the results of laboratory experiments and numerical calculations of the spatial position and structure of a plasma channel produced in air by high-power focused femtosecond laser radiation with wavelengths of 740 and 248 nm as a result of its self-focusing and filamentation. A comparative analysis of the physical patterns of filamentation of IR and UV laser beams with variations in the beam focal length, transverse size and power is performed. It is found that a plasma channel beyond the linear focal waist of the laser beam is formed differently for two different spectral ranges. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. Comparative analysis of post-focal filamentation of focused UV and IR laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yu E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.

    2015-04-01

    We report the results of laboratory experiments and numerical calculations of the spatial position and structure of a plasma channel produced in air by high-power focused femtosecond laser radiation with wavelengths of 740 and 248 nm as a result of its self-focusing and filamentation. A comparative analysis of the physical patterns of filamentation of IR and UV laser beams with variations in the beam focal length, transverse size and power is performed. It is found that a plasma channel beyond the linear focal waist of the laser beam is formed differently for two different spectral ranges.

  15. Airborne fiber concentrations during splitting open and boxing bags of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Esmen, N A; Corn, M

    1998-01-01

    Measured airborne concentrations of asbestos are often unavailable to assess different epidemiologic estimates of past personal exposure levels or concentrations near specific operations involving handling asbestos. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential use of a laboratory study in estimating exposure to asbestos in operations that ceased for many years. The asbestos transfer operations were simulated by splitting and boxing 4.5-kg paper bags of chrysotile asbestos in an enclosed chamber ventilated at 28.2 air changes per hour (ACH). Two recirculation fans achieved chamber air mixing. The airborne concentration of asbestos fibers was determined by sampling air through membrane filters at a rate of 10 l/min and by analysing fibers by phase contrast optical microscopy to determine 15-min average airborne concentrations. Samplers were located at four equidistant locations from the operation. Opening a maximum of seven bags in 15 min was associated with an asbestos-in-air concentration of less than 2 x 10(-6) fibers/m3 (f/m3) in splitting open and boxing and less than 0.85 x 10(-6) f/m3 in boxing of pre-split bags. The measured airborne asbestos concentration exhibited a linear trend with the number of bags opened per 15 min. The empirical results were utilised to model fiber concentrations for various ventilation rates. It was concluded that the distribution of the operation within the workday and the ventilation rate are the two most important variables in the determination of the estimated time-weighted average concentration. Splitting open and boxing 32 bags of asbestos over an 8-h period at a rate of 4 bags/h over an 8-h period results in a calculated time-weighted average exposure of about 1 x 10(-6) f/m3 in a work space with 20 ACH and approximately 7 x 10(-6) f/m3 in a work space with 2 ACH. Splitting open and boxing at a rate of 12 bags/h for 2 h and 45 min yielded calculated concentrations less than one-half of the above mentioned values

  16. Use of polyethylene bags in extremely low birth weight infant resuscitation for the prevention of hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Patrick D; Nankervis, Craig A; Giannone, Peter J; Cordero, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants resuscitated in polyethylene bags with ELBW infants who were resuscitated using traditional temperature control measures. Retrospective cohort investigation of 70 ELBW infants who were resuscitated using polyethylene bags (study) and 70 ELBW infants (control) resuscitated without polyethylene bags matched by birth weight, gestational age and gender. Infants in the study and control groups were comparable demographically and in obstetric risk factors. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, gestational age and low 5-minute Apgar score. Axillary temperature on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at 1 hour was greater in the study group as compared with controls. The incidence of grade III-IV intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) combined was decreased in the study group as compared with controls. Other neonatal comorbidities were not different. Resuscitation of ELBW infants in polyethylene bags led to higher skin temperature on admission to the NICU and at 1 hour of life. These infants were less likely to develop grade 3-4 PVL than infants resuscitated using traditional temperature control measures. No deleterious clinical effects were observed in infants resuscitated using polyethylene bags.

  17. Bagging of OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians assist as a crane is used to lower a protective covering around Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  18. Bagging of OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians secure a protective covering around Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  19. Bagging of OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians are preparing to assist as a crane is used to lower a protective covering around Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  20. Bagging of OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians position a protective covering around Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  1. Bagging of OA-7 CYGNUS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a KAMAG transporter has arrived in the high bay. Technicians are preparing the protective covering for Orbital ATK's CYGNUS pressurized cargo module. The Orbital ATK CRS-7 commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station is scheduled to launch atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on March 19, 2017. CYGNUS will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials to the space station.

  2. Comparing air dispersion model predictions with measured concentrations of VOCs in urban communities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Wu, Chun Yi; Bock, Don; Adgate, John L; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria; Sexton, Ken

    2004-04-01

    Air concentrations of nine volatile organic compounds were measured over 48-h periods at 23 locations in three communities in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Concentrations at the same times and locations were modeled using a standard regulatory air dispersion model (ISCST3). The goal of the study was to evaluate model performance by comparing predictions with measurements using linear regression and estimates of bias. The modeling, done with mobile and area source emissions resolved to the census tract level and characterized as model area sources, represents an improvement over large-scale airtoxics modeling analyses done to date. Despite the resolved spatial scale, the model did not fully capture the spatial resolution in concentrations in an area with a sharp gradient in emissions. In a census tract with a major highway at one end of the tract (i.e., uneven distribution of emissions within the tract), model predictions atthe opposite end of the tract overestimated measured concentrations. This shortcoming was seen for pollutants emitted mainly by mobile sources (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes). We suggest that major highways would be better characterized as line sources. The model also failed to fully capture the temporal variability in concentrations, which was expected since the emissions inventory comprised annual average values. Based on our evaluation metrics, model performance was best for pollutants emitted mainly from mobile sources and poorest for pollutants emitted mainlyfrom area sources. Important sources of error appeared to be the source characterization (especially location) and emissions quantification. We expect that enhancements in the emissions inventory would give the greatest improvement in results. As anticipated for a Gaussian plume model, performance was dramatically better when compared to measurements that were not matched in space or time. Despite the limitations of our analysis, we found thatthe regulatory

  3. Effects of bagging on volatiles and polyphenols in "Wanmi" peaches during endocarp hardening and final fruit rapid growth stages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiju; Yang, Chunxiang; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Man; Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Younian

    2010-01-01

    Fruits of the late-ripening peach cultivar "Wanmi" were bagged at the early period of fruit endocarp hardening, and the bags were removed 1 wk before maturity harvest. The effects of bagging on volatile compounds and polyphenols were studied. Total volatiles and the sum of C(6) compounds, esters from bagged fruits were significantly lower than from nonbagged fruits from the beginning of the final rapid fruit growth stage to maturity. As the most dominant compounds of C(6) compounds and esters, the lower contents of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, and trans-2-hexenyl acetate attributed to the lower content of C(6) compounds and esters in bagged fruit. γ-Hexalactone and δ-decalactone were produced earlier in bagged fruits than in nonbagged ones, suggesting that bagging accelerates fruit maturity. Level of γ-decalactone in bagged fruits was significantly lower than in nonbagged fruits at 159 days after full blossom (DAFB), so did δ-decalactone at 166 DAFB. Bagging did not affect chlorogenic acid and catechol contents of either fruit peel or flesh, nor did it affect contents of keracyanin or quercetin-3-rutinoside in fruit flesh during fruit development. However, keracyanin and quercetin-3-rutinoside levels were significantly reduced in bagged fruit peels before ripening compared to nonbagged fruit peels. Considering the large changes in volatiles and polyphenols, the key stage for "Wanmi" fruit maturity was between 126 DAFB and 147 DAFB, about 1 mo ahead of maturity. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  5. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), SOUTHWEST CORNER, DETAIL OF SEWING MACHINE MOTORS AND SWITCHES MOUNTED UNDER EAVES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. 41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING CONVEYOR SYSTEM WHICH BROUGHT PROPELLANTS FROM STORAGE MAGAZINE - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. 42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VARIOUS LOADING STATIONS ON PRODUCTION LINE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. Physical and chemical changes of ACD-preserved blood: a comparison of blood in glass bottles and plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, S; Tokunaga, E

    1976-01-01

    ACD blood was preserved in glass bottles with or without aeration and in plastic bags in air or nitrogen gas at 4.5 degrees C. The blood was examined for physical and chemical changes of erythrocyte membrane resistance, hemoglobin in the plasma, the viscosity of the blood, pH of plasma, and ATP and 2,3-DPG content of erythrocytes. The blood preserved in plastic bags showed less changes than blood in glass bottles. The presence of air or nitrogen gas in blood seems to increase the pH perhaps by elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) which in turn causes the different rates of glycolysis in the erythrocytes.

  10. Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cercasov, V; Pantelică, A; Sălăgean, M; Caniglia, G; Scarlat, A

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of three lichen species (Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea) as transplants to trace-element air biomonitoring, they were exposed on substratum-free supports, from July 1996 until July 1997, in three European countries with different climates (Germany, Italy, Romania), at six sites with different types of air pollutants (two in each country). After 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of exposure, some portions of thallus were collected, prepared, and measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRFA) at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. Fifteen environmentally relevant elements: As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, V, and Zn were determined. The analytical results were compared statistically. To study the distribution of the trace-elements between the lichens and the lichen throughfall water inside a virtual column, the throughfall water was collected under the lichen transplants during 6 and 12 months. The dried residues were analysed by INAA at Bucharest. The accumulating capacity for all investigated species is evident. For a comparative evaluation, the initial element contents, the "accumulation factors" relative to the bulk deposition, the interspecies "calibration factors", and the "retention efficiencies", defined as ratios of the lichen enrichment to the sum of this enrichment and the content in the lichen throughfall water, were considered. These criteria attest the best suitability for Evernia prunastri, followed by Ramalina farinacea and Cetraria islandica.

  11. Hoshide in sleeping bag in JEM module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007983 (9 June 2008) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag in Kibo Japanese Pressurized Module of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  12. Fossum in sleeping bag on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-09

    S124-E-007977 (9 June 2008) --- Astronaut Mike Fossum, STS-124 mission specialist, is pictured in his sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery, while docked with the International Space Station.

  13. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  14. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  15. Lindsey on middeck with bag of refuse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-29

    STS095-E-5026 (10-29-98) --- Astronaut Steven W. Lindsey, pilot, with a bag of refuse on Discovery's mid deck as the STS-95 crew members begin to settle in for a nine-day stay in Earth orbit. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 11:23:04 GMT, Oct. 29.

  16. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  17. Case report: purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-06-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article.

  18. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  19. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  20. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  1. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant...

  3. European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR): a comparative observational study of glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Bertil; Fitts, David; Marelli, Claudio; Murray, Robert D; Quinkler, Marcus; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2014-05-09

    Increased morbidity and mortality associated with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency (primary AI; estimated prevalence 93-140/million), secondary AI (estimated prevalence, 150-280/million, respectively) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (estimated prevalence, approximately 65/million) may be due to the inability of typical glucocorticoid treatment regimens to reproduce the normal circadian profile of plasma cortisol. A once-daily modified-release formulation of hydrocortisone has been developed to provide a plasma cortisol profile that better mimics the daytime endogenous profile of cortisol. Here, we describe the protocol for the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR), an observational study to assess the long-term safety of modified-release hydrocortisone compared with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapies in routine clinical practice (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01661387). Patients enrolled in EU-AIR have primary or secondary AI and are receiving either modified-release or conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The primary endpoints of EU-AIR are the incidence of intercurrent illness, adrenal crisis and serious adverse events (SAEs), as well as the duration of SAEs and dose changes related to SAEs. Data relating to morbidity, mortality, adverse drug reactions, dosing and concomitant therapies will be collected. Patient diaries will record illness-related dose changes between visits. All decisions concerning medical care are made by the registry physician and patient. Enrolment is targeted at achieving 3600 patient-years of treatment (1800 patient-years per group) for the primary analysis, which is focused on determining the non-inferiority of once-daily modified-release replacement therapy compared with conventional glucocorticoid therapy. Recruitment began in August 2012 and, as of March 2014, 801 patients have been enrolled. Fifteen centres are participating in Germany, the UK

  4. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  5. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  6. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  7. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold...

  14. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  16. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  17. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  18. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  19. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  20. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  1. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  2. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  3. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  4. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  5. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are not...

  6. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  7. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  8. Prostate cancer incidence in Air Force aviators compared with non-aviators

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, David; Boyd, Douglas D.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Shen, Yu; del Junco, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several studies investigating whether prostate cancer incidence is elevated in aviators both in the civilian and military sectors have yielded inconsistent findings. Most investigations have compared aviators to the general population. Instead, our study compared prostate cancer incidence rates among officer aviator and non-aviators in the United States Air Force to reduce confounding by socioeconomic status and frequency of medical exams. Methods This retrospective analysis ascertained prostate cancer cases using the Automated Cancer Tumor Registry of the Department of Defense linked to personnel records from the USAF Personnel Center to identify aviators and non-aviators. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards model allowed comparison of prostate cancer incidence rates in USAF aviators and non-aviators. Results After adjustment for age and race, the hazards ratio for prostate cancer incidence comparing aviators with non-aviators was 1.15 (95 % confidence interval, 0.85-1.44). Neither prostate cancer incidence nor time to diagnosis differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Our study compared prostate cancer rates in aviators with a reference group of non-aviators similar in socio-economic level and frequency of exams. When compared to this internal reference group the risk of prostate cancer in USAF officer aviators appeared similar with no significant excess. PMID:22097644

  9. Prostate cancer incidence in U.S. Air Force aviators compared with non-aviators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David; Boyd, Douglas D; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Shen, Yu; Del Junco, Deborah J

    2011-11-01

    Several studies investigating whether prostate cancer incidence is elevated in aviators both in the civilian and military sectors have yielded inconsistent findings. Most investigations have compared aviators to the general population. Instead, our study compared prostate cancer incidence rates among officer aviators and non-aviators in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) to reduce confounding by socioeconomic status and frequency of medical exams. This retrospective analysis ascertained prostate cancer cases using the Automated Cancer Tumor Registry of the Department of Defense linked to personnel records from the USAF Personnel Center to identify aviators and non-aviators. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards model allowed comparison of prostate cancer incidence rates in USAF aviators and non-aviators. After adjustment for age and race, the hazards ratio for prostate cancer incidence comparing aviators with non-aviators was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.44). Neither prostate cancer incidence nor time to diagnosis differed significantly between the two groups. Our study compared prostate cancer rates in aviators with a reference group of non-aviators similar in socio-economic level and frequency of exams. When compared to this internal reference group the risk of prostate cancer in USAF officer aviators appeared similar with no significant excess.

  10. Evaluation of "bag-in-bottle" resist dispense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prutton, Heather C.; Evans, Samuel G.

    1992-06-01

    Photoresist defectivity is a major source of yield loss in the manufacture of integrated circuits. Contamination may result from the resist, the resist process or coating track components. Much work has been carried out to reduce the causes of defects whilst maintaining the properties of the resist fi1m. Exposure of the resist to air is thought to result in solvent loss and moisture absorption which causes the information of gel slugs and dried resist flakes. These gel slugs and dried resist flakes form defects in the resist film. Traditional containment systems for resist such as glass bottles allow for high exposure to air. The irregular physical properties of resultant contaminants from air exposure may allow random passage through filtration systems and can then be incorporated within the film causing pattern defects to occur. Sealed "Bag-in-Bottle" (BIB) systems considerably reduce the exposure of the enclosed chemical to the environment, and have been demonstrated to have an effect in controlling pattern defectivity as part of a total system improvement3. Potential advantages of such sealed systems include improved package cleanliness, reduced exposure of the resist to air during use and improved resist utilization. This investigation involves a comparison between standard glass bottle and BIB containment for undyed and dyed resists. The analysis techniques used were short loop defectivity monitors, laser scanning of resist-coated wafers and defectivity analysis on actual device at wafer probe yield check. Chemical analysis of ionic contaminants and total resist utilization were also measured for both containment systems.

  11. Effectiveness of the ZeroFly® storage bag fabric against stored-product insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ZeroFly® Storage Bag is a polypropylene bag (PP) which has deltamethrin incorporated in its fibers, and represents a novel approach to reducing stored-product insect pest-related postharvest losses. Fabric samples from ZeroFly bags, polypropylene (PP) bags, jute bags, malathion-treated PP bags, ...

  12. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  13. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers.

  14. Predicting Air Permeability of Handloom Fabrics: A Comparative Analysis of Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Bannerjee, Debamalya

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of two modeling methodologies for the prediction of air permeability of plain woven handloom cotton fabrics. Four basic fabric constructional parameters namely ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count have been used as inputs for artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. Out of the four regression models tried, interaction model showed very good prediction performance with a meager mean absolute error of 2.017 %. However, ANN models demonstrated superiority over the regression models both in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute error. The ANN model with 10 nodes in the single hidden layer showed very good correlation coefficient of 0.982 and 0.929 and mean absolute error of only 0.923 and 2.043 % for training and testing data respectively.

  15. Coated mesh photocatalytic reactor for air treatment applications: comparative study of support materials.

    PubMed

    Passalía, Claudio; Nocetti, Emanuel; Alfano, Orlando; Brandi, Rodolfo

    2017-03-01

    An experimental comparative study of different meshes as support materials for photocatalytic applications in gas phase is presented. The photocatalytic oxidation of dichloromethane in air was addressed employing different coated meshes in a laboratory-scale, continuous reactor. Two fiberglass meshes and a stainless steel mesh were studied regarding the catalyst load, adherence, and catalytic activity. Titanium dioxide photocatalyst was immobilized on the meshes by dip-coating cycles. Results indicate the feasibility of the dichloromethane elimination in the three cases. When the number of coating cycles was doubled, the achieved conversion levels were increased twofold for stainless steel and threefold for the fiberglass meshes. One of the fiberglass meshes (FG2) showed the highest reactivity per mass of catalyst and per catalytic surface area.

  16. Comparative Cooling Season Performance of Air Distribution Systems in Multistory Townhomes

    SciTech Connect

    A. Poerschke; Beach, R.; Beggs, T.

    2016-08-26

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements.

  17. Flight safety in Alaska: comparing attitudes and practices of high- and low-risk air carriers.

    PubMed

    Conway, George A; Mode, Nicolle A; Berman, Matthew D; Martin, Stephanie; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft operations are a vital component of the transportation system in Alaska. Between 1990-2002, a total of 481 people died in Alaska in aviation accidents. The purpose of this study was to examine the practices and attitudes of Alaska commuter and air taxi operators and their pilots as they relate to company fatal accident rates. A case-control analysis based on accident statistics was performed, grouping operators and their pilots into cases and controls, based on operator fatal accident rates, during January 1990 to June 2001. Responses from two aviation safety surveys-one of air carrier operators and one of active commercial pilots-were compared between cases and controls. The average case pilot had less career flight experience than control pilots and worked 13 h x d(-1) and 81 h x wk(-10; that is, 1 h x d(-1) and 10 h wk-1 more than controls. Case operators were less likely to consider pilot fatigue a problem when scheduling flights (p = 0.05) and more likely to depend financially on timely delivery of bypass mail (p = 0.04). Case pilots were three times as likely as controls to fly daily into unknown weather conditions. Nearly 90% of case pilots reported that they never flew when so fatigued that they wanted to decline the flight, compared with 64% of control pilots (p = 0.01). Pilots of high-risk operators differed from those working for the other operators, both in experience and working conditions. The combination of pilot inexperience and longer work hours and workweeks may contribute to Alaska's high aviation crash rate.

  18. Safety and efficacy of vinyl bags in prevention of hypothermia of preterm neonates at birth.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, Geeta; Singh, Gurmeet; Agrawal, Nitika

    2010-01-01

    The present study was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vinyl bags in prevention of hypothermia during resuscitation at birth in very low birth weight neonates. Sixty neonates of gestational age ≤32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500gm were randomised to either study group, or control group. Study group neonates were put in vinyl bags up to neck and the head was covered with a cap after drying immediately following delivery and resuscitated under radiant warmer. Control group neonates were resuscitated by conventional drying under radiant warmer. Mean axillary and rectal temperature recorded immediately after admission to NICU were significantly higher in the study group compared to control group. Temperature recorded after 1 hour of admission to NICU were however comparable between the two groups. As temperature maintenance in these VLBW neonates is of tremendous importance, it would make sense to recommend the use of vinyl bags during their resuscitation.

  19. Attached segment has higher CD34+ cells and CFU-GM than the main bag after thawing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2015-01-01

    A contiguous segment attached to the cord blood unit (CBU) is required for verifying HLA types, cell viability, and, possibly, potency before transplantation since such a segment is considered to be representative of the CBU. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of contiguous segments in comparison to main bag units due to the difficulty experienced in accessing a large number of cryopreserved CBUs. In this study, we used 245 nonconforming CBUs for allogeneic transplantation. After thawing the cryopreserved CBU, the number of total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34(+) cells, and CFUs in CB from main bags and segments, as well as cell viability and apoptosis, were examined. The comparative analysis showed that the number of TNCs was significantly higher in CB from main bags, whereas the numbers of CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM were significantly higher in CB from segments. While the cell viability of TNCs in segments was higher, the proportion of apoptotic TNCs was also higher. In contrast, no difference was observed between the proportion of apoptotic CD34(+) cells in main bags and segments. In the correlation analysis, the numbers of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, and CFU-GM in main bags were highly correlated with those in segments, indicating that CB from segments is indeed representative of CB in main bags. Taken together, we conclude that segments have higher CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM and lower TNCs than the main cryopreserved bag, although the two compartments are highly correlated with each other.

  20. Job Attitudes--How SAC (Strategic Air Command) Personnel Compare with the Rest of the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    broad spectrum of missions, organizational structures, and work group maturity found throughout the Air Force. The specific model used, Hendrix’s (1976...34Three Component Leadership Effectiveness Model ," measures both the style of leadership and the situational environment. It also measures... Model ." The validity, reliability, and factor consistency of the GAP have been consistently tested and rated above average. The data base used in this

  1. An Ergonomic Assessment of Hospital Linen Bag Handling.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Erin; Dennerlein, Jack T; Hashimoto, Dean; Soto, Luis A; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2017-08-01

    The Joint Commission provides accreditation standards for staging hospital waste, but there are no federal lifting safety standards for linen bags. We evaluated hospital laundry bag lifting using the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation. We hypothesized that the permitted 32-gallon linen container capacity might allow filling to weights above our calculated Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) for some lifting positions and contents. We found that 30- and 40-gallon bags filled with loose dry linen had predicted weights within estimated RWLs only for lifts close to the body. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled more than halfway with dry compact linen had predicted weights above estimated RWLs for all lifting positions. Thirty- and 40-gallon bags filled with wet compact linen exceeded estimated RWLs for all positions when less than one-quarter full. Bag volume and filling controls may be considered to ensure linen bags are not excessively heavy.

  2. Does the 'old bag' make a good 'wind bag'?: Comparison of four fabrics commonly used as exclusion bags in studies of pollination and reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Neal, Paul R; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-05-01

    Fabrics used in pollination bags may exclude pollen carried by biotic vectors, but have varying degrees of permeability to wind-borne pollen. The permeability of bags to wind-borne pollen may have important consequences in studies of pollination and reproductive biology. The permeability of four fabrics commonly used in the construction of pollination bags was examined. Deposition of wind-borne pollen on horizontally and vertically oriented microscope slides was assessed on slides enclosed in pollination bags, as well as on control slides. It was found that the permeability of fabrics to wind-borne pollen, as measured by deposition on both horizontally and vertically oriented slides, decreased with pore size. However, deposition on horizontal slides was always greater than on vertical slides for a given fabric; this could manifest itself as differential success of pollination of flowers in bags-dependent on flower orientation. Obviously, bags with mesh size smaller than most pollen grains are impermeable to pollen. However, material for such bags is very expensive. In addition, it was also observed that bags with even moderately small pore size, such as pores (approx. 200 microm) in twisted fibre cotton muslin, offered highly significant barriers to passage of wind-borne pollen. Such bags are sufficiently effective in most large-sample-size reproductive biology studies.

  3. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  4. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  5. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  6. Airborne pollutants along a roadside: assessment using snow analyses and moss bags.

    PubMed

    Viskari, E L; Rekilä, R; Roy, S; Lehto, O; Ruuskanen, J; Kärenlampi, L

    1997-01-01

    Vertical snow sampling and moss bag transplants were used to estimate the local inorganic and organic pollutant load deposited from traffic along a major highway in Finland. The pH and concentrations of Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Ca(2+), Na(+) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined from snow samples collected in winter at different sites along the highway. In summer, moss bags containing 20 g of fresh red-stemmed feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) were transplanted at the same sites. The moss bag transplants remained exposed to roadside traffic for a period of one month following which the samples were collected and the PAH profiles and concentrations were analysed. The deposition of inorganic and organic pollutants from road traffic was observed up to 60 m from the road. The prevailing winds had a significant effect on the dispersion of pollutants. Snow appears to be a good collector of inorganic pollutants from the atmosphere and can be used to monitor local airborne pollution from road traffic. Snow packs can also be used as passive collectors of organic pollutant loads from road traffic on a local scale. To monitor organic PAH deposition from the road traffic, moss bags appeared to be better indicators compared to snow sampling. The efficiency of moss bags in accumulating PAH compounds indicate that vegetation may be an important sink for traffic pollution.

  7. Dynamic analysis of forces in the lumbar spine during bag carrying.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Lessby; Díaz, Carlos A; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2017-09-07

    The intervertebral disc supports axial and shear forces generated during tasks such as lifting and carrying weights. The objective of this study was to determine the forces in the lumbar spine of workers carrying a bag on the head, on the shoulder and on the anterior part of the trunk. Kinematic measurements were recorded for 10 subjects carrying bags of 10, 20 and 25 kg on each of the three aforementioned positions. A simple dynamic model implemented in a custom program was then developed to determine the lumbar forces using the accelerations and positions obtained from the kinematic analysis. The analyses yielded a maximum compressive force of 2338.4 ± 422 N when a 25-kg bag was carried on the anterior part of the trunk. Carrying bags on the anterior part of the trunk generated higher lumbar forces compared to those developed by carrying the bag on the head or on the shoulder. Force levels suggest that this activity represents a moderate risk for the subjects. However, future biomechanical models should be developed to analyze the cumulative effect in the discs when longer periods of time are spent in this activity.

  8. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  9. An electronic flight bag for NextGen avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazo, D. Eyton

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) initiative by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will impose new requirements for cockpit avionics. A similar program is also taking place in Europe by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) called the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) initiative. NextGen will require aircraft to utilize Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) in/out technology, requiring substantial changes to existing cockpit display systems. There are two ways that aircraft operators can upgrade their aircraft in order to utilize ADS-B technology. The first is to replace existing primary flight displays with new displays that are ADS-B compatible. The second, less costly approach is to install an advanced Class 3 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) system. The installation of Class 3 EFBs in the cockpit will allow aircraft operators to utilize ADS-B technology in a lesser amount of time with a decreased cost of implementation and will provide additional benefits to the operator. This paper describes a Class 3 EFB, the NexisTM Flight-Intelligence System, which has been designed to allow users a direct interface with NextGen avionics sensors while additionally providing the pilot with all the necessary information to meet NextGen requirements.

  10. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  11. Case report: Purple urine bag syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article. PMID:15153241

  12. The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duncan C.; Zhang, Junfeng; Kipen, Howard M.; Rich, David Q.; Zhu, Tong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott R.; Eckel, Sandrah P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system. PMID:25502951

  13. Theoretical aspects of hybrid chiral bag models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.

    1984-09-01

    In hybrid chiral bag models (HCBM's) the quarks are the source for the pion field outside the bag. If we want to solve this model with a classical external soliton solution and quantized fermions, it is necessary to evaluate the vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of those operators that contain fermion fields and appear in the boundary conditions. When the external solution is the so-called hedgehog solution, π-->(r-->,t)=fπθ(r)r^, the relevant VEV is i16π<0 | d2s[ψ―,(τ-->.r^)γ5exp(iτ-->.r^γ5θ)ψ] | 0>=2θ16πη+C0(θ)R, where η is a cutoff parameter (η-->0). To obtain this result we have used a multiple-reflection expansion of the Green's function, while C0(θ) is evaluated numerically. We discuss the infinite contribution in the above VEV, and show that 4πC0(θ)R is precisely the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to θ. We also discuss some solutions of the HCBM for bag radii varying from 0 to ∞.

  14. Reducing respirable dust levels during bag conveying and stacking using bag and belt cleaner device. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Timko, R.J.; Prokop, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine a cost-effective way to lower respirable dust levels in and around the bag-stacking function at mineral processing operations. The intent of the current research is to clean both the bags and the belt before they reach the bag-stacking location. Product removed or cleaned from the bags and belt is collected in a hopper at the bottom of the device and recycled back into the process periodically via a screw conveyor. By removing the product and dust from the exterior of the bags and the conveyor belt, dust liberation is greatly reduced while the bags are transported to the bag-stacking location.

  15. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    disruptions in the supply chain caused by the rapid lifting of screening exemptions to cargo classes and that the TSA had not accounted for the...consignments.”95 95 European Union, “European Commission-MEMO/10/545, Air Cargo Security,” May 11, 2010, http://europa.eu/ rapid /press-release_MEMO-10...implementation of the standards on airline materials and on cargo, courier and express parcels , the content of Regulation (EC) No 622/2003 should be

  16. Plastic bags for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Leadford, Alicia E; Warren, Jamie B; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A; Schelonka, Robert; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. Infants at 26 to 36 weeks' gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization-defined normal range (36.5-37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings.

  17. Plastic Bags for Prevention of Hypothermia in Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Leadford, Alicia E.; Warren, Jamie B.; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A.; Schelonka, Robert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. METHODS: Infants at 26 to 36 weeks’ gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization–defined normal range (36.5–37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings. PMID:23733796

  18. Heat and mass transfer from a baby manikin: impact of a chemical warfare protective bag.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    A chemical warfare (CW) protective bag for babies, younger than 1 year, has been evaluated in respect of thermal load. Heat and water vapour dissipating from the baby make the climate in the protective bag more demanding than outside. The thermal strain on a baby was estimated from heat and mass transfer data using an electrically heated baby manikin and a water-filled tray. Furthermore, a theoretical baby model was developed based on relations valid for heat and mass transfer rates from a cylinder and flat surface. Convective and radiative (dry) and evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated from this model agreed well with the measured values. The maximum heat dissipation from a baby was calculated for combinations of air temperatures (22-30 degrees C) and relative humidities (70-90% rh). The results indicate that a naked baby can dissipate about 100% more heat than is produced during basal conditions when the bag is ventilated (70 1 min(-1)) and the ambient climate is 30 degrees C and 90% rh. If the ventilation rate is 40 1 min(-1), the margin is reduced to 50%. Clothing reduces the margin further. Ventilating the bag with 70 1 min(-1), a dressed baby can dissipate only 10-20% more heat than is produced during basal conditions in a climate (27 degrees C and 80% rh) that is obtained in a crowded shelter after about 24 h of occupation.

  19. Bag-breakup fragmentation as the dominant mechanism of sea-spray production in high winds.

    PubMed

    Troitskaya, Yu; Kandaurov, A; Ermakova, O; Kozlov, D; Sergeev, D; Zilitinkevich, S

    2017-05-09

    Showing the record strengths and growth-rates, recent hurricanes have highlighted needs for improving forecasts of tropical cyclone intensities most sensitive to models of the air-sea interaction. Especially challenging is the nature of sea-spray supposed to strongly affecting the momentum- and energy- air-sea fluxes at strong winds. Even the spray-generation mechanisms in extreme winds remained undetermined. Basing on high-speed video here we identify it as the bag-breakup mode of fragmentation of liquid in gaseous flows known in a different context. This regime is characterized by inflating and consequent bursting of the short-lived objects, bags, comprising sail-like water films surrounded by massive liquid rims then fragmented to giant droplets with sizes exceeding 500 micrometers. From first principles of statistical physics we develop statistical description of these phenomena and show that at extreme winds the bag-breakup is the dominant spray-production mechanism. These findings provide a new basis for understanding and modeling of the air-sea exchange processes at extreme winds.

  20. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  1. Difference in the odor concentrations measured by the triangle odor bag method and dynamic olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Amano, S; Merecka, B; Kośmider, J

    2009-01-01

    'The triangle odor bag method', which has been adopted for the offensive odor control law in Japan, and the dynamic olfactometry defined by EN 13725 have been compared. The odor concentration measured by the triangle odor bag method tends to be higher than that of the dynamic olfactometry in the forced choice mode, while well agreed in the Yes/No mode olfactometry when the panel is the same. The difference can be minimized by applying the panel selection criterion of EN13725 to the triangle odor bag method. The European panel selection test is useful to negate the difference in the measurement equipments although the criteria seem to be strict considering the individual threshold data of n-butanol.

  2. Iatrogenic retinal breaks in 25-gauge vitrectomy under air compared with the standard 25-gauge system for macular diseases.

    PubMed

    Reibaldi, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Avitabile, Teresio; Longo, Antonio; Toro, Mario D; Viti, Francesca; Saitta, Andrea; Giovannini, Alfonso; Mariotti, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence rates of iatrogenic retinal breaks in eyes that underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy under air compared with 25-gauge standard vitrectomy for idiopathic macular holes or idiopathic epiretinal membranes. In this retrospective, comparative interventional study, 435 eyes were enrolled. In all patients after core vitrectomy and epiretinal/inner limiting membrane peeling, complete vitrectomy of the base was performed, respectively under air (air group) or under fluid infusion (standard group). The number of eyes with iatrogenic retinal breaks was significantly lower in the air group than in standard group (4/197 and 16/238, 2% and 7%, respectively; P = 0.035). A postoperative retinal detachment developed in 2 eyes (1%) in the standard group, and in no eyes of the air group (0%). Factors related to the occurrence of retinal breaks were surgically induced posterior vitreous detachment (P = 0.006), standard vitrectomy (P = 0.023), and surgery for macular hole (P = 0.030). The 25-gauge vitrectomy under air is associated with a lower incidence rate of retinal breaks compared with the standard 25-gauge vitrectomy.

  3. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators. PMID:26893969

  4. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  5. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  6. Improving neonatal unit admission temperatures in preterm babies: exothermic mattresses, polythene bags or a traditional approach?

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Duckett, J; Newton, T; Watkinson, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether exothermic sodium acetate mattresses were associated with an improvement in the thermal care of babies <30 weeks gestation between birth and admission to a neonatal unit. Analysis of a three case series of babies: the first with traditional thermal care of drying and wrapping in a towel, the second with wrapping in food standard polythene bags and the third with wrapping in polythene bags and nursing on an activated exothermic mattress. The main outcome measure was the temperature on admission to the neonatal unit. There were no significant differences between the groups for gestation and birth weight. Hypothermia was less frequent in the 'bag and mattress' group compared with the 'bag only' and traditional care groups (26 vs 69 vs 84%, respectively) even though the median time to admission was longest in the 'bag and mattress' group (23 min). The proportions of babies admitted with temperatures in the target range of 36.5 to 37.5 degrees C were 46, 27 and 16%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that use of the mattress raised admission temperatures by 1.04 degrees C. The median temperature of babies in the 'bag and mattress' group was higher compared with the other groups (36.9 vs 36.0 vs 35.8 degrees C), but significantly more were hyperthermic (28 vs 4 and 0.4%, respectively). Use of exothermic mattresses for babies <30 weeks gestation was associated with a significantly greater proportion of babies being admitted to the neonatal unit with a temperature in the euthermic range, but there was also an increased risk of hyperthermia.

  7. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  8. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The CIBs have been designed in such a way that cavitation effects created by the ultrasound are increased. It was found that the CIBs were 60 times more effective in breaking up droplets than conventional bags, therewith showing a proof of principle for the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions. Droplets of 0.2μm could easily be obtained. To our knowledge, no other technology results in the same droplet size more easily in terms of energy usage. Without depending on the wettability changes of the membrane, the CIBs score similarly as membrane emulsification, which is the most energy friendly emulsification method known in literature. Out of the frequencies used, 37kHz was found to require the lowest treatment time. The treatment time decreased at higher temperatures. While the energy usage in the current non-optimised experiments was on the order of 10(7)-10(9)J/m(3), which is comparable to that of a high-pressure homogenizer, we expect that the use of CIBs for the preparation of fine emulsions can still be improved considerably. The process presented can be applied for other uses such as water treatment, synthesis of nanomaterials and food processing.

  9. Laplacian forests: semantic image segmentation by guided bagging.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Herve; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio; Ayache, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new, efficient and accurate technique for the semantic segmentation of medical images. The paper builds upon the successful random decision forests model and improves on it by modifying the way in which randomness is injected into the tree training process. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, we replace the conventional bagging procedure (the uniform sampling of training images) with a guided bagging approach, which exploits the inherent structure and organization of the training image set. This allows the creation of decision trees that are specialized to a specific sub-type of images in the training set. Second, the segmentation of a previously unseen image happens via selection and application of only the trees that are relevant to the given test image. Tree selection is done automatically, via the learned image embedding, with more precisely a Laplacian eigenmap. We, therefore, call the proposed approach Laplacian Forests. We validate Laplacian Forests on a dataset of 256, manually segmented 3D CT scans of patients showing high variability in scanning protocols, resolution, body shape and anomalies. Compared with conventional decision forests, Laplacian Forests yield both higher training efficiency, due to the local analysis of the training image space, as well as higher segmentation accuracy, due to the specialization of the forest to image sub-types.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Internal and External Solutions to Provide Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    interview by author, 17 March 2000, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 15 Jim Beaver, Software Eningeer , Smith Industries. Telephone interview by author...Software Eningeer , Smith Industries. Telephone interview by author, 10 Apr 2000, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Boeing F-15E Suite 3 1553 Multiplex Bus #5

  11. H2S and VOCs abatement robustness in biofilters and air diffusion bioreactors: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Rodríguez, Elisa; Martin, María; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2010-07-01

    The robustness of a conventional biofilter and an air diffusion bioreactor (ADB) was comparatively evaluated in laboratory-scale plants treating a mixture of H2S, butanone, toluene and alpha-pinene at gas residence times of 50 s. Under steady state conditions, H2S, butanone and toluene were almost completely degraded, while alpha-pinene removal did not exhibit removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 11.0 +/- 2.3%. Fluctuations in temperature from 8 degrees C to 30 degrees C did not impact significantly process performance in any of the biotechnologies tested. However, while the ADB unit was able to cope with three and six fold step increases in pollutant loadings, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) REs noticeably decreased in the biofilter when subjected to a six fold step change (i.e. 90% reduction for butanone and 30% for toluene). A process shutdown of five days resulted in the temporary loss of butanone and toluene RE in the ADB system. A lack of irrigation during five days caused a slight decrease in the biofilter REs, while a failure in the pH control system drastically affected the ADB performance. Finally, process robustness was quantified. The calculated overall risks showed that both biotechnologies were reliable for H2S and VOCs treatment in wastewater treatment plants, ADB diffusion exhibiting a higher robustness towards fluctuations commonly found under routine operation. This robustness was further confirmed by the high stability of the DGGE profiles.

  12. Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Senhou, A.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Chakir, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method (INAA-k0) was used for its adequate characteristics to analyze accurately a wide number of elements. Reference materials were analyzed to check the reliability and the accuracy of this technique. The results obtained for all these bioaccumulators lead to the following conclusions. For the major elements, leaves and needles are more accumulating than tree barks and lichens. While for the intermediate and trace elements, there is an obvious accumulation in lichens in comparison with tree barks, leaves and needles. This work shows the possibility to use these four bioaccumulators according to their availability in an area. It will be useful however to set up an inter calibration between these bioaccumulators.

  13. Comparative Cooling Season Performance of Air Distribution Systems in Multistory Townhomes

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew; Beach, Rob; Beggs, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  14. A comparative assessment of the size of the frontal air sinus in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Badlangana, N Ludo; Adams, Justin W; Manger, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    The current study examines the frontal air sinus of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) cranium with the aim of evaluating previously offered hypotheses as to why they have such an atypically voluminous frontal sinus relative to other artiodactyls. To date, no quantification of the frontal sinus in the adult or developing giraffe has been undertaken or compared to other artiodactyl species. Crania from eight species of adult artiodactyls, and giraffes varying in age from newborn to adult, were studied using CT scans to provide a volumetric assessment of the frontal sinus. Sinus volume was strongly correlated to cranial mass in the male giraffe ontogenetic series. The adult giraffe of both sexes were found to possess a far larger than predicted sinus volume relative to the relationship between frontal sinus volume and cranial mass observed in the other adult artiodactyls. Our results suggest that the volume of the frontal sinus in the giraffe is likely to be unique among artiodactyls, and the potential function and evolution we consider in light of several previously articulated hypotheses.

  15. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  16. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  17. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  18. Comparing DXA and Air-Displacement-Plethysmography to Assess Body Composition of Male Collegiate Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Delisle-Houde, Patrick; Reid, Ryan E R; Insogna, Jessica A; Prokop, Neal W; Buchan, Tayler A; Fontaine, Shawn L; Andersen, Ross E

    2017-02-15

    Accurate assessment of body composition is an important consideration for athletes as it is a health/performance variable. However, little is known about the variability in values obtained across different assessment methods for specific athlete populations. The purpose of this study was to compare two common laboratory methods that assess body composition: air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD™) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-nine male collegiate hockey players, (Age = 24.07 ± 1.49, BMI = 26.5 ± 2.74) participated in this study. All participants underwent back-to-back BOD POD™ and DXA evaluations. Paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to compare differences in fat mass, fat percentage, and fat-free mass between methods. Average fat percentage reported by the DXA and BOD POD™ was 15.34 ± 3.53 and 11.66 ± 4.82 respectively, resulting in a bias score of 3.78 ± 2.33 kg (t(28) = 8.71, p ≤ 0.001). Average fat mass reported by the DXA and BOD POD™ was 13.42 ± 3.59 and 10.15 ± 4.54 kg respectively, resulting in a bias score of 3.27 ± 1.92 kg (t(28) = 9.18, p ≤ 0.001). Average fat-free mass reported by the DXA and BOD POD™ was 73.31 ± 5.30 and 76.25 ± 5.74 kg respectively, resulting in a bias score of -2.93 ± 2.06 kg (t(28) = -7.66, p ≤ 0.001). Our findings can help make more insightful comparisons between studies that use different body composition methodologies amongst athletic populations.

  19. An Inter-comparative Study of the Effects of Aircraft on Surface Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, M. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Barrett, S. R. H.; Bian, H.; Chen, C. C.; Eastham, S. D.; Gettelman, A.; Khodayari, A.; Liang, Q.; Phoenix, D. B.; Selkirk, H. B.; Unger, N.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    This study inter-compares, among five global models, the potential impacts of all commercial aircraft emissions worldwide on surface ozone and PM2.5. The models include climate-response models (CRMs) with interactive meteorology, chemical-transport models (CTMs) with prescribed meteorology, and models that integrate aspects of both. Previously, few studies have addressed the effects of cruise-altitude aircraft emissions on surface air quality, and each has provided a marginally different result. Here, model inputs are substantially harmonized in an effort to achieve a consensus about the state of understanding of impacts of 2006 commercial aviation emissions. Whereas, all models find that aircraft increase near-surface ozone (0.4 to 1.9% globally), perturbations in the Northern Hemisphere are highest in winter, when ambient ozone levels are lower and potentially of not as much concern to human health compared to the higher ozone in the summer months. Changes in surface-level PM2.5 in the CTMs (0.14 to 0.4%) and CRMs (-1.9 to 1.2%) may depend on highly-varying background aerosol fields among models and the inclusion of feedbacks between aircraft emissions and changes in meteorology. The CTMs tend to show an increase in surface PM2.5 primarily over high-traffic regions in the North American mid-latitudes. The CRMs, on the other hand, demonstrate the effects of changing meteorological fields and potential feedbacks on aviation emission impacts, and exhibit large perturbations over regions where natural emissions (e.g., soil dust and sea spray) are abundant. Excluding these emissions in the CRMs results in a smaller-in-magnitude surface change due to aviation. The changes in ozone and PM2.5 found here may be used to estimate ranges in the net impacts of aircraft on human health.

  20. A comparative study of laser ignition and spark ignition with gasoline-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cangsu; Fang, Donghua; Luo, Qiyuan; Ma, Jian; Xie, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The ignition probability and minimum ignition energy (MIE) of premixed gasoline-air mixture for different equivalence ratio was experimentally studied using a nanosecond pulse at 532 nm and 1064 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) The result was compared with the spark ignition. The initial pressure and temperature of the mixture was 0.1 MP and 363 K, respectively. The research indicates that within the flammable range, the probability increases when the ignition energy increases and the distribution of MIE with the equivalence ratios is U-shape for both laser and spark ignition. For laser ignition with 532 nm, when the incident energy is higher than 110 mJ or the absorbed energy is high than 31 mJ, 100% of ignition could be obtained within equivalence ratios of 0.8-1.6. For 1064 nm it is 235 mJ and 30 mJ. To get the same ignition probability of mixture with identical equivalence ratio, the incident energy of 1064 nm is twice more than the incident energy of 532 nm, while the absorbed energy values are virtually the same. It indicates that significant wavelength dependence is expected for the initial free electrons but irrelevant for the process of absorbing energy. The initial free electrons are produced from impurities in gasoline-air mixture because the intensity in the focus (1012 W/cm2) is too low to ionize gas molecules via the multi-photon ionization process, which requires higher irradiance (≥1014 W/cm2). The MIE obtained with a laser-spark ignition is greater than that measured by electrical sparks. The MIE for laser ignition was obtained at equivalence ratio of 1.0 both of 532 nm and 1064 nm, and it was 13.5 mJ and 9.5 mJ, respectively. But for spark ignition, the MIE is 3.76 mJ with equivalence ratio of 1.6. What's more, laser ignition extends the lean flammability limit from 0.8 to 0.6.

  1. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  2. Comparing and evaluating model estimates of background ozone in surface air over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberman, J.; Fiore, A. M.; Lin, M.; Zhang, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone adversely affects human health and vegetation, and is thus a criteria pollutant regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Ozone is produced in the atmosphere via photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The present EPA approach considers health risks associated with exposure to ozone enhancement above the policy-relevant background (PRB), which is currently defined as the surface concentration of ozone that would exist without North American anthropogenic emissions. PRB thus includes production by natural precursors, production by precursors emitted on foreign continents, and transport of stratospheric ozone into surface air. As PRB is not an observable quantity, it must be estimated using numerical models. We compare PRB estimates for the year 2006 from the GFDL Atmospheric Model 3 (AM3) chemistry-climate model (CCM) and the GEOS-Chem (GC) chemical transport model (CTM). We evaluate the skill of the models in reproducing total surface ozone observed at the U.S. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), dividing the stations into low-elevation (< 1.5 km in altitude, primarily eastern) and high-elevation (> 1.5 km in altitude, all western) subgroups. At the low-elevation sites AM3 estimates of PRB (38±9 ppbv in spring, 27±9 ppbv in summer) are higher than GC (27±7 ppbv in spring, 21±8 ppbv in summer) in both seasons. Analysis at these sites is complicated by a positive bias in AM3 total ozone with respect to the observed total ozone, the source of which is yet unclear. At high-elevation sites, AM3 PRB is higher in the spring (47±8 ppbv) than in the summer (33±8 ppbv). In contrast, GC simulates little seasonal variation at high elevation sites (39±5 ppbv in spring vs. 38±7 ppbv in summer). Seasonal average total ozone at these sites was within 4 ppbv of the observations for both

  3. Effect of freezing and microwave thawing on the stability of six antibiotic admixtures in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Holmes, C J; Ausman, R K; Kundsin, R B; Walter, C W

    1982-01-01

    The stability of six antibiotics in intravenous fluids in polyvinyl chloride containers after freezing and microwave-thawing is reported. Tobramycin sulfate 160 mg, amikacin sulfate 1 g, ticarcillin disodium 3 g, clindamycin phosphate 300 mg, nafcillin sodium 1 g, and ampicillin sodium was also diluted in plastic bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection 50 ml. For each antibiotic except ampicillin sodium, three bags were prepared and assayed immediately for antibiotic content. Two of the bags were frozen at -20 degrees C for 30 days and then thawed, one by exposure to room-temperature air and the other by microwave radiation. Each was assayed immediately and after 8 and 24 hours storage at room temperature. The third bag was not frozen, but was stored at room temperature and assayed at 8 and 24 hours. Five bags of ampicillin sodium were prepared-three in 0.9% sodium chloride, which were frozen at -20, -30, and -70 degrees C, and two in 5% dextrose, which were frozen at -30 and -70 degrees C. All ampicillin solutions were stored 30 days, assayed, microwave-thawed, and assayed again. All antibiotics except ampicillin retained 90% or more potency when microwave-thawed after storage at -20 degrees C for 30 days, and after subsequent storage at room temperature for 24 hours. Ampicillin sodium was stable in 0.9% sodium chloride when stored at -30 or -70 degrees C, microwave-thawed, and stored up to eight hours at room temperature. Ampicillin sodium was stable in 5% dextrose when stored at -70 degrees C and microwaved-thawed, but its potency declined to 70.5% after eight hours storage at room temperature.

  4. Pressurized bag pump and syringe pump arterial flushing systems: an unrecognized hazard in neonates?

    PubMed

    Cornelius, A; Fischer, J; Frey, B; Baenziger, O; Gerber, A; Weiss, M

    2002-11-01

    Hand-held flushing of radial arterial lines at 0.5 ml/s in neonates can result in retrograde embolization of flush solution into the central arterial circulation. We studied flush flow velocities during intermittent arterial line purging using a flow regulating device with an infusion bag pump and a syringe pump system. In this in vitro experiment we simulated flushing of a 24- and a 22-G cannula against a mean arterial pressure of 45 mmHg. Fluid flow velocities were gravimetrically measured during flushing from an infusion bag system pressurized to 100, 200, and 300 mmHg and from a syringe pump flush system after initialization of boluses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ml. The flow regulating device was opened for 1, 2, and 5 s. Both flush systems tested allowed delivery of flush flow velocities exceeding 0.5 ml/s (e.g., 22-G cannula; bag system, pressure 300 mmHg up to 0.64+/-0.08 ml/s; syringe pump, 2 ml bolus up to 0.74+/-0.05 ml/s). In syringe pump systems the main determinant of flow velocity was bolus size, in bag pump systems flushing time and bag pressure. Based on data about critical flow velocities through an radial arterial cannula in neonates, both tested flushing systems carry the risk of exceeding the critical value of 0.5 ml/s. They are likely to cause retrograde embolization of flushing solution into the central arterial circulation with the associated risk of clot and air embolization. In vivo studies should identify margins of safety to minimize the risk of retrograde flushing into the central arterial circulation.

  5. Labor epidural anesthetics comparing loss of resistance with air versus saline: does the choice matter?

    PubMed

    Norman, David; Winkelman, Chris; Hanrahan, Edward; Hood, Ray; Nance, Ben

    2006-08-01

    This study examined whether air or saline, used for the loss-of-resistance (LOR) technique, resulted in a difference in pain relief or adverse events for laboring parturients. Previous studies had mixed findings regarding the onset of analgesia and subsequent pain relief. Research questions were as follows: Is there difference in analgesic onset for patients receiving air vs saline during the LOR technique? Do women receiving the air method for LOR experience any difference in the quality of pain relief from that of women receiving saline? Is there any difference in the incidence of analgesic distribution or segmental pain relief in women receiving the air vs the saline method? Is there any difference in the incidence of adverse effects in women receiving air vs saline during the LOR technique? This was an experimental, prospective study with 50 women. Subjects were randomized to receive air or saline. The visual analogue scale was used to measure pain. A dermatome level recorded the spread of analgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for onset or quality of analgesia. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who experienced segmental blocks after receiving air during the LOR technique.

  6. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags.

    PubMed

    Parker, David B; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L; Cole, N Andy; Koziel, Jacek A

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m(-3)) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m(-3)), propionic (15,800 μg m(-3)), isobutyric (1,686 μg m(-3)), butyric (1,049 μg m(-3)), isovaleric (1,236 μg m(-3)), valeric (643 μg m(-3)), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m(-3)) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  7. Randomized Trial of Plastic Bags to Prevent Term Neonatal Hypothermia in a Resource-Poor Setting

    PubMed Central

    Belsches, Theodore C.; Tilly, Alyssa E.; Miller, Tonya R.; Kambeyanda, Rohan H.; Leadford, Alicia; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Ramani, Manimaran; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Term infants in resource-poor settings frequently develop hypothermia during the first hours after birth. Plastic bags or wraps are a low-cost intervention for the prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants that may also be effective in term infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that placement of term neonates in plastic bags at birth reduces hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in a resource-poor hospital. METHODS: This parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted at University Teaching Hospital, the tertiary referral center in Zambia. Inborn neonates with both a gestational age ≥37 weeks and a birth weight ≥2500 g were randomized 1:1 to either a standard thermoregulation protocol or to a standard thermoregulation protocol with placement of the torso and lower extremities inside a plastic bag within 10 minutes after birth. The primary outcome was hypothermia (<36.5°C axillary temperature) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: Neonates randomized to plastic bag (n = 135) or to standard thermoregulation care (n = 136) had similar baseline characteristics (birth weight, gestational age, gender, and baseline temperature). Neonates in the plastic bag group had a lower rate of hypothermia (60% vs 73%, risk ratio 0.76, confidence interval 0.60–0.96, P = .026) and a higher axillary temperature (36.4 ± 0.5°C vs 36.2 ± 0.7°C, P < .001) at 1 hour after birth compared with infants receiving standard care. CONCLUSIONS: Placement in a plastic bag at birth reduced the incidence of hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in term neonates born in a resource-poor setting, but most neonates remained hypothermic. PMID:23979082

  8. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  9. Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M

    2015-06-06

    The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples, which compares favourably with the main alternative, Qhull. In conclusion, range bagging appears to be a reasonable choice for niche modelling in applications in which a presence-only method is desired and may provide a solution to problems in other disciplines where one-class classification is required, such as outlier detection and concept learning.

  10. Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples, which compares favourably with the main alternative, Qhull. In conclusion, range bagging appears to be a reasonable choice for niche modelling in applications in which a presence-only method is desired and may provide a solution to problems in other disciplines where one-class classification is required, such as outlier detection and concept learning. PMID:25948612

  11. Comparative evaluation of air cell and eggshell temperature measurement methodologies used in broiler hatching eggs during late incubation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    The current study was conducted to compare and contrast the uses of 2 devices (temperature transponder or infrared thermometer) and their locations (inner air cell membrane or outer eggshell surface) in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. The air cells of 14 embryonated and 10 nonembryonated eggs were implanted with temperature transponders on d 13.5 of incubation. Likewise, for these same eggs, eggshell surface temperature was detected with the use of transponders and an infrared thermometer. Temperatures were recorded every 12 h between 14.5 and 18 d of incubation, and graphs and corresponding regression values were used to track the temperatures over these time periods. The temperature readings using all methods in embryonated and nonembryonated eggs were positively correlated. In nonembryonated eggs, temperatures in the air cell and on the eggshell surface using transponders were higher than those on the eggshell surface using an infrared thermometer. Mean air cell temperature readings of embryonated eggs using transponders were higher than those of the eggshell, as determined with the use of transponders or an infrared thermometer. Furthermore, the differences in air cell temperature using transponders and eggshell temperature using an infrared thermometer in embryonated eggs increased with embryonic age. These readings confirmed increased embryo heat production during the incubational period examined. It was further concluded that when compared with actual embryo body temperatures determined in previous studies, the use of transponders in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs detected a higher and closer temperature than eggshell surface temperature. It is suggested that the air cell transponders in embryonated eggs circumvented the confounding effects of the thermal barrier properties of the eggshell and the flow of air across its surface.

  12. An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J; Razavi, Cyrus; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David; Lenney, Warren

    2012-09-01

    The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF). It will use off-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis and so we needed to investigate which breath sampling bag material to use, the maximum storage time before analysis and the benefit of warming the bag samples. We studied 15 children with CF, 8 had chronic PA infection and 7 did not. Each exhaled directly into the instrument (on-line) and also into two 25 µm thick Nalophan (25N), two 70 µm Nalophan (70N) and two Tedlar® bags. Bags were stored at 20 or 37 °C. HCN concentrations were analysed at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h (off-line). Acetone and water vapour concentrations were also measured in parallel. Correlation between on-line and off-line concentrations measured by SIFT-MS was better for all compounds and bag types at 37 °C. The median (IQR) on-line HCN concentration was 8.9(4.4-13.7) parts per billion by volume, ppbv. Both on-line and off-line HCN concentrations were significantly higher in patients with PA infection than those without. At 37 °C the correlation between on-line and off-line HCN concentrations was good up to 6 h in the 25N bag (R(2) = 0.79) and up to 24 h for the 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.82 and 0.86). The correlation between on- and off-line acetone concentrations at 37 °C was good up to 24 h in 25N, 70N and Tedlar bags (R(2) = 0.89, 0.93 and 0.97). In all three types of bag the water vapour concentration fell quickly and by 24 h was equivalent to that of lab air. Samples stored in Tedlar or 70N bags, warmed to 37 °C and analysed within 24 h, give HCN and acetone concentrations which correlate well with on-line measurements.

  13. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-09-18

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2-children.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    In May 2015, DTB published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1-adults,(1) recognising the fact that there is still a need for some GPs to carry a range of medicines for use in acute situations when on home visits. What to include in the GP's bag is determined by the medical conditions likely to be met; medicines the GP is confident and competent to use; storage requirements and shelf-lives of drugs; ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updating our previous advice(2) and where appropriate we have included the underlying guideline recommendations for their use. The intention is not to imply that every doctor should carry every drug mentioned. Instead, we aim to highlight some of the key treatments and suggest choices in some of the more common clinical scenarios that GPs may have to deal with in everyday practice, which may be prior to referral to secondary care. Each section ends with a list of drug recommendations for the doctor's bag; drugs may be referred to in several sections but are only listed in one section to avoid repetition. The article does not provide recommendations for drugs to be stocked for use in routine clinical practice in the surgery (e.g. for minor surgery) or for drugs to be held by out-of-hours primary care services.(3) Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are from the British National Formulary for children (BNFc).(4). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Experiences of leg bag users and emerging design priorities.

    PubMed

    Moody, Louise; McCarthy, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore participants' experiences of urinary incontinence and leg bag use in order to identify priorities for product redesign. Twenty-nine leg bag users and 5 carers and healthcare professionals participated in the study. They were recruited through a UK hospital Trust and a UK-wide charity for people with bladder and bowel control problems. The study employed a descriptive design with qualitative and quantitative elements to determine current experiences with urinary drainage leg bags and identify potential ways to improve their design. Data collection occurred during semistructured face-to-face and telephone semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed that leg bag design and performance influenced users' relationships, confidence, and ability to socialize. The most significant issues related to leg bag use were reliable functioning without leakage, secure positioning, and discretion when worn under clothing. All participants reported having experienced significant urine leakage due to usability issues with the leg bags. Respondents identified a number of design issues with current leg bags that need to be addressed to improve the ease of use and overall experience when using leg bags for containing urinary output. The findings have been used to define design requirements for further development of leg bags and their component parts.

  16. Application of bag sampling technique for particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-11-01

    Bag sampling techniques can be used to temporarily store the aerosol and therefore provide sufficient time to utilize sensitive but slow instrumental techniques for recording detailed particle size distributions. Laboratory based assessment of the method was conducted to examine size dependant deposition loss coefficients for aerosols held in Velostat bags conforming to a horizontal cylindrical geometry. Deposition losses of NaCl particles in the range of 10 nm to 160 nm were analysed in relation to the bag size, storage time, and sampling flow rate. Results of this study suggest that the bag sampling method is most useful for moderately short sampling periods of about 5 minutes.

  17. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  18. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  19. Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.

  20. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure with an air-puff tonometer versus a Goldmann applanation tonometer.

    PubMed

    Farhood, Qasim K

    2013-01-01

    Tonometry, or measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the most important examination procedures in ophthalmic clinics, and IOP is an important parameter in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Because there are numerous types of tonometer available, it is important to evaluate the differences in readings between different tonometers. Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs) and noncontact air-puff tonometers (APTs) are largely available in ophthalmic clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of AP tonometer by comparing the measurements of IOP made using this device with those made using a GAT. This study involved 196 eyes from 98 study participants, all of whom were patients attending an ophthalmic outpatient clinic. Each patient's IOP was measured using both Goldmann applanation tonometry and AP tonometry, and the difference in readings between the two methods was calculated. The mean IOP as measured by GAT was 13.06 ± 4.774 mmHg, while that as measured by AP tonometer was 15.91 ± 6.955 mmHg. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement was 2.72 ± 2.34 mmHg. The readings obtained by AP tonometer were higher than those obtained by GAT in 74% of patients, and this difference was most obvious when the GAT measurement of IOP exceeded 24 mmHg. No statistically significant variation in IOP was noted between the devices when the patients' age, sex, and laterality (right and left eyes) were considered. There is a significant difference in the measurement of IOP between GATs and AP tonometers. Goldmann applanation tonometry remains the most suitable and reliable method for measuring IOP. Because measurements of IOP by AP tonometer are usually higher than those obtained by GAT regardless of the patient's age, sex, or laterality of eyes, AP tonometry is a suitable method for community or mass screenings of IOP.