Science.gov

Sample records for air basin scab

  1. Powdery Scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery scab (PS) is incited by a member of the Plamodiophorales, or parasitic slime molds, Spongospora subterranea. It invades the roots forming multinucleate plasmodia, release zoospores, and forms galls on the roots and lesions on the tuber skin. It is an emerging disease in the Pacific Northwe...

  2. Methods to assess pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter]) is the most important disease of pecan in the U.S. Measuring the severity of scab accurately and reliably and providing data amenable to analysis using parametric statistics is important where treatments are being compared to minimize the risk of Type II ...

  3. Suppression of pecan scab by nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic cost of scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, can substantially limit the profitability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivation in humid environments. Field and greenhouse experiments assessed the influence of nickel (Ni) on scab severity on fruit and foliage of Ni...

  4. Hedging, fungicide distribution and scab control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab, caused by the fungus Fusicladium effusum, is a major disease of pecan in the southeastern USA. In scab-prone seasons, the disease can be severe, and the resulting yield loss substantial, even when fungicides are applied. Hedging to make trees shorter (~40 ft), more manageable and also ac...

  5. Controlling Powdery Scab: The Breeding Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery scab is a serious disease of potato caused by the fungus Spongospora subterranea. S. subterranea is a member of the Plasmodiophorales, also known as the parasitic slime molds. The primary diagnostic sign of the disease are cystosori, spongelike aggregates of cysts or resting spores. The ...

  6. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial...

  10. Influence of nickel on severity of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, is a major factor limiting profitability of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) in humid environments. The effect of nickel (Ni) on the severity of pecan scab was examined in both field and lab studies in 2005 to 2010. Application of Ni sprays to foliage in tree ca...

  11. Trunk applications of phosphite for the control of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) is the major disease of pecan in wet, humid climates. Management of scab can be challenging due to issues of fungicide resistance in F. effusum and management of the disease in tall trees due to the technical difficulties of getting sufficient spray coverage to the u...

  12. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  13. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  14. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  15. Diversity among Streptomyces Strains Causing Potato Scab.

    PubMed

    Doering-Saad, C; Kämpfer, P; Manulis, S; Kritzman, G; Schneider, J; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Schrempf, H; Barash, I

    1992-12-01

    Eighty Streptomyces isolates, including 35 potato scab-inducing strains and 12 reference strains of Streptomyces scabies, were physiologically characterized by a total of 329 miniaturized tests. Overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomy, with the unweighted average linkage (UPGMA) algorithm and simple matching (S(sm)) and Jaccard (S(j)) coefficients used as measures for similarity. Three cluster groups (A to C) were defined at a similarity level of 80.1% (S(sm)); these groups contained 14 clusters and 24 unclustered strains defined at a similarity level of 86.5% (S(sm)). Cluster group A contained strains phenotypically related to S. griseus or S. exfoliatus, whereas cluster group B contained strains which were phenotypically related to S. violaceus or S. rochei. The majority of the pathogenic isolates and reference strains were assigned to S. violaceus (57%) and S. griseus (22%). A DNA probe derived from the rRNA operon of S. coelicolor IMET 40271 was used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RELPs) among 40 pathogenic and nonpathogenic Streptomyces isolates. Southern blots revealed a high degree of diversity among the pathogenic strains tested. No significant correlation between numerical classification and RFLP grouping of Streptomyces strains could be revealed. The results obtained suggest that RFLP data are of minor importance in classification of Streptomyces species and that genes for pathogenicity determinants are spread among different Streptomyces species by mobilizable elements. PMID:16348823

  16. Diversity among Streptomyces Strains Causing Potato Scab

    PubMed Central

    Doering-Saad, Christiane; Kämpfer, Peter; Manulis, Shulamit; Kritzman, Giora; Schneider, Jörg; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta; Schrempf, Hildgund; Barash, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    Eighty Streptomyces isolates, including 35 potato scab-inducing strains and 12 reference strains of Streptomyces scabies, were physiologically characterized by a total of 329 miniaturized tests. Overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomy, with the unweighted average linkage (UPGMA) algorithm and simple matching (Ssm) and Jaccard (Sj) coefficients used as measures for similarity. Three cluster groups (A to C) were defined at a similarity level of 80.1% (Ssm); these groups contained 14 clusters and 24 unclustered strains defined at a similarity level of 86.5% (Ssm). Cluster group A contained strains phenotypically related to S. griseus or S. exfoliatus, whereas cluster group B contained strains which were phenotypically related to S. violaceus or S. rochei. The majority of the pathogenic isolates and reference strains were assigned to S. violaceus (57%) and S. griseus (22%). A DNA probe derived from the rRNA operon of S. coelicolor IMET 40271 was used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RELPs) among 40 pathogenic and nonpathogenic Streptomyces isolates. Southern blots revealed a high degree of diversity among the pathogenic strains tested. No significant correlation between numerical classification and RFLP grouping of Streptomyces strains could be revealed. The results obtained suggest that RFLP data are of minor importance in classification of Streptomyces species and that genes for pathogenicity determinants are spread among different Streptomyces species by mobilizable elements. Images PMID:16348823

  17. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  18. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  19. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of scab in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, Stephen R.; Kim, Moon S.

    2000-12-01

    Scab (Fusarium head blight) is a disease that causes wheat kernels to be shriveled, underweight, and difficult to mill. Scab is also a health concern because of the possible concomitant production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Current official inspection procedures entail manual human inspection. A study was undertaken to explore the possibility of detecting scab-damaged wheat kernels by machine vision. A custom-made hyperspectral imaging system, possessing a wavelength range of 425 to 860 nm with neighboring bands 3.7 nm apart, a spatial resolution of 0.022 mm2/pixel, and 16-bit per pixel dynamic range, gathered images of non-touching kernels from three wheat varieties. Each variety was represented by 32 normal and 32 scab-damaged kernels. From a search of wavelengths that could be used to separate the two classes (normal vs. scab), a linear discriminant function was constructed from the best R((lambda) 1)/R((lambda) 2), based on the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution for each class and the pooling of the covariance error that averaged between 2 and 17%, dependent on wheat variety. With expansion to the testing of more varieties, a two-to-four wavelength machine vision system appears to be a feasible alternative to manual inspection.

  20. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  1. Spray Coverage, Hedging and Pecan Scab - an Update on Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab is caused by the fungus Fusicladium effusum, and is the major disease of pecan in Georgia and elsewhere in the region, causing severe yield loss in some seasons and areas. There are several reasons for hedging, and some issues may arise as a result of the hedging management practice. Thre...

  2. Characterization of microsatellites in Fusicladium effusum, cause of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab, caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most destructive disease of pecan. Little is known of the population genetic diversity of this pathogen. In this study, microsatellites were mined from the F. effusum genome, and flanking primers were subsequently designed...

  3. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Epidemics are favored by rainfall and high humidity. A provenance collection of ~950 pecan trees from 19 locations representing the native range of the species is located in Byron, Georgia...

  4. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  5. Pecan scab – A retrospective, current status and future management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Wet, humid conditions typical of the Southeast are known to provide conditions conducive to epidemics. The history of the disease is described since its first discovery in the US. Me...

  6. Draft genome sequence of Fusicladium effusum, cause of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab, caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most destructive disease of pecan, an important specialty crop cultivated in several regions of the world. At this time, no other members of the family Venturiaceae (in which the pathogen resides) have been reported sequen...

  7. Air pollution source/receptor relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, N.

    1993-12-31

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis, potential source contribution function analysis, Kohonen`s neural network combined with Prim`s minimal spanning tree, and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study. It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites. Based on the information of emission inventories, meterology and ambient concentrations this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO{sub 2} collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO{sub x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO{sub 3} to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH{sub 3}. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incenerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsuflide) and NH{sub 3} emissions from off-shore sediments that have been contaminated by waste sludge disposal.

  8. An assessment of ozone concentrations within and near the Lake Tahoe Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolislager, Leon J.; VanCuren, Richard; Pederson, James R.; Lashgari, Ash; McCauley, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Tahoe Atmospheric Deposition Study (LTADS) was conducted by the Air Resources Board of the State of California (CARB) primarily to generate refined estimates of the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorous, and particulate matter directly to Lake Tahoe, which straddles the border between the states of California and Nevada near Reno, Nevada. The enhanced air quality monitoring during LTADS also included ozone measurements, which yielded additional insights into atmospheric processes and the role of transport in determining ozone concentrations within the Lake Tahoe Air Basin. The Lake Tahoe Air Basin is located generally downwind of air basins with major emissions of ozone precursors (e.g., VOCs, NOx), capable of generating significant ozone concentrations. Furthermore, vegetation on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada contribute biogenic organic compounds to the air mass. Ozone concentrations within the Tahoe Basin infrequently exceed the local 1-h threshold set to protect forest health (0.08 ppm) and the California 8-h ambient air quality standard (0.070 ppm). A concern then is the potential contribution of regional emission sources to the ozone concentrations observed in the Tahoe Basin. The ozone data collected during LTADS helped to better characterize the relative contribution of local and regional pollution sources to ozone air quality within the Tahoe Basin. The data indicate potential 1- or 2-day intact transport on rare occasions but generally the mixing of the atmosphere over the Sierra Nevada disperses the anthropogenic ozone throughout the boundary layer, which is generally more than a kilometer or two deep during the day. The data analysis indicates that emissions from upwind air basins add to the atmospheric burden of ozone concentrations, raising the regional concentrations in the Sierra Nevada. Given the large background and upwind enhancements relative to the ambient air quality standards, the local contribution does not need to

  9. Reaction rate constant for dry air oxidation of K Basin fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1998-04-29

    The rate of oxidation of spent nuclear fuel stored in the K Basin water is an important parameter when assessing the processes and accident scenarios for preparing the fuel for dry storage. The literature provides data and rate laws for the oxidation of unirradiated uranium in various environments. Measurement data for the dry air oxidation of K Basin fuel is compared to the literature data for linear oxidation in dry air. Equations for the correlations and statistical bounds to the K Basin fuel data and the literature data are selected for predicting nominal and bounding rates for the dry air oxidation of the K Basin fuel. These rate equations are intended for use in the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Technical Data book.

  10. Ozone trends in California`s South Coast Air Basin, 1976--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cohanim, S.; Cassmassi, J.; Bassett, M.

    1998-12-31

    The South Coast Air Basin (Basin) of Southern California exhibits the worst air quality in the nation, as measured by the annual number of days exceeding the 1-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Hourly pollutant concentration data collected by the South Coast Air Quality Management District`s air monitoring network are compared to the existing 1-hour and new 8-hour federal ozone ambient air quality standards to depict ozone trends and compliance in the Basin. Results of trend analyses for the different areas of the Basin are presented for the 1-hour and 8-hour standards, and the relative stringency of the existing and new federal standards is examined. Based on an analysis of the effect of the recently adopted federal standard on ozone compliance in the Basin, ozone concentrations exceed the new federal 8-hour standard level more often than the existing 1-hour standard in most locations. However, examination of the trends in design values for the 1-hour and 8-hour ozone standards suggests that for most locations in the Basin the new standard probably should not be significantly more difficult to attain than the existing standard. The weather-adjusted ozone trend analysis in the Basin confirms the fact that the downtrends in ozone concentrations and number of days exceeding standards are real and independent of annual variation in weather. An analysis of weekday/weekend differences in exceedances for the existing 1-hour and new 8-hour ozone standards show a higher number of days exceeding both standards on weekends for most locations in the Basin, with differences being more evident in the 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s

  11. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  12. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Foliar treatments of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for control of common scab in potato have beneficial effects on powdery scab control.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment. PMID:25009832

  15. Foliar treatments of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for control of common scab in potato have beneficial effects on powdery scab control.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment.

  16. Primary screen for potential sheep scab control agents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J A; Prickett, J C; Collins, D A; Weaver, R J

    2016-07-15

    The efficacy of potential acaricidal agents were assessed against the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis using a series of in vitro assays in modified test arenas designed initially to maintain P. ovis off-host. The mortality effects of 45 control agents, including essential oils, detergents, desiccants, growth regulators, lipid synthesis inhibitors, nerve action/energy metabolism disruptors and ecdysteroids were assessed against adults and nymphs. The most effective candidates were the desiccants (diatomaceous earth, nanoclay and sorex), the growth regulators (buprofezin, hexythiazox and teflubenzuron), the lipid synthesis inhibitors (spirodiclofen, spirotetramat and spiromesifen) and the nerve action and energy metabolism inhibitors (fenpyroximate, spinosad, tolfenpyrad, and chlorantraniliprole). PMID:27270393

  17. The distribution of scab in pecan trees in relation to fruit weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum is the most destructive disease of pecan in Georgia and elsewhere in the southeastern US. We describe the distribution of scab and measures of yield in relation to sample height in tall trees. Control trees had significantly more severe disease on fruit lowe...

  18. Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

  19. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  20. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  1. Meteorological Modeling of Wintertime Cold Air Pool Stagnation Episodes in the Uintah and Salt Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Blaylock, B. K.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    High wintertime ozone concentrations in rural areas associated with oil and gas development and high particulate concentrations in urban areas have become topics of increasing concern in the Western United States, as both primary and secondary pollutants become trapped within stable wintertime boundary layers. While persistent cold air pools that enable such poor wintertime air quality are typically associated with high pressure aloft and light winds, the complex physical processes that contribute to the formation, maintenance, and decay of persistent wintertime temperature inversions are only partially understood. In addition, obtaining sufficiently accurate numerical weather forecasts and meteorological simulations of cold air pools for input into chemical models remains a challenge. This study examines the meteorological processes associated with several wintertime pollution episodes in Utah's Uintah and Salt Lake Basins using numerical Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations and observations collected from the Persistent Cold Air Pool and Uintah Basin Ozone Studies. The temperature, vertical structure, and winds within these cold air pools was found to vary as a function of snow cover, snow albedo, land use, cloud cover, large-scale synoptic flow, and episode duration. We evaluate the sensitivity of key atmospheric features such as stability, planetary boundary layer depth, local wind flow patterns and transport mechanisms to variations in surface forcing, clouds, and synoptic flow. Finally, noted deficiencies in the meteorological models of cold air pools and modifications to the model snow and microphysics treatment that have resulted in improved cold pool simulations will be presented.

  2. Draft genome sequence of Fusicladium effusum, cause of pecan scab.

    PubMed

    Bock, Clive H; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Fahong; Stevenson, Katherine L; Wood, Bruce W

    2016-01-01

    Pecan scab, caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most destructive disease of pecan, an important specialty crop cultivated in several regions of the world. Only a few members of the family Venturiaceae (in which the pathogen resides) have been reported sequenced. We report the first draft genome sequence (40.6 Mb) of an isolate F. effusum collected from a pecan tree (cv. Desirable) in central Georgia, in the US. The genome sequence described will be a useful resource for research of the biology and ecology of the pathogen, coevolution with the pecan host, characterization of genes of interest, and development of markers for studies of genetic diversity, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The annotation of the genome is described and a phylogenetic analysis is presented. PMID:27274782

  3. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  4. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  5. Airborne measurements of air pollution chemistry and transport. 1: Initial survey of major air basins in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloria, H. R.; Pitts, J. N., Jr.; Behar, J. V.; Bradburn, G. A.; Reinisch, R. F.; Zafonte, L.

    1972-01-01

    An instrumented aircraft has been used to study photochemical air pollution in the State of California. Simultaneous measurements of the most important chemical constituents (ozone, total oxidant, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, as well as several meteorological variables) were made. State-of-the-art measurement techniques and sampling procedures are discussed. Data from flights over the South Coast Air Basin, the San Francisco Bay Area, the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Clara and Salinas Valleys, and the Pacific Ocean within 200 miles of the California coast are presented. Pollutants were found to be concentrated in distant layers up to at least 18,000 feet. In many of these layers, the pollutant concentrations were much higher than at ground level. These findings bring into serious question the validity of the present practice of depending solely on data from ground-based monitoring stations for predictive models.

  6. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  7. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  8. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

  9. Estimation of air pollution-related mortality for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A cross-section analysis for 1976 is performed by estimating conventional health-damage specifications. Better air-quality data are used and socio-economic controls are instituted to derive a more-accurate estimate of the air pollution-related mortality by disease that is attributable to the residuals discharge by the coal-fired electric-utility sector of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region (ORBES). Diseases suspected of being sensitively associated with air pollution as mortality responses are categorized as cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Air pollutants are SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and particulates for years 1976, 1985, and 2000 and for scenarios of utility compliance and noncompliance to state air-pollution regulations. The empirical results reveal that SO/sub 2/, particulates, and SO/sub 4/ are pernicious in that order and that noncompliance-related mortality is 1.6 times the compliance-related mortality. Most important is that logit and ridge regression, respectively, indicate in many instances that stochastic bio-responses to air pollution and multicollinearity among the data vectors strongly bias (overestimate) the linear least-squares estimates.

  10. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side...

  11. Competition and antibiosis in the biological control of potato scab.

    PubMed

    Neeno-Eckwall, E C; Kinkel, L L; Schottel, J L

    2001-04-01

    Nonpathogenic, antibiotic-producing streptomycetes have been shown to reduce potato scab when added to disease-conducive soil. Spontaneous mutants of the pathogenic Streptomyces scabies RB4 that are resistant to at least one antibiotic activity produced by the nonpathogenic suppressive isolates Streptomyces diastatochromogenes strain PonSSII and S. scabies PonR have been isolated. To determine the importance of antibiosis in this biocontrol system, these mutants were investigated for their ability to cause disease in the presence of the two pathogen antagonists in a greenhouse assay. Disease caused by one of the mutant strains was reduced in the presence of both suppressive isolates, whereas disease caused by the other five mutants was not significantly reduced by either suppressive strain. In addition, a nonpathogenic mutant of S. scabies RB4 was isolated, which produced no detectable in vitro antibiotic activity and reduced disease caused by its pathogenic parent strain when the pathogen and mutant were coinoculated into soil. Population densities of the pathogen were consistently lower than those of the suppressive strains when individual strains were inoculated into soil. When a pathogen was coinoculated with a suppressive strain, the total streptomycete population density in the pot was always less than that observed when the suppressive isolate was inoculated alone. When the pathogens were inoculated individually into soil, a positive correlation was seen between population density and disease severity. In coinoculation experiments with pathogen and suppressive strains, higher total streptomycete population densities were correlated with lower amounts of disease. PMID:11358173

  12. Geographical and Geomorphological Effects on Air Temperatures in the Columbia Basin's Signature Vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, L.; Pogue, K. R.; Bader, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon is one of the most productive grape-growing areas in the United States. Wines produced in this region are influenced by their terroir - the amalgamation of physical and cultural elements that influence grapes grown at a particular vineyard site. Of the physical factors, climate, and in particular air temperature, has been recognized as a primary influence on viticulture. Air temperature directly affects ripening in the grapes. Proper fruit ripening, which requires precise and balanced levels of acid and sugar, and the accumulation of pigment in the grape skin, directly correlates with the quality of wine produced. Many features control air temperature within a particular vineyard. Elevation, latitude, slope, and aspect all converge to form complex relationships with air temperatures; however, the relative degree to which these attributes affect temperatures varies between regions and is not well understood. This study examines the influence of geography and geomorphology on air temperatures within the American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) of the Columbia Basin in eastern Washington and Oregon. The premier vineyards within each AVA, which have been recognized for producing high-quality wine, were equipped with air temperature monitoring stations that collected hourly temperature measurements. A variety of temperature statistics were calculated, including daily average, maximum, and minimum temperatures. From these values, average diurnal variation and growing degree-days (10°C) were calculated. A variety of other statistics were computed, including date of first and last frost and time spent below a minimum temperature threshold. These parameters were compared to the vineyard's elevation, latitude, slope, aspect, and local topography using GPS, ArcCatalog, and GIS in an attempt to determine their relative influences on air temperatures. From these statistics, it was possible to delineate two trends of temperature variation

  13. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  14. Characterizing air temperature changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960-2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (T min) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the T min (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from -0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and T min (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with T min and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960-1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID:25375648

  15. Characterizing air temperature changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960-2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (T min) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the T min (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from -0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and T min (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with T min and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960-1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales.

  16. Characterizing Air Temperature Changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960–2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the Tmin (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from −0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and Tmin (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with Tmin and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960–1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID

  17. Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Increases Potato Yield and Reduces Common Scab Symptoms in the Field.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Common scab of potato, caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is an important disease not efficiently controlled by current methods. We previously demonstrated that Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 reduces common scab development under controlled conditions through phenazine-1-carboxylic (PCA) production, leading to reduced thaxtomin A production by the pathogen, a key pathogenicity and virulence factor. Here, we aimed at determining if LBUM223 is able to increase potato yield and control common scab under field conditions, while characterizing the biocontrol mechanisms involved. We investigated if a reduction in pathogen soil populations, activation of induced systemic resistance in potato, and/or changes in txtA gene expression, involved in thaxtomin A biosynthesis in pathogenic Streptomyces spp. were involved in common scab control by LBUM223. Common scab symptoms were significantly reduced and total tuber weight increased by 46% using biweekly applications of LBUM223. LBUM223 did not reduce pathogen soil populations, nor was potato systemic defense-related gene expression significantly altered between treatments. However, a significant down-regulation of txtA expression occurred in the geocaulosphere. This is the first demonstration that a Pseudomonas strain can directly alter the transcriptional activity of a key pathogenesis gene in a plant pathogen under field conditions, contributing to disease control.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes and PCR Analysis of the nec1 Gene from Streptomyces spp. Causing Common Scab, Pitted Scab, and Netted Scab in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kreuze, J F; Suomalainen, S; Paulin, L; Valkonen, J P

    1999-06-01

    ABSTRACT The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes (nucleotides 29 to 1,521) from various Streptomyces strains pathogenic to potato were compared. These included 10 pathogenic Streptomyces strains isolated from potato scab lesions in Finland, the type strains of S. aureofaciens NRRL 2209(T) and S. lydicus ATCC 25470(T), 'S. griseus subsp. scabies' ATCC 10246, and two S. griseus strains that were originally deposited to the collection as pathogens. The nucleotide sequence (>94.5% sequence identity [SI]) and length (1,469 to 1,481 nucleotides) of the analyzed region varied. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes placed Finnish strains into three species, supported by previously characterized morphological and physiological traits. Six Finnish strains, including two strains that deviated from the others in one trait (no spiral sporophores or D-xylose utilization), had identical 16S rRNA genes and were identified as S. scabies (99.9% SI to S. scabies ATCC 49173). Three Finnish strains were identified as S. turgidiscabies, a species previously described only in Japan (99.9% SI to S. turgidiscabies ATCC 700248). Finnish strain 317 and S. aureofaciens NRRL 2209 (99.8% SI) were placed in a distinct phylogenetic cluster together with Kitosatospora spp., which suggests that S. aureofaciens may belong to the recently revived genus Kitosatospora. In pathogenicity tests, S. scabies caused characteristic symptoms of common scab, S. turgidiscabies caused mainly pitted scab, and S. aureofaciens caused netted scab and necrotic lesions on stolons of potato cultivars Bintje and Matilda in the greenhouse. The nec1 gene and the intergenic region between nec1 and the 5' transposase pseudogene ORFtnp were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction from S. scabies ATCC 49173 and the pathogenic Finnish strains of S. scabies, but not from a nonpathogenic strain of S. scabies, three pathogenic and two nonpathogenic strains of S. turgidiscabies, and S. aureofaciens.

  19. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  20. Assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, R.

    1999-07-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, acquatics and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forest, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid land, and class 1 areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  1. Development and validation of standard area diagrams to aide assessment of pecan scab symptoms on pecan fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) causes losses of pecan nutmeat yield and quality in the southeastern U.S. Disease assessment relies on visual rating, which can be inaccurate, imprecise with poor inter-rater reliability. A standard area diagram (SAD) set for pecan scab on fruit valves was develope...

  2. Potential for atmospheric-driven lead paint degradation in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Alexander J; Edwards, Rufus D; Kleinman, Michael T; Dabdub, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to lead in paint or lead residues in house dust and soil is one of the leading environmental risks to the health of children in the United States. Components of photochemical smog can increase the degradation of binders in lead paint, leading to increased release of lead pigment granules to hands in surface contact or for deposition in house dust and soil. This study uses photochemical air quality modeling to map areas susceptible to increased lead paint degradation as a result of photochemical atmospheric pollutants to prioritize areas of concern. Typical air quality episodes in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) are modeled for the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Results indicate that large areas of the SoCAB were susceptible to atmospheric-driven accelerated lead paint degradation. Inner city urban areas from central Los Angeles to Azusa and most of Orange County had the highest susceptibility to accelerated lead paint degradation, followed by inland locations near the San Bernardino Mountains. This study identifies photochemical oxidant gases as contributors to greater lead release from indoor painted surfaces in urban areas.

  3. Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple 'Gala' carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Flachowsky, Henryk; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2014-01-01

    Using resistance genes from a crossable donor to obtain cultivars resistant to diseases and the use of such cultivars in production appears an economically and environmentally advantageous approach. In apple, introgression of resistance genes by classical breeding results in new cultivars, while introducing cisgenes by biotechnological methods maintains the original cultivar characteristics. Recently, plants of the popular apple 'Gala' were genetically modified by inserting the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) under control of its own regulatory sequences. This gene is derived from the scab-resistant apple 'Florina' (originally from the wild apple accession Malus floribunda 821). The vector used for genetic modification allowed a postselection marker gene elimination to achieve cisgenesis. In this work, three cisgenic lines were analysed to assess copy number, integration site, expression level and resistance to apple scab. For two of these lines, a single insertion was observed and, despite a very low expression of 0.07- and 0.002-fold compared with the natural expression of 'Florina', this was sufficient to induce plant reaction and reduce fungal growth by 80% compared with the scab-susceptible 'Gala'. Similar results for resistance and expression analysis were obtained also for the third line, although it was impossible to determine the copy number and TDNA integration site-such molecular characterization is requested by the (EC) Regulation No. 1829/2003, but may become unnecessary if cisgenic crops become exempt from GMO regulation.

  4. Functional characterization of candidate effector proteins identified from the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pathogens often produce certain small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) during pathogenesis that may function in triggering resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. We have recently identified a total of 190 SSCPs encoded in the genome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium gra...

  5. Efficacy of Prophyt plus Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Julyprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 2 Apr (shuck split to 10% sh...

  6. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014 (Flameprince)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘Flameprince’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 27 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 3 Apr (shuck split to 10% s...

  7. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  8. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan in three different seasons in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Wet, humid conditions typical of the Southeast are known to provide conditions conducive to epidemics. A provenance collection of pecan from 19 locations representing the native rang...

  9. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan in in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. It is spread in rain and is widespread in the Southeast where conditions conducive to epidemics. A provenance collection of pecan from 19 locations representing the native range of the tree is located in Byron, Geo...

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for Fusicladium effusum, the causal agent of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (caused by F. effusum) is the most important diseases of pecan in the southeastern U.S. Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) motifs were mined from the genome of Fusicladium effusum assembled from 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Miseq reads. A total of 278 SSR primers were designe...

  11. Efficacy of Prophyt when combined with Captec for control of peach scab in Alabama, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening peach experimental block (‘Ruston Red’) located at the Chilton Area Research and Extension Center located in Clanton, AL. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) at the petal fall and shuck s...

  12. Scab severity in relation to hedge pruning pecan trees in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the Southeastern USA. Pecan trees are tall (up to 30+ m), and managing disease in the upper canopy is problematic. Hedge pruning trees to ~12 m is being explored to facilitate efficacy of ground-based fungicide sprays, but resulting vigorous shoot growth...

  13. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  14. Trunk applications of phosphite for the control of foliar and fruit scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) is the major disease of pecan in the south-eastern US. Apart from issues of fungicide resistance and the need to test efficacy of novel fungicides such as phosphites, management of the disease in tall trees is challenging due to the technical difficulties of getting ...

  15. Identification of a naturally produced antifungal compound with activity against pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab limits the productivity of pecan in the southeastern United States. Alternatives to conventional fungicides are needed, and ideally should be biorational, of low environmental risk with a reduced risk for fungicide resistance. Extracts of a bacterial symbiont (Photorhabdus luminescens) fr...

  16. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  17. Determination of Factors Associated with Natural Soil Suppressivity to Potato Common Scab

    PubMed Central

    Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Daniel, Ondrej; Omelka, Marek; Kristufek, Vaclav; Divis, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Common scab of potatoes is a disease, which is difficult to manage due to complex interactions of the pathogenic bacteria (Streptomyces spp.) with soil, microbial community and potato plants. In Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the Czech Republic two sites (Vyklantice and Zdirec) were selected for a study of common scab disease suppressivity. At both sites, a field with low disease severity occurs next to one with high severity and the situation was regularly observed over four decades although all four fields undergo a crop rotation. In the four fields, quantities of bacteria, actinobacteria and the gene txtB from the biosynthetic gene cluster of thaxtomin, the main pathogenicity factor of common scab, were analyzed by real-time PCR. Microbial community structure was compared by terminal fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil and potato periderm were characterized by contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosporus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Quality of organic matter was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography of soil extracts. The study demonstrated that the suppressive character of the fields is locally specific. At Zdirec, the suppressivity was associated with low txtB gene copies in bulk soil, while at Vyklantice site it was associated with low txtB gene copies in the tuberosphere. The differences were discussed with respect to the effect of abiotic conditions at Zdirec and interaction between potato plant and soil microbial community at Vyklantice. Soil pH, Ca soil content or cation concentrations, although different were not in the range to predict the disease severity. Low severity of common scab was associated with low content of soil C, N, C/N, Ca and Fe suggesting that oligotrophic conditions may be favorable to common scab suppression. PMID:25612311

  18. Determination of factors associated with natural soil suppressivity to potato common scab.

    PubMed

    Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Daniel, Ondrej; Omelka, Marek; Kristufek, Vaclav; Divis, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Common scab of potatoes is a disease, which is difficult to manage due to complex interactions of the pathogenic bacteria (Streptomyces spp.) with soil, microbial community and potato plants. In Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the Czech Republic two sites (Vyklantice and Zdirec) were selected for a study of common scab disease suppressivity. At both sites, a field with low disease severity occurs next to one with high severity and the situation was regularly observed over four decades although all four fields undergo a crop rotation. In the four fields, quantities of bacteria, actinobacteria and the gene txtB from the biosynthetic gene cluster of thaxtomin, the main pathogenicity factor of common scab, were analyzed by real-time PCR. Microbial community structure was compared by terminal fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil and potato periderm were characterized by contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Quality of organic matter was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography of soil extracts. The study demonstrated that the suppressive character of the fields is locally specific. At Zdirec, the suppressivity was associated with low txtB gene copies in bulk soil, while at Vyklantice site it was associated with low txtB gene copies in the tuberosphere. The differences were discussed with respect to the effect of abiotic conditions at Zdirec and interaction between potato plant and soil microbial community at Vyklantice. Soil pH, Ca soil content or cation concentrations, although different were not in the range to predict the disease severity. Low severity of common scab was associated with low content of soil C, N, C/N, Ca and Fe suggesting that oligotrophic conditions may be favorable to common scab suppression. PMID:25612311

  19. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-02-23

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.

  20. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  1. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change. PMID:24348192

  2. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change.

  3. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  4. A combination of air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Niederhofer, J.D.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-02-01

    Structural geologic information available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior basin documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air/fluid drilling technique may be advantageous to coalbed-methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. The authors successfully used this technique recently on coalbed-methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, AL.

  5. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  6. Determining Spatial Distribution And Air-Water Exchange Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Stormwater Runoff Catchment Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaraneni, V. K.; Schifman, L. A.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in to surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices (BMPs), such as retention/detention ponds or catchment basins in general. The effectiveness of catchment basins in reducing the volume of runoff and removal of some contaminants has been established. However, very little is known about the fate of the contaminants settled within these structures. In coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables accumulation of high concentrations of PAHs in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Due to the physico-chemical characteristics of PAHs, their transport not only can occur in the liquid and solid phase, but it is also possible that gaseous emissions can be produced from BMP systems. For the purpose of this study, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and covering (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial) land uses. To study the stratification of PAHs sediment cores one foot were collected and analyzed for 31PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and 15 methylated PAHs). In order to determine whether the catchment basins are a source of atmospheric pollution polyethylene passive samplers were deployed to determine the freely dissolved PAHs in the water column and gas phase PAHs at the air-water interface. This presentation will describe how PAH fluxes move between three environmental compartments (sediments, water column, atmosphere) within the five stormwater catchment basins. Further, it will be investigated whether these BMP structures can act as contaminant sources rather than sinks and whether BMP

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction debris removal 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    HAYS, C.B.

    1999-10-06

    The 105-KE Basin contains 1,150 Metric Tonnes of Uranium (MTU) of N Reactor fuel, along with less than half a MTU of single pass reactor (SPR) fuel. In addition to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the 105-KE Basin, extensive quantities of debris and a substantial amount of sludge have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin fuel and sludge are not encapsulated and, as a result, corroding fuel has produced contamination products that are deposited on the basin walls, floor, and equipment. contamination products produce radiation dose exposures to the workers. To decrease worker exposures, this Notice of Construction (NOC) describes dose reduction modifications under consideration to mitigate worker radiation exposure from the basin walls and exposed piping. The major equipment egress paths from the basin (the dummy elevator pit and the south loadout pit) are blocked completely with debris and/or empty canisters. Therefore in addition to dose reduction, this NOC also describes debris removal activities and equipment. Recently, the primary water treatment system has been without mechanical filtration capabilities. This NOC describes planned modifications to the primary water treatment system to restore mechanical filtration by restarting the cartridge filters. The proposed modifications described in this NOC are expected to commence in the Fall of 1995. Finally, the NOC describes two other basin activities, fuel and sludge movement, that are expected to be routine in the future.

  8. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction fuel removal for 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the modifications, installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities at 105-KE Basin. The 105-K east reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin (105-KE Basin) were constructed in the early 1950s and are located in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KE Basin contains 1,152 metric tons of SNF stored underwater in 3,673 open canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 24 years. The 105-KE Basin is constructed of unlined concrete and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The fuel is corroding and an estimated 1,700 cubic feet of sludge, containing radionuclides and miscellaneous materials, have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin has leaked radiologically contaminated water to the soil beneath the basin in the past most likely at the construction joint between the foundation of the basin and the foundation of the reactor. The purpose of the activities described in this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to enable the retrieval and transport of the fuel to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This NOC describes modifications, the installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities expected to be routine in the future. Debris removal activities described in this NOC will supersede the previously approved NOC (DOE/RL-95-65). The proposed modifications described are scheduled to begin in calendar year 1997.

  10. Simulated Future Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology and Variability in the Mediterranean Basin by Using Downscaled Global Climate Model Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Pelin Ceber, Zeynep; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is one of the regions that shall be affected most by the impacts of the future climate changes on temperature regime including changes in heat waves intensity and frequency, seasonal and interannual precipitation variability including changes in summer dryness and drought events, and hydrology and water resources. In this study, projected future changes in mean air temperature and precipitation climatology and inter-annual variability over the Mediterranean region were simulated. For performing this aim, the future changes in annual and seasonal averages for the future period of 2070-2100 with respect to the period from 1970 to 2000 were investigated. Global climate model outputs of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used. SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios' outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used in future climate model projections. Future surface mean air temperatures of the larger Mediterranean basin increase mostly in summer and least in winter, and precipitation amounts decreases in all seasons at almost all parts of the basin. Future climate signals for surface air temperatures and precipitation totals will be much larger than the inter-model standard deviation. Inter-annual temperature variability increases evidently in summer season and decreases in the northern part of the domain in the winter season, while precipitation variability increases in almost all parts of domain. Probability distribution functions are found to be shifted and flattened for future period compared to reference period. This indicates that occurrence frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions will increase in the future period. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  11. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Tina; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; König, Stephan; Peil, Andreas; Kaldorf, Michael; Polle, Andrea; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass. PMID:22888297

  15. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction fuel removal for 105-KW Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-05-29

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, for the modifications, installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities at 105-KW Basin. The purpose of the activities described in this NOC is to enable the eventual retrieval and transport of the fuel for processing. The fuel retrieval and transport will require an integrated water treatment system for which performance specifications have been developed. These specifications are currently in the procurement process. Following procurement (and before installation of this system and the handling of fuel) design details will be provided to Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The 105-K West Reactor (105-KW) and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. Although the 105-KW Basin has not been known to leak, the discharge chute and associated construction joint have been isolated from the rest of the basin by metal isolation barriers. This was a precautionary measure, to mitigate the consequences of a seismic event. The proposed modifications described are scheduled to begin in calendar year 1997.

  16. Modelling evolution of air dose rates in river basins in Fukushima Prefecture affected by sediment-sorbed radiocesium redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, A.; Sakuma, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurikami, H.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes deposited over Fukushima Prefecture by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the predominant radiological concern for the years following the accident. This is because the energetic gamma radiation they emit on decay constitutes the majority of the elevated air dose rates that now afflict the region. Therefore, we developed a tool for calculating air dose rates from arbitrary radiocesium spatial distributions across the land surface and depth profiles within the ground. As cesium is strongly absorbed by clay soils, its primary redistribution mechanism within Fukushima Prefecture is by soil erosion and water-borne sediment transport. Each year between 0.1~1% of the total radiocesium inventory in the river basins neighboring Fukushima Daiichi is eroded from the land surface and enters into water courses, predominantly during typhoon storms. Although this is a small amount in relative terms, in absolute terms it corresponds to terabecquerels of 134Cs and 137Cs redistribution each year and this can affect the air dose rate at locations of high erosion and sediment deposition. This study inputs the results of sediment redistribution simulations into the dose rate evaluation tool to calculate the locations and magnitude of air dose rate changes due to radiocesium redistribution. The dose rate calculations are supported by handheld survey instrument results taken within the Prefecture.

  17. Identification and disruption of bacteria associated with sheep scab mites-novel means of control?

    PubMed

    Hall, S A; Mack, K; Blackwell, A; Evans, K A

    2015-10-01

    Psoroptes ovis mites, which cause psoroptic mange (sheep scab), were investigated to identify potential bacterial targets for endosymbiont control of sheep scab. In addition, transmission of bacteria to the sheep skin was investigated through the characterisation of bacteria present in P. ovis faecal trails and on the fleece environment by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. A diverse range of bacteria was identified in addition to a potential endosymbiont candidate, Comamonas sp, which was detected in P. ovis by both ITS PCR and endosymbiont-specific PCR. Disruption of these bacteria within P. ovis, through the use of antibiotics, was explored; with significant reduction in mean mite survival when administered antibiotic diets compared with controls (LR4 = 23.12, P < 0.001). The antibiotic treatments also significantly affected the bacterial density (CFU/mite) within P. ovis, indicating that mite survival may be linked to the bacterial communities that they harbour. Although antibiotics are not suitable for practical application, these results suggest disrupting bacteria associated with P. ovis should be further investigated for novel control.

  18. Characterization of the Coronatine-Like Phytotoxins Produced by the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Altowairish, Mead S; Li, Yuting; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-04-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an important causative agent of common scab disease of potato tubers and other root crops. The primary virulence factor produced by this pathogen is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which is essential for disease development. In addition, the genome of S. scabies harbors a virulence-associated biosynthetic gene cluster called the coronafacic acid (CFA)-like gene cluster, which was previously predicted to produce metabolites that resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine (COR) phytotoxin. COR consists of CFA linked to an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid called coronamic acid, which is derived from L-allo-isoleucine. Using a combination of genetic and chemical analyses, we show that the S. scabies CFA-like gene cluster is responsible for producing CFA-L-isoleucine as the major product as well as other minor COR-like metabolites. Production of the metabolites was shown to require the cfl gene, which is located within the CFA-like gene cluster and encodes an enzyme involved in ligating CFA to its amino acid partner. CFA-L-isoleucine purified from S. scabies cultures was shown to exhibit bioactivity similar to that of COR, though it was found to be less toxic than COR. This is the first report demonstrating the production of coronafacoyl phytotoxins by S. scabies, which is the most prevalent scab-causing pathogen in North America. PMID:25423263

  19. REDUCTIONS IN HUMAN BENZENE EXPOSURE IN THE CALIFORNIA SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN. (R827352C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzene typically contributes a significant fraction of the human cancer risk associated with exposure to urban air pollutants. In recent years, concentrations of benzene in ambient air have declined in many urban areas due to the use of reformulated gasolines, lower vehicle e...

  20. Efficacy of Prophyt and Captan as a tank mix when combined for control of peach scab in Georgia, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in an experimental peach block (‘O’Henry’) located at the USDA Research Station in Byron, GA. Chemical formulations were applied with an airblast sprayer (100 gal/A spray volume) on 31 March (petal fall to 1% shuck split), 9 Apr (shuck split to 10% shuck...

  1. Influence of supplementary lighting during artificial scab inoculation tests in an apple breeding programm focused on partial resistance.

    PubMed

    Lefrancq, B; Lateur, M

    2006-01-01

    In 1988, the Department of Biological Control and Plant Genetic Resources at the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre started an apple-breeding programme using local genetic resources and modern varieties. Our objective is to create high quality commercial cultivars with durable resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and canker (Nectria galligena). The breeding strategy is based on crossing old apple cultivars and landraces selected as parents for low disease susceptibility and possessing other desirable horticultural characteristics. The programme aims to develop an early and efficient selection methodology adapted to partial disease resistance. One of the objectives is to define the optimal screening limit for discarding individuals after artificial scab inoculation tests. Working with large populations of seedlings entails spacing the seedling scab tests throughout the year. In order to work during winter, seedlings were grown in controlled cabinet conditions and in a glasshouse with supplementary lighting. To assess the bias introduced by these conditions, two trials were conducted: the first one to compare the influence of both environments on the results of scab inoculation tests, and the second one to assess the influence of the duration of supplementary lighting. The results enabled us to evaluate the limits of artificial cultural systems.

  2. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  3. Identification of the antifungal compound, trans-cinnamic acid, produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a potential biopesticide against pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the major disease that limits the productivity and quality of pecan in the southeastern US. Alternatives to conventional fungicides are desirable and should be biorational, of low environmental risk with a reduced risk for fungicide resistance developing...

  4. Distribution of hazardous air pollutant trace elements, total sulfur, and ash in coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Arithmetic mean values of the contents of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) trace elements named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium), ash, and total sulfur were statistically compared on a whole-coal basis for Paleocene coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region. The study of proximate and elemental analyses indicate a relationship between trace element contents and paleogeography.

  5. Long-term trends in nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles at national, state, and air basin scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Brian C.; Dallmann, Timothy R.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2011-11-01

    A fuel-based approach is used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles. Estimates are made at the national level for the period 1990-2010. Vehicle emissions are also estimated at the state level for California, and for the South Coast (Los Angeles) and San Joaquin Valley air basins. Fuel-based emission estimates are compared with predictions from widely used emission inventory models. Changes in diesel NOxemissions vary over time: increasing between 1990 and 1997, stable between 1997 and 2007, and decreasing since 2007. In contrast, gasoline engine-related NOxemissions have decreased steadily, by ˜65% overall between 1990 and 2010, except in the San Joaquin Valley, where reductions were not as large due to faster population growth. In the San Joaquin Valley, diesel engines were the dominant on-road NOxsource in all years considered (reaching ˜70% in 2010). In the urbanized South Coast air basin, gasoline engine emissions dominated in the past and have been comparable to on-road diesel sources since 2007 (down from ˜75% in 1990). Other major anthropogenic sources of NOxare added to compare emission trends with trends in surface pollutant observations and satellite-derived data. When all major anthropogenic NOx sources are included, the overall emission trend is downward in all cases (-45% to -60%). Future reductions in motor vehicle NOxwill depend on the effectiveness of new exhaust after-treatment controls on heavy-duty trucks, as well as further improvements todurabilityof emission control systems on light-duty vehicles.

  6. Long-term trends in nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles at national, state, and air basin scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Brian C.; Dallmann, Timothy R.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2012-09-01

    A fuel-based approach is used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles. Estimates are made at the national level for the period 1990-2010. Vehicle emissions are also estimated at the state level for California, and for the South Coast (Los Angeles) and San Joaquin Valley air basins. Fuel-based emission estimates are compared with predictions from widely used emission inventory models. Changes in diesel NOxemissions vary over time: increasing between 1990 and 1997, stable between 1997 and 2007, and decreasing since 2007. In contrast, gasoline engine-related NOxemissions have decreased steadily, by ˜65% overall between 1990 and 2010, except in the San Joaquin Valley, where reductions were not as large due to faster population growth. In the San Joaquin Valley, diesel engines were the dominant on-road NOxsource in all years considered (reaching ˜70% in 2010). In the urbanized South Coast air basin, gasoline engine emissions dominated in the past and have been comparable to on-road diesel sources since 2007 (down from ˜75% in 1990). Other major anthropogenic sources of NOxare added to compare emission trends with trends in surface pollutant observations and satellite-derived data. When all major anthropogenic NOx sources are included, the overall emission trend is downward in all cases (-45% to -60%). Future reductions in motor vehicle NOxwill depend on the effectiveness of new exhaust after-treatment controls on heavy-duty trucks, as well as further improvements todurabilityof emission control systems on light-duty vehicles.

  7. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  8. The roles of inoculants' carbon source use in the biocontrol of potato scab disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Zhao, Xinbei; Shangguan, Nini; Chang, Dongwei; Ma, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Despite the application of multiple strains in the biocontrol of plant diseases, multistrain inoculation is still constrained by its inconsistency in the field. Nutrients, especially carbons, play an important role in the biocontrol processes. However, little work has been done on the systematic estimation of inoculants' carbon source use on biocontrol efficacies in vivo. In the present study, 7 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains alone and in different combinations were inoculated as biocontrol agents against the potato scab disease, under field conditions and greenhouse treatments. The influence of the inoculants' carbon source use properties on biocontrol efficacies was investigated. The results showed that increasing the number of inoculated strains did not necessarily result in greater biocontrol efficacy in vivo. However, single strains with higher growth rates or multiple strains with less carbon source competition had positive effects on the biocontrol efficacies. These findings may shed light on optimizing the consistent biocontrol of plant disease with the consideration of inoculants' carbon source use properties. PMID:25756527

  9. Taxonomic study on nonpathogenic streptomycetes isolated from common scab lesions on potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Doumbou, C L; Akimov, V; Côté, M; Charest, P M; Beaulieu, C

    2001-11-01

    Numerical analysis was carried out to compare sixteen nonpathogenic actinomycetes isolated from common scab lesions on potato tubers with Streptomyces scabiei type strain as well as with other streptomycete groups. These isolates were divided into two classes according to their level of similarity with S. scabiei. Isolates resembling S. scabiei were associated with S. griseoruber or with S. violaceusniger while isolates exhibiting less than 61% of similarity with S. scabiei were phenotypically related to S. albidoflavus or to S. atroolivaceus. Sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of each isolate was obtained and compared against the GenBank nucleotide database. No significant match could be established between the sequences of two potato isolates and the ones available in the GenBank database. The other isolates were closely related with S. setonii (S. griseus), S. mirabilis, S. fimbriatus, S. violaceoruber, S. melanosporofaciens and S. thermocarboxydus.

  10. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  11. Excess air during aquifer storage and recovery in an arid basin (Las Vegas Valley, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D. Kip; Cole, Erin; Leising, Joseph F.

    2011-02-01

    The Las Vegas Valley Water District in Nevada, USA, has operated an artificial recharge (AR) program since 1989. In summer 2001, observations of gas exsolving from tap water prompted a study that revealed total dissolved gas (TDG) pressures approaching 2 atm with a gas composition that it is predominantly air. Measurements of TDG pressure at well heads and in the distribution system indicated two potential mechanisms for elevated TDG pressures: (1) air entrainment during AR operations, and (2) temperature changes between the winter recharge season and the summer withdrawal season. Air entrainment during pumping was investigated by intentionally allowing the forebay (upstream reservoir) of a large pumping station to drawdown to the point of vortex formation. This resulted in up to a 0.7 atm increase in TDG pressure. In general, the solubility of gases in water decreases as the temperature increases. In the Las Vegas Valley, water that acquired a modest amount of dissolved gas during winter artificial recharge operations experienced an increase in dissolved gas pressure (0.04 atm/°C) as the water warmed in the subsurface. A combination of air entrainment during AR operations and its amplification by temperature increase after recharge can account for most of the observed amounts of excess gas at this site.

  12. Meteorological and air quality characterization of the Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The meteorological and air quality characteristics of the Permian Basin locations in Deaf Smith County and Swisher County, Texas, are described using data from eight climatological stations in the vicinity. Meteorological conditions are reasonably represented by these data because of the generally flat terrain over the area and the geographical proximity of the climatological stations to the locations. Information regarding atmospheric transport and dispersion conditions is derived from data for the period 1976 to 1980 provided by the National Weather Service station at Amarillo, Texas. On an annual basis, southerly winds predominate and the average wind speed is 6.1 m/s (13.7 mph). The analysis of dispersion climatology indicates that neutral atmospheric stability also predominates over the year. This, in combination with high average wind speeds, is characteristic of relatively good dispersion conditions in the area. Significant topographic features are far enough away from the locations that their effects on local dispersion conditions are negligible. The closest available air quality data were collected around population centers and may not accurately represent conditions at these rural and undeveloped locations. The area has been declared ''attaining'' for particulate and sulfur dioxide standards and ''cannot be classified as better than ambient standard'' for nitrogen oxides, ozone, and carbon monoxide. 49 references, 5 figures, 18 tables.

  13. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways.

  14. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways. PMID:14968860

  15. Air-Photograph Based Estimates of Channel Widening within the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterling, C.; Conway, J.; Graves, J.; Lauer, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Minnesota River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River that has experienced a roughly two-fold increase in mean April-November discharge over the past century. Because the Minnesota River supplies the majority of sediment to the Mississippi at the confluence, sediment sources within the basin, and in particular within the Le Sueur River sub-basin, have recently been the subject of several detailed sediment budget studies. One of the potential sediment sources is associated with channel widening. In the present study, we focus on channel widening as a potential source of sediment in the Minnesota, Little Cobb, Maple, Blue Earth, Le Sueur, Redwood, Cottonwood, and Watonwan Rivers, Minnesota. Using aerial photographs, changes in channel bankfull width were measured over the period from 1937 to 2009. Historic photographs were georeferenced to recent high-resolution imagery using a minimum of ten ground control points and a second order polynomial transformation in ArcGIS 9.3. Water surface width and the width between vegetation lines (which we take to be equivalent to the bankfull width) were determined by hand for representative reaches of a minimum of ten meander bends along each river. We chose to digitize by hand to avoid computer misclassification associated with the highly variable color spectra in the historic photographs and because this allowed us to visually interpolate the bank line where scattered overhanging vegetation partially obscured the banks. In general, bankfull width has increased steadily by between 20 and 50 percent over the period of photographic record. However, because our basic method focuses only on the vegetation line, it is possible in principle that the observed changes in width are primarily related to ecological change (i.e. to a change in the elevation at which vegetation colonizes the banks) and not directly to an increase in channel volume (and hence to a net export of sediment from these reaches). To determine whether the

  16. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis. PMID:26345382

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  19. Analysis of Ozone Transportation in Tlaxcala-Puebla Mexico Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Huertas, H.; Torres, R.; Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Gutierrez, W.; Torres, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation conducted between March and April 2012 on the influence of air pollutants transport in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley airshed are presented. The campaign included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and meteorological variables monitoring at surface in Huaquechula, Chipilo and Amozoc rural sites, and measurements of O3 vertical profile O3 and meteorology in Chipilo. The synoptic conditions during the campaign showed dominance of "Norte" conditions favoring air masses circulation from Pacific Ocean crossing southern Mexican Plateau to the Gulf of Mexico that influences the establishment of evening southeasterly winds in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley. Wind roses and contaminants analysis in surface for O3 during entire campaign indicates that before noon the movement of air masses was dominated by runoff of Malinche toward the southeast and south of the valley; and in the afternoon a regional pattern of winds from southwest Valley prevails coming from Cuautla Valley and south of Morelos State. The analysis of three representative days of atmospheric circulation in the valley as well as anthropogenic diurnal activity, a rate of morning increase in O3 concentrations similar at all three sites was observed, even in the absence of precursors such as NO2 during some weekends. By analyzing and engage data from O3 vertical profile and surface meteorology data, we could infer that there are minimal ozone contributions from local sources, but important from regional origin, and even O3 entrainment in height brought to the surface when mixing layer is growing. The back trajectory analysis from Chipilo at noon indicates that could be additional contributions of O3 from both Cuautla Valley and other areas of pollutants emission such as Tula, (in the north of Mexico City), and that weekend effect with the occurrence of high O3 levels observed there extends to this region. Although interbasin exchange of pollutants between the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

  20. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  1. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect.

  2. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; et al

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research andmore » Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.« less

  3. Ozone formation potentials of organic compounds from different emission sources in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Dongmin

    2012-08-01

    Different organic compounds exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the ozone formation potentials or source reactivities of different anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach was based on the combination of total organic gases (TOG) emission speciation profiles and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale of organic species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different emission sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analysis involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well for 58 anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in the SoCAB. Both approaches identify TOG emissions from mobile sources as having the highest reactivity. Source reactivities from both approaches were also combined with TOG emissions from each source category to produce a 2005 reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission inventory for the SoCAB. The top five reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources in the SoCAB during 2005 were: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipment, consumer products, light-duty trucks category 2 (i.e., 3751-5750 lb), and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that livestock waste and composting emission categories were two of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. The reactivity-based TOG emission inventory is an important addition to the mass-based TOG emission inventory because it represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources and can be used to assist in determining targeted sources for developing organic compounds reduction policies.

  4. Quantifying Molecular Hydrogen Emissions and an Industrial Leakage Rate for the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, M. C.; Schroeder, J.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The poorly understood atmospheric budget and distribution of molecular hydrogen (H2) have invited further research since the discovery that emissions from a hydrogen-based economy could have negative impacts on the global climate system and stratospheric ozone. The burgeoning fuel cell electric vehicle industry in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) presents an opportunity to observe and constrain urban anthropogenic H2 emissions. This work presents the first H2 emissions estimate for the SoCAB and calculates an upper limit for the current rate of leakage from production and distribution infrastructure within the region. A top-down method utilized whole air samples collected during the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft from 23-25 June 2015 to estimate H2 emissions from combustion and non-combustion sources. H2:carbon monoxide (CO) and H2:carbon dioxide ratios from airborne observations were compared with experimentally established ratios from pure combustion source ratios and scaled with the well-constrained CO emissions inventory to yield H2 emissions of 24.9 ± 3.6 Gg a-1 (1σ) from combustion engines and 8.2 ± 4.7 Gg a-1 from non-combustion sources. Total daily production of H2 in the SoCAB was compared with the top-down results to estimate an upper limit leakage rate (5%) where all emissions not accounted for by incomplete combustion in engines were assumed to be emitted from H2 infrastructure. For bottom-up validation, the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory dispersion model was run iteratively with all known stationary sources in attempt to constrain emissions. While this investigation determined that H2 emissions from non-combustion sources in the SoCAB are likely significant, more in-depth analysis is required to better predict the atmospheric implications of a hydrogen economy.

  5. Ozone Formation Potentials from Different Anthropogenic Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Luo, D.; Croes, B.

    2010-12-01

    Different volatile organic compounds (VOC) exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the relative ozone formation potentials (source reactivities) of different anthropogenic VOC emission source categories in California’s South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach combined emission speciation profiles for total organic gases (TOG) with maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scales for VOC species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analyses involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities for 58 VOC emission categories in SoCAB derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well (R2 = ~0.9). Both approaches revealed the two emissions source types with the highest TOG reactivity were mobile sources and managed forest burning. Also, a reactivity-based TOG emission inventory for SoCAB in 2005 was produced by combining the source reactivities from both approaches with TOG emissions from anthropogenic source categories. The top five reactivity-based source categories are: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipments, consumer products, light-duty trucks, and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that farming operations (mainly from animal waste) was one of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. Compared to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, the reactivity-based TOG emission inventory more appropriately represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources, and highlights those sources that should be targeted for future regulations.

  6. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  7. The Impact of African Dust on PM10 Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados and Miami have yielded a broad picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin. These measurements show that in summer the aerosol mass is often dominated by dust. At such times over 90% of the dust mass is comprised of particles less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter and thus fits the EPA criteria for PM10. A number of sites in the Caribbean monitor PM10 using the same instrumentation commonly deployed in European and United States networks. By comparing data from individual islands that have multiple monitoring sites (e.g., Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe), it is shown that during dust events PM10 concentrations track very closely and that local sources have a minor impact on PM10 above about 15 to 20 μg m-3. Moreover the PM10 measurements are coherent with the movement of dust clouds over the islands as observed by satellites. In this way dust movement can be tracked at PM10 sites along the Gulf and southeast coasts of the United States. To assess the specific impact of African dust on PM10 in the region, I compare the daily records of dust measurements at Miami and Barbados with concurrent measurements made at proximate PM10 sites. I then use these relationships and the long term dust measurements at Barbados and Miami to assess the long-term variability of PM10 across the region. At Barbados the record goes back 50 years and provides a basis of assessing the effects of climate variability on PM10 transport. This study shows that there is great variability on scales ranging from daily to decadal. The impact of the droughts in the 1970s and 1980s was particularly significant. Across the Caribbean, the rates of exceedances of the WHO PM10 guideline is comparable to those observed in many major urban areas in Europe and the US. The dominance of dust in large PM10 events and the absence of major pollution sources on many islands offers the opportunity to study the health impacts of desert dust in

  8. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  9. Population Genetic Structure of Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Leila; Fotuhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohammad-Reza; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations. Structure analysis grouped the isolates into two populations. Maximum number of pathogen genotypes (44) was observed in the North of Iran that grows various different apple cultivars. Investigation on the variation of the pathogen on different cultivars in the North of Iran suggested a significant differentiation of the pathogen populations between wild apple and commercial cultivars. During sampling, varying ranges of scab infection were observed on various apple cultivars in forests, monoculture and mix orchards. Wild type apple (Malus orientalis) along the Caspian Sea Coast had the most infection in comparison with the Iranian endemic and commercial cultivars. Based on the genetic analysis and host tracking scenario of the pathogen, it was presumed that Iran could potentially be the center of origin of V. inaequalis, which requires further detailed studies with isolates collected from different parts of central Asia and world for confirmation. PMID:27631622

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Leila; Fotuhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohammad-Reza; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations. Structure analysis grouped the isolates into two populations. Maximum number of pathogen genotypes (44) was observed in the North of Iran that grows various different apple cultivars. Investigation on the variation of the pathogen on different cultivars in the North of Iran suggested a significant differentiation of the pathogen populations between wild apple and commercial cultivars. During sampling, varying ranges of scab infection were observed on various apple cultivars in forests, monoculture and mix orchards. Wild type apple (Malus orientalis) along the Caspian Sea Coast had the most infection in comparison with the Iranian endemic and commercial cultivars. Based on the genetic analysis and host tracking scenario of the pathogen, it was presumed that Iran could potentially be the center of origin of V. inaequalis, which requires further detailed studies with isolates collected from different parts of central Asia and world for confirmation. PMID:27631622

  11. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form.

  12. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  13. Diurnal and weekday variations in the source contributions of ozone precursors in California's South Coast Air Basin.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John C; Bowen, John L; Goliff, Wendy S; Stockwell, William R; Lawson, Douglas R

    2003-07-01

    For at least 30 years, ozone (O3) levels on weekends in parts of California's South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin (SoCAB) have been as high as or higher than on weekdays, even though ambient levels of O3 precursors are lower on weekends than on weekdays. A field study was conducted in the Los Angeles area during fall 2000 to test whether proposed relationships between emission sources and ambient nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels can account for observed diurnal and day-of-week variations in the concentration and proportions of precursor pollutants that may affect the efficiency and rate of O3 formation. The contributions to ambient NMHC by motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions, estimated using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling, ranged from 65 to 85% with minimal day-of-week variation. Ratios of ambient NOx associated with black carbon (BC) to NOx associated with carbon monoxide (CO) were approximately 1.25 +/- 0.22 during weekdays and 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 0.52 +/- 0.07 on Saturday and Sunday, respectively. These results demonstrate that lower NOx emissions from diesel exhaust can be a major factor causing lower NOx mixing ratios and higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekends. Nonmobile sources showed no significant day-of-week variations in their contributions to NMHC. Greater amounts of gasoline emissions are carried over on Friday and Saturday evenings but are, at most, a minor factor contributing to higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekend mornings. PMID:12880072

  14. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  15. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  16. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area.

  17. Spatio-temporal Estimates of CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin from On-road and Airport Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P.; Song, Y.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Eldering, A.; O'Keeffe, D.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal distribution of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in urban landscapes is challenging. We use Hestia, an innovative "bottom up" approach for estimating FFCO2 emissions in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity and Southern California Air Basin (SCAB) which account for ~53% of the FFCO2 emissions in California. Hestia-LA, in coordination with "top down" atmospheric CO2 measurements, will provide baseline FFCO2 emissions, help monitor changes in emissions, and develop emissions mitigation policies. Hestia-LA characterizes FFCO2 emissions at the building/street spatial scale (10-100 m) and at hourly time steps in the basin by combining data on residential and commercial building emissions, industrial processes, electricity production, and different transportation sectors. We report here on the construction of the spatial and temporal structure in two key transportation sectors within the SCAB: on-road vehicle (46%) and aircraft (2%) emissions. We quantified on-road traffic emissions by merging traffic data from Southern California Association of Governments, California Freeway Performance Measurement System and modeled motor vehicle emissions from EPA's NMIM model. Preliminary analysis shows that (1) LA and Orange counties dominate the annual FFCO2 emissions from urban freeways and arterials, and (2) LA county has a wider peak traffic period during weekdays (2-6pm) than the other four counties (4-5pm). We characterized airport emissions by integrating information from Federal Aviation Administration, Los Angeles World Airports, and Airnav LLC for the temporal structure of aircraft arrivals and departures, and the National Emissions Inventory for total annual aircraft emissions. We categorized the 47 airports in LA basin based on the volume and type (commercial, general aviation and military) of aircraft traffic, and then assigned appropriate hour-of-day and day-of-week traffic volume-specific CO2 emission patterns to each airport. We found

  18. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  19. The Influence of African Dust on Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin: An Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrievals, Ground Observations, and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Chin, M.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface measurements in several locations extending from northeastern coast of South America to Miami in Florida have shown that African dust arrives in the Greater Caribbean Basin throughout a year. This long-range transported dust frequently elevates the level of particulate matter (PM) above the WHO guideline for PM10, which raises a concern of possible adverse impact of African dust on human health in the region. There is also concern about how future climate change might affect dust transport and its influence on regional air quality. In this presentation we provide a comprehensive characterization of the influence of African dust on air quality in the Caribbean Basin via integrating the ground observations with satellite retrievals and model simulations. The ground observations are used to validate and evaluate satellite retrievals and model simulations of dust, while satellite measurements and model simulations are used to extend spatial coverage of the ground observations. An analysis of CALIPSO lidar measurements of three-dimensional distribution of aerosols over 2007-2014 yields altitude-resolved dust mass flux into the region. On a basis of 8-year average and integration over the latitude zone of 0°-30°N, a total of 76 Tg dust is imported to the air above the Greater Caribbean Basin, of which 34 Tg (or 45%) is within the lowest 1 km layer and most relevant to air quality concern. The seasonal and interannual variations of the dust import are well correlated with ground observations of dust in Cayenne, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Miami. We will also show comparisons of the size-resolved dust amount from both NASA GEOS-5 aerosol simulation and MERRA-2 aerosol reanalysis (i.e., column aerosol loading being constrained by satellite measurements of radiance at the top of atmosphere) with the ground observations and satellite measurement.

  20. Fine-scale simulation of ammonium and nitrate over the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of California during CalNex-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Nowak, John B.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Markovic, Milos Z.; VandenBoer, Trevor C.; Ellis, Raluca A.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Weber, Rodney J.; Roberts, James M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Gouw, Joost A.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Newman, Sally; Misenis, Chris

    2014-03-01

    National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) have been set for PM2.5 due to its association with adverse health effects. PM2.5 design values in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and San Joaquin Valley of California exceed NAAQS levels, and NH4+ and NO3- make up the largest fraction of total PM2.5 mass on polluted days. Here we evaluate fine-scale simulations of PM2.5 NH4+ and NO3- with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model using measurements from routine networks and the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change 2010 campaign. The model correctly simulates broad spatial patterns of NH4+ and NO3- including the elevated concentrations in eastern SoCAB. However, areas for model improvement have been identified. NH3 emissions from livestock and dairy facilities appear to be too low, while those related to waste disposal in western SoCAB may be too high. Analyses using measurements from flights over SoCAB suggest that problems with NH3 predictions can influence NO3- predictions there. Offline ISORROPIA II calculations suggest that overpredictions of NHx in Pasadena cause excessive partitioning of total nitrate to the particle phase overnight, while underpredictions of Na+ cause too much partitioning to the gas phase during the day. Also, the model seems to underestimate mixing during the evening boundary layer transition leading to excessive nitrate formation on some nights. Overall, the analyses demonstrate fine-scale variations in model performance within and across the air basins. Improvements in inventories and spatial allocations of NH3 emissions and in parameterizations of sea spray emissions, evening mixing processes, and heterogeneous ClNO2 chemistry could improve model performance.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces Species Associated with Common Scab-Infected Potato Tubers in Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Bown, Luke; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-02-01

    Potato common scab (CS) is an economically important crop disease that is caused by several members of the genus Streptomyces. In this study, we characterized the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS-infected potato tubers harvested in Newfoundland, Canada. A total of 17 pathogenic Streptomyces isolates were recovered from potato scab lesions, of which eight were determined to be most similar to the known CS pathogen S. europaeiscabiei. All eight S. europaeiscabiei isolates were found to produce the thaxtomin A phytotoxin and to harbor the nec1 virulence gene, and most also carry the putative virulence gene tomA. The remaining isolates appear to be novel pathogenic species that do not produce thaxtomin A, and only two of these isolates were determined to harbor the nec1 or tomA genes. Of the non-thaxtomin-producing isolates, strain 11-1-2 was shown to exhibit a severe pathogenic phenotype against different plant hosts and to produce a novel, secreted phytotoxic substance. This is the first report documenting the plant-pathogenic Streptomyces spp. associated with CS disease in Newfoundland. Furthermore, our findings provide further evidence that phytotoxins other than thaxtomin A may also contribute to the development of CS by Streptomyces spp. PMID:26524546

  3. Predicting Air Quality Impacts Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Uinta Basin Using EPA’s Photochemical Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rural areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  4. Risk assessment of heavy metals in air, water, vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Zhou, Ling Jun; Li, Lei; Lv, Lin; Fan, Ya Min

    2015-05-01

    Metal contamination in farmlands irrigated with biogas slurry is of great concern because of its potential health risks to local inhabitants. Health risks that depend heavily on multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and As) in water, soil, air, and local food were studied through field sampling in Taihu Basin, China. Results show that Zn, Pb, and Cd in soils irrigated with biogas slurry exceed the soil quality standard values, and grown vegetables and grains contaminated with Pb and Cd exceed the permissible limits. Food ingestion plays an important role in the total average daily dose of metals, especially for Cu and Zn, which account for 94 and 91%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks posed to adults mainly result from Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. The highest non-carcinogenic risk was determined from food ingestion, followed by soil ingestion, air inhalation, air ingestion, and dermal contact with air. Carcinogenic risks to adults are 6.68 to 7.00 times higher than the safe level and can be attributed to Cr, As, and Cd pollution. The estimated risks mainly result from As and Cd through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. Both cancer and non-cancer risks through dermal contact can be ignored. Therefore, attention should be paid to health risks imposed by adults' multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals in vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin. Effective measures should be implemented to control heavy metal pollution and protect potentially exposed adults.

  5. Risk assessment of heavy metals in air, water, vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Zhou, Ling Jun; Li, Lei; Lv, Lin; Fan, Ya Min

    2015-05-01

    Metal contamination in farmlands irrigated with biogas slurry is of great concern because of its potential health risks to local inhabitants. Health risks that depend heavily on multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and As) in water, soil, air, and local food were studied through field sampling in Taihu Basin, China. Results show that Zn, Pb, and Cd in soils irrigated with biogas slurry exceed the soil quality standard values, and grown vegetables and grains contaminated with Pb and Cd exceed the permissible limits. Food ingestion plays an important role in the total average daily dose of metals, especially for Cu and Zn, which account for 94 and 91%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks posed to adults mainly result from Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. The highest non-carcinogenic risk was determined from food ingestion, followed by soil ingestion, air inhalation, air ingestion, and dermal contact with air. Carcinogenic risks to adults are 6.68 to 7.00 times higher than the safe level and can be attributed to Cr, As, and Cd pollution. The estimated risks mainly result from As and Cd through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. Both cancer and non-cancer risks through dermal contact can be ignored. Therefore, attention should be paid to health risks imposed by adults' multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals in vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin. Effective measures should be implemented to control heavy metal pollution and protect potentially exposed adults. PMID:25794576

  6. Identification of bacterial species associated with the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) by using amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J C; Lehane, M J

    1999-09-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  7. Identification and selection for tuber calcium, internal quality and pitted scab in segregating ‘Atlantic’ x ‘Superior’ reciprocal tetraploid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuber quality traits are a major interest for breeders and the potato chip industry. This research intended to generate populations that can be suitable for the genetic study of tuber calcium, internal quality, common scab, and other commercially important traits such as yield, specific gravity and ...

  8. Efficacy of ProPhyt mixed with a low rate of Captec for control of peach scab in South Carolina, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides were evaluated for control of scab in a mid-ripening experimental nectarine block (‘Redgold’) located at the Clemson University Research Station in Seneca, SC. Chemical formulations were applied with a handgun sprayer (200 gal/A spray volume) on 1 Apr (petal fall), 9 Apr (shuck split) and...

  9. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the DJ Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  10. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  11. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in rural Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  12. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  13. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  14. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. PMID:22153607

  15. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies.

  16. Biomonitoring the genotoxic potential of the air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea under climatic conditions in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cassanego, M B B; Sasamori, M H; Petry, C T; Droste, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.

  17. Suberin Regulates the Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes in Streptomyces scabiei, the Causal Agent of Potato Common Scab.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Reynaud, Rebeca; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Bernards, Mark A; Beaulieu, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Suberin, a major constituent of the potato periderm, is known to promote the production of thaxtomins, the key virulence factors of the common scab-causing agent Streptomyces scabiei. In the present study, we speculated that suberin affected the production of glycosyl hydrolases, such as cellulases, by S. scabiei, and demonstrated that suberin promoted glycosyl hydrolase activity when added to cellulose-, xylan-, or lichenin-containing media. Furthermore, secretome analyses revealed that the addition of suberin to a cellulose-containing medium increased the production of glycosyl hydrolases. For example, the production of 13 out of the 14 cellulases produced by S. scabiei in cellulose-containing medium was stimulated by the presence of suberin. In most cases, the transcription of the corresponding cellulase-encoding genes was also markedly increased when the bacterium was grown in the presence of suberin and cellulose. The level of a subtilase-like protease inhibitor was markedly decreased by the presence of suberin. We proposed a model for the onset of S. scabiei virulence mechanisms by both cellulose and suberin, the main degradation product of cellulose that acts as an inducer of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, and suberin promoting the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including thaxtomins. PMID:26330095

  18. Suberin Regulates the Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes in Streptomyces scabiei, the Causal Agent of Potato Common Scab

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Reynaud, Rebeca; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Bernards, Mark A.; Beaulieu, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Suberin, a major constituent of the potato periderm, is known to promote the production of thaxtomins, the key virulence factors of the common scab-causing agent Streptomyces scabiei. In the present study, we speculated that suberin affected the production of glycosyl hydrolases, such as cellulases, by S. scabiei, and demonstrated that suberin promoted glycosyl hydrolase activity when added to cellulose-, xylan-, or lichenin-containing media. Furthermore, secretome analyses revealed that the addition of suberin to a cellulose-containing medium increased the production of glycosyl hydrolases. For example, the production of 13 out of the 14 cellulases produced by S. scabiei in cellulose-containing medium was stimulated by the presence of suberin. In most cases, the transcription of the corresponding cellulase-encoding genes was also markedly increased when the bacterium was grown in the presence of suberin and cellulose. The level of a subtilase-like protease inhibitor was markedly decreased by the presence of suberin. We proposed a model for the onset of S. scabiei virulence mechanisms by both cellulose and suberin, the main degradation product of cellulose that acts as an inducer of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, and suberin promoting the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including thaxtomins. PMID:26330095

  19. The role of melanin in the antagonistic interaction between the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis and Microsphaeropsis ochracea.

    PubMed

    El Bassam, Souad; Benhamou, Nicole; Carisse, Odile

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of melanin in the interaction between the mycoparasite Microsphaeropsis ochracea and the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis. Melanin was extracted from the cell wall of the pathogen and its chemical and physical properties determined on the basis of biochemical tests and visible and infrared spectra. The physical and chemical characteristics of V inaequalis melanin were similar to the those of synthetic dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin. Precursors of the four known melanin biosynthetic pathways were tested for their ability to restore the pigmentation of an albino strain of V inaequalis. Scytalone, an intermediate of the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) pathway, was the only precursor to restore the dark-brown pigmentation. Tricyclazole and pyroquilon, two antipenetrant fungicides, specific inhibitors of DHN melanin synthesis in Pyricularia oryzae, were used to confirm the melanin pathway in V. inaequalis wild type. A reddish-brown pigment was obtained due to the accumulation of shunt products of the DHN melanin pathway instead of a dark-brown pigment, suggesting that the melanin extracted from V inaequalis was a DHN melanin. Furthermore, growth of an albino mutant of V. inaequalis on scytalone-amended medium resulted in the formation of dark granules similar to those seen in wild-type isolates. Transmission electron microscopic observations of M. ochracea grown in the presence of melanin showed that the granules accumulated gradually along fungal cell walls to form a uniform dark coating.

  20. Observation of a reverse ozone weekend effect in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important component of air pollution. Ambient levels of these two species are inextricably linked due to the chemical coupling of O3 and NOx (NO + NO2). Horizontal maps of vertical column amounts of NO2 and O3 vertical profiles were measured aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns in summer 2010 by CU AMAX-DOAS and NOAA TOPAZ lidar instruments. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 covering most of California. Measurements of column integrated quantities over boundary layer height characterize the total pollutant load present in the atmosphere. Simultaneous vertical column measurements of NO2 and O3 are used to investigate the horizontal variability in Ox (= O3 + NO2) for selected case studies. We evaluate Ox partition over different chemical regimes/air masses such as urban pollution hotspots, clean background conditions, and assess differences in Ox partitioning between weekdays and weekends. The observation of elevated O3 during weekends is a wide spread phenomenon in California. Our column observations also provide an innovative means to investigate the question of whether surface in-situ measurements of Ox partitioning at monitoring stations are indicative over the entire planetary boundary layer height.

  1. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources. PMID:25915412

  2. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources.

  3. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  4. Airborne and ground-based observations of a weekend effect in ozone, precursors, and oxidation products in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Brown, S. S.; Commane, R.; Daube, B. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Flynn, J.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J. B.; Grossberg, N.; Holloway, J. S.; Kofler, J.; Kort, E. A.; Kuster, W. C.; Lang, P. M.; Lefer, B.; Lueb, R. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Novelli, P. C.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Roberts, J. M.; Santoni, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Wagner, N. L.; Warneke, C.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Xiang, B.

    2012-02-01

    Airborne and ground-based measurements during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field study in May/June 2010 show a weekend effect in ozone in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) consistent with previous observations. The well-known and much-studied weekend ozone effect has been attributed to weekend reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions, which affect ozone levels via two processes: (1) reduced ozone loss by titration and (2) enhanced photochemical production of ozone due to an increased ratio of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NOx. In accord with previous assessments, the 2010 airborne and ground-based data show an average decrease in NOx of 46 ± 11% and 34 ± 4%, respectively, and an average increase in VOC/NOx ratio of 48 ± 8% and 43 ± 22%, respectively, on weekends. This work extends current understanding of the weekend ozone effect in the SoCAB by identifying its major causes and quantifying their relative importance from the available CalNex data. Increased weekend production of a VOC-NOx oxidation product, peroxyacetyl nitrate, compared to a radical termination product, nitric acid, indicates a significant contribution from increased photochemical production on weekends. Weekday-to-weekend differences in the products of NOx oxidation show 45 ± 13% and 42 ± 12% more extensive photochemical processing and, when compared with odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2), 51 ± 14% and 22 ± 17% greater ozone production efficiency on weekends in the airborne and ground-based data, respectively, indicating that both contribute to higher weekend ozone levels in the SoCAB.

  5. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montavez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosols (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution in a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the surface wind speed cubed and particle size. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.003 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA vary strongly across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns, meanwhile wet

  6. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montávez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.002 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns

  7. A 2000-yr reconstruction of air temperature in the Great Basin of the United States with specific reference to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinemann, Scott A.; Porinchu, David F.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Mark, Bryan G.; DeGrand, James Q.

    2014-09-01

    A sediment core representing the past two millennia was recovered from Stella Lake in the Snake Range of the central Great Basin in Nevada. The core was analyzed for sub-fossil chironomids and sediment organic content. A quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperature (MJAT) was developed using a regional training set and a chironomid-based WA-PLS inference model (r2jack = 0.55, RMSEP = 0.9°C). The chironomid-based MJAT reconstruction suggests that the interval between AD 900 and AD 1300, corresponding to the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), was characterized by MJAT elevated 1.0°C above the subsequent Little Ice Age (LIA), but likely not as warm as recent conditions. Comparison of the Stella Lake temperature reconstruction to previously published paleoclimate records from this region indicates that the temperature fluctuations inferred to have occurred at Stella Lake between AD 900 and AD 1300 correspond to regional records documenting hydroclimate variability during the MCA interval. The Stella Lake record provides evidence that elevated summer temperature contributed to the increased aridity that characterized the western United States during the MCA.

  8. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 1. Ozone formation metrics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J; Revelle, Meghan K; Dabdub, Donald

    2004-02-01

    Metrics associated with ozone (O3) formation are investigated using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) three-dimensional air-quality model. Variables investigated include the O3 production rate (P(O3)), O3 production efficiency (OPE), and total reactivity (the sum of the reactivity of carbon monoxide (CO) and all organic gases that react with the hydroxyl radical). Calculations are spatially and temporally resolved; surface-level and vertically averaged results are shown for September 9, 1993 for three Southern California locations: Central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Riverside. Predictions indicate increasing surface-level O3 concentrations with distance downwind, in line with observations. Surface-level and vertically averaged P(O3) values peak during midday and are highest downwind; surface P(O3) values are greater than vertically averaged values. Surface OPEs generally are highest downwind and peak during midday in downwind locations. In contrast, peaks occur in early morning and late afternoon in the vertically averaged case. Vertically averaged OPEs tend to be greater than those for the surface. Total reactivities are highest in upwind surface locations and peak during rush hours; vertically averaged reactivities are smaller and tend to be more uniform temporally and spatially. Total reactivity has large contributions from CO, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, unsubstituted monoaromatics, and secondary organics. Calculations using estimated emissions for 2010 result in decreases in P(O3) values and reactivities but increases in OPEs.

  9. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 1. Ozone formation metrics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J; Revelle, Meghan K; Dabdub, Donald

    2004-02-01

    Metrics associated with ozone (O3) formation are investigated using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) three-dimensional air-quality model. Variables investigated include the O3 production rate (P(O3)), O3 production efficiency (OPE), and total reactivity (the sum of the reactivity of carbon monoxide (CO) and all organic gases that react with the hydroxyl radical). Calculations are spatially and temporally resolved; surface-level and vertically averaged results are shown for September 9, 1993 for three Southern California locations: Central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Riverside. Predictions indicate increasing surface-level O3 concentrations with distance downwind, in line with observations. Surface-level and vertically averaged P(O3) values peak during midday and are highest downwind; surface P(O3) values are greater than vertically averaged values. Surface OPEs generally are highest downwind and peak during midday in downwind locations. In contrast, peaks occur in early morning and late afternoon in the vertically averaged case. Vertically averaged OPEs tend to be greater than those for the surface. Total reactivities are highest in upwind surface locations and peak during rush hours; vertically averaged reactivities are smaller and tend to be more uniform temporally and spatially. Total reactivity has large contributions from CO, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, unsubstituted monoaromatics, and secondary organics. Calculations using estimated emissions for 2010 result in decreases in P(O3) values and reactivities but increases in OPEs. PMID:14968859

  10. Employment of a promoter-swapping technique shows that PhoU modulates the activity of the PstSCAB2 ABC transporter in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rice, Christopher D; Pollard, Jacob E; Lewis, Zachery T; McCleary, William R

    2009-02-01

    Expression of the Pho regulon in Escherichia coli is induced in response to low levels of environmental phosphate (P(i)). Under these conditions, the high-affinity PstSCAB(2) protein (i.e., with two PstB proteins) is the primary P(i) transporter. Expression from the pstSCAB-phoU operon is regulated by the PhoB/PhoR two-component regulatory system. PhoU is a negative regulator of the Pho regulon; however, the mechanism by which PhoU accomplishes this is currently unknown. Genetic studies of phoU have proven to be difficult because deletion of the phoU gene leads to a severe growth defect and creates strong selection for compensatory mutations resulting in confounding data. To overcome the instability of phoU deletions, we employed a promoter-swapping technique that places expression of the phoBR two-component system under control of the P(tac) promoter and the lacO(ID) regulatory module. This technique may be generally applicable for controlling expression of other chromosomal genes in E. coli. Here we utilized P(phoB)::P(tac) and P(pstS)::P(tac) strains to characterize phenotypes resulting from various DeltaphoU mutations. Our results indicate that PhoU controls the activity of the PstSCAB(2) transporter, as well as its abundance within the cell. In addition, we used the P(phoB)::P(tac) DeltaphoU strain as a platform to begin characterizing new phoU mutations in plasmids.

  11. Gravity Anomalies of the Lunar Orientale Basin and the Mercurian Caloris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. M.; Johnson, B. C.; Freed, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.

    2013-08-01

    We model the formation and evolution of the lunar Orientale and mercurian Caloris basin gravity anomalies using a combination of hydrocode and finite-element methods, constrained by free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and basin topography.

  12. Biocontrol of Potato Common Scab is Associated with High Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Populations and Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Biosynthetic Transcript Accumulation in the Potato Geocaulosphere.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonads are often used as biocontrol agents because they display a broad range of mechanisms to control diseases. Common scab of potato, caused by Streptomyces scabies, was previously reported to be controlled by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 through phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the population dynamics of LBUM223 and the expression of phzC, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of PCA, in the rhizosphere and geocaulosphere of potato plants grown under controlled and field conditions. Results obtained from controlled experiments showed that soil populations of LBUM223 significantly declined over a 15-week period. However, at week 15, the presence of S. scabies in the geocaulosphere was associated with significantly higher populations of LBUM223 than when the pathogen was absent. It also led to the detection of significantly higher phzC gene transcript numbers. Under field conditions, soil populations of LBUM223 followed a similar decline in time when a single inoculation was applied in spring but remained stable when reinoculated biweekly, which also led to greater phzC gene transcripts accumulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LBUM223 must colonize the potato geocaulosphere at high levels (10(7) bacteria/g of soil) in order to achieve biocontrol of common scab through increased PCA production. PMID:27088392

  13. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Taranto, Adam P.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  14. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Taranto, Adam P; Bowen, Joanna K; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  15. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  16. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  17. How Does Mediterranean Basin's Atmosphere Become Weak Moisture Source During Negative Phase of NAO: Use of AIRS, AMSR, TOVS, & TRMM Satellite Datasets Over Last Two NAO Cycles to Examine Governing Controls on E-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a noted 'concentration" basin in that it almost continuously exhibits positive evaporation minus precipitation (E - P ) properties -- throughout the four seasons and from one year to the next. Nonetheless, according to the ECMWF Era-40 48-year (1958-2005) climate reanalysis dataset, for various phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) when the pressure gradient between Portugal and Iceland becomes either very relaxed (large negative NAO-Index) or in transition (small positive or negative NAO-Index), the atmospheric moisture source properties of the basin become weak, at times even reversed for several months (i.e., negative E - P). This behavior poses numerous questions concerning how and why these events occur. Moreover, it begs the question of what it would take for the basin to reach its tipping point in which P would exceed E throughout the rainy season (some six months) on an annually persistent basis -- and the sea would possibly transform to a recurring "dilution" basin. This talk investigates these questions by: (1) establishing over a period from 1979 to present, based on detailed analyses of satellite retrieval products from a combination of NASA-AQUA, NOAA-LEO, NASA/JAXA Scatterometer, and NASA-TRMM platforms, plus additional specialized satellite data products and ancillary meteorological datasets, the actual observation-based behavior of E - P, (2) diagnosing the salient physical and meteorological mechanisms that lead to the weaker E - P events during the analysis period, partly based on analyzing surface and upper air data at discrete stations in the western and eastern Mediterranean -- while at the same time evaluating the quality of the ERA-40 data over this same time period, (3) conducting GCM and high-resolution regional modeling experiments to determine if perturbed but realistic meteorological background conditions could maintain Mediterranean as a "dilution" basin through the October to March rainy season on

  18. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  19. Modeling the weekly cycle of NOx and CO emissions and their impacts on O3 in the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McDonald, B. C.; Baidar, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lee, H.-J.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Scarino, A. J.; Senff, C. J.; Thalman, R.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Waxman, E.; Young, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission inventory for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) expanding the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions and applied it in regional chemical transport modeling focused on the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign. The weekday NOx emission over the SoCAB in 2010 is 620 t d-1, while the weekend emission is 410 t d-1. The NOx emission decrease on weekends is caused by reduced diesel truck activities. Weekday and weekend CO emissions over this region are similar: 2340 and 2180 t d-1, respectively. Previous studies reported large discrepancies between the airborne observations of NOx and CO mixing ratios and the model simulations for CalNex based on the available bottom-up emission inventories. Utilizing the newly developed emission inventory in this study, the simulated NOx and CO mixing ratios agree with the observations from the airborne and the ground-based in situ and remote sensing instruments during the field study. The simulations also reproduce the weekly cycles of these chemical species. Both the observations and the model simulations indicate that decreased NOx on weekends leads to enhanced photochemistry and increase of O3 and Ox (=O3 + NO2) in the basin. The emission inventory developed in this study can be extended to different years and other urban regions in the U.S. to study the long-term trends in O3 and its precursors with regional chemical transport models.

  20. Improved correction method for using passive air samplers to assess the distribution of PCNs in the Dongjiang River basin of the Pearl River Delta, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2012-07-01

    An improved correction method was established using passive air samplers to assess the distributions of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the eastern Pearl River Delta, South China. This method was based on a joint correction that used the active air sampling rate and the addition of depuration compounds. As a correction factor, the depuration compounds' properties do not need to be similar to the target compounds. The total PCN air concentrations ranged from 6.4 to 832, with an average of 148 ± 201 pg m-3 in the study area, while the TEQ of the PCNs ranged from 1.2 × 10-4 to 2.6 × 10-2 pg m-3. High concentrations of PCNs were mostly observed in the highly industrialized areas. The PCN air levels were remarkably increased in winter compared with summer. Tri-CNs was the most dominant homologue group, while CN 24 was the most dominant congener. The high proportion of combustion-related PCNs suggests that the contribution of combustion sources to the PCN air burden has been significant recently in comparison with historical emissions.

  1. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  2. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-11-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments (e.g., enhancements of 13 pptv and 11 pptv for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively). Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (0.98±0.05 Gg) and HFC-134a (1.40±0.11 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:CO enhancement ratio. The emission rates were extrapolated to the SoCAB (1.48±0.07 Gg for HFC-152a and 2.12±0.17 Gg for HFC-134a) and US (30.1±1.5 Gg for HFC-152a and 43.0±3.4 Gg for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB also were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Estimates obtained using both methods agree well.

  3. Community Analysis of Root- and Tuber-Associated Bacteria in Field-Grown Potato Plants Harboring Different Resistance Levels against Common Scab.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Kobayashi, Yuki Ohdaira; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Seishi

    2015-01-01

    Eight genotypes of potato plants with different resistance levels against common scab were grown in a field infested with Streptomyces turgidiscabies. DNA was extracted from the roots, tubers, and rhizosphere soils of each of the eight genotypes at the flowering stage, and the quantity of S. turgidiscabies genomic DNA was assessed by real-time PCR using a TaqMan probe. The results obtained showed that the different potato genotypes had significant impacts on the population levels of S. turgidiscabies between resistant and susceptible genotypes in the tubers, but not in the roots or rhizosphere soils. Clone analyses of 16S rRNA gene libraries from the eight potato genotypes identified three phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria) as dominant taxa in root and tuber clone libraries, while a clustering analysis identified 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level. Eleven OTUs closely related to Aquicella siphonis, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, Streptomyces rishiriensis, Rhodococcus baikonurensis, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium etli, Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, Paenibacillus pabuli, Paenibacillus alginolyticus, and Bacillus halmapalus were detected in the root or tuber libraries of all the potato genotypes examined. Furthermore, an abundance of OTUs related to Aquicella and Rhodococcus was observed in the rhizospheres of resistant and susceptible potato genotypes, respectively. Based on this ecological information, an efficient survey may be conducted for biological agents from the potato rhizosphere.

  4. Community Analysis of Root- and Tuber-Associated Bacteria in Field-Grown Potato Plants Harboring Different Resistance Levels against Common Scab

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akira; Kobayashi, Yuki Ohdaira; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Seishi

    2015-01-01

    Eight genotypes of potato plants with different resistance levels against common scab were grown in a field infested with Streptomyces turgidiscabies. DNA was extracted from the roots, tubers, and rhizosphere soils of each of the eight genotypes at the flowering stage, and the quantity of S. turgidiscabies genomic DNA was assessed by real-time PCR using a TaqMan probe. The results obtained showed that the different potato genotypes had significant impacts on the population levels of S. turgidiscabies between resistant and susceptible genotypes in the tubers, but not in the roots or rhizosphere soils. Clone analyses of 16S rRNA gene libraries from the eight potato genotypes identified three phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria) as dominant taxa in root and tuber clone libraries, while a clustering analysis identified 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level. Eleven OTUs closely related to Aquicella siphonis, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, Streptomyces rishiriensis, Rhodococcus baikonurensis, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium etli, Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, Paenibacillus pabuli, Paenibacillus alginolyticus, and Bacillus halmapalus were detected in the root or tuber libraries of all the potato genotypes examined. Furthermore, an abundance of OTUs related to Aquicella and Rhodococcus was observed in the rhizospheres of resistant and susceptible potato genotypes, respectively. Based on this ecological information, an efficient survey may be conducted for biological agents from the potato rhizosphere. PMID:26657303

  5. Do some IPM concepts contribute to the development of fungicide resistance? Lessons learned from the apple scab pathosystem in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Janna L; Sundin, George W; Rosenberger, David A

    2015-03-01

    One goal of integrated pest management (IPM) as it is currently practiced is an overall reduction in fungicide use in the management of plant disease. Repeated and long-term success of the early broad-spectrum fungicides led to optimism about the capabilities of fungicides, but to an underestimation of the risk of fungicide resistance within agriculture. In 1913, Paul Ehrlich recognized that it was best to 'hit hard and hit early' to prevent microbes from evolving resistance to treatment. This tenet conflicts with the fungicide reduction strategies that have been widely promoted over the past 40 years as integral to IPM. The authors hypothesize that the approaches used to implement IPM have contributed to fungicide resistance problems and may still be driving that process in apple scab management and in IPM requests for proposals. This paper also proposes that IPM as it is currently practiced for plant diseases of perennial systems has been based on the wrong model, and that conceptual shifts in thinking are needed to address the problem of fungicide resistance.

  6. Overflow of Radioactive Water from K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-06

    This report documents the dose calculations for the postulated K Basin overflow accident using current methods to model the environmental doses for radioactive releases into the Columbia River and the air.

  7. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  8. Playing it safe: assessing cumulative impact and social vulnerability through an environmental justice screening method in the South Coast Air Basin, California.

    PubMed

    Sadd, James L; Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Scoggins, Justin; Jesdale, Bill

    2011-05-01

    Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB), have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ) advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard proximity and land use; (2) air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3) social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES) measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI) score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  9. Regulation of Coronafacoyl Phytotoxin Production by the PAS-LuxR Family Regulator CfaR in the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  10. Regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by the PAS-LuxR family regulator CfaR in the common scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  12. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  13. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  14. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  15. Economic assessment of materials damage in the South Coast Air Basin: A case study of acid-deposition effects on painted wood surfaces using individual maintenance-behavior data

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, R.L.; Zankel, K.; Kamen, S.; Rosso, D.

    1990-05-01

    The case study examines the economic impact of acid deposition damage to painted wood surfaces in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California. The output of the analysis is an estimate of the annual cost-savings that would be realized for a uniform 10 percent reduction in NO2 concentrations. The economic estimates are developed for individuals who reside in single family homes, make their own maintenance decisions, and perform one of six specific maintenance tasks. Individual maintenance behavior data are collected as part of the study and permit a more disaggregate analysis than earlier economic materials damage assessments. The economic estimates are derived in two ways. First, physical damage functions are used to predict rates of damage. The analysis indicates that the best estimates of annual cost-savings for the scenario examined are $0.7 million (1988) for the physical damage function approach and $3.6 million (1988) for the economic damage function approach. Consideration of some of the factors that contribute to uncertainty indicate that the cost-savings estimates could vary by at least a factor of two.

  16. Spatial trends, sources, and air-water exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes basin using low density polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-08-19

    Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air-water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m(3). Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression implied that both cropland and urban areas within 50 and 10 km buffer zones, respectively, were critical parameters to explain the total variability in atmospheric concentrations. Freely dissolved OCP concentrations (nondetect to 114 pg/L) were lower than previously reported. Aqueous half-lives generally ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 years. Nonetheless, concentrations of p,p'-DDE and chlordanes were higher than New York State Ambient Water Quality Standards for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in both lakes were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Flux calculations indicated net deposition of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor-epoxide, and α- and β-endosulfan (-0.02 to -33 ng/m(2)/day) and net volatilization of heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (0.0 to 9.0 ng/m(2)/day) in most samples.

  17. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  18. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles across the Caribbean Basin: A Comparison between Clean and Perturbed African Dust and Volcanic Ash Air Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, H.; Ogren, J. A.; Sheridan, P. J.; Mayol-Bracero, O.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol’s optical and physical properties were measured during year 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The three cases investigated were classified according to the origin of the air masses: clean (C), African dust (AD), and volcanic ash (VA). The instrumentation used included a sunphotometer to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficient (σsp), and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) to measure the absorption coefficient (σap). The average volume size distributions were trimodal for the C (peaks at 0.14, 0.99 and 4.25 µm radius) and AD (peaks at 0.11, 1.30 and 2.00 µm radius) cases and bimodal for the VA (peaks at 0.19 and 2.75 µm radius) case. Fine and coarse modes maxima for AD occurred at radii smaller than for VA, confirming the different origins of those particles. The average values for the total σsp were higher for AD (82.9 Mm-1) and VA (33.7 Mm-1) compared to C (16.6 Mm-1). The same happened for the AOT maximum values at 500 nm with 0.92, 0.30, and 0.06 for AD, VA, and C, respectively. The observed increase in the values of the Angstrom exponent (å) is indicative of a decrease in the size of the particles associated to VA (å= 0.27) and AD (å =0.89) when compared to C (å =0.24). The volume size distributions and thus the mass were dominated by the coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) especially for the AD case. Results have shown that AD as well as VA has a significant impact on the physical and radiative properties across Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. Additional results on the AOT wavelength dependence and on the annual variability of the properties under study will be presented.

  19. Discharge forecasts in mountain basins based on satellite snow cover mapping. [Dinwoody Creek Basin, Wyoming and the Dischma Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, J.; Rango, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A snow runoff model developed for European mountain basins was used with LANDSAT imagery and air temperature data to simulate runoff in the Rocky Mountains under conditions of large elevation range and moderate cloud cover (cloud cover of 40% or less during LANDSAT passes 70% of the time during a snowmelt season). Favorable results were obtained for basins with area not exceeding serval hundred square kilometers and with a significant component of subsurface runoff.

  20. 77 FR 70707 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and South Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and... Ambient Air Quality Standards in the San Joaquin Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. These technical...) in the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin and included provisions of...

  1. Miocene tephrochronology in the northern Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M.E.; Brown, F.H.; Nash, W.P. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Silicic air-fall tephra layers with unaltered glass shards preserved in Miocene basins of the northern Basin and Range Province (NBR) were sampled from well-exposed sections in the Goose Creek (GCB) and Ibapah (IB) basins in the northeastern NBR, and the El Pasco basin (EPB) in the southwestern NBR. Each basin may contain up to 50 tephras. Glass shards from individual tephras in any one basin are compositionally distinct, as shown by XRF and electron microprobe analysis. Seventeen tephra correlate between two or more basins; 12 of these are regionally important, providing precise stratigraphic ties across the NbR. Four regionally correlative tephras are white biotitic ashes from southern Nevada sources, whereas eight are gray vitric ashes from Yellowstone hot spot sources. Dates on tephra layers and lava flows in the basins, and on ashflow units correlated with four other tephra provide a preliminary chronology for the tephra in the all basins. In each section [Delta]h/[Delta]t appears constant on time scales [>=]1 Ma, but variation in [Delta]h/[Delta]t is demonstrated from IB, and is likely typical of all basins. Sedimentation in all five basins begins in the time interval of 14.5--12.5 Ma, which may represent the beginning of a phase of regional extension in the NBR. Post-[approximately]9.5 Ma deformation has affected all basins and likely contributed to the termination of sedimentation in the exposed areas of these basins.

  2. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the clean air act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Shanley, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining SO2-4 concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2+ + Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO-3), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (???decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow early

  3. An Exploration, for the Upper Indus Basin, of Elevation Dependency in the Relationships Between Locally Observed Near Surface Air Temperature (SAT) and Remotely-Sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Hardy, A. J.; Holderness, T. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of ground-based observations of near-surface air temperature (SAT) is extremely skewed toward low elevation areas. Land surface temperature (LST) remote sensing data products -- from thermal and infrared wavelength satellite imagery -- provide spatial coverage independent of elevation, although they only provide values for "clear sky" conditions, the prevalence of which may be influenced by elevation-dependent factors. It is thus imperative for researchers studying EDW to characterise the relationship between observations of "all-sky" SAT and "clear-sky" thermal/infrared (TIR) LST in order to overcome the extreme sparseness of SAT observations at high elevations. Drawing on local SAT observation data from both manned meteorological stations and AWS units covering an elevation range from 1500 to 4700m asl in the Upper Indus Basin, coupled with cloud climatologies from MODIS and global reanalyses, this study develops "clear-sky" and "all-sky" comparative, site-based climatologies of: [a] ground-observed SAT [b] reanalysis SAT and LST (skin surface temperature) Relationships between these climatologies and corresponding clear-sky/TIR satellite-retrieved LST are quantitatively assessed in the context of elevation-dependency and cloud cover prevalence. The implications of these relationships are discussed in the context of efforts to develop a multi-decadal TIR LST data product. While multi-decadal and even centennial trends are calculated from station-based observations of SAT, the relatively short record lengths of satellite-borne instruments used to produce currently available TIR LST data products better lend themselves to characterisation of interannual variability than trend calculation. Thus progress is detailed on EDW-driven efforts to validate such an LST product for the Himalayan region using historical imagery from the second and third generation of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3) instrument flown on NOAA

  4. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the Clean Air Act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Peter S; Shanley, James B

    2006-09-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining O4(2-) concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2++ Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO3-), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (approximately decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow

  5. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the Clean Air Act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Peter S; Shanley, James B

    2006-09-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining O4(2-) concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2++ Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO3-), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (approximately decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow

  6. 5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking northeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  8. DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1A. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1-A. Looking north northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  11. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  12. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  13. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  14. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  15. RECLAIM: California's guarantee for cleaner air

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P. )

    1994-07-01

    California's south coast air basin--the Los Angeles area--suffers the worst air pollution in the US, even after a history of extraordinary actions taken to reduce pollution. Existing regulations are tough and demanding, but must be changed to achieve federal clean air health standards by 2010. The Southern California business community and public are aggressively pursuing use of market incentives to lower the cost of achieving cleaner air. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is developing an alternative market-based regulatory approach called the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) program. RECLAIM has the potential to clean up air more effectively than traditional regulations by harnessing the power of the marketplace. Compared to the existing Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP), RECLAIM is designed to ensure that the program achieves equivalent emission reductions, an equal or greater level of enforcement, lower implementation costs, fewer job impacts and no adverse public health impacts.

  16. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  19. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  20. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  1. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  2. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  5. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  6. Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about

  7. Thermal contraction and flexure of intracratonic basins: A three dimensional study of the Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Surface cooling of heated continental crust imposes a load on the lithosphere which subsides as the basement rocks contract. Accumulation of sediments in the resulting depression forms a sedimentary basin. Studies of the geometry of sedimentary basins with horizontal dimensions of a few hundred kilometers suggests the lithosphere responds to loads by regional flexure of a strong elastic or viscoelastic upper lithosphere. Two and three dimensional models for flexure of the lithosphere due to thermal contraction were applied to the Michigan basin. Lithostratigraphic data were used to quantitatively determine the contribution of the weight of sediment overburden to the subsidence. Thermal contraction load was calculated from the load necessary to produce the observed deflection of the lithosphere minus sediment load. Gravity effects of the models were computed and compared to the observed free air gravity anomalies.

  8. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  9. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  12. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  13. Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

  14. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  15. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries. PMID:21714382

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Recharge Basin Percolation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Allen, E. M.; Hutchinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Infiltration (spreading) basins are a central component of managed aquifer and recovery operations around the world. The concept is simple. Water is percolated into an aquifer where it can be withdrawn at a later date. However, managing infiltration basins can be complicated by entrapped air in sediments, strata of low permeability, clogging of the recharge surface, and biological growth, among other factors. Understanding the dynamics of percolation in light of these complicating factors provides a basis for making management decisions that increase recharge efficiency. As an aid to understanding percolation dynamics, fiber optic distribute temperature sensing (DTS) was used to track heat as a tracer of water movement in an infiltration basin. The diurnal variation of temperature in the basin was sensed at depth. The time lag between the oscillating temperature signal at the surface and at depth indicated the velocity of water percolation. DTS fiber optic cables were installed horizontally along the basin and vertically in boreholes to measure percolation behavior. The horizontal cable was installed in trenches at 0.3 and 1 m depth, and the vertical cable was installed using direct push technology. The vertical cable was tightly wound to produce a factor of 10 increase in spatial resolution of temperature measurements. Temperature was thus measured every meter across the basin and every 10 cm to a depth of 10 m. Data from the trenched cable suggested homogeneous percolation across the basin, but infiltration rates were a function of stage indicating non-ideal percolation. Vertical temperature monitoring showed significant lateral flow in sediments underlying the basin both during saturation and operation of the basin. Deflections in the vertical temperature profile corresponded with fine grained layers identified in core samples indicating a transient perched water table condition. The three-dimensional flow in this relatively homogenous surficial geology calls

  19. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. I. Evolution and Effects on Local Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pinto, James O.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Shaw, William J.; Orr, Brad W.

    2004-10-01

    A Doppler lidar deployed to the center of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) basin during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) in October 2000 found a diurnal cycle of the along-basin winds with northerly, up-basin flow during the day and a southerly, down-basin low-level jet at night. The emphasis of VTMX was on stable atmospheric processes in the cold-air pool that formed in the basin at night. During the night the jet was fully formed as it entered the GSL basin from the south. Thus it was a feature of the complex string of basins draining into the Great Salt Lake, which included at least the Utah Lake basin to the south. The timing of the evening reversal to down-basin flow was sensitive to the larger-scale north-south pressure gradient imposed on the basin complex. On nights when the pressure gradient was not too strong, local drainage flow (slope flows and canyon outflow) was well developed along the Wasatch Range to the east and coexisted with the basin jet. The coexistence of these two types of flow generated localized regions of convergence and divergence, in which regions of vertical motions and transport were focused. Mesoscale numerical simulations captured these features and indicated that updrafts on the order of 5 cm/s could persist in these localized convergence zones, contributing to vertical displacement of air masses within the basin cold pool.

  20. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part I: Evolution and Effects on Local Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pinto, James O.; Whiteman, C. David; Shaw, William J.; Orr, Brad W.

    2004-10-01

    A Doppler lidar deployed to the center of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) basin during the Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) field campaign in October 2000 found a diurnal cycle of the along-basin winds with northerly up-basin flow during the day and a southerly down-basin low-level jet at night. The emphasis of VTMX was on stable atmospheric processes in the cold-air pool that formed in the basin at night. During the night the jet was fully formed as it entered the GSL basin from the south. Thus, it was a feature of the complex string of basins draining toward the Great Salt Lake, which included at least the Utah Lake basin to the south. The timing of the evening reversal to down-basin flow was sensitive to the larger-scale north south pressure gradient imposed on the basin complex. On nights when the pressure gradient was not too strong, local drainage flow (slope flows and canyon outflow) was well developed along the Wasatch Range to the east and coexisted with the basin jet. The coexistence of these two types of flow generated localized regions of convergence and divergence, in which regions of vertical motion and transport were focused. Mesoscale numerical simulations captured these features and indicated that updrafts on the order of 5 cm s-1 could persist in these localized convergence zones, contributing to vertical displacement of air masses within the basin cold pool.


  1. Projection of Changes in Regional Climate and Air Quality in the Great Lakes Basin between 2000 and 2050 for the RCP8.5 Emissions Scenario using the GEM-AQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A.; Semeniuk, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; Toyota, K.; Neary, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model was run in global and limited area model (LAM) modes for the baseline year 2000 and one future year, 2050, on three different horizontal grids of increasing resolution from global (1.5°) to North American (LAM, 0.45°) to Ontario regional scale (LAM, 0.15°). For the future simulation we used the high greenhouse emissions scenario RCP8.5. Boundary conditions for the LAM runs were taken from the coarser resolution runs. All simulations had 54 vertical sigma-pressure hybrid levels from the ground to the stratopause (˜50 km), which should give a good representation of ozone injection to the troposphere from the stratosphere. The model uses the interactive land surface scheme ISBA. Sea surface and lake temperatures are prescribed, but ice cover is partially interactive based on prescribed fields. A lake model, FLAKE, was coupled to GEM-AQ in order to capture the impacts of the Great Lakes on the meteorology when the model is run at high resolution. For the Ontario regional simulation the interactive lake model allowed for self-consistent water temperatures and moisture fluxes. The simulation for the year 2000 shows that the model is able to reproduce the observed monthly surface temperatures across the US. The monthly surface ozone is reproduced at the level of detail of most other air quality models with year 2000 weather as opposed to a free run forced by SSTs. Our year 2050 simulation shows that ozone levels during the summer throughout most of Ontario and Canada will increase. Regions south of the latitude of Lake Superior will generally see decreased levels of summer (JJA) ozone, except for around large urban areas such as Toronto, Chicago and Montreal. However, NOx levels will decrease during the summer, reflecting decreased emissions. Ozone levels in the US will generally improve. Other indices rather than simple averages yield a different perspective. If the MDA8 ozone metric and NO2 one-hour 98th

  2. 8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with Components Test Laboratory (T-27) located uphill to the left, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking southeast. At the extreme right is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) and the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  5. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  6. [Vegetation change of Yamzho Yumco Basin in southern Tibet based on SPOT-VGT NDVI].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shu-Mei; Liu, Jing-Shi; Yuan, Jin-Guo

    2010-06-01

    The area we studied is Lake Yamzho Yumco Basin (28 degrees 27'-29 degrees 12'N, 90 degrees 08'-91 degrees 45'E), the largest inland lake basin in southern Tibetan Plateau, China. Using the SPOT-VGT NDVI vegetation index from 1998 to 2007 in the basin, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of NDVI and its correlation with the major climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation) were analyzed. The results show that the average NDVI of the lake basin ranges from 0.12 to 0.31 and its seasonal change is obvious; the NDVI begins to rise rapidly in May and reaches the maximum value in early September. The average NDVI of the basin shows the slow increasing trend during 1998 to 2007, and it indicates that the eco-environment of the basin is recovering. The high value of NDVI has close relationships with water supply, altitude and vegetation types, so NDVI is relatively high near water sources and is the highest in meadow grassland. The summer air temperature and precipitation are the important climate elements that influence the vegetation in the basin, and the linear correlation coefficients between NDVI and air temperature and precipitation are 0.7 and 0.71, respectively. In recent years, warm and humid trend of the local climate is prevailing to improve the ecological environment in Yamzho Yumco Basin.

  7. Oxidation Kinetics of K Basin Fuel (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-09-25

    Oxidation testing of K Basin-stored N Reactor fuel in dry air, moist air, and moist helium provided reaction rate data for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The tests were performed on small samples from two spent nuclear fuel elements retrieved from the closed canisters of the K West Basin. The spent nuclear fuel samples were tested using a thermogravimetric analysis system modified for moist-gas operation to allow testing in moist environments. The tests were run at constant temperature and water vapor pressure. The moist helium tests used 6.5 H a water vapor, producing seventeen data between 75 C and 210 C. Eight of these data were excluded from primary consideration due to testing anomalies and balance drift issues. Regression analysis of the nine acceptable data provided good assurance that the moist-helium results are consistent with literature data within the temperature range of 25 C to 210 C. Concerns about possible oxygen poisoning from air in-leakage and mass transfer limitations on the test data were reviewed. If oxygen poisoning occurred it was not likely to have biased the data sufficiently to change the basic conclusions of comparability to the literature data. Mass transfer limitations did not appear to have had significant effect on the moist-helium data.

  8. Statistical Comparisons of watershed scale response to climate change in selected basins across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John; Moradkhani, Hamid; Hay, Lauren; Markstrom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In an earlier global climate-change study, air temperature and precipitation data for the entire twenty-first century simulated from five general circulation models were used as input to precalibrated watershed models for 14 selected basins across the United States. Simulated daily streamflow and energy output from the watershed models were used to compute a range of statistics. With a side-by-side comparison of the statistical analyses for the 14 basins, regional climatic and hydrologic trends over the twenty-first century could be qualitatively identified. Low-flow statistics (95% exceedance, 7-day mean annual minimum, and summer mean monthly streamflow) decreased for almost all basins. Annual maximum daily streamflow also decreased in all the basins, except for all four basins in California and the Pacific Northwest. An analysis of the supply of available energy and water for the basins indicated that ratios of evaporation to precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to precipitation for most of the basins will increase. Probability density functions (PDFs) were developed to assess the uncertainty and multimodality in the impact of climate change on mean annual streamflow variability. Kolmogorov?Smirnov tests showed significant differences between the beginning and ending twenty-first-century PDFs for most of the basins, with the exception of four basins that are located in the western United States. Almost none of the basin PDFs were normally distributed, and two basins in the upper Midwest had PDFs that were extremely dispersed and skewed.

  9. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  10. Water Temperature Controls in Arctic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, B. T.; King, T.; Schmadel, N. M.; Heavilin, J.; Overbeck, L. D.; Kane, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of heat transfer mechanisms in arctic rivers is critical for forecasting the effects of climate change on river temperatures. Building on the collection of key data and a dynamic river temperature model that accounts for heat fluxes found important in temperate climates, we were able to identify portions of an arctic basin and hydrologic conditions for which heat flux dynamics differ from those found in temperate systems. During the open water season, similarities in heat flux influences include dominant shortwave radiation, greater surface exchanges than bed exchanges and greater influences of lateral inflows in the lower order portions of the basin. Differing from temperate systems, the heat flux contribution of net longwave radiation is consistently negative and both latent heat and bed friction are negligible. Despite these differences, accounting for the bulk lateral inflows from the basin resulted in accurate predictions during higher flows. Under lower flow conditions, however, lateral inflows were limited and resulting temperature predictions were poor. Work in a temperate system demonstrated that spatial variability in hydraulics influencing stream residence times are necessary for accurate river temperature predictions. Because heat fluxes at the air-water interface become increasingly dominant at low flows and these fluxes are sensitive to parameters representing the water surface area to volume ratio, similar to temperate systems, we expect that high-resolution representations of stream geometry and hydraulics are important both for accurate flux and residence time estimates. Furthermore, given the highly dynamic nature of flows in arctic basins, we anticipate that detailed information regarding spatially variable hydraulic characteristics (e.g., channel width, depth, and velocity) is critical for accurate predictions in low arctic rivers through a large range of flow conditions. Upon identifying key processes controlling

  11. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  12. Air quality impact of sponge iron industries in central India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Kumar, A; Ansari, M F; Pipalatkar, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2009-02-01

    Emission load of particulate matter from 42 sponge iron industrial units located in clusters in the Indian State of Chhattisgarh was estimated to be 1,361 TPD. US EPA air pollution dispersion model ISCST-3 applied to predict the impact of the sponge iron industry emissions on ambient air quality showed contribution up to 546 microg/m(3) to the surrounding air basin causing the air quality exceeding the national ambient air quality standards. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been suggested to all the above industrial units that would bring down the contribution to as low as 27 microg/m(3). PMID:18784898

  13. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  14. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  15. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  16. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  17. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD). Response #4--The comment does not identify and we are not... submittal and review process such as contained in SJVAPCD Rule 4550 and Great Basin Unified Air...

  18. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  19. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  20. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Varela, J. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART) are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  1. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Varela, J. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART) are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  2. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  4. Manure ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a Western dairy storage basin.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of ammonia (NH) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions from dairies to the federal government depends on the magnitude of the emissions. However, little is known about their daily NH and HS emissions and what influences those emissions. Emissions of NH and HS from two manure storage basins at a 4400-head western free-stall dairy were measured intermittently over 2 yr. Each basin went through stages of filling, drying, and then removal of the manure during the study period. Emissions were determined using backward Lagrangian Stochastic and vertical radial plume methods. Ammonia emissions ranged from 35 to 59 kg d in one basin and from 86 to 90 kg d in a second basin, corresponding to a range of 7 to 19 g d head. Basin NH emissions were highest during initial filling and when the manure was removed. Mean HS emissions ranged from 5 to 22 kg d (1.1-4.6 g d head). Basin HS emissions were highest when the basin was filling. Crusting of the basin surface reduced NH but not HS emissions. The cessation of basin filling reduced HS but not NH emissions. Air temperature and wind conditions were correlated with NH emissions. Barometric pressure decreases were correlated with episodic HS emissions. The variability in emissions with stage of manure handling and storage and meteorological conditions indicates that determining the maximum daily emissions and the annual emissions from such waste basins requires consideration of each stage in conjunction with the climatic conditions during the stage. PMID:25602327

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  7. Sedimentary basins and crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Davy, P.; Gapais, D.; Rossello, E. A.; Sadybakasov, E.; Thomas, J. C.; Tondji Biyo, J. J.; de Urreiztieta, M.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the development of sedimentary basins in a tectonic context dominated by horizontal shortening and vertical thickening of the crust. Well-known examples are foreland basins; others are ramp basins and buckle basins. We have reproduced various styles of compressional basins in experiments, properly scaled for gravity. A multilayered model lithosphere, with brittle and ductile layers, floats on a model asthenosphere. A computer-driven piston provides shortening and thickening, synchronous with erosion and sedimentation. After a first stage of lithospheric buckling, thrust faults appear, mainly at inflection points. Slip on an isolated reverse fault is accompanied by flexure. Footwall flexure results in a foreland basin and becomes accentuated by sedimentation. Hangingwall flexure is less marked, but may become accentuated by erosion. Motion on a fault leads to hangingwall collapse at the surface. Either footwall sedimentation or hangingwall erosion tends to prolong the active life of a reverse fault. Slip on any pair of closely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a ramp basin. Simultaneous slip produces a symmetric ramp basin, whereas alternating slip results in a butterfly-shaped basin, with superposed foredeeps. Some well-developed ramp basins become pushed down, until bounding faults meet at the surface and the basin disappears from view. At this stage, the basin depth is equivalent to 15 km or more. Slip on any pair of widely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a pronounced central anticline, between two distinct foredeeps. In Central Asia and in Western Europe, Cenozoic crustal thickening is due to continental collision. For Central Asia (Western China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), we have compiled a regional structure-contour map on the base of the Tertiary, as well as 4 regional sections. Foreland basins and ramp basins are numerous and associated with Cenozoic thrusts. Large basins (Tarim, Junggar

  8. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  9. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  10. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  11. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  12. Hellas: A double-impact basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2010-12-01

    , indicating that Hellas basin may have been actually formed by two comparable impacts with a center to center distance of about 640 km. At this harmonic band the floor of Hellas also shows two distinct but slight depressions exactly over the mantle uplifts, but the free Air anomaly is almost featureless indicating that the basin is highly compensated. . [1] Andrews-Hanna, J.C., et al., Nature, 453, 1212-1215, 2008. [2] Shoemaker, E.M., In: Kopal, Z. (Ed.), Physics and Astronomy of the Moon. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 283-359, 1962. [3] Elbeshausen, D., et al., Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.018, 2009, [4] Marinova, M.M., et al., Nature, 453, 1216-1219, 2008. [5] Smith, D., et al., NASA Planetary Data System, MGS-M-MOLA-5-MEGDR-L3-V1.0, 2003. [6] Konopliv, A.S., personal communication, 2010.

  13. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  14. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  15. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  16. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  17. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  18. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  19. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge, magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin, and the geometry and timing of rifting in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Clark, D.L.; Phillips, R.L.; Srivastava, S.P.; Blome, C.D.; Gray, L.-B.; Haga, H.; Mamet, B.L.; McIntyre, D.J.; McNeil, D.H.; Mickey, M.B.; Mullen, M.W.; Murchey, B.I.; Ross, C.A.; Stevens, C.H.; Silberling, Norman J.; Wall, J.H.; Willard, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cores from Northwind Ridge, a high-standing continental fragment in the Chukchi borderland of the oceanic Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean, contain representatives of every Phanerozoic system except the Silurian and Devonian systems. Cambrian and Ordovician shallow-water marine carbonates in Northwind Ridge are similar to basement rocks beneath the Sverdrup basin of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Upper Mississippian(?) to Permian shelf carbonate and spicularite and Triassic turbidite and shelf lutite resemble coeval strata in the Sverdrup basin and the western Arctic Alaska basin (Hanna trough). These resemblances indicate that Triassic and older strata in southern Northwind Ridge were attached to both Arctic Canada and Arctic Alaska prior to the rifting that created the Amerasia basin. Late Jurassic marine lutite in Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from coeval strata in the Sverdrup and Arctic Alaska basins by rift shoulder and grabens, and is interpreted to be a riftogenic deposit. This lutite may be the oldest deposit in the Canada basin. A cape of late Cenomanian or Turonian rhyodacite air-fall ash that lacks terrigenous material shows that Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from the adjacent continental margins by earliest Late Cretaceous time. Closing Amerasia basin by conjoining seafloor magnetic anomalies beneath the Canada basin or by uniting the pre-Jurassic strata of Northwind Ridge with kindred sections in the Sverdrup basin and Hanna trough yield simular tectonic reconstructions. Together with the orientation and age of rift-marine structures, these data suggest that: 1) prior to opening of the Amerasia basin, both northern Alaska and continental ridges of the Chukchi borderland were part of North America, 2) the extension that created the Amerasia basin formed rift-margin graben beginning in Early Jurassic time and new oceanic crust probably beginning in Late Jurassic or early Neocomian time. Reconstruction of the Amerasia basin on the

  20. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  1. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  2. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  3. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  4. Modeling the influence of hypsometry, vegetation, and storm energy on snowmelt contributions to basins during rain-on-snow floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-10-01

    Point observations and previous basin modeling efforts have suggested that snowmelt may be a significant input of water for runoff during extreme rain-on-snow floods within western U.S. basins. Quantifying snowmelt input over entire basins is difficult given sparse observations of snowmelt. In order to provide a range of snowmelt contributions for water managers, a physically based snow model coupled with an idealized basin representation was evaluated in point simulations and used to quantify the maximum basin-wide input from snowmelt volume during flood events. Maximum snowmelt basin contributions and uncertainty ranges were estimated as 29% (11-47%), 29% (8-37%), and 7% (2-24%) of total rain plus snowmelt input, within the Snoqualmie, East North Fork Feather, and Upper San Joaquin basins, respectively, during historic flooding events between 1980 and 2008. The idealized basin representation revealed that both hypsometry and forest cover of a basin had similar magnitude of impacts on the basin-wide snowmelt totals. However, the characteristics of a given storm (antecedent SWE and available energy for melt) controlled how much hypsometry and forest cover impacted basin-wide snowmelt. These results indicate that for watershed managers, flood forecasting efforts should prioritize rainfall prediction first, but cannot neglect snowmelt contributions in some cases. Efforts to reduce the uncertainty in the above snowmelt simulations should focus on improving the meteorological forcing data (especially air temperature and wind speed) in complex terrain.

  5. 9. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin associated with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin associated with Components Test Laboratory (T-27) located directly uphill, looking north. Located uphill in the upper left portion of the photograph (from right to left) are the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D), Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B), and Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  7. Geohistorical analysis of Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, L.D.

    1985-05-01

    The Paradox basin is an elongate sedimentary basin, asymmetric in profile, extending across common corners of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Subsidence of the basin began in Desmoinesian time and was coincident with the development of the ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Uncompahgre uplift formed the northeast boundary of the basin during Pennsylvanian and Permian times. Formation thickness and lithologies were obtained from lithologic and radioactivity logs from various parts of the basin. The stratigraphic column at each well, restored through the Upper Cretaceous, was back-stripped and decompacted to reconstruct its depositional history. Decompacted geohistory diagrams and residual (tectonic) subsidence curves were then generated for each well. The Mobil 1 McCormick well, drilled in 1977, penetrates Pennsylvanian strata beneath reverse-faulted granitic basement; this indicates that the basin was flexed down in response to pennsylvanian and Permian thrust faulting along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift. However, close correspondence of the residual subsidence curves to theoretical thermal subsidence curves indicates that the basin formed by crustal extension. Consequently, development of the basin may have involved crustal stretching (transtensional.) beneath the basin floor, followed by thrusting (transpressional.) along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift.

  8. Basin modeling of Jambi Subbasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Halik, N. ); Wu, C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Jambi Subbasin is part of the South Sumatra Basin, a Tertiary back-arc basin formed by the collision between the Sundaland and Indian Plate. The Oligocene synrift Lahat Formation, and the Miocene postrift Talang Akar, Batu Raja, Gumai, and Air Benakat formations are stratigraphic intervals for potential hydrocarbon exploration. Most of the hydrocarbons have been produced from the Talang Akar and Air Benakat formations. Detailed age-depth relationship, paleobathymetry, and eustatic sea level were studied for 11 wells. Degrees of transgression and regression, and relative movement of fault blocks were predicted from rates of total and tectonic subsidence. The structural evolution of the Jambi Subbasin was reconstructed using the backstripping method. Results from the burial history modeling have helped in predicting thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation, and structural development of the Jambi Subbasin. The timing of basement uplifting started from middle-late Miocene and reached the maximum in Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two hydrocarbon migration and accumulation mechanisms were proposed. In the depocenter, hydrocarbons were generated, migrated upward along faults, and trapped in the middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation, whereas in the basin flanks, hydrocarbons were migrated laterally from the depocenter and trapped in the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation. The methodology of this study can be applied to other subbasins in South Sumatra.

  9. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  10. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  11. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  12. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  13. Foreland basins and fold belts

    SciTech Connect

    Macqueen, R.W.; Leckie, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this book describe six foreland basins and fold belts in terms of their regional setting, stratigraphy, tectonics, and structure, and their oil and gas systems. All of the basins show general similarities, but each differs significantly in detail from the others, posing something of a problem in terms of arriving at a 'typical' foreland basin and fold belt. Some are major hydrocarbon producers; others are not. The major characteristics of the six foreland basins and fold belts are summarized in Tables 1 through 5, which provide a convenient means of comparing and contrasting these basins and their hydrocarbon resources. The Western Canada foreland basin and fold belt serves as the type example for several reasons. These include: its setting and clear relationship to a major orogene of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age; the fact that it is uncomplicated by later overprinting, segmentation, or cover rocks unlike the Ouachita, Eastern Venezuela, and U.S. Rocky Mountain foreland basins and fold belts); the fact that there is a large volume of publicly available data on the basin and an active exploration and research community; and the fact that it has reasonable oil and gas reserves in a well-defined stratigraphic framework.

  14. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  15. Ichnofabric and basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J. ); Droser, M.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Utilization of ichnofabric indices for measuring recorded extent of bioturbation allows comparative studies of ichnofabric between different facies. In vertical sequences, measurements of ichnofabric indices can be normalized to percent of the total thickness measured for each ichnofabric index. These data can be presented as histograms, or ichnograms, when measurements are from strata deposited in a single genetically-defined sedimentary environment. Ichnograms can be used in conjunction with ichnofacies analysis to present a more complete summary of bioturbation in a sedimentary unit. Using a knowledge of the factors which contribute towards producing ichnofabric in different sedimentary environments, the range of possible ichnograms for any environment can be modeled. In addition to ichnograms, an average ichnofabric index also can be calculated as a useful summary characterization of the extent of bioturbation recorded in a sedimentary unit. Through measurement of ichnofabric indices, construction of ichnograms, and calculation of average ichnofabric index, broad-scale summary data are produced that can allow a more complete understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of sedimentary basins, especially when employed in conjunction with other basin analysis approaches.

  16. New Maturin basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    The Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela is an outstanding example of the historical logic of exploration concepts progressively woven into large-scale commercial development. Exploitation of natural asphalt in the basin started with the end of the 19th century. Geological reconnaissance in a systematic way started in 1911; first oil field, Guanoco, was discovered August 15, 1913; first seismic survey was shot in 1934; first giant oil field, Quiriquire, was discovered June 1, 1928. A well completed January 6, 1936, went through a very heavy and viscous tar interval, non-exploitable at the time, the first in the Orinoco Belt field; the preliminary geological evaluation of the 13,000 km{sup 2} accumulation started in 1967, but was done in earnest during 1979-1983. Only one well had been drilled deeper than 5,200 m in 1985, but then for the contrast, the El Furrial trend with many deep giant light crude oil fields was discovered in 1986.

  17. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  18. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  19. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-09-27

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.

  20. Thermal history of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.

    1984-02-01

    The elevated organic maturity observed in shallowly buried units from the Michigan basin implies that higher temperatures and thicker overburdens once existed in the basin. Evidence from sediment-accumulation rates, regional dips, and maturity of Pennsylvanian-age coals suggests that up to 1,000 m of sediment were removed by erosion prior to the Late Jurassic, when the basin became stable. Geothermal gradients during Paleozoic basin subsidence probably ranged from 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ C/ km in contrast to the average present value of 25/sup 0/ C/km. Depths to the top of the oil window ranged from 1,900 to 2,300 m during the Paleozoic. Post-Pennsylvanian erosional uplift and further thermal maturation of the basin have combined to raise the top of the oil window to its present level of 500 m.

  1. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  2. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  3. Characterization of air quality data for the southern California air quality study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, K.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Hopke, P.K.; Grosjean, D.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents research based on data acquired during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Various techniques were applied to identify the sources of acidity in the South Coast Air Basin of California. These Techniques included graphical analysis, box modeling, deterministic modeling, and receptor modeling. A fog model was developed to study the contribution of fog to acidic species formation and removal. A trajectory model was also used to examine the vertical distribution of acidity and the implications with respect to fog acidity. Receptor models with different complexity were used: principal component analysis, stepwise multiple regression, target transformation factor analysis, and potential source contribution function analysis.

  4. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  5. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for 1986 through 1991 from two small basins in central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating the volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for their suitability as storage sites for nuclear waste. Two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to the ground water. The semiarid 3 Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. This publication presents the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Data were collected throughout the two basins. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins. Meteorological data are available from the lower sites from the winter of 1986 through the fall of 1991. Periods of data collection were shorter for additional sites in the basin.

  6. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  7. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  8. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  9. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  10. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  11. KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

    2004-06-23

    In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

  12. 78 FR 51 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; Morongo Band of Mission Indians

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... following enactment of the 1977 Amendments to the CAA. See 43 FR 8962 (March 3, 1978). These designations... Basin and include it in the South Coast Air Basin. See 68 FR 57820 (October 7, 2003).\\5\\ Specifically... October 7, 2003, EPA approved California's boundary change request (68 FR 57820). \\5\\ California...

  13. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  14. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  18. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  19. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is

  20. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  1. HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO AIR POLLUTION IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN. (R825826)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  3. Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Robert J., Jr.

    Basin analysis is the ultimate act of synthesis in stratigraphy. Its objective is to weave together the diverse strands of information in order to portray the tectonic evolution of a basin, its filling with sediments in a broad range of depositional environments, the subsequent diagenesis and lithification of these sediments, and the localization therein of mineral and petroleum resources. Thus, although the primary emphasis in basin analysis is stratigraphic and sedimentologic in nature, paleontologic, tectonic, and geophysical data, among others, are also integral components of the effort. It is scientifically challenging and, in practical terms, forms the foundation for the exploration for strata-bound resources. The wide range of topics that must be incorporated into a basin analysis requires that it be a group project of specialists and means that it is a difficult subject to teach or to present in a book.

  4. Water temperature of streams in the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, and implications of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyle, Rebecca E.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-10-02

    Water-temperature data from 32 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska, indicate various trends that depend on watershed characteristics. Basins with 25 percent or more of their area consisting of glaciers have the coldest water temperatures during the open-water season, mid-May to mid-October. Streams and rivers that drain lowlands have the warmest water temperatures. A model that uses air temperature as input to predict water temperature as output was utilized to simulate future trends in water temperature based on increased air temperatures due to climate warming. Based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, the model produced acceptable results for 27 sites. For basins with more than 25 percent glacial coverage, the model was not as accurate. Results indicate that 15 sites had a predicted water-temperature change of 3 degrees Celsius or more, a magnitude of change that is considered significant for the incidence of disease in fish populations.

  5. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  6. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  7. Soil wind erodibility based on dry aggregate-size distribution in the Tarim Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tarim Basin is an important source of airborne particulate matter that contributes to poor air quality in China. However, little attention has been given to estimating wind erodibility of soils in the region. The objective of this study was to determine the soil wind erodibility for six land use...

  8. The NACA Tank : A High-speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr

    1934-01-01

    This report describes the high-speed model towing basin of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, usually referred to as the NACA Tank. The purpose of this piece of equipment is to enable the Committee to provide information and data regarding the performance of seaplanes on the water analogous to the information furnished concerning the performance of airplanes in the air.

  9. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  10. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  11. Inversion Breakup in Small Rocky Mountain and Alpine Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Pospichal, Bernhard; Eisenbach, Stefan; Weihs, P.; Clements, Craig B.; Steinacker, Reinhold; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Dorninger, Manfred

    2004-08-01

    Comparisons are made between the post-sunrise breakup of temperature inversions in two similar closed basins in quite different climate settings, one in the eastern Alps and one in the Rocky Mountains. The small, high-altitude, limestone sinkholes have both experienced extreme temperature minima below -50°C. On undisturbed clear nights, temperature inversions reach to 120 m heights in both sinkholes, but are much stronger in the drier Rocky Mountain basin (24K versus 13K). Inversion destruction takes place 2.6 to 3 hours after sunrise and is accomplished primarily by subsidence warming associated with the removal of air from the base of the inversion by the upslope flows that develop over the sidewalls. Differences in inversion strengths and post-sunrise heating rates are caused by differences in the surface energy budget, with drier soil and a higher sensible heat flux in the Rocky Mountain sinkhole.

  12. Chesapeake Bay Basin Comprehensive List of Toxic Substances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Basin Comprehensive List of Toxic Substances is a compilation of the toxic substances detected in, released, or applied to all media (water, soil, sediment, tissue and air) within the Chesapeake Bay basin. A substance's inclusion in this list does not constitute evidence of potential or existing environmental impact. It merely documents a finding or measurement in some media at some point in time. This Comprehensive List serves two specific purposes: It is the central listing of toxic substances around which the Chesapeake Bay Program's Toxics Data Base has been structured and organized, and it defines the 'universe' of toxic substances from which future revisions and updates to the Chesapeake Bay Toxics of Concern List will be ranked and identified. The Comprehensive List is being published as a document to meet other potential uses by the Chesapeake Bay Program agencies such as defining parameter lists for toxics monitoring programs.

  13. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  14. Hydrologic sensitivity of Indian sub-continental river basins to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Lilhare, Rajtantra

    2016-04-01

    Climate change may pose profound implications for hydrologic processes in Indian sub-continental river basins. Using downscaled and bias corrected future climate projections and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we show that a majority of the Indian sub-continental river basins are projected to shift towards warmer and wetter climate in the future. During the monsoon (June to September) season, under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 (8.5), the ensemble mean air temperature is projected to increase by more than 0.5 (0.8), 1.0 (2.0), and 1.5 (3.5) °C in the Near (2010-2039), Mid (2040-2069), and End (2070-2099) term climate, respectively. Moreover, the sub-continental river basins may face an increase of 3-5 °C in the post-monsoon season under the projected future climate. While there is a large intermodel uncertainty, robust increases in precipitation are projected in many sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate especially in the Mid and End term climate. A sensitivity analysis for the Ganges and Godavari river basins shows that surface runoff is more sensitive to change in precipitation and temperature than that of evapotranspiration (ET). An intensification of the hydrologic cycle in the Indian sub-continental basins is evident in the projected future climate. For instance, for Mid and End term climate, ET is projected to increase up to 10% for the majority of the river basins under both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. During the monsoon season, ensemble mean surface runoff is projected to increase more than 40% in 11 (15) basins under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Moreover, streamflow is projected to increase more than 40% in 8 (9) basins during the monsoon season under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios. Results show that water availability in the sub-continental river basins is more sensitive towards changes in the monsoon season precipitation rather than air temperature. While in the majority

  15. Simulation of streamflow temperatures in the Yakima River basin, Washington, April-October 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of storage, diversion, return flow, and meteorological variables on water temperature in the Yakima River, in Washington State, were simulated, and the changes in water temperature that could be expected under four alternative-management scenarios were examined for improvement in anadromous fish environment. A streamflow routing model and Lagrangian streamflow temperature model were used to simulate water discharge and temperature in the river. The estimated model errors were 12% for daily discharge and 1.7 C for daily temperature. Sensitivity analysis of the simulation of water temperatures showed that the effect of reservoir outflow temperatures diminishes in a downstream direction. A 4 C increase in outflow temperatures results in a 1.0 C increase in mean irrigation season water temperature at Umtanum in the upper Yakima River basin, but only a 0.01C increase at Prosser in the lower basin. The influence of air temperature on water temperature increases in a downstream direction and is the dominant influence in the lower basin. A 4 C increase in air temperature over the entire basin resulted in a 2.34 C increase in river temperatures at Prosser in the lower basin and 1.46 C at Umtanum in the upper basin. Changes in wind speed and model wind-function parameters had little effect on the model predicted water temperature. Of four alternative management scenarios suggested by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Yakima Indian Nation, the 1981 reservoir releases maintained without diversions or return flow in the river basin produced water temperatures nearest those considered as preferable for salmon and steelhead trout habitat. The alternative management scenario for no reservoir storage and no diversions or return flows in the river basin (estimate of natural conditions) produced conditions that were the least like those considered as preferable for salmon and steelhead trout habitat. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  17. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  18. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  19. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  20. Basin modeling of Tadla basin, Morocco, for hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-09-01

    The Tadla basin, Morocco, is the easternmost major structural subdivision of the Meseta south of the Central Massif. After the basin remained relatively stable through the Paleozoic, movements during the Variscan orogeny divided the basin into two subbasins, a western subbasin where compressional forces formed large anticlines and an eastern subbasin where intense folding and faulting are associated with uplift and erosion. The sedimentary basin fill includes numerous organic shales, which provide the source beds. Also deposited were numerous shallow-water to continental clastics and to a lesser extent carbonates, providing several possible reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons. The results from computer modeling show that the chief formations of hydrocarbon generation are Carboniferous and Silurian. Most of these formations may have generated hydrocarbons before Variscan movements, which probably destroyed preexisting oil and gas traps. The only source rocks in the generation stage from Mesozoic to the present are the upper Visean shales. The western part of the Tadla basin was the most favorable area for the generation and maturation of hydrocarbons of the upper Visean shales. 22 figures.

  1. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  2. Nocturnal cooling in a very shallow cold air pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Žabkar, Rahela; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2015-04-01

    Cold air pools (CAPs) may develop during nights in very shallow depressions. The depth of the stagnant air within a CAP influences the process of the cooling of nocturnal air and the resulting minimum temperature. A seven-month long field experiment was performed during winter 2013/2014 in an orchard near Kr\\vsko, Slovenia, located inside a very shallow basin only a few meters deep and approximately 500 m wide. Two locations at different elevations inside the basin were selected for measurement. The results showed that the nights (in terms of cooling) can be classified into three main categories; nights with overcast skies and weak cooling, windy nights with clear sky and strong cooling but with no difference in temperatures between locations inside the basin, and calm nights with even stronger cooling and significant temperature differences between locations inside the basin. On calm nights with clear skies, the difference at two measuring sites inside the basin can be up to 5 °C but the presence of even weak winds can cause sufficient turbulent mixing to negate any difference in temperature. To better understand the cooling process on calm, clear nights, we developed a simple 1-D thermodynamic conceptual model focusing on a very shallow CAP. The model has 5-layers (including two air layers representing air inside the CAP), and an analytical solution was obtained for the equilibrium temperatures. Sensitivity analysis of the model was performed. As expected, a larger soil heat conductivity or higher temperature in the ground increases the morning minimum temperatures. An increase in temperature of the atmosphere also increases the simulated minimum temperatures, while the temperature difference between the higher and lower locations remains almost the same. An increase in atmosphere humidity also increases the modelled equilibrium temperatures, while an increase of the humidity of the air inside the CAP results in lower equilibrium temperatures. The humidity of

  3. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  4. A New Search for Lunar Mascon Basins using Detrended Kaguya (SELENE) Gravity: Implications for GRAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombard, A. J.; Hauck, S. A.; Balcerski, J.

    2012-12-01

    The collection of GRAIL data and imminent release of its first gravity models will revolutionize understanding of the lunar interior, which motivates an assessment of the current state of knowledge. A primary goal of the GRAIL mission is to understand better mascon basins, large impact craters that display significant positive free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Discovered in a handful of nearside basins during preparations for the Apollo landings and recently expanded by the global Kaguya (SELENE) gravity models, an important question is why is not every large crater a mascon basin, as less than half of the 41 impact basins > 300 km in diameter (minus South Pole-Aitken) have been previously determined to be mascons. An issue not generally considered in the identification of mascons is that the topography, and hence Bouguer gravity, display long-wavelength regional signals that might mask some mascons. Here, we use the SGM100i Kaguya gravity model and LRO's LOLA shape model to examine the free-air, topographic (arising solely from topography), and Bouguer gravity, detrended by omitting the first 5 spherical harmonic degrees from our expansions. In contrast to past studies, we find that most large basins (28 of 41) display characteristics of mascons (e.g., a strong positive Bouguer anomaly generally narrower than the surface rim). Negative annuli surrounding the central highs in the free-air gravity do not exist in the Bouguer gravity, with only 2 definitive exceptions. The fact that the majority of the Bouguer anomalies are narrower than the basin rim and that the negative free-air annulus appears to be a product of the surface topography has implications for the formation of the basins. We propose that beneath a forming large basin, the mantle uplifts in response to the large isostatic imbalance with the transient crater, while the surface topography forms from not only upward but inward collapse of the transient crater's rim wall and adjustment of the melt

  5. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  6. Smythii basin topography and comparisons with Orientale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The Smythii basin has the most extensive topographic coverage of any lunar multi-ringed basin. Topographic data are used to study the morphology and morphometry of Smythii and to make comparisons with similar basins. The depth of the basin is shown to be over 8 km, which is comparable to that of Orientale. The inner ring reaches heights of 3.4 km, while the intermediate ring exhibits little relief. Lowest points in the basin are related to mare ridges. Basin volume is estimated to be 21 million cubic kilometers. Evidence suggests that significant differences in substrate characteristics may have existed for the Smythii and Orientale impacts.

  7. Analogue models of pull-apart basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClay, Ken; Dooley, Tim

    1995-08-01

    Sandbox analogue models of pull-apart basins that developed in sedimentary strata above releasing steps in underlying basement faults are characterized by rhombic basins that are flat-bottomed box grabens with a subhorizontal synkinematic basin infill. Steep to nearly vertical, sigmoidal oblique-slip and segmented oblique-extensional faults are the dominant bounding structures of the pull-apart basins. Cross-basin, short-cut faults link the offset principal displacement zones that are characterized by flower structure development. The structural architectures of the physical models compare directly in form and dimensions to natural examples of strike-slip pull-apart basins.

  8. Estimations of ozone damage to selected crops grown in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S.K.; Reed, W.; Geng, S.

    1982-02-01

    The information presented in this paper is concerned with the effects of ambient ozone on crop yield reduction and the resultant economic losses. Yield data for nine crops within the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) of California were obtained for the 12-year period, 1964 through 1975. Ozone concentrations, temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity data were related to the yields by using regression models. Estimated yield reductions due to ozone for 1975, varied from zero to 57% depending on crop and location. Economic welfare losses calculated from the yield reductions were $57.3 and $45.7 million for producer's and consumer's surplus, respectively. The total loss from ozone to agriculture related economic sectors determined by input-output analysis was $276 million in the SCAB and $36.6 million in the remainder of the state.

  9. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  10. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  11. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  12. Basin-Scale Wind Transport during the MILAGRO Field Campaign and Comparison to Climatology Using Cluster Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paech, S. J.; Phillips, D.; Walters, J. T.; Coulter, Richard L.; Martin, Tim J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.; Kastendeuch, P. P.; Marley, Nancy A.; Retama, A.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-03-03

    The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  13. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  14. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  15. Plio-Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of Ross Sea eastern basin (Antarctica): Implications to glacial history and basin evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, M.B.; Diaz, J.I. ); Anderson, J.S.; Bartek, L. )

    1991-03-01

    From air-gun and water-gun high-resolution single-channel seismic records, seven seismic units are defined, overlying the Ross Sea Unconformity, in the Plio-Quaternary sequences of the Ross Sea Eastern basin. These units are up to 600 m in thickness and generally thin onshore, disappearing near the western limit of the basin. The units are separated by smooth erosional surfaces characterized by continuous, high-amplitude reflectors. By correlation to DSDP Site 272, seismic units I and II are Pliocene in age, and the overlying units (III or VII) are Quaternary in age. Units I, III, and VII are basinal in extension and the others are confined to the central part of the basin. Thickness of the units ranges from 50 to 120 m, and they are mainly characterized by lenticular and wedge geometrics. Three acoustic facies are discerned: stratified, semitransparent, and chaotic. Wide (7 km) lenticular deposits, containing chaotic facies, are incised by U-shaped channels in seismic units, II, III (both up to 0.5 km wide), and VI (2 km wide), The spatial distribution of these channels indicates a paleodrainage system in which ice streams followed flow paths similar to those of the present. The major geological events that occurred on the continental shelf during Plio-Quaternary time were: (1) the first channel incisions are identified near the boundary of the late Pliocene-Quaternary; (2) the advance and retreat of the ice sheet resulted in widespread erosion processes alternating with deposition of glacial and glaciomarine sediments; (3) the largest depocenter has been always situated in the shelf break environment, near the western limit of the basin; and (4) the only important progradation of the shelf occurred during the late Pliocene, and since then the shelf has been aggradational.

  16. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. PMID:25747376

  17. Late Tertiary and Quaternary geology of the Tecopa basin, southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-12-31

    Stratigraphic units in the Tecopa basin, located in southeastern California, provide a framework for interpreting Quaternary climatic change and tectonism along the present Amargosa River. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a climate that was appreciably wetter than today`s sustained a moderately deep lake in the Tecopa basin. Deposits associated with Lake Tecopa consists of lacustrine mudstone, conglomerate, volcanic ash, and shoreline accumulations of tufa. Age control within the lake deposits is provided by air-fall tephra that are correlated with two ash falls from the Yellowstone caldera and one from the Long Valley caldera. Lake Tecopa occupied a closed basin during the latter part, if not all, of its 2.5-million-year history. Sometime after 0.5 m.y. ago, the lake developed an outlet across Tertiary fanglomerates of the China Ranch Beds leading to the development of a deep canyon at the south end of the basin and establishing a hydrologic link between the northern Amargosa basins and Death Valley. After a period of rapid erosion, the remaining lake beds were covered by alluvial fans that coalesced to form a pediment in the central part of the basin. Holocene deposits consist of unconsolidated sand and gravel in the Amargosa River bed and its deeply incised tributaries, a small playa near Tecopa, alluvial fans without pavements, and small sand dunes. The pavement-capped fan remnants and the Holocene deposits are not faulted or tilted significantly, although basins to the west, such as Death Valley, were tectonically active during the Quaternary. Subsidence of the western basins strongly influenced late Quaternary rates of deposition and erosion in the Tecopa basin.

  18. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth.

  19. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  20. Early Opening of Seychelles and India: the Gop Basin Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Vadakkeyakath, Y.; Bhattacharya, G.

    2012-12-01

    The deep offshore region located between the India-Pakistan continental margin and the Laxmi Ridge continental sliver contains valuable imprints of the early oceanic opening phase between India and the Seychelles. The acquisition of wide-angle deep seismic data by British scientists in 2003 provided new information about the deep structure and nature of the crust [1,2]. These data complement the large amount of seismic reflection profiles, altimetry-derived gravity and marine magnetic data which allow mapping the structure and determining the age of the oceanic crust [3,4,5]. Although these authors all agree on the oceanic nature of the Gop Basin, they surprisingly differ on the extent of the oceanic crust, the location of the extinct spreading center and the age of the basin. Here we re-evaluate published interpretations of the Gop Basin in light of all available data. The major discrepancy between [1,2,4] and [5] is the location of the extinct spreading center. [1,2,4] place it on an unnamed basement high located at 19°55'N, whereas [5] identify it with the Palitana Ridge at 19°25'N. Checking the location of the basement high of [1,2,4] on the basement isobath map of [3], based on many seismic reflection profiles, reveals that this basement high actually is an isolated feature of limited extent, which at best can be considered as part of a NE-SW trending basement high zone. This basement high locally coincides with a strong positive magnetic anomaly and a narrow gravity anomaly low but the trend of these anomalies is E-W, in contrast to the NE-SW trend of the basement in this area. For these reasons, this basement high probably is not the location of the Gop Basin extinct spreading center. Conversely, on the basement isobath map of [3], the Palitana Ridge appears as a prominent E-W high, located in the middle of a broad E-W graben, the Gop Basin. It extends over 200 km and is flanked on both sides by basement 2000 m deeper. On free air gravity anomaly maps, the

  1. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    spring. In irrigated areas near uplands or major rivers, the annual recharge rate may be about 1.2 ? 10-3 meters per year; however, in areas at lower altitude with little irrigation, the recharge rate may average about 0.7 ? 10-3 meters per year. With increasing population, the water needs of the Kabul Basin are estimated to increase from 112,000 cubic meters per day to about 725,000 cubic meters per day by the year 2057. In some areas of the basin, particularly in the north along the western mountain front and near major rivers, water resources are generally adequate for current needs. In other areas of the basin, such as in the east and away from major rivers, the available water resources may not meet future needs. On the basis of the model simulations, increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels that may cause more than 50 percent of shallow (typically less than 50 meters deep) supply wells to become dry or inoperative. The water quality in the shallow (less than 100 meters thick), unconsolidated primary aquifer has deteriorated in urban areas because of poor sanitation. Concerns about water availability may be compounded by poor well-construction practices and lack of planning. Future water resources of the Kabul Basin will likely be reduced as a result of increasing air temperatures associated with global climate change. It is estimated that at least 60 percent of shallow groundwater-supply wells would be affected and may become dry or inoperative as a result of climate change. These effects of climate change would likely be greatest in the agricultural areas adjacent to the Paghman Mountains where a majority of springs, karezes, and wells would be affected. The water available in the shallow primary aquifer of the basin may meet future water needs in the northern areas of the Kabul Basin near the Panjsher River. Conceptual groundwater-flow simulations indicate that the basin likely has groundwater reserves in unused unconsolidate

  2. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  3. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona's Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  4. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona`s Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  5. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  6. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  7. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  8. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  10. Air stripping industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1994-09-01

    Industrial wastewater can be quickly, efficiently and economically treated using air strippers. Air stripping removes a range of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water. And the performance of various types and sizes of tray-type air stripper for treating contaminated water now is highly predictable because of laboratory studies. Air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating industrial wastewater. However, since every industrial wastewater stream is unique, each must be evaluated to determine its constituents, its potentially adverse effects on treatability, and any pretreatment steps necessary to ensure desired results. The general principles of air stripping are simple. In an air stripper, the surfaces area of a film of contaminated water is maximized while air is directed across it. Contaminants at the air/water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere or to an off-gas treatment system.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  13. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  14. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  16. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  17. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  18. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  19. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  20. Precipitation and temperature changes in the major Chinese river basins during 1957-2013 and links to sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qing; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    The variation characteristics of precipitation and temperature in the three major Chinese river basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Pearl River) in the period of 1957-2013 were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis, as well as their links to sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean on both interannual and decadal time scales. Annual mean temperature of the three river basins increased significantly overall since 1957, with an average warming rate of about 0.19 °C/10a, but the warming was characterized by a staircase form with steps around 1987 and 1998. The significant increase of annual mean temperature could mostly be attributed to the remarkable warming trend in spring, autumn and winter. Warming rates in the northern basins were generally much higher than in the southern basins. However, both the annual precipitation and seasonal mean precipitation of the three river basins showed little change in the study area average, but distinct interannual variations since 1957 and clear regional differences. An overall warming-wetting tendency was found in the northwestern and southeastern river basins in 1957-2013, while the central regions tended to become warmer and drier. Results from a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) showed that the interannual variations of seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature over the three river basins were both associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since 1957. ENSO SST patterns affected precipitation and surface air temperature variability throughout the year, but with very different response patterns in the different seasons. For instance, temperature in most of the river basins was positively correlated with central-eastern equatorial Pacific SST in winter and spring, but negatively correlated in summer and autumn. On the decadal time scale, the seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature variations were strongly associated with the Pacific

  1. Gravity Variations in the Rockall and Porcupine Basins West of Ireland: Evidence for a Linked Structural Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Readman, P. W.; O'Reilly, B. M.

    2001-12-01

    The crustal structure of the large Mesozoic Rockall and Porcupine basins west of Ireland determines the broader scale behaviour of the free air gravity field in the region. Marine gravity surveys in the shallow shelf seas around Ireland together with satellite gravity data from the deeper ocean to the west are used to investigate the larger-scale crustal structure of these major basins. Crustal structure derived from wide-angle and vertical incidence seismic data is used to control the interpretation and modeling of gravity data. The Porcupine Basin is situated between the highly stretched crust of the Rockall Basin (where β = 5 to 6) and the thicker Proterozoic crust of the Irish mainland and shelf area, where the crust approaches 30 km in thickness. The crust of the south Porcupine Basin has undergone similar amounts of bulk stretching to that of the southern Rockall Basin and has very similar gravity patterns. The crust of the northern Porcupine Basin is less severely stretched and an axial gravity high is present due to anomalous density variations in the crust or upper mantle. The change in crustal geometry and gravity properties occurs across a distinctive set of NW-trending gravity lineaments, which may correlate with cross-basin crustal faults, controlling large-scale basin segmentation. Lithospheric stretching south of these gravity lineaments involved a large anticlockwise rotation of the southern part of the Porcupine High, while to the north the stretching involved a smaller antipathetic clockwise rotation of the northern Porcupine High. This pattern of tectonic block rotation controls the southward broadening of the Rockall Basin and suggests a strong structural linkage between these two large basins.

  2. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  3. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  4. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  5. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  6. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  7. Deep Seismic Imaging of an Active Foreland Basin: Implications for Flexural Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N.

    2003-12-01

    The South Falkland basin is a partially filled, active, foreland basin located at the southern edge of the Falkland Plateau. It was formed by flexure of the South American plate as a result of loading by the northern edge of the Scotia plate. Flexure probably started in the Paleogene and continues to the present day. The entire region is submarine and the detailed structure of this basin is clearly imaged on shallow reflection data. Admittance analysis of free-air gravity and bathymetry together with gravity and basement profile modelling suggest that the elastic thickness is 10--20 km. Recently, we have acquired and processed a deep seismic reflection profile which crosses the foreland basin and the zone of active collision. This line was shot to 18 seconds two-way travel time using a 5600 cubic inch airgun array and a 6 km streamer. These new data have yielded spectacular images of the active foreland basin and of the adjacent plateaux. The most striking features are a clearly imaged Moho and a set of highly reflective normal faults which penetrate to about 20 km depth. We can show that these normal faults were active during the process of plate flexure. Their existence, depth of penetration and reflectivity raise important questions about the applicability of elastic models to foreland basin formation. Here we explore alternative models which can account for these new observations without requiring the existence of large elastic stresses.

  8. Large-scale diabase intrusion in the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina: geophysics and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bolich, R.E.; Bevis, M.G.; Won, I.J.; Fodor, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data obtained from the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina reveal pronounced positive gravity and magnetic anomalies of 10 milligals and 300 gammas, respectively, along the western border of the basin. In the vicinity of these anomalies, diabase outcrops, some with chilled margins and others with flow features, occur sporadically, but have a combined area of about 100 sq. km. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity data indicates that the diabase body accounts for the gravity anomaly as a semi-continuous subsurface intrusion. The intrusive body is greater than 250 m thick near the western border of the basin, but thins to about 100 m near the center of the basin. Geochemical data for samples recovered from 4 air-drill sites at one diabase outcrop in Butner, North Carolina yield high MgO concentrations, and low FeO, K2O, and TiO2. The geophysical and geochemical data are consistent with an uncontaminated basaltic magma ascending along a major fissure or fissures and into the basin. In the basin, the diabase encountered unlithified sediments, resulting in both intrusive and extrusive forms. Although similar chemical compositions for Mesozoic North American dikes have been reported, this is the first indication of an intrusive body of such a large extent and primitive chemical composition.

  9. Distribution and formation conditions of noble metal mineralization in coal-bearing basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, V. V.

    2007-02-01

    Original data and a survey of the literature indicate that Au and Au-PGE mineralization are abundant in coal measures. Anomalous contents of noble metals have been established in basins with various types of basement, composed of granite, volcanic rocks, schist, and limestone. These basins are located in Au-and PGE-bearing ore districts, as well as at a considerable distance from known ore deposits and occurrences. Ore formation in coal-bearing basins may occur during sedimentation, peat accumulation, and diagenesis of organic matter or may be epigenetic. Noble metals are supplied to sedimentary basins as minerals that are transported by water and air and as ion species migrating along with surface and subsurface in-and exfiltration solutions of various chemical and genetic types. Ore mineralization concentrates in coal seams and host sedimentary beds of various grain size, including conglomerate, sand, and clay, as well as in zones of hydrothermal alteration superimposed on basement rocks and the sedimentary cover. The mode of occurrence of noble metals in coal basins is diverse as well (noble metal minerals, isomorphic admixtures in sulfides, and organic compounds). The data presented allow coal-bearing basins to be regarded as promising for economic noble metal mineralization fit for recovery as by-products in the course of coal mining.

  10. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  11. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  12. Incidence and etiology of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, T; Fukuda, K

    1979-11-01

    Incidence of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin was either compiled from published reports or computed by the authors. The results showed a great variation in age-standardized annual incidence rates of lung cancer among 10 countries and 17 areas in the Pacific Basin where tumor registry statistics are available. For males the incidence rates ranged from 10 to over 70 and for females from less than 5 to over 30/100,000 population. The reason(s) for the great variation is unclear. Ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemical substances (e.g., chromium, arsenic compounds, asbestos, etc.), or air pollution are unlikely to be responsible. Because cigarette smoking is known to be a major cause of lung cancer, the authors have suggested that surveys on cigarette smoking be conducted among various populations in the Pacific Basin so that etiologic significance of cigarette smoking for the noted variation can be assessed. In Hawaii such a survey is underway, and a preliminary analysis was made to examine the association between lung cancer and cigarette smoking among five races. PMID:537621

  13. The formation of deep basins in High Arctic from metamorphism in continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Belyaev, Igor; Chekhovich, Peter; Petrov, Eugene; Poselov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    In the East Barents and North Chukchi basins, 16-20 km deep, the crystalline crust is attenuated to 12-18 km (reference profiles 2-AR, 4-AR and 5-AR). P-wave velocities and densities in this layer are characteristic of the oceanic crust. However, the subsidence history in the basins is quite different from that typical of the oceanic crust. In both basins the subsidence continued for several hundred million years and one half of the deposits or more was formed long after the start of the subsidence when cooling of the oceanic plate would be already over. Moreover, the basins are 4-5 km deeper than it could be expected according to the thickness of the crystalline crust above the Moho boundary. In the absence of large free-air gravity anomalies, joint analysis of the gravity and seismic data indicates the existence under the Moho of thick layers of high-density and high-velocity eclogites. As can be seen in high resolution seismic profiles, the intensity of crustal stretching did not exceed 10% in the basins, and their formation can be predominantly attributed to a high-grade metamorphism in the mafic lower part of continental crust. At some episodes, strong increase in the rate of subsidence occurred in the basins. This indicates acceleration of metamorphism catalyzed by infiltration of mantle fluids. A set of the above features, abnormally large depth, long subsidence history with its acceleration at the late stages, and episodes of pronounced acceleration of the subsidence represent characteristic features of some other large hydrocarbon basins, e.g., of the North and South Caspian basins. These features can be used for prospecting new prolific provinces on the Arctic shelf. The Lomonosov ridge, Mendeleev high and the Makarov basin pertain to the same structural type. In the Oligocene they underwent erosion near to sea level with the formation of pronounced unconformity. Then at the end of Oligocene deep-water basins were formed in these regions. Rapid crustal

  14. Tectonic development of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Prouty, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The general form of the Michigan basin and surrounding frame structures - the Findlay, Kankakee, and Wisconsin arches - was inherited from the Precambrian. An ongoing study has provided new information on present basin configuration and the evolution of intrabasinal structures during the Paleozoic. This study involves: (1) isopach, structure contour, depocenter, and lithofacies map preparation; (2) diagenetic and epigenetic dolomitization processes and patterns; (3) Landsat imagery and lineament interpretation; (4) recognition of shearing mechanics and the resulting shear faulting and folding; and (5) the recognition of radial faults in contrast to shear faults. Monitoring of the above throughout the Paleozoic indicates that tectonic events within the basin were episodic in nature. Stresses are recognized as external and, through Fourier analysis of lineaments (shear faults), may be demonstrated as from the southeast, probably the Appalachian mobile belt. Shear faults are seated in Precambrian rocks, although they are probably not of that age. The faults occur with accompanying shear folds in rocks possibly as early as the Late Ordovician or Middle Silurian, but definitely by the Middle Devonian with the principal faulting and folding during the post-Osage Mississippian. Local shifting of the depocenter within the general Saginaw Bay area occurred during the early Paleozoic with a major shift westward to the present central basin position accompanied by the development of the present north-northwest ellipticity of the basin during the post-Osage, pre-Meramecian Mississippian. Barrier separation of the West Michigan Lagoon occurred in the Middle Ordovician and Middle and Late Devonian. Radial structures can be demonstrated in at least the Upper Silurian and Upper Devonian.

  15. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D.; Dozier, J.; Frew, J.

    1983-01-01

    While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.

  16. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  17. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  18. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  20. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  1. Shelter and indoor air.

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, J A

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in outdoor air quality that were achieved through the implementation of the Clean Air Act accentuate the quality of the indoor air as an important, if not dominant, factor in the determination of the total population exposure to air contaminants. A number of developments are adding important new determinants of indoor air quality. Energy conservation strategies require reductions in infiltration of outdoor air into buildings. New materials introduced in the construction and in the maintenance of buildings are contributing new air contaminants into the building atmosphere. Larger buildings require more and more complex ventilation systems that are less and less under the individual control of the occupants. All of these factors contribute to the current reality that indoor air contains more pollutants, and often at higher concentrations, than outdoor air. Especially in the larger buildings, it will be necessary to assure that an adequate quantity of fresh air of acceptable quality is provided to each individual space, and that no new sources of pollutants are added to a space or a whole building without appropriate adjustments in the supply of fresh air. PMID:2401264

  2. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  3. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  4. Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C. ); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. ); Wade, L.O. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

  5. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  6. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. Findings The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. Conclusions On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. PMID:23587020

  7. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  8. Drainage Basin Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, S. L.; Comiti, F.; Brardinoni, F.; Sparacino, M.; Schook, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, increases in summer air temperatures generate glacial-melt floods with higher than normal magnitudes, increase the frequency of high intensity rainfall events, and lead to permafrost degradation of steep rocky slopes prone to mass wasting. Continued climatic warming has the potential to drastically increase the sediment supply to the channel network. A US-Italy collaboration is characterizing response domains for drainage basins undergoing deglaciation in the Italian Alps to develop sensitivity indices of changes in flow and sediment dynamics. Six glaciated basins 85-160 km2 in size within the upper Adige River Valley are analyzed. Three study basins have multi-year data on either the spatial distribution of mass wasting and sediment production or hydrology and sediment transport over snow and glacial melt, or both. The other three basins are tested for applicability of the sensitivity indices where field data are lacking. Preliminary results indicate basin lithology and degree of sediment connectivity are the dominant controls on drainage basin response. Four broadly applicable response domains incorporate metamorphic, sedimentary, or mixed bedrock lithology with high to low connectivity. The sensitivity indices for fluvial response are controlled by valley confinement and channel morphologic changes. A historic topographic map from 1858 provides qualitative channel geometry information at the end of the Little Ice Age and glacial extent for all basins. Aerial photographs from 1945, 1954, 1971, and lidar and imagery from 2005 or 2011, along with field verification quantify valley confinement, braiding index and sediment connectivity. Key controls on sediment delivery to channels include glacially-inherited topography and the distribution of glacigenic surficial materials. Sediment cascade modeling will identify sediment sources, pathways and sinks and provide a first order understanding of basin-scale response to climate change.

  9. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  10. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Desheng; Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  11. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  12. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  13. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  14. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  15. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  16. Evaluation of Infiltration Basin Performance in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, E.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration basins are commonly utilized to reduce or eliminate urban runoff in Florida. For permitting purposes, basins are required to recover their design volume, runoff from a one inch rainfall event, within 72 hours to satisfy the design criteria and are not required to account for groundwater mounding if volume recovery can be accomplished by filling of soil porosity by vertical infiltration below the basin surface. Forty infiltration basins were included in a field study to determine whether basin hydraulic performance was significantly different from their designed performance. Basins ranged in age from less than one year to over twenty years and land uses were equally divided between Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and residential developments. Six test sites within each basin were typically selected to measure infiltration rates using a double ring infiltrometer (DRI), a common method for infiltration basin sizing. Measured rates were statistically compared to designed infiltration rates, taking into account factors of safety. In addition, a surface soil boring was collected from each of the test sites for a series of analyses, including soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content. Eleven of the 40 evaluated basins were monitored between March 2008 and January 2012 to evaluate whether basins recovered their volumes from one inch events within 72 hours and to evaluate the effectiveness of using DRI rates to evaluate basin performance. Based on DRI rates, 16 (40%) basins had rates less than their designed rates, 10 (25%) had rates equal to their designed rates, and 14 (35%) basins had rates greater than their designed rates. Additionally, basins with coarser soils were also more likely to have DRI rates greater than designs and FDOT basins were more likely than residential basins to have infiltration rates at or above their designed rates. Five of the eleven monitored basins were expected to function as designed by recovering their

  17. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  18. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    SciTech Connect

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-11-11

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

  19. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  20. Seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Northwind Basin, Arctic Ocean in 1988, 1992 and 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; May, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected in generally ice-covered waters of the Canada Basin and the eastern part of the Chukchi Continental Borderland of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, during the late summers of 1988, 1992, and 1993. The data were acquired from a Polar class icebreaker, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star, using a seismic reflection system designed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The northernmost data extend to 78? 48' N latitude. In 1988, 155 km of reflection data were acquired with a prototype system consisting of a single 195 cubic inch air gun seismic source and a two-channel hydrophone streamer with a 150-m active section. In 1992 and 1993, 500 and 1,900 km, respectively, of seismic reflection profile data were acquired with an improved six air gun, 674 to 1303 cubic inch tuned seismic source array and the same two-channel streamer. In 1993, a 12-channel streamer with a 150-m active section was used to record five of the reflection lines and one line was acquired using a three air gun, 3,000 cubic inch source. All data were recorded with a DFS-V digital seismic recorder. Processed sections feature high quality vertical incidence images to more than 6 km of sub-bottom penetration in the Canada Basin. Refraction data were acquired with U.S. Navy sonobuoys recorded simultaneously with the seismic reflection profiles. In 1988 eight refraction profiles were recorded with the single air gun, and in 1992 and 1993 a total of 47 refraction profiles were recorded with the six air gun array. The sonobuoy refraction records, with offsets up to 35 km, provide acoustic velocity information to complement the short-offset reflection data. The report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles.

  1. Floods simulation in the Crişul Alb River Basin using hydrological model CONSUL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mic, Rodica Paula; Corbus, Ciprian; Matreata, Marius

    2016-04-01

    For the simulation of floods, in the Crişul Alb River Basin, Romanian hydrological model CONSUL with lumped parameters was used. This deterministic mathematical rainfall-runoff model compute discharge hydrographs on configured river sub-basins, their channel routing and composition on the main river and tributaries and finally their routing and mitigation through reservoirs, according to the schematic representation (topological modelling) of how water flows and integrate in a river basin. After topological modelling 42 sub-basins and 19 river reaches resulted for the Crişul Alb River Basin model configuration, established according to the position of tributaries, hydrometric stations and reservoirs that influence flow. The CONSUL model used as input data, for each sub-basin, average values of precipitation and air temperature determined based on the measured values of weather stations in the basin. Calculation of average values was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Crişul Alb River Basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. Calibration of model parameters was performed by the simulation of 25 rainfall-runoff events from the period 1975 - 2010, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. By simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the closing sections of river sub-basins were determined the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters and by simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the downstream sections of the river reaches hydrometrically controlled were determined the routing equation parameters. The parameters thus determined allow building some generalization relationships of these parameters according to the morphometric characteristics of the river sub-basins (surface, slope) or river reaches (length, slope). Based on these

  2. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters <2.5 μm), during CLs. Further, we speculate that the Caletones plume may trigger or promote secondary aerosol formation during CLs in the Santiago basin.

  3. The Impact of Meteorology on Ozone Levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiss, Sandra

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone exceeding the 70 ppb California Air Resources Board (CARB) ambient air quality standard (8-hour average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation of ozone in the Basin and long-range transport from out-of-Basin sources are important in contributing to ozone exceedances, but little is known about the impact of meteorology on the distribution of ozone source regions. In order to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting ozone levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, this study combines observational data from a 2010 and 2012 summer field campaigns, HYSPLIT back trajectories, and WRF model output to examine the meteorological influences of ozone transport in the topographically complex Lake Tahoe Basin. Findings from the field work portions of this study include enhanced background ozone levels at higher elevations, the local circulation pattern of lake breezes occurring at Lake level sites, and an indication that ozone precursors are coming off the Lake. Our analysis also showed that if transport of ozone does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley to the south rather than originate in the large cities to the west, such as Sacramento and San Francisco. Analysis of modeled PBL schemes as compared with observational data showed that the ACM2 PBL scheme best represented the geographical domain. The ACM2 PBL scheme was then used to show wind circulation patterns in the Lake Tahoe Basin and concluded that there is decent vertical mixing over the Basin and no indication of ozone transport from the west however some indication of transport from the east. Overall this study concludes that transport from the west is less significant than transport from the south and east, and that transport only influences ozone values at higher elevations. Within the Basin itself (at lower elevations), local factors

  4. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  5. Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

  6. Late Cenozoic Basins of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tor H.; Clarke, Samuel H.

    1989-12-01

    The late Cenozoic basins of northern California developed in response to both convergent tectonics associated with subduction of the Farallon plate (and its modern representatives, the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates) and transform tectonics associated with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and formation of the San Andreas fault system. The modern Eel River basin north of the Mendocino triple junction is an active forearc basin located between the Cascade magmatic arc to the east and the trench at the foot of the continental slope of northern California and Oregon to the west. Five different types of late Cenozoic basins or fragments of basins are preserved in onshore northern California south of the Mendocino triple junction: (1) remnants of a formerly more extensive Neogene forearc basin preserved locally in downdropped blocks within the San Andreas fault system; (2) remnants of slightly older trench-slope basins that generally developed west of but which may locally structurally underlie the younger forearc basin; (3) younger strike-slip-related structural basins that have developed along active right-lateral faults of the San Andreas fault system; (4) broad shallow embayments, perhaps similar to the modern San Francisco Bay, that were connected to the deeper Pacific Ocean to the west; and (5) structurally emplaced remnants of oceanic crust and its overlying sedimentary cover (the King Range terrane). Our preliminary stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies suggest that much of northern California was covered during the Neogene by a forearc basin that may have extended as far south as the San Francisco Bay region and into the southern San Joaquin Valley. As the Mendocino triple junction migrated northward during the late Cenozoic, the southern margin of the forearc basin was uplifted, basin deposits were stripped off by erosion, and the locus of forearc sedimentation shifted progressively northward through time. Preserved but isolated fragments

  7. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  8. [Pollution of room air].

    PubMed

    Schlatter, J

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm.

  9. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  10. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  11. Great Basin geoscience data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  12. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  13. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  14. Maxillary Air Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

  15. Olefin metathesis in air.

    PubMed

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  16. Impact of regional meteorology on ozone levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayne, Sandra; Gertler, Alan; Zielinska, Barbara; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Burley, Joel; Kaplan, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone (O3) exceeding the California Air Resources Board ambient air quality standard (8-h average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation and long-range transport from out-of-basin sources are important in contributing to O3 exceedances, but little is known about the impact of regional meteorology on O3 source regions. To develop a better understanding of the factors affecting O3 levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, a comprehensive field study was performed in the summer of 2010. Included in this effort was a meteorological analysis addressing potential regional meteorological influences leading to periods of elevated levels of O3. Three approaches were used to conduct the analysis: (1) regional atmospheric pressure difference (i.e., the Washoe Zephyr) to access potential transport, (2) back trajectory modeling using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine where the air masses originated and, (3) composite soundings to evaluate in-Basin atmospheric influences. These analyses indicate the Washoe Zephyr did not strongly impact O3 levels; however, higher O3 levels were found to correspond with both a more southerly wind component and a dip in dew point temperature around 400 hPa. The results also indicate that if transport does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley and move to the southern part of the Basin, rather than originating in the large cities to the west (i.e., Sacramento and San Francisco).

  17. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  18. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  19. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  20. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  1. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  2. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  3. Hydrological response to forest disturbance under a changing climate in experimental headwater basins, Central Sumava Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ye; Gao, Hongkai; Langhammer, Jakub; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2014-05-01

    In forested basins, forest disturbance and climatic variability are commonly recognized as two major drivers of hydrological regimes changes. Vydra's mountainous headwater basin in the Czech Republic, which is selected as study area, has undergone simultaneously an increase in temperature and extensive forest disturbance mainly resulting from bark beetle outbreak. The study area consists of 8 small experimental sub-basins of size around 3-5 km2. Water stages have been monitored in 10-min interval since 2005. Data on precipitation, air temperature, radiation, air humidity, wind speed and direction exist at 10-minute interval, in 4 stations since 2009. Different sub-basins are covered by different types of physiographic conditions, land cover and varying intensity and nature of forest disturbance. A paired basin methodology was used to study the effect of land cover change on the runoff regime. In the studied basins, the cumulative effects of the changing climate and the extensive forest decay are reflected in the observed discharge data in terms of the seasonal shift in peak flow and low flow magnitude, frequency, and duration by statistical methods. From the basin comparison, we could identify which factors determine the differences in hydrological regimes adjustment. Two main conclusions can be drawn: 1) forest disturbance largely changes the interception and transpiration, and 2) paired basins method is able to trade time for space in understanding the process of forest degradation and regeneration, especially in the growing season. In winter the hydrological regime shifts were mainly driven by climate variability. Subsequently, we used this knowledge in hydrological models and tested our hypothesis by stepwise modelling. We assume that the topography and land cover have great influence on the hydrological regime under different climate conditions. Thus, we test the split-sample validation as well as model transferability within the framework of the FLEX

  4. Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

  5. On the Global Oxygen Anomaly and Air-Sea Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hernan E.; Keeling, Ralph F.

    2001-01-01

    A new climatology of monthly air-sea oxygen fluxes throughout the ice-free surface global ocean is presented. The climatology is based on weighted linear least squares regressions using heat flux monthly anomalies for spatial and temporal interpolation of historical O2 data. The seasonal oceanic variations show that the tropical belt (20 S - 20 N) is characterized by relatively small air-sea fluxes when compared to the middle to high latitudes (40 deg - 70 deg). The largest and lowest seasonal fluxes occur during summer and winter in both hemispheres. By means of an atmospheric transport model we show that our climatology is in better agreement with the observed amplitude and phasing of the variations in atmospheric O2/N2 ratios because of seasonal air-sea exchanges at baseline stations in the Pacific Ocean than with previous air-sea O2 climatologies. Our study indicates that the component of the air-sea O2 flux that correlates with heat flux dominates the large-scale air-sea O2 exchange on seasonal timescales. The contribution of each major oceanic basin to the atmospheric observations is described. The seasonal net thermal (SNO(sub T)) and biological (SNO(sub B)) outgassing components of the flux are examined in relation to latitudinal bands, basin-wide, and hemispheric contributions. The Southern Hemisphere's SNO(sub B) (approximately 0.26 Pmol) and SNO(sub T) (approximately 0.29 Pmol) values are larger than the Northern Hemisphere's SNO(sub B) (approximately 0.15 Pmol) and SNO(sub T) (approximately 0.16 Pmol) values (1 Pmol = 10(exp 15) mol). We estimate a global extratropical carbon new production during the outgassing season of 3.7 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(exp 15) g), lower than previous estimates with air-sea O2 climatologies.

  6. Geologic evolution of the eastern Eridania basin: Implications for aqueous processes in the southern highlands of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Le Deit, Laetitia; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The Terra Sirenum region of Mars is thought to have hosted the Eridania paleolake during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and it offers an insight into the regional aqueous history of Mars. We focus on four basins, including Atlantis, Simois, Caralis, and an unnamed basin. They are hypothesized to have hosted isolated lakes after the drainage of the Eridania Lake. We produced a geologic map and derived model absolute ages of our main mapped units. The map and model ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The basin floors are covered by light-toned materials containing Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates. Across most of the region, the Electris unit covers the highlands and is eroded into mesas. The deposition of this unit corresponds to air fall and/or fluvial mechanisms that transported the material into the basins and accumulated it on the plateaus and basin floors and rims. The deposits on the basin floors were later degraded into light-toned knobs that are rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates. On the rim of the Simois and the unnamed basins, a sequence of Al-phyllosilicates on top of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates has been observed. These Al-phyllosilicate-rich materials may have been formed by pedogenic leaching. The presence of chloride in the area suggests that a playa environment prevailed during the last stage of water presence or after desiccation of the lakes. In the Early Amazonian, the last aqueous activity cemented the postlacustrine air fall deposits in the basins and shows that liquid water was present in Terra Sirenum long after the Noachian.

  7. Comparative study of compensation mechanism of lunar impact basins from new gravity field model of SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, N.; Sugita, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Goossens, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Ssasaki, S.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Araki, H.

    2009-04-01

    The gravity field is a fundamental physical quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of planetary bodies. The most significant problem of the previous lunar gravity models, however, is the lack of direct observations of the far side gravity signals [1]. We then developed a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system for SELENE [2]. In this study, we adopt our new gravity field model with nearly full coverage of the lunar far side to discuss dichotomy of the lunar basins. Because all the nearside impact basins are filled with extensive mare basalt deposits, it is difficult to estimate the subsurface structures, such as uplift of the Moho surface, from gravity measurements. In contrast, far-side impact basins have much less or no mare basalt coverage. This may allow us to investigate the internal structure underneath impact basins. Such knowledge will be important in understanding the response of a solid planetary body to large meteoritic impacts and also the thermal state of the Moon during the late heavy bombardment period. There are distinctive differences between the anomalies of the near side principal mascons and the far side basins. As shown previously [1, 3], the near side principal mascons have sharp shoulders with a gravity plateau and a weakly negative gravity anomaly in the surroundings. In contrast, the far side basins are characterized by concentric rings of positive and negative anomalies. The circular gravity highs agree well with the topographic rims of the basins revealed by SELENE topography model STM-359_grid-02 [4]. In our gravity model, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Lorentz, and Humboldtianum show more affinity with the far side basins than the near side principal mascons [5]. Korolev, Mendeleev, Planck, and Lorentz basins have sharp central peaks of which magnitude in free-air anomalies is almost equivalent to the one in Bouguer anomalies. On the other hand, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, Moscoviense

  8. Spatial and temporal characteristics of stable isotopes in the Tarim River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjian; Li, Xingong; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Stotler, Randy L; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-06-01

    By using 233 isotope samples, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation and surface water, and the contribution of different water sources in the rivers within the Tarim River Basin (TRB), which receives snow/glacier meltwater, groundwater, and rainfall. Our study revealed a similar seasonal pattern of precipitation δ(18)O and δ(2)H at both the north and south edges of the basin, indicating the dominant effect of westerly air masses in the summer and the combined influence of westerly and polar air masses during the winter, although the southern part showed more complex precipitation processes in the summer. River water in the basin has relatively large temporal variations in both δ(18)O and δ(2)H showing a distinct seasonal pattern with lower isotope values in May than in September. Higher d-excess values throughout the year in the Aksu river and the Tizinafu river suggest that water may be intensively recycled in the mountains of the TRB. Based on isotopic hydrograph separation, we found that groundwater is the main water source that discharges the entire basin although individual rivers vary. PMID:26862902

  9. Critical role of meteorological conditions in a persistent haze episode in the Guanzhong basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bei, Naifang; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, the critical role of the meteorological condition in a persistent extreme haze episode that occurred in Guanzhong basin of China on December 16 to 25, 2013 has been investigated. Analyses of the large-scale meteorological conditions on 850hPa during the episode have been performed using the NCEP FNL data set, indicating that synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of pollutants either in horizontal or vertical directions in the basin. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to illustrate the pollutant transport patterns during the episode, further showing the dominant role of synoptic conditions in accumulation of pollutants in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, and low-level horizontal wind speed also contribute to the extreme haze episode. In addition, the WRF-CHEM model has been used to evaluate the responses of the surface PM2.5 level to the emission mitigation. Generally, the predicted PM2.5 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites. Sensitivity studies show that the emissions in the basin need to be mitigated by more than 91% to meet the excellent level of the China National Air Quality Standard under the extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, demonstrating that it is imperative to implement stringent controls on emissions to improve the air quality.

  10. Spatial and temporal characteristics of stable isotopes in the Tarim River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjian; Li, Xingong; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Stotler, Randy L; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-06-01

    By using 233 isotope samples, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation and surface water, and the contribution of different water sources in the rivers within the Tarim River Basin (TRB), which receives snow/glacier meltwater, groundwater, and rainfall. Our study revealed a similar seasonal pattern of precipitation δ(18)O and δ(2)H at both the north and south edges of the basin, indicating the dominant effect of westerly air masses in the summer and the combined influence of westerly and polar air masses during the winter, although the southern part showed more complex precipitation processes in the summer. River water in the basin has relatively large temporal variations in both δ(18)O and δ(2)H showing a distinct seasonal pattern with lower isotope values in May than in September. Higher d-excess values throughout the year in the Aksu river and the Tizinafu river suggest that water may be intensively recycled in the mountains of the TRB. Based on isotopic hydrograph separation, we found that groundwater is the main water source that discharges the entire basin although individual rivers vary.

  11. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  12. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  13. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

  14. Impact of Aerosol Direct Effect on East Asian Air Quality During the EAST-AIRE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three WRF-Chem simulations were conducted for East Asia region during March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) period to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. WRF-Chem captured the temporal and spatial variations of meteorological fields, trace gases, and aerosol loadings. Surface shortwave radiation changes due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE) were calculated and compared with data from six World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) stations. The comparison indicated that WRF-Chem can simulate the surface short wave radiation moderately well, with temporal correlations between 0.4 and 0.7, and high biases between 9 to 120 W/m2. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 22 W/m2 in surface SW radiation due to the aerosol direct effect, consistent with observational studies. The ADE demonstrates diverse influences on air quality in East Asian. For example, the surface concentration of PM2.5 increases in eastern China (~11.1%) due to ADE, but decreases in central China (-7.3%), western China (-8.8%), and Sichuan Basin (-4%). Surface 1-hour maximum ozone is reduced by 2.3%, owing to less radiation reaching the surface due to the ADE. Since PM2.5 pollution raises serious public concern in China, regulations that control the emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors have been implemented. We investigate the impact of reducing two different types of aerosols, sulfate (scattering) and black carbon (absorbing), by cutting 80% of SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions in two sensitivity simulations. We found that reducing SO2 emissions results in the decline of PM2.5 as much as 16mg/m3 in eastern China, and 20mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. Reducing the BC emissions by the same percentage causes the PM2.5 to decrease as much as 40mg/m3 in eastern China, and 25mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. The monthly averaged surface 1-hour maximum ozone increases 3

  15. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  16. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  18. Data quality objectives for gas and liquid samples from sealed K West basin canisters (second campaign)

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for gas and liquid sampling from the sealed canisters in K West Basin have been developed and are presented in this document. This sampling campaign supports the selection of canisters to provide fuel for hot cell examinations and provides an assessment of gas/liquid chemistry for comparison to the results of fuel element hot cell examinations. It also provides information applicable to water cleanup and air permits for the fuel handling associated with moving fuel to dry storage.

  19. Chesapeake Bay Basin Monitoring Program Atlas. Volume 1. Water quality and other physiochemical monitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heasly, P.; Pultz, S.; Batiuk, R.

    1989-08-01

    The Monitoring Program Atlas provides an overview of current long-term environmental monitoring programs in the Chesapeake Bay Basin. The Atlas covers a wide scope of program types, ranging from water quality, living resources, toxics, and physical processes to air quality, acid deposition and climate monitoring programs. The two-volume publication is intended to facilitate coordination and integration of environmental monitoring programs and to encourage the collection of comparable monitoring data basinwide.

  20. Chesapeake Bay Basin Monitoring Program Atlas. Volume 2. Biological and living resource monitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heasly, P.; Pultz, S.; Batiuk, R.

    1989-08-01

    The Monitoring Program Atlas provides an overview of current long-term environmental monitoring programs in the Chesapeake Bay Basin. The Atlas covers a wide scope of program types, ranging from water quality, living resources, toxics, and physical processes to air quality, acid deposition and climate monitoring programs. The two-volume publication is intended to facilitate coordination and integration of environmental monitoring programs and to encourage the collection of comparable monitoring data basinwide.

  1. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  2. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  3. Petroleum geology of Norton basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Basement rocks beneath the main part of the Norton basin were deformed and heated during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous to the extent that these rocks were not capable of generating hydrocarbons when the basin formed during the latest Cretaceous or early Paleogene. Consequently, source rocks for oil, if they exist, are most likely to be within the basin fill. If the Norton basin began to form 65 m.y. ago, subsided at a nearly constant rate, and had an average geothermal gradient of between 35 and 45/sup 0/C/km, then rocks as young as late Oligocene are in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65 and 1.30%). The appearance on seismic sections of reflections from rocks in and below the calculated oil window suggests that these rocks were deposited in a nonmarine environment. Thus, gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons to be present in the basin. Because of their shallow depth of burial, Neogene (possibly marine) rocks are not likely to be thermally mature anywhere in the basin. Deep parts of the basin formed as isolated faultbounded lows; consequently, the volume of mature rocks makes up at most 11% of the total basin fill. Numerous potential traps for hydrocarbons exist in the Norton basin; the traps include fractured or weathered basement rocks in horsts, strata in alluvial fans on the flanks of horsts, and arched strata over horsts.

  4. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  5. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  6. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  7. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  9. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  10. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  11. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  12. Linear kinematic air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayall, S. D.

    1974-01-01

    Bearing provides continuous, smooth movement of the cat's-eye mirror, eliminating wear and deterioration of bearing surface and resulting oscillation effects in servo system. Design features self-aligning configuration; single-point, pivotal pad mounting, having air passage through it; and design of pads that allows for precise control of discharge path of air from pads.

  13. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  14. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  15. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  19. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  20. Diagnosis of Hydrological Resiliency and Functional Change in a Canadian Rockies Mountain Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, P.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Siemens, E.; Fang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A well-instrumented headwater basin in the Canadian Rockies, Marmot Creek Research Basin, has experienced substantial warming at a range of elevations with evidence of hydrological functional change, but there has been no change observed in the streamflow regime over the last 50 years. Despite observations of increased air temperature of up to 4 oC in winter, concentration of precipitation into multiple day events in the spring, decreased peak snow accumulation at lower elevations by 50%, and decreased (increased) low (high) elevation groundwater storage; there are no trends in streamflow timing, peak or seasonal volumes since records began in 1962. This suggests a remarkable resilience in runoff generation to changing temperature and precipitation regime in a cold regions basin. To diagnose possible reasons for this resilience the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) simulated the basin hydrological processes and response over two periods that had excellent driving meteorology; 1969-1987 and 2006-2013. CRHM calculates all of the relevant hydrological processes including blowing snow redistribution, intercepted snow and rain loss, sublimation, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, overland flow, interflow in organic soils, sub-surface runoff in mineral soils, soil water redistribution and groundwater flow. Model results show that compared to the first period, increases in annual, basin-averaged fluxes occurred in the latter period for rainfall (37%), snowfall (20%), snowmelt (30%), evapotranspiration (23%), and sublimation (42%), but no significant trend in runoff developed between the two periods. Snowmelt, sublimation and runoff increases were primarily at high elevations and sometimes reversed at lower elevations, whilst evapotranspiration and rainfall increases were at all elevations. This suggests that there are compensatory, altitude dependent increases in evaporative losses from sublimation and evapotranspiration that

  1. Regional geophysics and the basement of cratonic basins: a comparative study with the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Lidiak, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The basement of the Michigan basin consists of four major provinces - the complex metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and igneous rocks of the Penokean orogenic assemblage in the north, the felsic anorogenic igneous rocks to the south, the highly metamorphosed schists, gneisses, and related igneous intrusions of the Grenville province in the east, and a middle Proterozoic rift zone, which transects the basin from the north to the southeast margin. Sparse basement drill holes and characteristic geophysical patterns support this interpretation. The direct geologic information on the basement of other cratonic basins is not as well known. However, regional geophysical surveys and sparse, poorly distributed basement drill holes provide information on the complex character and structural relationships of the basement of other basins. Like the Michigan basin, many cratonic basins (e.g., Illinois, Williston, and Paris basins) are underlain by dense and commonly more magnetic rocks than adjacent areas. As in the Michigan basin, these rocks are interpreted to have a profound effect on the origin and tectonic development of the basins. Geologic and geophysical evidence indicates that many of these dense basement rocks originated in rifts that formed hundreds of millions of years prior to basin development. A comparison of the basement in cratonic basins provides important constraints on the origin and tectonic development of the Michigan basin.

  2. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  3. AIRE-Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  4. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  5. Free energy basin-hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland-Cash, K. H.; Wales, D. J.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2015-04-01

    A global optimisation scheme is presented using basin-hopping with the acceptance criterion based on approximate free energy for the corresponding local minima of the potential energy. The method is illustrated for atomic and colloidal clusters and peptides to examine how the predicted global free energy minimum changes with temperature. Using estimates for the local free energies based on harmonic vibrational densities of states provides a computationally effective framework for predicting trends in structure at finite temperature. The resulting scheme represents a powerful tool for exploration of energy landscapes throughout molecular science.

  6. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  7. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  8. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  10. Hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation beneath a rapid infiltration basin, Reedy Creek Improvement District, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Bradner, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement District disposes of about 7.5 million gallons per day (1992) of reclaimed water through 85 1-acre rapid infiltration basins within a 1,000-acre area of sandy soils in Orange County, Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field experiments in 1992 at an individual basin to examine and better understand the hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation of reclaimed water beneath a rapid infiltration basin. At the time, concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in reclaimed water were about 3 and 0.25 milligrams per liter, respectively. A two-dimensional, radial, unsaturated/saturated numerical flow model was applied to describe the flow system beneath a rapid infiltration basin under current and hypothetical basin loading scenarios and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the soil and sediment beneath a basin. The thicknesses of the unsaturated and saturated parts of the surficial aquifer system at the basin investigated were about 37 and 52 feet, respectively. The model successfully replicated the field-monitored infiltration rate (about 5.5 feet per day during the daily flooding periods of about 17 hours) and ground-water mounding response during basin operation. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the saturated part of the surficial aquifer system were estimated to be 150 and 45 feet per day, respectively. The field-saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the shallow soil, estimated to be about 5.1 feet per day, was considered to have been less than the full- saturation value because of the effects of air entrapment. Specific yield of the surficial aquifer was estimated to be 0.41. The upper 20 feet of the basin subsurface profile probably served as a system control on infiltration because of the relatively low field-saturated, vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments within this layer. The flow model indicates that, in the vicinity of the basin, flow in the deeper

  11. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  13. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  14. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy.

  15. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  16. Air-to-air radar flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Randall E.

    1988-06-01

    This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series describes flight test techniques, flight test instrumentation, ground simulation, data reduction and analysis methods used to determine the performance characteristics of a modern air-to-air (a/a) radar system. Following a general coverage of specification requirements, test plans, support requirements, development and operational testing, and management information systems, the report goes into more detailed flight test techniques covering a/a radar capabilities of: detection, manual acquisition, automatic acquisition, tracking a single target, and detection and tracking of multiple targets. There follows a section on additional flight test considerations such as electromagnetic compatibility, electronic countermeasures, displays and controls, degraded and backup modes, radome effects, environmental considerations, and use of testbeds. Other sections cover ground simulation, flight test instrumentation, and data reduction and analysis. The final sections deal with reporting and a discussion of considerations for the future and how they may affect radar flight testing.

  17. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  18. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  19. Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbuş, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; Mătreaţă, Marius

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual

  20. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625