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Sample records for air basin socab

  1. Observation of a reverse ozone weekend effect in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important component of air pollution. Ambient levels of these two species are inextricably linked due to the chemical coupling of O3 and NOx (NO + NO2). Horizontal maps of vertical column amounts of NO2 and O3 vertical profiles were measured aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns in summer 2010 by CU AMAX-DOAS and NOAA TOPAZ lidar instruments. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 covering most of California. Measurements of column integrated quantities over boundary layer height characterize the total pollutant load present in the atmosphere. Simultaneous vertical column measurements of NO2 and O3 are used to investigate the horizontal variability in Ox (= O3 + NO2) for selected case studies. We evaluate Ox partition over different chemical regimes/air masses such as urban pollution hotspots, clean background conditions, and assess differences in Ox partitioning between weekdays and weekends. The observation of elevated O3 during weekends is a wide spread phenomenon in California. Our column observations also provide an innovative means to investigate the question of whether surface in-situ measurements of Ox partitioning at monitoring stations are indicative over the entire planetary boundary layer height.

  2. Ammonia sources and ammonium nitrate formation in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Holloway, J. S.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; McKeen, S. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2011-12-01

    The South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California is designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as being in non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for both PM2.5 and PM10. Formation of fine aerosol nitrates (e.g., ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)) from gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3) accounts for a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass. Quantifying the sources of NH3 in the SoCAB is important for developing aerosol control strategies. Fast-time resolution observations of NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+), and carbon monoxide (CO) made aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex 2010 campaign are used to quantify and compare the major NH3 sources to the SoCAB atmosphere: automobiles and dairy farms. From the automobile NH3:CO emission ratio inferred from the WP-3D observations and CO inventory data the NH3 automobile emissions in the SoCAB are estimated at 38 ± 15 metric tons day-1. Atmospheric mass fluxes are calculated for observed NH3 plumes from dairy farms to estimate the NH3 dairy farm emissions at 27 ± 14 to 120 ± 60 metric tons day-1. Comparison with two emission inventories show good agreement for the automobile NH3:CO emission ratio, however, both inventories under predict NH3 emissions from the dairy farms. The observations suggest that automobiles and dairy farms contributed similar amounts of NH3 to the SoCAB in May 2010. However, observed particle mass was greater downwind from dairy farms, where high NH3 mixing ratios from more concentrated sources shift the NH4NO3 equilibrium toward favorable thermodynamic conditions for the condensation of NH4NO3 onto particles.

  3. Air pollution source/receptor relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, N.

    1993-12-31

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis, potential source contribution function analysis, Kohonen`s neural network combined with Prim`s minimal spanning tree, and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study. It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites. Based on the information of emission inventories, meterology and ambient concentrations this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO{sub 2} collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO{sub x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO{sub 3} to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH{sub 3}. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incenerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsuflide) and NH{sub 3} emissions from off-shore sediments that have been contaminated by waste sludge disposal.

  4. Reductions in human benzene exposure in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Denis, Michael J. St; Winer, Arthur M.; Colome, Steven D.; Lurmann, Frederick W.

    Benzene typically contributes a significant fraction of the human cancer risk associated with exposure to urban air pollutants. In recent years, concentrations of benzene in ambient air have declined in many urban areas due to the use of reformulated gasolines, lower vehicle emissions, and other control measures. In the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) ambient benzene concentrations have been reduced by more than 70% since 1989. To estimate the resulting effect on human exposures, the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model was used to calculate benzene exposures in the SoCAB for the years 1989 and 1997. Benzene concentration distributions in 14 microenvironments (e.g. outdoor, home, vehicle, work) were combined with California time-activity patterns and census data to calculate exposure distributions for 11 demographic groups in the SoCAB. For 1997, the calculated average benzene exposure for nonsmoking adults in the SoCAB was 2 ppb, compared to 6 ppb for 1989. For nonsmokers, about half of the 1997 exposure was due to ambient air concentrations (including their contributions to other microenvironments), but only 4% for smokers. Passive tobacco smoke contributed about one-fourth of all exposure for adult nonsmokers. In-transit microenvironments and attached garages contributed approximately 15 and 10%, respectively. From 1989 to 1997, decreases in passive smoke exposure accounted for about one-sixth of the decrease in exposure for nonsmoking adults, with the remainder due to decreases in ambient concentrations. The reductions in exposure during this time period indicate the effectiveness of reformulated fuels, more stringent emission standards, and smoking restrictions in significantly reducing exposure to benzene.

  5. Air Pollution Source/receptor Relationships in South Coast Air Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ning

    This research project includes the application of some existing receptor models to study the air pollution source/receptor relationships in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of southern California, the development of a new receptor model and the testing and the modifications of some existing models. These existing receptor models used include principal component factor analysis (PCA), potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis, Kohonen's neural network combined with Prim's minimal spanning tree (TREE-MAP), and direct trilinear decomposition followed by a matrix reconstruction. The ambient concentration measurements used in this study are a subset of the data collected during the 1987 field exercise of Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). It consists of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants analyzed from samples collected by SCAQS samplers at eight sampling sites, Anaheim, Azusa, Burbank, Claremont, Downtown Los Angeles, Hawthorne, Long Beach, and Rubidoux. Based on the information of emission inventories, meteorology and ambient concentrations, this receptor modeling study has revealed mechanisms that influence the air quality in SoCAB. Some of the mechanisms affecting the air quality in SoCAB that were revealed during this study include the following aspects. The SO_2 collected at sampling sites is mainly contributed by refineries in the coastal area and the ships equipped with oil-fired boilers off shore. Combustion of fossil fuel by automobiles dominates the emission of NO_{rm x} that is subsequently transformed and collected at sampling sites. Electric power plants also contribute HNO_3 to the sampling sites. A large feedlot in the eastern region of SoCAB has been identified as the major source of NH_3. Possible contributions from other industrial sources such as smelters and incinerators were also revealed. The results of this study also suggest the possibility of DMS (dimethylsulfide) and NH_3 emissions from off-shore sediments

  6. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  7. Ammonia sources in the California South Coast Air Basin and their impact on ammonium nitrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during CalNex in May and June 2010 are used to quantify ammonia (NH3) emissions from automobiles and dairy facilities in the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and assess their impact on particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) formation. These airborne measurements in the SoCAB are used to estimate automobile NH3 emissions, 62 ± 24 metric tons day-1, and dairy facility NH3 emissions, 33 ± 16 to 176 ± 88 metric tons day-1. Emission inventories agree with the observed automobile NH3:CO emission ratio, but substantially underpredict dairy facility NH3 emissions. Conditions observed downwind of the dairy facilities were always thermodynamically favorable for NH4NO3 formation due to high NH3 mixing ratios from the concentrated sources. Although automobile emissions generated lower NH3 mixing ratios, they also can thermodynamically favor NH4NO3 formation. As an aerosol control strategy, addressing the dairy NH3 source would have the larger impact on reducing SoCAB NH4NO3 formation.

  8. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; et al

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research andmore » Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.« less

  9. Quantifying Molecular Hydrogen Emissions and an Industrial Leakage Rate for the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, M. C.; Schroeder, J.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The poorly understood atmospheric budget and distribution of molecular hydrogen (H2) have invited further research since the discovery that emissions from a hydrogen-based economy could have negative impacts on the global climate system and stratospheric ozone. The burgeoning fuel cell electric vehicle industry in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) presents an opportunity to observe and constrain urban anthropogenic H2 emissions. This work presents the first H2 emissions estimate for the SoCAB and calculates an upper limit for the current rate of leakage from production and distribution infrastructure within the region. A top-down method utilized whole air samples collected during the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft from 23-25 June 2015 to estimate H2 emissions from combustion and non-combustion sources. H2:carbon monoxide (CO) and H2:carbon dioxide ratios from airborne observations were compared with experimentally established ratios from pure combustion source ratios and scaled with the well-constrained CO emissions inventory to yield H2 emissions of 24.9 ± 3.6 Gg a-1 (1σ) from combustion engines and 8.2 ± 4.7 Gg a-1 from non-combustion sources. Total daily production of H2 in the SoCAB was compared with the top-down results to estimate an upper limit leakage rate (5%) where all emissions not accounted for by incomplete combustion in engines were assumed to be emitted from H2 infrastructure. For bottom-up validation, the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory dispersion model was run iteratively with all known stationary sources in attempt to constrain emissions. While this investigation determined that H2 emissions from non-combustion sources in the SoCAB are likely significant, more in-depth analysis is required to better predict the atmospheric implications of a hydrogen economy.

  10. Ozone formation potentials of organic compounds from different emission sources in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Dongmin

    2012-08-01

    Different organic compounds exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the ozone formation potentials or source reactivities of different anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach was based on the combination of total organic gases (TOG) emission speciation profiles and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale of organic species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different emission sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analysis involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well for 58 anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in the SoCAB. Both approaches identify TOG emissions from mobile sources as having the highest reactivity. Source reactivities from both approaches were also combined with TOG emissions from each source category to produce a 2005 reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission inventory for the SoCAB. The top five reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources in the SoCAB during 2005 were: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipment, consumer products, light-duty trucks category 2 (i.e., 3751-5750 lb), and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that livestock waste and composting emission categories were two of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. The reactivity-based TOG emission inventory is an important addition to the mass-based TOG emission inventory because it represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources and can be used to assist in determining targeted sources for developing organic compounds reduction policies.

  11. Fine-scale simulation of ammonium and nitrate over the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of California during CalNex-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Nowak, John B.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Markovic, Milos Z.; VandenBoer, Trevor C.; Ellis, Raluca A.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Weber, Rodney J.; Roberts, James M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Gouw, Joost A.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Newman, Sally; Misenis, Chris

    2014-03-01

    National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) have been set for PM2.5 due to its association with adverse health effects. PM2.5 design values in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and San Joaquin Valley of California exceed NAAQS levels, and NH4+ and NO3- make up the largest fraction of total PM2.5 mass on polluted days. Here we evaluate fine-scale simulations of PM2.5 NH4+ and NO3- with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model using measurements from routine networks and the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change 2010 campaign. The model correctly simulates broad spatial patterns of NH4+ and NO3- including the elevated concentrations in eastern SoCAB. However, areas for model improvement have been identified. NH3 emissions from livestock and dairy facilities appear to be too low, while those related to waste disposal in western SoCAB may be too high. Analyses using measurements from flights over SoCAB suggest that problems with NH3 predictions can influence NO3- predictions there. Offline ISORROPIA II calculations suggest that overpredictions of NHx in Pasadena cause excessive partitioning of total nitrate to the particle phase overnight, while underpredictions of Na+ cause too much partitioning to the gas phase during the day. Also, the model seems to underestimate mixing during the evening boundary layer transition leading to excessive nitrate formation on some nights. Overall, the analyses demonstrate fine-scale variations in model performance within and across the air basins. Improvements in inventories and spatial allocations of NH3 emissions and in parameterizations of sea spray emissions, evening mixing processes, and heterogeneous ClNO2 chemistry could improve model performance.

  12. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  13. Weakening of the weekend ozone effect over California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Kim, S.-W.; Langford, A. O.; Oetjen, H.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) during a hot weekend (summer 2010) from aircraft over the entire South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Surface concentrations of NO2, O3, and temperature from 1996 to 2014 corroborate that this lower O3 on weekends is increasingly likely in recent years. While higher surface O3 on the weekends (weekend ozone effect, WO3E) remains widespread, the spatial extent and the trend in the probability of WO3E occurrences (PWO3E) have decreased significantly compared to a decade ago. This decrease is mostly the result of lower O3 on hot weekends in recent years. PWO3E is lowest in the eastern SoCAB. The major decrease happened during the 2008 economic recession, after which PWO3E has stabilized at a 15-25% lower level throughout most of the basin. Future NOx reductions are likely to be increasingly effective at reducing O3 pollution initially under hot conditions in the coming decade.

  14. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  15. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  16. Ozone Formation Potentials from Different Anthropogenic Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Luo, D.; Croes, B.

    2010-12-01

    Different volatile organic compounds (VOC) exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the relative ozone formation potentials (source reactivities) of different anthropogenic VOC emission source categories in California’s South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach combined emission speciation profiles for total organic gases (TOG) with maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scales for VOC species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analyses involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities for 58 VOC emission categories in SoCAB derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well (R2 = ~0.9). Both approaches revealed the two emissions source types with the highest TOG reactivity were mobile sources and managed forest burning. Also, a reactivity-based TOG emission inventory for SoCAB in 2005 was produced by combining the source reactivities from both approaches with TOG emissions from anthropogenic source categories. The top five reactivity-based source categories are: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipments, consumer products, light-duty trucks, and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that farming operations (mainly from animal waste) was one of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. Compared to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, the reactivity-based TOG emission inventory more appropriately represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources, and highlights those sources that should be targeted for future regulations.

  17. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-11-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments (e.g., enhancements of 13 pptv and 11 pptv for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively). Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (0.98±0.05 Gg) and HFC-134a (1.40±0.11 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:CO enhancement ratio. The emission rates were extrapolated to the SoCAB (1.48±0.07 Gg for HFC-152a and 2.12±0.17 Gg for HFC-134a) and US (30.1±1.5 Gg for HFC-152a and 43.0±3.4 Gg for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB also were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Estimates obtained using both methods agree well.

  18. Impacts of electronically photo-excited NO2 on air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensberg, J. J.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Dabdub, D.

    2010-02-01

    A new path for hydroxyl radical formation via photo-excitation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water is evaluated using the UCI-CIT model for the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB). Two separate studies predict different reaction rates, which differ by nearly an order of magnitude, for the reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water. Impacts of this new chemical mechanism on ozone and particulate matter formation, while utilizing both reaction rates, are quantified by simulating two summer episodes. First, sensitivity simulations are conducted to evaluate the uncertainty in the rate of reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water reported in the literature. Results indicate that the addition of photo-excited NO2 chemistry increases peak 8-h average ozone and particulate matter concentrations. The importance of this new chemistry is then evaluated in the context of pollution control strategies. A series of simulations are conducted to generate isopleths for ozone and particulate matter concentrations, varying baseline nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. Isopleths are obtained using 1987 emissions, to represent past conditions, and 2005, to represent current conditions in the SoCAB. Results show that the sensitivity of modeled pollutant control strategies due to photoexcitation decreases with the decrease in baseline emissions from 1987 to 2005. Results show that including NO2 photo-excitation, increases the sensitivity of ozone concentration with respect to changes in NOx emissions for both years. In particular, decreasing NOx emissions in 2005 when NO2 photo-excitation is included, while utilizing the higher reaction rate, leads to ozone relative reduction factors that are 15% lower than in a case without photo-excited NO2. This implies that photoexcitation increases the effectiveness in reducing ozone through NOx emissions reductions alone, which has implications for the assessment of future

  19. Modeling the weekly cycle of NOx and CO emissions and their impacts on O3 in the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McDonald, B. C.; Baidar, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lee, H.-J.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Scarino, A. J.; Senff, C. J.; Thalman, R.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Waxman, E.; Young, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission inventory for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) expanding the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions and applied it in regional chemical transport modeling focused on the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign. The weekday NOx emission over the SoCAB in 2010 is 620 t d-1, while the weekend emission is 410 t d-1. The NOx emission decrease on weekends is caused by reduced diesel truck activities. Weekday and weekend CO emissions over this region are similar: 2340 and 2180 t d-1, respectively. Previous studies reported large discrepancies between the airborne observations of NOx and CO mixing ratios and the model simulations for CalNex based on the available bottom-up emission inventories. Utilizing the newly developed emission inventory in this study, the simulated NOx and CO mixing ratios agree with the observations from the airborne and the ground-based in situ and remote sensing instruments during the field study. The simulations also reproduce the weekly cycles of these chemical species. Both the observations and the model simulations indicate that decreased NOx on weekends leads to enhanced photochemistry and increase of O3 and Ox (=O3 + NO2) in the basin. The emission inventory developed in this study can be extended to different years and other urban regions in the U.S. to study the long-term trends in O3 and its precursors with regional chemical transport models.

  20. Diurnal and weekday variations in the source contributions of ozone precursors in California's South Coast Air Basin.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John C; Bowen, John L; Goliff, Wendy S; Stockwell, William R; Lawson, Douglas R

    2003-07-01

    For at least 30 years, ozone (O3) levels on weekends in parts of California's South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin (SoCAB) have been as high as or higher than on weekdays, even though ambient levels of O3 precursors are lower on weekends than on weekdays. A field study was conducted in the Los Angeles area during fall 2000 to test whether proposed relationships between emission sources and ambient nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels can account for observed diurnal and day-of-week variations in the concentration and proportions of precursor pollutants that may affect the efficiency and rate of O3 formation. The contributions to ambient NMHC by motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions, estimated using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling, ranged from 65 to 85% with minimal day-of-week variation. Ratios of ambient NOx associated with black carbon (BC) to NOx associated with carbon monoxide (CO) were approximately 1.25 +/- 0.22 during weekdays and 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 0.52 +/- 0.07 on Saturday and Sunday, respectively. These results demonstrate that lower NOx emissions from diesel exhaust can be a major factor causing lower NOx mixing ratios and higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekends. Nonmobile sources showed no significant day-of-week variations in their contributions to NMHC. Greater amounts of gasoline emissions are carried over on Friday and Saturday evenings but are, at most, a minor factor contributing to higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekend mornings. PMID:12880072

  1. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.159 - Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.159 Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great Basin Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  5. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Evan, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J.; Brown, S. S.; Nowak, J. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Oda, T.; Trainer, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% in LA County and by 37% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% in LA County and by 27% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% in LA County but decreased by 4% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, a gridded CARB inventory and the posterior

  6. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Evan, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J.; Brown, S. S.; Nowak, J. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Trainer, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% ± 6% in LA County and by 37% ± 10% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% ± 10% in LA County and by 27% ± 15% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 ± 18 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% ± 14% in LA County but decreased by 4% ± 10% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, CARB 2010 and the posterior inventories derived in

  7. Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, Jerome; Angevine, Wayne; Ahmadov, Ravan; Kim, Si Wan; Evan, Stephanie; McKeen, Stuart; Hsie, Eirh Yu; Frost, Greg; Neuman, Andy; Pollack, Ilana; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Tom; Holloway, John; Brown, Steeve; Nowak, John; Roberts, Jim; Wofsy, Steeve; Santoni, Greg; Trainer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We present top-down estimates of anthropogenic CO, NOx and CO2 surface fluxes at mesoscale using a Lagrangian model in combination with three different WRF model configurations, driven by data from aircraft flights during the CALNEX campaign in southern California in May-June 2010. The US EPA National Emission Inventory 2005 (NEI 2005) was the prior in the CO and NOx inversion calculations. The flux ratio inversion method, based on linear relationships between chemical species, was used to calculate the CO2 inventory without prior knowledge of CO2 surface fluxes. The inversion was applied to each flight to estimate the variability of single-flight-based flux estimates. In Los Angeles (LA) County, the uncertainties on CO and NOx fluxes were 10% and 15%, respectively. Compared with NEI 2005, the CO posterior emissions were lower by 43% ± 6% in LA County and by 37% ± 10% in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). NOx posterior emissions were lower by 32% ± 10% in LA County and by 27% ± 15% in the SoCAB. NOx posterior emissions were 40% lower on weekends relative to weekdays. The CO2 posterior estimates were 183 ± 18 Tg yr-1 in SoCAB. A flight during ITCT in 2002 was used to estimate emissions in the LA Basin in 2002. From 2002 to 2010, the CO and NOx posterior emissions decreased by 41% and 37%, respectively, in agreement with previous studies. Over the same time period, CO2 emissions increased by 10% ± 14% in LA County but decreased by 4% ± 10% in the SoCAB, a statistically insignificant change. Overall, the posterior estimates were in good agreement with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory, with differences of 15% or less. However, the posterior spatial distribution in the basin was significantly different from CARB for NOx emissions. WRF-Chem mesoscale chemical-transport model simulations allowed an evaluation of differences in chemistry using different inventory assumptions, including NEI 2005, CARB 2010 and the posterior inventories derived in

  8. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  9. AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENTS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN THE CALIFORNIA SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations have been measured at two locations (Claremont and Riverside) in the California South Coast Air Basin during the months of July and August 1977. Three different analytical methods were employed: a chemiluminescent method and two colorimetri...

  10. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  12. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  13. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  14. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  15. Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Alexia A; Economopoulos, Alexander P

    2002-12-01

    An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results are inputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the number of road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOC appear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating and traffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysis show that the levels of all 'classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant health impact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entire population from 1.3 to 1.7 years. PMID:12503898

  16. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  17. Identification and Tracking of Polluted Air Masses in the South-Central Coast Air Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. E.; Douglas, S. G.; Kessler, R. C.; Killus, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    does not intrude. Systematic transport between air basins calls for regional-scale photochemical modeling to accurately address issues concerning exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone observed in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties.

  18. An assessment of ozone concentrations within and near the Lake Tahoe Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolislager, Leon J.; VanCuren, Richard; Pederson, James R.; Lashgari, Ash; McCauley, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Tahoe Atmospheric Deposition Study (LTADS) was conducted by the Air Resources Board of the State of California (CARB) primarily to generate refined estimates of the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorous, and particulate matter directly to Lake Tahoe, which straddles the border between the states of California and Nevada near Reno, Nevada. The enhanced air quality monitoring during LTADS also included ozone measurements, which yielded additional insights into atmospheric processes and the role of transport in determining ozone concentrations within the Lake Tahoe Air Basin. The Lake Tahoe Air Basin is located generally downwind of air basins with major emissions of ozone precursors (e.g., VOCs, NOx), capable of generating significant ozone concentrations. Furthermore, vegetation on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada contribute biogenic organic compounds to the air mass. Ozone concentrations within the Tahoe Basin infrequently exceed the local 1-h threshold set to protect forest health (0.08 ppm) and the California 8-h ambient air quality standard (0.070 ppm). A concern then is the potential contribution of regional emission sources to the ozone concentrations observed in the Tahoe Basin. The ozone data collected during LTADS helped to better characterize the relative contribution of local and regional pollution sources to ozone air quality within the Tahoe Basin. The data indicate potential 1- or 2-day intact transport on rare occasions but generally the mixing of the atmosphere over the Sierra Nevada disperses the anthropogenic ozone throughout the boundary layer, which is generally more than a kilometer or two deep during the day. The data analysis indicates that emissions from upwind air basins add to the atmospheric burden of ozone concentrations, raising the regional concentrations in the Sierra Nevada. Given the large background and upwind enhancements relative to the ambient air quality standards, the local contribution does not need to

  19. Cold-Air-Pool Structure and Evolution in a Mountain Basin: Peter Sinks, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Craig B.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Horel, John D.

    2003-06-01

    The evolution of potential temperature and wind structure during the buildup of nocturnal cold-air pools was investigated during clear, dry, September nights in Utah's Peter Sinks basin, a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole that holds the Utah minimum temperature record of -56 C. The evolution of cold-pool characteristics depended on the strength of prevailing flows above the basin. On an undisturbed day, a 30 C diurnal temperature range and a strong nocturnal potential temperature inversion (22 K in 100 m) were observed in the basin. Initially, downslope flows formed on the basin sidewalls. As a very strong potential temperature jump (17 K) developed at the top of the cold pool, however, the winds died within the basin and over the sidewalls. A persistent turbulent sublayer formed below the jump. Turbulent sensible heat flux on the basin floor became negligible shortly after sunset while the basin atmosphere continued to cool. Temperatures over the slopes, except for a 1 to 2-m-deep layer, became warmer than over the basin center at the same altitude. Cooling rates for the entire basin near sunset were comparable to the 90 W m-2 rate of loss of net longwave radiation at the basin floor, but these rates decreased to only a few watts per square meter by sunrise. This paper compares the observed cold-pool buildup in basins with inversion buildup in valleys.

  20. Reaction rate constant for dry air oxidation of K Basin fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1998-04-29

    The rate of oxidation of spent nuclear fuel stored in the K Basin water is an important parameter when assessing the processes and accident scenarios for preparing the fuel for dry storage. The literature provides data and rate laws for the oxidation of unirradiated uranium in various environments. Measurement data for the dry air oxidation of K Basin fuel is compared to the literature data for linear oxidation in dry air. Equations for the correlations and statistical bounds to the K Basin fuel data and the literature data are selected for predicting nominal and bounding rates for the dry air oxidation of the K Basin fuel. These rate equations are intended for use in the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Technical Data book.

  1. Air quality impacts of motor vehicle emissions in the south coast air basin: Current versus more stringent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Susan; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Lohman, Kristen; Karamchandani, Prakash; Chen, Shu-Yun; Minoura, Hiroaki

    2012-02-01

    States are working to comply with the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Often, regulations restricting vehicle emissions are promulgated in order to attain compliance with the NAAQS. Currently, more stringent vehicle emission regulations are being considered by government agencies. This paper compares emissions from passenger cars and light duty trucks under the current California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV II) standards to a control scenario which was anticipated in 2008 to become LEV III (referred to as "more stringent control" in this paper) and determines if the scenario would result in additional improvements to air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin. The air quality modeling was performed using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for years 2005, 2014 and 2020. The more stringent control sensitivity study simulated a scenario in which all new passenger cars and light duty trucks in the California South Coast Air Basin in year 2016 achieve Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) tail pipe emissions, zero evaporative emissions and more stringent aggressive driving requirements. The total on-road vehicles emissions difference when averaged across the South Coast Air Basin showed the more stringent scenario compared to LEV II to have reductions of 1% for oxides of nitrogen (NO x), 1% for as reactive organic gases (ROG) and 5% for carbon monoxide (CO) in 2030. LEV II modeled ozone levels in the western areas of the basin increased in 2014 and 2020 as compared to 2005, because these areas are VOC-sensitive and the reductions in NO x emissions in these regions are larger than the VOC reductions. In other areas of the South Coast Basin, ozone is reduced by 1.5% or less. The more stringent control scenario modeled levels of ozone have a maximum decrease from LEV II levels by 1% or less in 2014 and 1.5% or less in 2020.

  2. Ozone trends in California`s South Coast Air Basin, 1976--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cohanim, S.; Cassmassi, J.; Bassett, M.

    1998-12-31

    The South Coast Air Basin (Basin) of Southern California exhibits the worst air quality in the nation, as measured by the annual number of days exceeding the 1-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Hourly pollutant concentration data collected by the South Coast Air Quality Management District`s air monitoring network are compared to the existing 1-hour and new 8-hour federal ozone ambient air quality standards to depict ozone trends and compliance in the Basin. Results of trend analyses for the different areas of the Basin are presented for the 1-hour and 8-hour standards, and the relative stringency of the existing and new federal standards is examined. Based on an analysis of the effect of the recently adopted federal standard on ozone compliance in the Basin, ozone concentrations exceed the new federal 8-hour standard level more often than the existing 1-hour standard in most locations. However, examination of the trends in design values for the 1-hour and 8-hour ozone standards suggests that for most locations in the Basin the new standard probably should not be significantly more difficult to attain than the existing standard. The weather-adjusted ozone trend analysis in the Basin confirms the fact that the downtrends in ozone concentrations and number of days exceeding standards are real and independent of annual variation in weather. An analysis of weekday/weekend differences in exceedances for the existing 1-hour and new 8-hour ozone standards show a higher number of days exceeding both standards on weekends for most locations in the Basin, with differences being more evident in the 1990s than in the late 1970s and 1980s

  3. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  4. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  5. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

    Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (μg d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

  6. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  8. Observations of the Valley of Mexico Basin Ventilation Through the Tenango del Aire- Amecameca Geographical Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, G.; Torres-Jarón, R.; Steinbrecher, R.; Junkermann, W.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Garcia, A. R.; Mar-Morales, B.

    2007-05-01

    Past air quality modeling exercises have suggested the existence of basin drainage flows which may transport Mexico City Metropolitan Area's air pollution plume outside the Valley of Mexico Basin. The MCMA-2006 field campaign offered the opportunity to study the basin ventilation through a geographical gap in the southeast mountains of the basin. A mobile monitoring lab was placed at the Tenango del Aire town, a unique site located in this gap for measuring the pass of air masses from (and towards) the MCMA to (and from) the Cuautla Valley. O3, CO, NOx, NOy, CH2O global and UV radiation and MLH were measured continuously during MILAGRO from March 2 until April 6, together with other chemical species. Complementary backward and forward trajectories were constructed for the site using MCCM in prognostic mode during MILAGRO. An exploratory analysis of the air pollution roses measured at Tenango showed a sharp dominance of two flow patterns: one from the north well associated with relatively higher levels of primary pollutants and ozone levels; and another one from the south typically associated with lower levels primary pollutants but not so low of secondary ones as ozone. On the other hand, measured CO data at Tenango were compared with CO data measured at one local monitoring station in the town of Ocuituco in the State of Morelos. Ocuituco is located to the south of Tenango towards the Cuautla Valley. The preliminary results suggest that the back and forth pass of air masses through the Tenango del Aire - Amecameca area can be an important process in the regional transport of air pollution between two valleys and their metropolitan areas within the Central Mexico region.

  9. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  10. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AEROSOLS IN THE LOS ANGELES AIR BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric aerosol was sampled with a low pressure impactor at a coastal, an urban, and an agricultural site in the Los Angeles air basin. The material collected on each stage was analyzed for nitrate by direct vaporization into a chemiluminescent analyzer, sensitive at nano...

  11. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  12. Sources of Atmospheric Pollutants Impacting Air and Water Quality in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertler, A. W.; Cahill, T. A.; Gillies, J.; Kuhns, H.

    2008-12-01

    Starting in the second half of the 20th century, decline in Lake Tahoe's water clarity and degradation in the basin's air quality have become major concerns due to its unique scenic features. Gaseous and particulate nitrogen (N) and particulate phosphorus (P) loading via direct atmospheric deposition and sediment transport to the lake have also been implicated as responsible for its eutrophication and decline in water clarity. Estimates suggest that atmospheric N deposition contributes 55% of the total N loading to the lake, while atmospheric P deposition contributes 15% of the total P loading. In order to improve both air quality and, as a consequence, water quality, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the sources of the atmospheric pollutants. Once this is accomplished, it is possible to implement cost-effective strategies to reduce this impact. This paper summarizes the findings of a series of studies performed to determine the levels and sources of ambient air pollutants in the basin. Projects have included the development of a Tahoe-specific emissions inventory, long-term measurements of road dust resuspension, modeling to determine the fraction of pollutants coming from in-basin vs. out-of-basin sources, particulate source apportionment, and estimates of nitric acid deposition. These studies found that the pollutants most closely connected to the decline in water quality come largely from within basin sources, as opposed to those coming from the Central Valley and upwind urban areas of California. These results indicate regulators need to control pollutant emissions within the Tahoe basin in order to reduce the impact of atmospheric pollutants on both air and water quality.

  13. Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall Air Temperature Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold

    2004-11-01

    Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km diameter limestone sinkhole in the Eastern Alps are compared with pseudo-vertical temperature ‘soundings’ from three lines of temperature data loggers on the basin’s northwest, southwest and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudo-vertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free air temperature soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold temperature bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively warm air subsides to replace air that spills out of the basin through the lowest altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1 - 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the data loggers to sunlight made the pseudo-vertical profiles less useful as proxies for free air soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free air temperatures during high static stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings will prove useful in monitoring temperatures and vertical temperature gradients in the sinkhole. The sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at less cost than tethersondes or rawinsondes, and provide valuable advantages for some types of meteorological analyses.

  14. Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal air quality: A case study of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Dabdub, Donald

    2008-05-01

    Impact of emissions from ocean-going ships on ozone and particulate matter concentrations is quantified using UCI-CIT model for the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB). The modeling domain encompasses Los Angeles and Long Beach ports and part of the Pacific Ocean that is traversed by ships to visit these ports. Impacts are assessed for a base year (2002) and a future year (2020) by analyzing results from simulations of a three-day summer episode. Contribution of ship emissions to peak 1-h and 8-h ozone concentrations is predicted to be up to 29 and 24 ppb, respectively, for the year 2002. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate concentrations increase up to 12.8 and 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, in the basin when ship emissions are included. Maximum impacts are predicted to occur along the coasts of Ventura and Los Angeles and also at inland locations near Simi Valley. Future year simulations show substantial increase in impacts from ships due to expected growth in ship emissions. Ozone increases are as high as 59 ppb for land-based locations when estimates of ship emissions for 2020 are included. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate increase up to 14 and 2.5 μg m-3. The results of this study show that control of ship emissions is important to mitigate air pollution.

  15. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  16. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  17. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    PubMed

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin. PMID:22766425

  18. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  19. Simulations of a cold-air pool associated with elevated wintertime ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neemann, E. M.; Crosman, E. T.; Horel, J. D.; Avey, L.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to investigate the meteorological characteristics of the 31 January-6 February 2013 cold-air pool in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the resulting high ozone concentrations. Flow features affecting cold-air pools and air quality in the Uintah Basin are studied, including the following: penetration of clean air into the basin from across the surrounding mountains, elevated easterlies within the inversion layer, and thermally driven slope and valley flows. The sensitivity of the boundary layer structure to snow cover variations and cloud microphysics are also examined. Snow cover increases boundary layer stability by enhancing the surface albedo, reducing the absorbed solar insolation at the surface, and lowering near-surface air temperatures. Snow cover also increases ozone levels by enhancing solar radiation available for photochemical reactions. Ice-dominant clouds enhance cold-air pool strength compared to liquid-dominant clouds by increasing nocturnal cooling and decreasing longwave cloud forcing.

  20. Naphthalene and Naphthoquinone: Distributions and Human Exposure in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, R.; Wu, J.; Turco, R.; Winer, A. M.; Atkinson, R.; Paulson, S.; Arey, J.; Lurmann, F.

    2003-12-01

    Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Naphthalene is found primarily in the gas-phase and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor samples. Evaporation from naphthalene-containing products (including gasoline), and during refining operations, are important sources of naphthalene in air. Naphthalene is also emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and wood, and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene can damage or destroy red blood cells, causing hemolytic anemia. If inhaled over a long period of time, naphthalene may cause kidney and liver damage, skin allergy and dermatitis, cataracts and retinal damage, as well as attack the central nervous system. Naphthalene has been found to cause cancer as a result of inhalation in animal tests. Naphthoquinones are photooxidation products of naphthalene and the potential health effects of exposure to these quinones are a current focus of research. We are developing and applying models that can be used to assess human exposure to naphthalene and its photooxidation products in major air basins such as California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The work utilizes the Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model, and the REgional Human EXposure (REHEX) model, including an analysis of individual exposure. We will present and discuss simulations of basin-wide distributions of, and human exposures to, naphthalene and naphthoquinone, with emphasis on the uncertainties in these estimates of atmospheric concentrations and human exposure. Regional modeling of pollutant sources and exposures can lead to cost-effective and optimally health-protective emission control strategies.

  1. Airborne measurements of air pollution chemistry and transport. 1: Initial survey of major air basins in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloria, H. R.; Pitts, J. N., Jr.; Behar, J. V.; Bradburn, G. A.; Reinisch, R. F.; Zafonte, L.

    1972-01-01

    An instrumented aircraft has been used to study photochemical air pollution in the State of California. Simultaneous measurements of the most important chemical constituents (ozone, total oxidant, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, as well as several meteorological variables) were made. State-of-the-art measurement techniques and sampling procedures are discussed. Data from flights over the South Coast Air Basin, the San Francisco Bay Area, the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Clara and Salinas Valleys, and the Pacific Ocean within 200 miles of the California coast are presented. Pollutants were found to be concentrated in distant layers up to at least 18,000 feet. In many of these layers, the pollutant concentrations were much higher than at ground level. These findings bring into serious question the validity of the present practice of depending solely on data from ground-based monitoring stations for predictive models.

  2. Evaluation of air quality in Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China: are China's air quality standards sufficient yet?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Jaffe, Daniel; Tang, Ya; Bresnahan, Meaghan; Song, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Air quality evaluation is important in order to inform the public about the risk level of air pollution to human health. To better assess air quality, China released its new national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2012) and the new method to classify air quality level (AQL) in 2012. In this study, we examined the performance of China's NAAQS-2012 and AQL classification method through applying them, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and the US AQL classification method to evaluate air quality in Chengdu, the largest city in southwestern China. The results show that annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, SO₂, NO₂, and O₃ at the seven urban sites were in the ranges of 138-161, 87-98, 18-32, 54-70, and 42-57 μg/m(3), respectively, and the annual mean concentrations of CO were in the range of 1.09-1.28 mg/m(3). Chengdu is located in one of the four largest regions affected by haze in China, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were the top air pollutants, with annual concentrations over 2 times of their standards in NAAQS-2012 and over 7 times of the WHO guidelines. Annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were much lower at the background site (LYS) than at the urban sites, but the annual mean concentrations of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at LYS were 3.5 and 5.7 times of the WHO guidelines, respectively. These suggest that severe air pollution in Chengdu was largely associated with local emissions but also related to regional air pollution. The compliance rates of PM₁₀ , PM₂.₅, SO₂, and O₃ met China's NAAQS-2012 standards four times more frequently than they met the WHO guidelines, as NAAQS-2012 uses the loosest interim target (IT) standards of WHO for these four pollutants. Air pollution in Chengdu was estimated and stated to be less severe using China's classification than using the US classification, as China uses weaker concentration breakpoints and benign descriptions of AQL. Furthermore, China's AQL classification method

  3. Characterization of reactants, mechanisms, and species in South Coast Air Basin cloudwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, L.W.; Anderson, J.A.; Alexander, N.L.; Blumenthal, D.L.; Knuth, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Sonoma Technology, Inc. (STI) conducted a study in 1985 for the California Air Resources Board in which an aircraft was used to collect cloud water, aerosol, and gas samples and to make other air-quality and meteorological measurements in stratus clouds in the Los Angeles Basin. The study continued the research on Los Angeles Basin stratus begun in 1981. The ambient concentrations of most non-volatile dissolved species in the cloud water usually decreased with time, showing that removal processes were important. Increases with time in lead and ammonia concentrations in the cloud water showed that vertical mixing was important. There was a slight tendency for nitrate concentrations to increase with time, but sulfate concentrations were relatively constant because of the very small sulfur concentrations in the clouds. The settling of droplets out of stratus clouds through air below the clouds containing ammonia and the evaporation of these relatively large droplets is suggested as a significant mechanism for the formation of large, nitrate-containing aerosol particles below the clouds.

  4. Geographical and Geomorphological Effects on Air Temperatures in the Columbia Basin's Signature Vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, L.; Pogue, K. R.; Bader, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon is one of the most productive grape-growing areas in the United States. Wines produced in this region are influenced by their terroir - the amalgamation of physical and cultural elements that influence grapes grown at a particular vineyard site. Of the physical factors, climate, and in particular air temperature, has been recognized as a primary influence on viticulture. Air temperature directly affects ripening in the grapes. Proper fruit ripening, which requires precise and balanced levels of acid and sugar, and the accumulation of pigment in the grape skin, directly correlates with the quality of wine produced. Many features control air temperature within a particular vineyard. Elevation, latitude, slope, and aspect all converge to form complex relationships with air temperatures; however, the relative degree to which these attributes affect temperatures varies between regions and is not well understood. This study examines the influence of geography and geomorphology on air temperatures within the American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) of the Columbia Basin in eastern Washington and Oregon. The premier vineyards within each AVA, which have been recognized for producing high-quality wine, were equipped with air temperature monitoring stations that collected hourly temperature measurements. A variety of temperature statistics were calculated, including daily average, maximum, and minimum temperatures. From these values, average diurnal variation and growing degree-days (10°C) were calculated. A variety of other statistics were computed, including date of first and last frost and time spent below a minimum temperature threshold. These parameters were compared to the vineyard's elevation, latitude, slope, aspect, and local topography using GPS, ArcCatalog, and GIS in an attempt to determine their relative influences on air temperatures. From these statistics, it was possible to delineate two trends of temperature variation

  5. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Harris, J.M.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  6. Stable isotope composition of waters in the Great Basin, United States 1. Air-mass trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Irving; Harris, Joyce M.; Smith, George I.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2002-10-01

    Isentropic trajectories, calculated using the NOAA/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory's isentropic transport model, were used to determine air-parcel origins and the influence of air mass trajectories on the isotopic composition of precipitation events that occurred between October 1991 and September 1993 at Cedar City, Utah, and Winnemucca, Nevada. Examination of trajectories that trace the position of air parcels backward in time for 10 days indicated five distinct regions of water vapor origin: (1) Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific, (2) central Pacific, (3) tropical Pacific, (4) Gulf of Mexico, and (5) continental land mass. Deuterium (δD) and oxygen-18 (δ18O) analyses were made of precipitation representing 99% of all Cedar City events. Similar analyses were made on precipitation representing 66% of the precipitation falling at Winnemucca during the same period. The average isotopic composition of precipitation derived from each water vapor source was determined. More than half of the precipitation that fell at both sites during the study period originated in the tropical Pacific and traveled northeast to the Great Basin; only a small proportion traversed the Sierra Nevada. The isotopic composition of precipitation is determined by air-mass origin and its track to the collection station, mechanism of droplet formation, reequilibration within clouds, and evaporation during its passage from cloud to ground. The Rayleigh distillation model can explain the changes in isotopic composition of precipitation as an air mass is cooled pseudo-adiabatically during uplift. However, the complicated processes that take place in the rapidly convecting environment of cumulonimbus and other clouds that are common in the Great Basin, especially in summer, require modification of this model because raindrops that form in the lower portion of those clouds undergo isotopic change as they are elevated to upper levels of the clouds from where they eventually drop to the

  7. Characterizing Air Temperature Changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960–2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the Tmin (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from −0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and Tmin (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with Tmin and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960–1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID

  8. Characterizing air temperature changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960-2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (T min) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the T min (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from -0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and T min (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with T min and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960-1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID:25375648

  9. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  10. Assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, R.

    1999-07-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, acquatics and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forest, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid land, and class 1 areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  11. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: AIR QUALITY AND RELATED IMPACTS. VOLUME I. DOCUMENTATION IN SUPPORT OF KEY ORBES AIR QUALITY FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The extensive air quality analysis undertaken for the ORBES included examination of pollutant emissions and resul...

  12. Air and Ground Surface Temperature Relations in a Mountainous Basin, Wolf Creek, Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadhouse, Emily A.

    The links between climate and permafrost are well known, but the precise nature of the relationship between air and ground temperatures remains poorly understood, particularly in complex mountain environments. Although previous studies indicate that elevation and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) are the two leading factors contributing to the existence of permafrost at a given location, additional factors may also contribute significantly to the existence of mountain permafrost, including vegetation cover, snow accumulation and the degree to which individual mountain landscapes are prone to air temperature inversions. Current mountain permafrost models consider only elevation and aspect, and have not been able to deal with inversion effects in a systematic fashion. This thesis explores the relationship between air and ground surface temperatures and the presence of surface-based inversions at 27 sites within the Wolf Creek basin and surrounding area between 2001 and 2006, as a first step in developing an improved permafrost distribution TTOP model. The TTOP model describes the relationship between the mean annual air temperature and the temperature at the top of permafrost in terms of the surface and thermal offsets (Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Key components of this model are n-factors which relate air and ground climate by establishing the ratio between air and surface freezing (winter) and thawing (summer) degree-days, thus summarizing the surface energy balance on a seasonal basis. Here we examine (1) surface offsets and (2) freezing and thawing n-factor variability at a number of sites through altitudinal treeline in the southern Yukon. Thawing n-factors (nt) measured at individual sites remained relatively constant from one year to the next and may be related to land cover. During the winter, the insulating effect of a thick snow cover results in higher surface temperatures, while thin snow cover results in low surface temperatures more closely

  13. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  14. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-02-23

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.

  15. Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime Temperatures (1948-2005) in Growing Urban Coastal California Air Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily maximum temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. The coastal cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban sites were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average temperatures from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its coastal areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and coastal effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.

  16. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change. PMID:24348192

  17. A combination of air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Niederhofer, J.D.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-02-01

    Structural geologic information available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior basin documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air/fluid drilling technique may be advantageous to coalbed-methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. The authors successfully used this technique recently on coalbed-methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, AL.

  18. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  19. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  20. Warming spring air temperatures, but delayed spring streamflow in an Arctic headwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaogang; Marsh, Philip; Yang, Daqing

    2015-06-01

    This study will use the Mann-Kendall (MK) non-parametric trend test to examine timing changes in spring (early May to the end of June) streamflow records observed by the Water Survey of Canada during 1985-2011 in an Arctic headwater basin in the Western Canadian Arctic. The MK test shows a general delay in the five timing measures of springtime streamflow, which are based on the 5 percentile (Q5), 10 percentile (Q10), 50 percentile (Q50), 90 percentile (Q90), and 95 percentile (Q95) dates of spring runoff, respectively. However, much stronger trend signals were clearly noted for the high percentiles than that for the low and middle percentiles, indicating different effects of hydroclimate processes working on the timing of springtime streamflow. In contrast, the earlier snowmelt onset derived from daily mean temperatures was found over the 27-year study period. In addition, multiple relationships were correlated between these five timing measures of spring runoff and five hydroclimate indicators (total snowfall, snowmelt onset, spring temperature fluctuation, spring rainfall, and spring rainfall timing) in order to identify possible causes on the changes of springtime streamflow timing. The results indicate that the differences are due to the contradictory effects of winter-spring air temperature changes, temperature fluctuation during the melting period, and spring rainfall to spring runoff. The earlier snowmelt onset, which is attributed to the winter-spring warming, and spring temperature fluctuation that works in the opposite way, result in the minor timing changes of Q5, Q10, and Q50. The increase in spring rainfall and its delayed timing have a significant impact on the dates of Q90 and Q95. Moreover, the decreased total snow accumulation over the winter season only has a minor influence on the timing of springtime streamflow.

  1. Primary particulate matter from ocean-going engines in the Southern California Air Basin.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Harshit; Eden, Rudy; Zhang, Xinqiu; Fine, Philip M; Katzenstein, Aaron; Miller, J Wayne; Ospital, Jean; Teffera, Solomon; Cocker, David R

    2009-07-15

    The impact of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from ship emissions within the Southern California Air Basin is quantified by comparing in-stack vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) measurements from in-use ocean-going vessels (OGVs) with ambient measurements made at 10 monitoring stations throughout Southern California. V and Ni are demonstrated as robust markers for the combustion of heavy fuel oil in OGVs, and ambient measurements of fine particulate V and Ni within Southern California are shown to decrease inversely with increased distance from the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (ports). High levels of V and Ni were observed from in-stack emission measurements conducted on the propulsion engines of two different in-use OGVs. The in-stack V and Ni emission rates (g/h) normalized by the V and Ni contents in the fuel tested correlates with the stack total PM emission rates (g/h). The normalized emission rates are used to estimate the primary PM2.5 contributions from OGVs at 10 monitoring locations within Southern California. Primary PM2.5 contributions from OGVs were found to range from 8.8% of the total PM2.5 at the monitoring location closest to the port (West Long Beach) to 1.4% of the total PM2.5 at the monitoring location 80 km inland (Rubidoux). The calculated OGV contributions to ambient PM2.5 measurements at the 10 monitoring sites agree well with estimates developed using an emission inventory based regional model. Results of this analysis will be useful in determining the impacts of primary particulate emissions from OGVs upon worldwide communities downwind of port operations. PMID:19708372

  2. Air Temperature Change in the Southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Benfu; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964–2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and −0.38~−0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964–1997 and then rose during 1998–2011. T700 declined during 1964–2005 and then rose during 2006–2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P < 0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P < 0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change. PMID:24348192

  3. Summary of air quality regulations and recommended guidelines for oil shale development in the Colorado Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ondov, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    The Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado contains the greatest domestic concentration of oil shale deposits favorably located for economical recovery. These deposits are defined geologically to be at least 30-ft thick with at least 30 gal of oil per ton of shale; by conservative estimate, they contain nearly 300-billion barrels (bbl) of recoverable shale oil. The technologies used to extract this oil will need to comply with federal and state environmental protection regulations, particularly those governing ambient air quality. The regulatory framework for preventing degradation of ambient air quality was amended on August 7, 1980, and these rules are especially applicable for controlling air pollution in oil shale recovery areas such as the Piceance Basin. In this report the amended regulations and those that existed before their promulgation are described and compared. In addition, recommended guidelines that can be used as criteria for protecting public health from nonregulated air pollutants are discussed. Finally, proposals for additional federal standards are introduced, and examples of regulatory options such as emission fees and emission-density zones currently being evaluated are presented.

  4. Determining Spatial Distribution And Air-Water Exchange Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Stormwater Runoff Catchment Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaraneni, V. K.; Schifman, L. A.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in to surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices (BMPs), such as retention/detention ponds or catchment basins in general. The effectiveness of catchment basins in reducing the volume of runoff and removal of some contaminants has been established. However, very little is known about the fate of the contaminants settled within these structures. In coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables accumulation of high concentrations of PAHs in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Due to the physico-chemical characteristics of PAHs, their transport not only can occur in the liquid and solid phase, but it is also possible that gaseous emissions can be produced from BMP systems. For the purpose of this study, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and covering (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial) land uses. To study the stratification of PAHs sediment cores one foot were collected and analyzed for 31PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and 15 methylated PAHs). In order to determine whether the catchment basins are a source of atmospheric pollution polyethylene passive samplers were deployed to determine the freely dissolved PAHs in the water column and gas phase PAHs at the air-water interface. This presentation will describe how PAH fluxes move between three environmental compartments (sediments, water column, atmosphere) within the five stormwater catchment basins. Further, it will be investigated whether these BMP structures can act as contaminant sources rather than sinks and whether BMP

  5. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction debris removal 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    HAYS, C.B.

    1999-10-06

    The 105-KE Basin contains 1,150 Metric Tonnes of Uranium (MTU) of N Reactor fuel, along with less than half a MTU of single pass reactor (SPR) fuel. In addition to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the 105-KE Basin, extensive quantities of debris and a substantial amount of sludge have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin fuel and sludge are not encapsulated and, as a result, corroding fuel has produced contamination products that are deposited on the basin walls, floor, and equipment. contamination products produce radiation dose exposures to the workers. To decrease worker exposures, this Notice of Construction (NOC) describes dose reduction modifications under consideration to mitigate worker radiation exposure from the basin walls and exposed piping. The major equipment egress paths from the basin (the dummy elevator pit and the south loadout pit) are blocked completely with debris and/or empty canisters. Therefore in addition to dose reduction, this NOC also describes debris removal activities and equipment. Recently, the primary water treatment system has been without mechanical filtration capabilities. This NOC describes planned modifications to the primary water treatment system to restore mechanical filtration by restarting the cartridge filters. The proposed modifications described in this NOC are expected to commence in the Fall of 1995. Finally, the NOC describes two other basin activities, fuel and sludge movement, that are expected to be routine in the future.

  6. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction fuel removal for 105-KE basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-11

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the modifications, installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities at 105-KE Basin. The 105-K east reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin (105-KE Basin) were constructed in the early 1950s and are located in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KE Basin contains 1,152 metric tons of SNF stored underwater in 3,673 open canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 24 years. The 105-KE Basin is constructed of unlined concrete and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The fuel is corroding and an estimated 1,700 cubic feet of sludge, containing radionuclides and miscellaneous materials, have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin has leaked radiologically contaminated water to the soil beneath the basin in the past most likely at the construction joint between the foundation of the basin and the foundation of the reactor. The purpose of the activities described in this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to enable the retrieval and transport of the fuel to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This NOC describes modifications, the installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities expected to be routine in the future. Debris removal activities described in this NOC will supersede the previously approved NOC (DOE/RL-95-65). The proposed modifications described are scheduled to begin in calendar year 1997.

  8. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  9. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  10. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  11. REDUCTIONS IN HUMAN BENZENE EXPOSURE IN THE CALIFORNIA SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN. (R827352C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzene typically contributes a significant fraction of the human cancer risk associated with exposure to urban air pollutants. In recent years, concentrations of benzene in ambient air have declined in many urban areas due to the use of reformulated gasolines, lower vehicle e...

  12. Combined effects of precipitation and air temperature on soil moisture in different land covers in a humid basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huihui; Liu, Yuanbo

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrological processes. Although the combined effects of multiple climatic factors in different land cover conditions are highly valuable for water resource management, a complete understanding of these effects remains unclear. This study used a cluster analysis approach to investigate the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, rather than a single factor, in different land covers for an area over the Poyang Lake Basin in China from 2003 to 2009. Specifically, monthly soil moisture was classified into eight clusters according to the change in precipitation and air temperature; the clusters describe a range of climates from the extreme of wet-hot to that of dry-cold. For an individual climate factor, our results showed that the contribution of air temperature to soil moisture is greater than that of precipitation, and the effect of air temperature is more sensitive in different land covers. When considering the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, soil moisture varies with land cover; however, the variation in a normal climate cluster is greater than in an extreme climate cluster. This indicated that land cover is the dominant factor in soil moisture variation in normal climatic conditions, whereas climate is the dominant factor in extreme conditions. As climate shifts from the wet-hot to the dry-cold cluster, soil moisture decreases for all land covers, with the minimum rate occurring in forest conditions. Meanwhile, soil moisture deficit and saturation are more likely to occur in grassland and forest areas, indicating that forest cover might mitigate drought. The results of this study provide an effective approach to investigate the combined effects of climate factors on soil moisture for various land covers in humid areas. This study also supports the management of water resources in changing climates.

  13. Characterizing Emissions from Prescribed Fires and Assessing Impacts to Air Quality in the Lake Tahoe Basin Using Dispersion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamakal, Tom M.

    A PM2.5 monitoring network was established around Lake Tahoe during fall 2011, which, in conjunction with measurements at prescribed burns and smoke dispersion modeling based on the Fire Emission Production Simulator and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (FEPS-HYSPLIT) Model, served to evaluate the prescribed burning impacts on air quality. Emissions from pile and understory prescribed burns were characterized using a mobile air monitoring system. In field PM2.5 emission factors showed ranges consistent with laboratory combustion of wet and dry fuels. Measurements in the smoke plume showed progression from flaming to smoldering phase consistent with FEPS and PM2.5 emission factors generally increased with decreasing combustion efficiency. Model predicted smoke contributions are consistent with elevated ambient PM2.5 concentrations in three case studies, and high meteorological model resolution (2km x 2 km) seems to produce accurate smoke arriving times. In other cases, the model performance is difficult to evaluate due to low predicted smoke contributions relative to the typical ambient PM2.5 level. Synergistic assessment of modeling and measurement can be used to determine basin air quality impact. The findings from this study will help land management agencies better understand the implications of managing fire at the wildland-urban interface.

  14. Air Quality Impact of Distributed Generation of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qiguo

    observations during the night. The second part of this dissertation examines the air quality impact of using DG to satisfy future growth in power demand in the South Coast Air Basin of Los Angeles (SoCAB), relative to the impact when the demand is met by expanding current central generation (CG) capacity. The air quality impacts of these two alternate scenarios are quantified in terms of hourly maximum ground-level and annually-averaged primary NOx concentrations, which are estimated using AERMOD. The shift to DGs has the potential for decreasing maximum hourly impacts of power generation in the vicinity of the DGs. The maximum hourly concentration is reduced from 25 ppb to 6 ppb if DGs rather than CGs are used to generate power. However, the annually-averaged concentrations are likely to be higher than for the scenario in which existing CGs are used to satisfy power demand growth. Future DG penetration will add an annual average of 0.1 ppb to the current basin average, 20 ppb, while expanding existing CGs will add 0.05 ppb. The third part of my dissertation focused on formulating a model to estimate concentrations of NO2, NOx, and O3 averaged over a spatial scale of the order of a kilometer in a domain extending over tens of kilometers. The model can be used to estimate hourly concentrations of these species over time periods of years. It achieves the required computational efficiency by separating transport and chemistry using the concept of species age. Evaluation with data measured at 21 stations distributed over the Los Angeles air basin indicates that the model provides an adequate description of the spatial and temporal variation of the concentrations of NO2 and NOx. Estimates of maximum hourly O3 concentrations show little bias compared to observations, but the scatter is not small.

  15. Distribution of hazardous air pollutant trace elements, total sulfur, and ash in coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Arithmetic mean values of the contents of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) trace elements named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium), ash, and total sulfur were statistically compared on a whole-coal basis for Paleocene coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region. The study of proximate and elemental analyses indicate a relationship between trace element contents and paleogeography.

  16. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  17. Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness and Magnetization Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the distribution of visible and buried impact basins (Quasi-Circular Depressions or QCDs) on Mars > 200 km in diameter with free air gravity, crustal thickness and magnetization models shows some QCDs have coincident gravity anomalies but most do not. Very few QCDs have closely coincident magnetization anomalies, and only the oldest of the very large impact basins have strong magnetic anomalies within their main rings. Crustal thickness data show a large number of Circular Thinned Areas (CTAs). Some of these correspond to known impact basins, while others may represent buried impact basins not always recognized as QCDs in topography data alone. If true, the buried lowlands may be even older than we have previously estimated.

  18. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

  19. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways. PMID:14968860

  20. Air-Photograph Based Estimates of Channel Widening within the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterling, C.; Conway, J.; Graves, J.; Lauer, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Minnesota River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River that has experienced a roughly two-fold increase in mean April-November discharge over the past century. Because the Minnesota River supplies the majority of sediment to the Mississippi at the confluence, sediment sources within the basin, and in particular within the Le Sueur River sub-basin, have recently been the subject of several detailed sediment budget studies. One of the potential sediment sources is associated with channel widening. In the present study, we focus on channel widening as a potential source of sediment in the Minnesota, Little Cobb, Maple, Blue Earth, Le Sueur, Redwood, Cottonwood, and Watonwan Rivers, Minnesota. Using aerial photographs, changes in channel bankfull width were measured over the period from 1937 to 2009. Historic photographs were georeferenced to recent high-resolution imagery using a minimum of ten ground control points and a second order polynomial transformation in ArcGIS 9.3. Water surface width and the width between vegetation lines (which we take to be equivalent to the bankfull width) were determined by hand for representative reaches of a minimum of ten meander bends along each river. We chose to digitize by hand to avoid computer misclassification associated with the highly variable color spectra in the historic photographs and because this allowed us to visually interpolate the bank line where scattered overhanging vegetation partially obscured the banks. In general, bankfull width has increased steadily by between 20 and 50 percent over the period of photographic record. However, because our basic method focuses only on the vegetation line, it is possible in principle that the observed changes in width are primarily related to ecological change (i.e. to a change in the elevation at which vegetation colonizes the banks) and not directly to an increase in channel volume (and hence to a net export of sediment from these reaches). To determine whether the

  1. Meteorological and photochemical modeling of large-scale albedo changes in the South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, K.T.; Mirabella, V.A.

    1998-12-31

    The effectiveness of large-scale surface albedo changes as an ozone control strategy is investigated. These albedo changes are part of the Cool Communities strategy that calls for the use of lighter colored roofing and paving materials as well as an increase in tree planting. The advanced mesoscale model MM5 was used to analyze the associated effects on ambient temperature, mixing depth and winds. The MM5 model was modified to accept surface properties derived from a satellite-based land use database. Preprocessors were also developed to allow a research-oriented model such as MM5 to be user friendly and amenable to practical, routine air quality modeling applications. Changes in ozone air quality are analyzed with the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). Results of the MM5/UAM simulations of the SCAQS August 26--28, 1987 ozone episode are presented and compared to those obtained with the CSUMM/UAM models.

  2. Chemical compositions and radiative properties of dust and anthropogenic air masses study in Taipei Basin, Taiwan, during spring of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Chen, Wei-Nai

    Asia is one of the major sources of not only mineral dust but also anthropogenic aerosols. Continental air masses associated with the East Asian winter monsoon always contain high contents of mineral dust and anthropogenic species and transported southeastward to Taiwan, which have significant influences on global atmospheric radiation transfer directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation in each spring. However, few measurements for the long-range transported aerosol and its optical properties were announced in this area, between the Western Pacific and the southeastern coast of Mainland China. The overall objective of this work is to quantify the optical characteristics of different aerosol types in the Eastern Asian. In order to achieve this objective, meteorological parameters, concentrations of PM 10 and its soluble species, and optical property of atmospheric scattering coefficients were measured continuously with 1 h time-resolved from 11 February to 7 April 2004 in Taipei Basin (25°00'N, 121°32'E). In this work, the dramatic changes of meteorological parameters such as temperature and winds were used to determine the influenced period of each air mass. Continental, strong continental, marine, and stagnant air masses defined by the back-trajectory analysis and local meteorology were further characterized as long-range transport pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols, respectively, according to the diagnostic ratios. The aerosol mass scattering efficiency of continental pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols were ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, 0.7 to 1.0, 1.4 and 1.4 to 2.3 m 2 g -1, respectively. Overall, there are two distinct populations of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies, one for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by dust (<1.0 m 2 g -1) and the other for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by anthropogenic pollutants (1.3-2.3 m 2 g -1), which were similar to the previous measurements with

  3. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  4. Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

    2006-11-15

    This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  6. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TRIDENT Basin adjacent to... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.600 TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape... at latitude 28°24′37″, longitude 80°35′26″ and the entire basin. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  7. Analysis of Ozone Transportation in Tlaxcala-Puebla Mexico Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Huertas, H.; Torres, R.; Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Gutierrez, W.; Torres, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation conducted between March and April 2012 on the influence of air pollutants transport in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley airshed are presented. The campaign included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and meteorological variables monitoring at surface in Huaquechula, Chipilo and Amozoc rural sites, and measurements of O3 vertical profile O3 and meteorology in Chipilo. The synoptic conditions during the campaign showed dominance of "Norte" conditions favoring air masses circulation from Pacific Ocean crossing southern Mexican Plateau to the Gulf of Mexico that influences the establishment of evening southeasterly winds in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley. Wind roses and contaminants analysis in surface for O3 during entire campaign indicates that before noon the movement of air masses was dominated by runoff of Malinche toward the southeast and south of the valley; and in the afternoon a regional pattern of winds from southwest Valley prevails coming from Cuautla Valley and south of Morelos State. The analysis of three representative days of atmospheric circulation in the valley as well as anthropogenic diurnal activity, a rate of morning increase in O3 concentrations similar at all three sites was observed, even in the absence of precursors such as NO2 during some weekends. By analyzing and engage data from O3 vertical profile and surface meteorology data, we could infer that there are minimal ozone contributions from local sources, but important from regional origin, and even O3 entrainment in height brought to the surface when mixing layer is growing. The back trajectory analysis from Chipilo at noon indicates that could be additional contributions of O3 from both Cuautla Valley and other areas of pollutants emission such as Tula, (in the north of Mexico City), and that weekend effect with the occurrence of high O3 levels observed there extends to this region. Although interbasin exchange of pollutants between the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

  8. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect. PMID:25933089

  9. The Impact of African Dust on PM10 Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados and Miami have yielded a broad picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin. These measurements show that in summer the aerosol mass is often dominated by dust. At such times over 90% of the dust mass is comprised of particles less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter and thus fits the EPA criteria for PM10. A number of sites in the Caribbean monitor PM10 using the same instrumentation commonly deployed in European and United States networks. By comparing data from individual islands that have multiple monitoring sites (e.g., Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe), it is shown that during dust events PM10 concentrations track very closely and that local sources have a minor impact on PM10 above about 15 to 20 μg m-3. Moreover the PM10 measurements are coherent with the movement of dust clouds over the islands as observed by satellites. In this way dust movement can be tracked at PM10 sites along the Gulf and southeast coasts of the United States. To assess the specific impact of African dust on PM10 in the region, I compare the daily records of dust measurements at Miami and Barbados with concurrent measurements made at proximate PM10 sites. I then use these relationships and the long term dust measurements at Barbados and Miami to assess the long-term variability of PM10 across the region. At Barbados the record goes back 50 years and provides a basis of assessing the effects of climate variability on PM10 transport. This study shows that there is great variability on scales ranging from daily to decadal. The impact of the droughts in the 1970s and 1980s was particularly significant. Across the Caribbean, the rates of exceedances of the WHO PM10 guideline is comparable to those observed in many major urban areas in Europe and the US. The dominance of dust in large PM10 events and the absence of major pollution sources on many islands offers the opportunity to study the health impacts of desert dust in

  10. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  11. Cooling of daytime temperatures in coastal California air basins during 1969-2005: Monthly and extreme value trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.; Charland, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of long-term (1969-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June-August) previously showed an aggregate CA asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum values Tmax. The spatial distributions of daily Tmax temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins were more complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation coastal-areas and warming at inland areas. Our hypothesis was that this temperature pattern arose from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas induced global-warming, in that the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. These results appeared in the July 2009 issue of the J. of Climate. Extension of this analysis over the entire year now shows that the cooling trend in average Tmax values occurred during most months, with warming trends only during winter months. The largest rate of cooling, however, occurred in June (-0.95 K/decade), indicating that an earlier initiation of sea breeze activity may be the most important cooling factor, relative to increases in its intensity, duration, and/or penetration. Possible beneficial effects of the cooling were discussed (e.g., decreased maximum O3 and human thermal-stress levels), but as these impact would occur during periods of maximum Tmax values, the previous analysis was thus expanded to includes trends in the frequency of high Tmax values, i.e., 85, 90, 95, and 100oF. Results showed that all of these frequencies were decreasing, with rates decreasing with Tmax value (from -0.27 to -0.04 days/year, respectively). While this result is expected, as the frequency of occurrence decreases with Tmax value (from about 50 to about 3 per year, respectively), the percent decrease in frequency showed the opposite results, i.e., it was largest with the highest Tmax value (from -0.57 to -1.57 %/year, respectively). In addition, the rate of decrease of annual

  12. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  13. The Influence of African Dust on Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin: An Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrievals, Ground Observations, and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Chin, M.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface measurements in several locations extending from northeastern coast of South America to Miami in Florida have shown that African dust arrives in the Greater Caribbean Basin throughout a year. This long-range transported dust frequently elevates the level of particulate matter (PM) above the WHO guideline for PM10, which raises a concern of possible adverse impact of African dust on human health in the region. There is also concern about how future climate change might affect dust transport and its influence on regional air quality. In this presentation we provide a comprehensive characterization of the influence of African dust on air quality in the Caribbean Basin via integrating the ground observations with satellite retrievals and model simulations. The ground observations are used to validate and evaluate satellite retrievals and model simulations of dust, while satellite measurements and model simulations are used to extend spatial coverage of the ground observations. An analysis of CALIPSO lidar measurements of three-dimensional distribution of aerosols over 2007-2014 yields altitude-resolved dust mass flux into the region. On a basis of 8-year average and integration over the latitude zone of 0°-30°N, a total of 76 Tg dust is imported to the air above the Greater Caribbean Basin, of which 34 Tg (or 45%) is within the lowest 1 km layer and most relevant to air quality concern. The seasonal and interannual variations of the dust import are well correlated with ground observations of dust in Cayenne, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Miami. We will also show comparisons of the size-resolved dust amount from both NASA GEOS-5 aerosol simulation and MERRA-2 aerosol reanalysis (i.e., column aerosol loading being constrained by satellite measurements of radiance at the top of atmosphere) with the ground observations and satellite measurement.

  14. A comparison of the UCD/CIT air quality model and the CMB source-receptor model for primary airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Tony; Ying, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J.; Schauer, James J.; Fraser, Matthew P.

    Source contributions to primary airborne particulate matter calculated using the source-oriented UCD/CIT air quality model and the receptor-oriented chemical mass balance (CMB) model are compared for two air quality episodes in different parts of California. The first episode occurred in the San Joaquin Valley on 4-6 January 1996, with peak 24 h average PM2.5 concentrations exceeding 100 μg m -3. This episode was characterized by low photochemical activity and high particulate nitrate concentrations, with localized regions of high particulate carbon concentrations around urban centers. The second episode occurred in the South Coast Air Basin on 7-9 September 1993, with peak 4 h average PM2.5 concentrations reaching 86 μg m -3. This episode was characterized by high photochemical activity and high secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The results from the two independent source apportionment calculations show strong agreement for source contributions to primary PM2.5 total organic mass at 7 receptor sites across the two studies, with a correlation slope of 0.84 and a correlation coefficient ( R2) of 0.70. Agreement for source contributions to primary PM2.5 total mass was similarly strong, with a correlation slope of 0.83 and a correlation coefficient ( R2) of 0.55. Wood smoke was identified as the dominant source of primary PM2.5 at urban locations in the SJV by both source apportionment techniques. Transportation sources including paved road dust, gasoline engines, and diesel engines, were identified as the dominant source of primary PM2.5 at all locations in the SoCAB by both models. The amount of secondary particulate matter (organic and inorganic) was in good agreement with the measured values minus the primary material identified by the CMB calculation. The UCD/CIT air quality model is able to predict source contributions to airborne particulate matter at all locations and times throughout the study domain. The regional plots of source contributions to

  15. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  16. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  17. 33 CFR 334.600 - TRIDENT Basin adjacent to Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canaveral Harbor at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. 334.600 Section 334... Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Fla.; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. From the west side of... the Commanding Officer, Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, or such agencies...

  18. Predicting Air Quality Impacts Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Uinta Basin Using EPA’s Photochemical Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rural areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  19. Risk assessment of heavy metals in air, water, vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Zhou, Ling Jun; Li, Lei; Lv, Lin; Fan, Ya Min

    2015-05-01

    Metal contamination in farmlands irrigated with biogas slurry is of great concern because of its potential health risks to local inhabitants. Health risks that depend heavily on multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and As) in water, soil, air, and local food were studied through field sampling in Taihu Basin, China. Results show that Zn, Pb, and Cd in soils irrigated with biogas slurry exceed the soil quality standard values, and grown vegetables and grains contaminated with Pb and Cd exceed the permissible limits. Food ingestion plays an important role in the total average daily dose of metals, especially for Cu and Zn, which account for 94 and 91%, respectively. Non-carcinogenic risks posed to adults mainly result from Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. The highest non-carcinogenic risk was determined from food ingestion, followed by soil ingestion, air inhalation, air ingestion, and dermal contact with air. Carcinogenic risks to adults are 6.68 to 7.00 times higher than the safe level and can be attributed to Cr, As, and Cd pollution. The estimated risks mainly result from As and Cd through food ingestion and from Cr through soil ingestion. Both cancer and non-cancer risks through dermal contact can be ignored. Therefore, attention should be paid to health risks imposed by adults' multi-pathway exposure to heavy metals in vegetables, grains, and related soils irrigated with biogas slurry in Taihu Basin. Effective measures should be implemented to control heavy metal pollution and protect potentially exposed adults. PMID:25794576

  20. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the DJ Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  1. A Direct Measurement Study of Air Emissions from Oil & Natural Gas Production Pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and industry cooperators conducted a one-week emission measurement study of 23 oil and natural gas well pads in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July, 2011. The purpose of the study was to characterize emissions from individual production components and to evaluate the performa...

  2. Airborne Measurements of Ammonia and Implications for Ammonium Nitrate Formation in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Brock, C. A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences aerosol formation and composition. Ammonium nitrate aerosol is formed from the reaction of gas phase NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3). Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 and NOx (NO + NO2), which in sunlight can be oxidized to form HNO3, can react to form ammonium nitrate aerosol. Agricultural activity (i.e., dairy farms), and urban centers (i.e., Fresno, Los Angeles) are sources of ammonium nitrate gas-phase precursors in both the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. Airborne measurements of NH3, HNO3, particle composition, and particle size distribution were made aboard the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during May and June 2010 in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California, as part of CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change). The highest mixing ratios of NH3, well over 100 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv), were measured downwind of dairy farms. The high NH3 mixing ratios were highly anti-correlated with HNO3 mixing ratios on fast time scales (~1 s) that correspond to short flight distances (~100 m). During these periods particulate nitrate (NO3-) concentrations increased, indicating ammonium nitrate formation. The meteorological and chemical environments during these periods will be studied to determine the factors driving or limiting ammonium nitrate formation and the resulting regional differences. Finally, the relationship between the NH3 observations and NH3 sources will be examined to assess the emissions and their contribution to ammonium nitrate abundance.

  3. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in rural Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  4. The effectiveness of circulating aeration in air and high purity oxygen systems for control of VOC emissions from aeration basins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.; Orton, T.L.; Wang, M.; Siddiqui, K.F.

    1997-12-31

    A simple steady state circulating aeration system (CAS) model has been used to study the effects of volatility and degradability on the fate of VOCs in both air and high purity oxygen (HPO) systems. With increase of circulation ratio in an air CAS, air emissions by stripping can be significantly reduced for compounds of low degradabilities and high volatilities. Enhancement of biodegradation is more significant for compounds of high degradabilities and volatilities. A large portion of VOCs will remain in the wastewater when circulation ratio is high, especially for VOCs that are difficult to degrade. In HPO systems, emissions by stripping are much less than air systems. However, VOCs will remain in the wastewater if they have poor degradabilities. Volatilities of VOCs are not important in HPO systems. Due to their wide range and large uncertainties, degradation rate constants are a major factor determining the effectiveness of a CAS for VOC emission control

  5. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". PMID:22672895

  6. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water. PMID:23680749

  7. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological based assessment of bottom sediments from the Luján River basin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Leticia; Bulus Rossini, Gustavo; Salibián, Alfredo; Ronco, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The physicochemical analysis of bottom sediments of the Lujan River was done on samples from 14 sites situated along its course and covered grain size and organic matter, total N and P, sulfides, heavy metals, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides. In addition, acute 10-day whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were carried with each sample, using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina as test organism. In order to correlate both types of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA). The physicochemical profile of samples resulted similar along the river course, though several anomalous data were registered in the middle course of the river, mainly in samples taken downstream a large industrial complex; with a few exceptions in upper basin sites characterized by the dominance of agricultural activities, the pesticides concentration were consistently below the analytical detection limits. Almost 50% of the samples induced adverse effects on the amphipod when testing sublethal and lethal end points. The toxicity of the samples in terms of survival rate was extremely high in two sites, in particular in samples taken downstream the Pilar industrial complex. The integration of a selection of physicochemical and toxicological parameters of the sediments by PCA allowed discriminating areas of the river basin according the type and intensity of their particular pollution condition. PMID:23179726

  8. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. PMID:22153607

  9. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources. PMID:25915412

  10. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montavez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosols (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution in a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the surface wind speed cubed and particle size. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.003 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA vary strongly across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns, meanwhile wet

  11. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jorba, O.; Pay, M. T.; Montávez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA) source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around -0.002 and -1.2 μg m-3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m-3) and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m-3). The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes implemented. Dry deposition essentially follows the surface drag stress patterns

  12. A 2000-yr reconstruction of air temperature in the Great Basin of the United States with specific reference to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinemann, Scott A.; Porinchu, David F.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Mark, Bryan G.; DeGrand, James Q.

    2014-09-01

    A sediment core representing the past two millennia was recovered from Stella Lake in the Snake Range of the central Great Basin in Nevada. The core was analyzed for sub-fossil chironomids and sediment organic content. A quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperature (MJAT) was developed using a regional training set and a chironomid-based WA-PLS inference model (r2jack = 0.55, RMSEP = 0.9°C). The chironomid-based MJAT reconstruction suggests that the interval between AD 900 and AD 1300, corresponding to the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), was characterized by MJAT elevated 1.0°C above the subsequent Little Ice Age (LIA), but likely not as warm as recent conditions. Comparison of the Stella Lake temperature reconstruction to previously published paleoclimate records from this region indicates that the temperature fluctuations inferred to have occurred at Stella Lake between AD 900 and AD 1300 correspond to regional records documenting hydroclimate variability during the MCA interval. The Stella Lake record provides evidence that elevated summer temperature contributed to the increased aridity that characterized the western United States during the MCA.

  13. Multi-objective trade-offs for fuel cell-based auxiliary power units: case study of South California Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratto, Francesco; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    Auxiliary power units (APUs) are energy devices that complement the main internal combustion engine of a vehicle providing power for the non-propulsion needs. There are several goals or objectives that need to be achieved for designing and operating fuel cell-based APUs. The system should have as high efficiency as possible, but also be economically viable with cost or profits competitive with the existing technology. Not only should the environmental impacts of the chemicals released during the process be as low as possible, but also the human health impact has to be minimum. This becomes an extremely challenging multi-objective problem and its solution leads to the quantification of the trade-offs between the different objectives. The fact that these multiple objectives are often conflicting in nature and can have completely different trends with respect to multiple process variables makes the representation and analysis of the trade-off information an extremely formidable task. The solution of the multi-objective optimization of the system, which comprehends sensitivity analysis, payoff table and optimal trade-off surfaces, is illustrated. The case study that was chosen for the simulations is South California Air Basin and the assumptions that were taken to model this region are briefly discussed.

  14. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 1. Ozone formation metrics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Robert J; Revelle, Meghan K; Dabdub, Donald

    2004-02-01

    Metrics associated with ozone (O3) formation are investigated using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) three-dimensional air-quality model. Variables investigated include the O3 production rate (P(O3)), O3 production efficiency (OPE), and total reactivity (the sum of the reactivity of carbon monoxide (CO) and all organic gases that react with the hydroxyl radical). Calculations are spatially and temporally resolved; surface-level and vertically averaged results are shown for September 9, 1993 for three Southern California locations: Central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Riverside. Predictions indicate increasing surface-level O3 concentrations with distance downwind, in line with observations. Surface-level and vertically averaged P(O3) values peak during midday and are highest downwind; surface P(O3) values are greater than vertically averaged values. Surface OPEs generally are highest downwind and peak during midday in downwind locations. In contrast, peaks occur in early morning and late afternoon in the vertically averaged case. Vertically averaged OPEs tend to be greater than those for the surface. Total reactivities are highest in upwind surface locations and peak during rush hours; vertically averaged reactivities are smaller and tend to be more uniform temporally and spatially. Total reactivity has large contributions from CO, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, unsubstituted monoaromatics, and secondary organics. Calculations using estimated emissions for 2010 result in decreases in P(O3) values and reactivities but increases in OPEs. PMID:14968859

  15. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME II. EXPERIMENTS IN VALUING NON-MARKET GOODS: A CASE STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE BENEFIT MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume includes the empirical results obtained from two experiments to measure the health and aesthetic benefits of air pollution control. Each experiment involved the same six neighborhood pairs, where the pairings were made on the basis of similarities in housing character...

  16. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  17. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  18. How Does Mediterranean Basin's Atmosphere Become Weak Moisture Source During Negative Phase of NAO: Use of AIRS, AMSR, TOVS, & TRMM Satellite Datasets Over Last Two NAO Cycles to Examine Governing Controls on E-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a noted 'concentration" basin in that it almost continuously exhibits positive evaporation minus precipitation (E - P ) properties -- throughout the four seasons and from one year to the next. Nonetheless, according to the ECMWF Era-40 48-year (1958-2005) climate reanalysis dataset, for various phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) when the pressure gradient between Portugal and Iceland becomes either very relaxed (large negative NAO-Index) or in transition (small positive or negative NAO-Index), the atmospheric moisture source properties of the basin become weak, at times even reversed for several months (i.e., negative E - P). This behavior poses numerous questions concerning how and why these events occur. Moreover, it begs the question of what it would take for the basin to reach its tipping point in which P would exceed E throughout the rainy season (some six months) on an annually persistent basis -- and the sea would possibly transform to a recurring "dilution" basin. This talk investigates these questions by: (1) establishing over a period from 1979 to present, based on detailed analyses of satellite retrieval products from a combination of NASA-AQUA, NOAA-LEO, NASA/JAXA Scatterometer, and NASA-TRMM platforms, plus additional specialized satellite data products and ancillary meteorological datasets, the actual observation-based behavior of E - P, (2) diagnosing the salient physical and meteorological mechanisms that lead to the weaker E - P events during the analysis period, partly based on analyzing surface and upper air data at discrete stations in the western and eastern Mediterranean -- while at the same time evaluating the quality of the ERA-40 data over this same time period, (3) conducting GCM and high-resolution regional modeling experiments to determine if perturbed but realistic meteorological background conditions could maintain Mediterranean as a "dilution" basin through the October to March rainy season on

  19. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  20. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-09-23

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  1. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  2. Emission estimates of HCFCs and HFCs in California from the 2010 CalNex study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Barbara; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Cohan, Alex; Nissenson, Paul; Dabdub, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Atlas, Elliot; Lueb, Rich; Holloway, John S.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Pederson, James; Vancuren, Richard A.; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-02-01

    The CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition of air masses over key source regions in California. During May to June 2010, air samples were collected on board a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D aircraft over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) and the Central Valley (CV). This paper analyzes six effective greenhouse gases—chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b), 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)—providing the most comprehensive characterization of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compound emissions in California. Concentrations of measured HCFCs and HFCs are enhanced greatly throughout the SoCAB and CV, with highest levels observed in the SoCAB: 310 ± 92 pptv for HCFC-22, 30.7 ± 18.6 pptv for HCFC-141b, 22.9 ± 2.0 pptv for HCFC-142b, 4.86 ± 2.56 pptv for HCFC-124, 109 ± 46.4 pptv for HFC-134a, and 91.2 ± 63.9 pptv for HFC-152a. Annual emission rates are estimated for all six compounds in the SoCAB using the measured halocarbon to carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios and CO emissions inventories. Emission rates of 3.05 ± 0.70 Gg for HCFC-22, 0.27 ± 0.07 Gg for HCFC-141b, 0.06 ± 0.01 Gg for HCFC-142b, 0.11 ± 0.03 Gg for HCFC-124, 1.89 ± 0.43 Gg for HFC-134a, and 1.94 ± 0.45 Gg for HFC-152b for the year 2010 are calculated for the SoCAB. These emissions are extrapolated from the SoCAB region to the state of California using population data. Results from this study provide a baseline emission rate that will help future studies determine if HCFC and HFC mitigation strategies are successful.

  3. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    PubMed Central

    Sadd, James L.; Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Scoggins, Justin; Jesdale, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB), have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ) advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard proximity and land use; (2) air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3) social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES) measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI) score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns. PMID:21655129

  4. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  7. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  8. Spatial trends, sources, and air-water exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes basin using low density polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-08-19

    Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air-water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m(3). Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression implied that both cropland and urban areas within 50 and 10 km buffer zones, respectively, were critical parameters to explain the total variability in atmospheric concentrations. Freely dissolved OCP concentrations (nondetect to 114 pg/L) were lower than previously reported. Aqueous half-lives generally ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 years. Nonetheless, concentrations of p,p'-DDE and chlordanes were higher than New York State Ambient Water Quality Standards for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in both lakes were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Flux calculations indicated net deposition of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor-epoxide, and α- and β-endosulfan (-0.02 to -33 ng/m(2)/day) and net volatilization of heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (0.0 to 9.0 ng/m(2)/day) in most samples. PMID:25019318

  9. Discharge forecasts in mountain basins based on satellite snow cover mapping. [Dinwoody Creek Basin, Wyoming and the Dischma Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, J.; Rango, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A snow runoff model developed for European mountain basins was used with LANDSAT imagery and air temperature data to simulate runoff in the Rocky Mountains under conditions of large elevation range and moderate cloud cover (cloud cover of 40% or less during LANDSAT passes 70% of the time during a snowmelt season). Favorable results were obtained for basins with area not exceeding serval hundred square kilometers and with a significant component of subsurface runoff.

  10. Estimating the ozone-forming potential of urban trees and shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Michael T.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A method is presented for estimating the ozone-forming potential of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from trees and shrubs, using the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study. Hourly isoprene and monoterpenes emission rates for 308 tree and shrub species found in the SoCAB were combined with diurnal temperature and light intensity data for a representative summer day in the SoCAB to develop daily emission rates. These daily emission rates for each species were then normalized to a per tree basis using vegetation class biomass factors derived from reported leaf mass constants and tree canopy volumes. The ozone-forming potential for each of the tree and shrub species was estimated by combining the daily per tree emission rates with published maximum incremental reactivities (MIRs) for isoprene and monoterpenes. The resulting ranking of trees by ozone-forming potential can be used in tree species selection for future large-scale tree planting programs, and provides a more appropriate basis for selection than using only mass emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons.

  11. 77 FR 70707 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and South Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley and... Ambient Air Quality Standards in the San Joaquin Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. These technical...) in the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin and included provisions of...

  12. Miocene tephrochronology in the northern Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, M.E.; Brown, F.H.; Nash, W.P. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Silicic air-fall tephra layers with unaltered glass shards preserved in Miocene basins of the northern Basin and Range Province (NBR) were sampled from well-exposed sections in the Goose Creek (GCB) and Ibapah (IB) basins in the northeastern NBR, and the El Pasco basin (EPB) in the southwestern NBR. Each basin may contain up to 50 tephras. Glass shards from individual tephras in any one basin are compositionally distinct, as shown by XRF and electron microprobe analysis. Seventeen tephra correlate between two or more basins; 12 of these are regionally important, providing precise stratigraphic ties across the NbR. Four regionally correlative tephras are white biotitic ashes from southern Nevada sources, whereas eight are gray vitric ashes from Yellowstone hot spot sources. Dates on tephra layers and lava flows in the basins, and on ashflow units correlated with four other tephra provide a preliminary chronology for the tephra in the all basins. In each section [Delta]h/[Delta]t appears constant on time scales [>=]1 Ma, but variation in [Delta]h/[Delta]t is demonstrated from IB, and is likely typical of all basins. Sedimentation in all five basins begins in the time interval of 14.5--12.5 Ma, which may represent the beginning of a phase of regional extension in the NBR. Post-[approximately]9.5 Ma deformation has affected all basins and likely contributed to the termination of sedimentation in the exposed areas of these basins.

  13. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the Clean Air Act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Peter S; Shanley, James B

    2006-09-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining O4(2-) concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2++ Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO3-), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (approximately decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow

  14. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the clean air act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Shanley, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining SO2-4 concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2+ + Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO-3), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (???decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow early

  15. An Exploration, for the Upper Indus Basin, of Elevation Dependency in the Relationships Between Locally Observed Near Surface Air Temperature (SAT) and Remotely-Sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.; Blenkinsop, S.; Kilsby, C. G.; Archer, D. R.; Hardy, A. J.; Holderness, T. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of ground-based observations of near-surface air temperature (SAT) is extremely skewed toward low elevation areas. Land surface temperature (LST) remote sensing data products -- from thermal and infrared wavelength satellite imagery -- provide spatial coverage independent of elevation, although they only provide values for "clear sky" conditions, the prevalence of which may be influenced by elevation-dependent factors. It is thus imperative for researchers studying EDW to characterise the relationship between observations of "all-sky" SAT and "clear-sky" thermal/infrared (TIR) LST in order to overcome the extreme sparseness of SAT observations at high elevations. Drawing on local SAT observation data from both manned meteorological stations and AWS units covering an elevation range from 1500 to 4700m asl in the Upper Indus Basin, coupled with cloud climatologies from MODIS and global reanalyses, this study develops "clear-sky" and "all-sky" comparative, site-based climatologies of: [a] ground-observed SAT [b] reanalysis SAT and LST (skin surface temperature) Relationships between these climatologies and corresponding clear-sky/TIR satellite-retrieved LST are quantitatively assessed in the context of elevation-dependency and cloud cover prevalence. The implications of these relationships are discussed in the context of efforts to develop a multi-decadal TIR LST data product. While multi-decadal and even centennial trends are calculated from station-based observations of SAT, the relatively short record lengths of satellite-borne instruments used to produce currently available TIR LST data products better lend themselves to characterisation of interannual variability than trend calculation. Thus progress is detailed on EDW-driven efforts to validate such an LST product for the Himalayan region using historical imagery from the second and third generation of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3) instrument flown on NOAA

  16. Comparison of Driving Conditions and the Frequency of Rich Open Loop Operation for the South Coast Air Basin and the Federal Test Procedure with a 1991 Ffv Ford Taurus: Implications for Mobile Source Emissions Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Denis, Michael Joseph

    To aid in resolving critical questions about the accuracy of mobile source emissions models (e.g. EMFAC and MOBILE), this study provided a direct evaluation of real-time, on-road vehicle and engine operating parameters, and investigated their relationship to rich open loop emissions and driving pattern characteristics. More than 200,000 seconds of data were collected using a 1991 Ford Taurus under varying conditions in the South Coast Air Basin over a matrix of routes. Dynamometer emissions tests were conducted with the vehicle and the emissions data were used to model on-road emissions. The average on-road speed was 31.2 mph compared to 20.7 mph for the FTP and the maximum acceleration rate on-road was 10.0 mph s^{-1} compared to 3.3 mph s^{-1} for the FTP. Rich open loop operation occurred an average of 0.40% of the time on-road but was not observed during FTP and HFET tests. Factors which increased the frequency of rich open loop operation included aggressive driving, up-hill grades, merging and free flowing traffic conditions. Rich open loop emission rates were ~100, ~1700 and ~ 80 times higher than closed loop for HC, CO and NO_{rm x} (0.038 g s^{-1}, 3.17 g s ^{-1}, and 0.106 g s^ {-1} respectively during open loop operation). Modeling emissions as a function of load and speed was more accurate than with an acceleration-and speed-based model. The average modeled on-road emission rates were lower than the current emissions certification standards, but they were all greater than the emission rates measured for the FTP (33%, 190%, and 120% for HC, CO and NO _{rm x} respectively). Rich open loop operation accounted for ~ 70% of the increase in CO and ~ 40% of the increase in HC and NO, with the remainder attributed to differences between the FTP and on-road driving patterns. The results of the modeling studies suggest emissions from rich open loop operation, because they are not included in the FTP, may account for a portion of the under-estimation of current

  17. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  18. 5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking northeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1A. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1-A. Looking north northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    1993-01-01

    The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

  1. Characteristics, physical - geographical and climate of the basin Lumbardhi in Peja, Republic of Kosovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, Lavdim; Zeneli, Vildane; Komoraku, Alket

    2010-05-01

    Territory of the Republic of Kosovo has four river basins; basin "White Drini", "Ibar", "Morava e Binces" and "Lepenci". This paper deals: Orografic, hydro geological, geological and climatic characteristics. River basin of Peja "Lumbardhi" is branch of River basin " White Drini', all surface of the basin until shedding to the " White Drini" is 483.00km2 and extends toward east and west. Lumbardhi source of Peja is branch of Mount Çakorr. As right main branches are: River Bjeluha and lake Milishevci, whereas in the left side of river Boga and Alga. Key works: rainfall, air temperature, snow, air humidity, wind, evaporation.

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  5. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  6. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  7. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  8. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  9. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  10. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  11. Source contributions to the regional distribution of secondary particulate matter in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J.

    Source contributions to PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate and ammonium ion concentrations in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) (4-6 January 1996) and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) surrounding Los Angeles (23-25 September 1996) were predicted using a three-dimensional source-oriented Eulerian air quality model. The air quality model tracks the formation of PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate and ammonium ion from primary particles and precursor gases emitted from different sources though a mathematical simulation of emission, chemical reaction, gas-to-particle conversion, transport and deposition. The observed PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate and ammonium ion concentrations, and the mass distribution of nitrate, sulfate and ammonium ion as a function of particle size have been successfully reproduced by the model simulation. Approximately 45-57% of the PM2.5 nitrate and 34-40% of the PM2.5 ammonium ion in the SJV is formed from precursor gaseous species released from sources upwind of the valley. In the SoCAB, approximately 83% of the PM2.5 nitrate and 82% of the PM2.5 ammonium ion is formed from precursor gaseous species released from sources within the air basin. In the SJV, transportation related sources contribute approximately 24-30% of the PM2.5 nitrate (diesel engines ˜13.5-17.0%, catalyst equipped gasoline engines ˜10.2-12.8% and non-catalyst equipped gasoline engines ˜0.3-0.4%). In the SoCAB, transportation related sources directly contribute to approximately 67% of the PM2.5 nitrate (diesel engines 34.6%, non-catalyst equipped gasoline engine 4.7% and catalyst equipped gasoline engine 28.1%). PM2.5 ammonium ion concentrations in the SJV were dominated by area (including animal) NH 3 sources (16.7-25.3%), soil (7.2-10.9%), fertilizer NH 3 sources (11.4-17.3%) and point NH 3 sources (14.3-21.7%). In the SoCAB, ammonium ion is mainly associated with animal sources (28.2%) and catalyst equipped gasoline engines (16.2%). In both regions, the majority of the relatively low PM2.5 sulfate

  12. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  15. Synthetic musk emissions from wastewater aeration basins.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Nabin; Sun, Qinyue; Allen, Jonathan O; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater aeration basins at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) can be emission sources for gaseous or aerosolized sewage material. In the present study, particle and gas phase emissions of synthetic musks from covered and uncovered aeration basins were measured. Galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), and celestolide (ADBI) were the most abundant, ranging from 6704 to 344,306 ng m(-3), 45-3816 ng m(-3), and 2-148 ng m(-3) in the gas phase with particle phase concentrations 3 orders of magnitude lower. The musk species were not significantly removed from the exhaust air by an odor control system, yielding substantial daily emission fluxes (∼ 200 g d(-1) for HHCB) into the atmosphere. However, simple dispersion modeling showed that the treatment plants are unlikely to be a major contributor to ambient air concentrations of these species. Emission of synthetic musk species during wastewater treatment is a substantial fate process; more than 14% of the influent HHCB is emitted to the atmosphere in a POTW as opposed to the <1% predicted by an octanol-water partition coefficient and fugacity-based US EPA fate model. The substantial atmospheric emission of these compounds is most likely due to active stripping that occurs in the aeration basins by bubbling air through the sludge. PMID:21122886

  16. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  17. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  18. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  19. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  20. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  2. Compilation of hydrologic data for White Sands pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas, northern Tularosa Basin, White Sands Missile Range and Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1911-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, C.A.; Myers, R.G.; Saleh, D.K.; Myers, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    The White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa), listed as threatened by the State of New Mexico and as a Federal species of concern, is endemic to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Because water quality can affect pupfish and the environmental conditions of their habitat, a comprehensive compilation of hydrologic data for pupfish habitat and nonhabitat areas in the northern Tularosa Basin was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with White Sands Missile Range. The four locations within the Tularosa Basin that are known pupfish habitat areas are the Salt Creek, Malpais Spring and Malpais Salt Marsh, Main Mound Spring, and Lost River habitat areas. Streamflow data from the Salt Creek near Tularosa streamflow-gaging station indicated that the average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow for water years 1995–2008 were 1.35 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 983 acre-feet, respectively. Periods of no flow were observed in water years 2002 through 2006. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Salt Creek samples collected from 1911 through 2007 ranged from 2,290 to 66,700 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average annual mean streamflow and average annual total streamflow at the Malpais Spring near Oscura streamflow-gaging station for water years 2003–8 were 6.81 ft3/s and 584 acre-feet, respectively. Dissolved-solids concentrations for 16 Malpais Spring samples ranged from 3,882 to 5,500 mg/L. Isotopic data for a Malpais Spring near Oscura water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was more than 27,900 years old. Streamflow from Main Mound Spring was estimated at 0.007 ft3/s in 1955 and 1957 and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 ft3/s from 1996 to 2001. Dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected between 1955 and 2007 ranged from an estimated 3,760 to 4,240 mg/L in the upper pond and 4,840 to 5,120 mg/L in the lower pond. Isotopic data for a Main Mound Spring water sample collected in 1982 indicated that the water was about

  3. Drought Variability in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Projections from general circulation models are consistent in identifying the Mediterranean Basin as a region of expected drying in response to increased greenhouse gases. The Mediterranean and its bordering countries, while giving rise to the classic “Mediterranean” climate-type, are characterized by a complex precipitation climatology, with strong influences from land-sea contrasts, topography, intrusions of polar air from various lowland pathways, and occasional tropical influence from systems originating south of the Atlas Mountains. Identification of an anthropogenic signature of drying with instrumental climate data can benefit from information on the natural spatio-temporal variability of drought on time scales of decades to centuries in this complex precipitation regime. An expanding tree-ring network will eventually yield multi-century drought records for the region (117 chronologies now developed or in progress). Aspects of spatio-temporal variability on shorter time scales in the southern part of the Mediterranan Basin (south of about 40°N) are examined in this presentation with the aid of gridded precipitation, temperature and Z-index - a dimensionless intermediate variable in Palmer Drought Index computation. Cross-spectral analysis is applied to summarize covariance of drought-related variables across the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation indices are explored for direct causative factors in episodes of exceptional widespread seasonal and multi-season drought in the region.

  4. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  5. Low-emitting urban forests: A taxonomic methodology for assigning isoprene and monoterpene emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Michael T.; Sudol, Mark; Bloch, Laura; Winer, Arthur M.

    Large-scale tree planting programs have been proposed, and are being implemented, as a means of reducing energy demand, mitigating urban heat islands, and improving air quality. However, many species of trees emit highly photochemically reactive hydrocarbons and the rates of such emissions can vary by four orders of magnitude, depending upon the tree species. Thus, planting of high-emitting trees species on a massive scale has the potential to adversely affect air quality rather than leading to improvement. However, the selection of low-emitting trees is difficult because emission rates have been experimentally determined for only a limited number of species. The present study describes a methodology for assigning biogenic emission rates based on taxonomic relationships. Using this methodology, direct emission measurements from 124 tree and shrub species found in the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are used to assign emission rates to 253 other species found in the SoCAB but for which there are no measured emission rates. The combined listing of 377 species is ranked according to total (isoprene and monoterpenes) biogenic emission rate on an hourly basis. Although the ranking of trees developed here is specific to Southern California, the methodology described can be applied to other geographic areas to assist in the planting of low-emitting urban forests.

  6. A study of acute respiratory disease in families exposed to different levels of Air pollution in the Great Salt Lake basin, Utah, 1971-1972 and 1972-1973.

    PubMed

    Love, G J; Lan, S P; Shy, C M

    1982-04-01

    The reported incidence of acute respiratory illness in families exposed to different concentrations of air pollution was studied during two consecutive school years. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of increased exposure to sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter. In each of four study communities, the mothers of approximately 250 white families were contacted biweekly to obtain information regarding the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in each family member. Annual mean ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in one community for the three years included in the study (1971-1973) were well above the current air quality standard of 80 micrograms/m3, while in the other three communities the annual sulfur dioxide concentrations were much lower (usually less than 40 micrograms/m3). Suspended particulate matter concentrations in high sulfur dioxide community were close to the limit designated by the annual standard (75 micrograms/m3) but actual exposures in the four communities probably were not excessive. Regression analyses of the data collected showed inconsistent associations between illness rates and educational attainment of the head of household, crowding in the home, bronchitis in parents or smoking of parents. However, once the effects of these factors were removed the adjusted rates showed little association with community of residence. It was concluded that the higher concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the Utah atmosphere could not be the cause of increases in acute respiratory illness in the exposed populations. PMID:7084150

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  9. Simulating reactive nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and ozone in California during ARCTAS-CARB 2008 with high wildfire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chenxia; Kulkarni, Sarika; Zhao, Zhan; Kaduwela, Ajith P.; Avise, Jeremy C.; DaMassa, John A.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Wennberg, Paul; Dibb, Jack E.; Huey, Greg; Wisthaler, Armin; Jimenez, Jose L.; Cubison, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Predictions of O3, CO, total NOy and individual NOy species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, alkyl nitrates and aerosol nitrate) from a fine resolution regional air quality modeling system for the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and San Joaquin Valley Air Basin (SJVAB) of California are presented and evaluated for the 2008 ARCTAS-CARB campaign. The measurements of the chemical compounds from the fire plumes during the field campaign allow for the evaluation of the model's ability to simulate fire-influenced air masses as well. In general, the model successfully simulated the broad spatial distribution of chemical compounds in both air basins as well as the variation within the basins. Using inventories that reflect 2008 emissions levels, the model performed well in simulating NOx (NO + NO2) in SoCAB. Therefore, the under prediction of O3 over these areas is more likely caused by uncertainties with the VOC emissions, chemistry, or discrepancies in the meteorology. The model did not capture the relatively high levels of O3, and some reactive nitrogen species that were measured off shore of the SoCAB, indicating potential missing sources or the transport from on shore to off shore was not successfully captured. In SJVAB, the model had good performance in simulating different chemical compounds in the Fresno and Arvin areas. However, enhanced concentrations of O3, NOx, HNO3 and PAN near dairy farms were significantly underestimated in the model. Negative biases also exist for O3 and HNO3 near oil fields, suggesting larger uncertainties associated with these emission sources. While the model simulated the total NOy mixing ratios reasonably well, the prediction for partitioning between individual compounds showed larger uncertainties in the model simulation. Although the fire emissions inventory was updated to include the latest emissions estimates and speciation profiles, our model shows limited improvement in simulating the enhancement of O3, CO, and PAN under fire impact as

  10. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Recharge Basin Percolation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Allen, E. M.; Hutchinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Infiltration (spreading) basins are a central component of managed aquifer and recovery operations around the world. The concept is simple. Water is percolated into an aquifer where it can be withdrawn at a later date. However, managing infiltration basins can be complicated by entrapped air in sediments, strata of low permeability, clogging of the recharge surface, and biological growth, among other factors. Understanding the dynamics of percolation in light of these complicating factors provides a basis for making management decisions that increase recharge efficiency. As an aid to understanding percolation dynamics, fiber optic distribute temperature sensing (DTS) was used to track heat as a tracer of water movement in an infiltration basin. The diurnal variation of temperature in the basin was sensed at depth. The time lag between the oscillating temperature signal at the surface and at depth indicated the velocity of water percolation. DTS fiber optic cables were installed horizontally along the basin and vertically in boreholes to measure percolation behavior. The horizontal cable was installed in trenches at 0.3 and 1 m depth, and the vertical cable was installed using direct push technology. The vertical cable was tightly wound to produce a factor of 10 increase in spatial resolution of temperature measurements. Temperature was thus measured every meter across the basin and every 10 cm to a depth of 10 m. Data from the trenched cable suggested homogeneous percolation across the basin, but infiltration rates were a function of stage indicating non-ideal percolation. Vertical temperature monitoring showed significant lateral flow in sediments underlying the basin both during saturation and operation of the basin. Deflections in the vertical temperature profile corresponded with fine grained layers identified in core samples indicating a transient perched water table condition. The three-dimensional flow in this relatively homogenous surficial geology calls

  11. Salt tectonics in the Sivas basin, Turkey, mini basin development, halokinetic sequences, and fracturation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Callot, Jean-Paul; Bonnel, Cedric; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2013-04-01

    Sedimentary rock deposited in mini basin records the interaction between the evolution (growth, collapse, weld) of salt structure (diapir, weld, glacier) and sedimentation, forming halokinetic sequences. They are intensively strained along the diapir. At smaller scale, understanding the relationship between local halokinetic sequence, regional stresses acting on basin boundaries, and fracturation is a key to better predict geometry and quality of reservoir facies within mini basins. The Sivas basin, in the central Anatolian plateau of Turkey, contains an exceptional open-air collection of salt tectonic structures. This elongated E-W Oligo-Miocene basin developed above the Taurus-Pontides suture in an overall orogenic context. After deposition of the thick Hafik gypsum formation during the tectonically quiet mid Oligocene period, the mini basins recorded sedimentary sequences from the mid Oligocene to early Miocene, composed of red silts and fluvial sandstones, marls and lacustrine to marine limestones. Concomitenly to the mini basin formation, compression resumed in mid Miocene time and was responsible for mini basin capsizing and an increase of gypsum emission. The core of our study is focused on several minibasins (10 to 16 km2) separated by vertical allochtonous evaporitic walls and partially covered by remnant of gypsum glacier, in the central part of the basin, near the town of Sivas. The major minibasins have been carefully analyzed through geological field mapping and sampling, fracturation and microtectonic data sorting (stereogram), and aerial and satellite images interpretation. Two of them, Emirhan and Karayün, strongly tilted, present spectacular strongly deformed halokinetic succession along the contact with evaporitic bodies. They exhibit locally completely refolded and overturned sequences associated to several phase of gypsum extrusion. Such geometries have been reproduced in sandbox models and imaged on seismic lines in the Gulf of Mexico

  12. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM WASTEWATER BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to measure the rate at which selected volatile organic carbon (VOC) compounds are being emitted to air from waste-water treatment basins of the pulp and paper industry. The emission rates of methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were measured and th...

  13. 8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin associated with Components Test Laboratory (T-27) located uphill to the left, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View, fuel waste tanks and containment basin in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) uphill in background, looking southeast. At the extreme right is the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) and the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  16. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  17. Decadal changes in ozone and precursor emissions in the Los Angeles California region using in-situ airborne and ground-based field observations, roadside monitoring data, and surface network measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Flynn, J. H.; Frost, G. J.; Grossberg, N.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B. L.; Lueb, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.

    2011-12-01

    In-situ observations from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) surface network show decreases in ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Decreases in CO, NOx, and VOCs reflect changes, such as improved catalytic converters and reformulated fuels etc., that have been implemented in response to increasingly strict emissions standards placed upon on-road vehicles in the state of California. Here, we compare changes in emissions ratios of NOx and VOCs to CO determined from surface network data collected since 1994 to changes in emissions ratios from biennial roadside studies conducted in west Los Angeles since 1999 and airborne and ground-based measurements from three independent field campaigns conducted in California in 2002, 2008, and 2010. Using the more extensive in-situ surface network data set, we show that decreasing ozone is positively correlated with decreasing abundances of NOx and VOCs and with decreasing VOC/NOx ratio over time. The changes observed from 1994 to present suggest that reductions in both NOx and VOCs and the VOC/NOx ratio over the years have been effective in reducing ozone in the SoCAB.

  18. Oxidation Kinetics of K Basin Fuel (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-09-25

    Oxidation testing of K Basin-stored N Reactor fuel in dry air, moist air, and moist helium provided reaction rate data for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The tests were performed on small samples from two spent nuclear fuel elements retrieved from the closed canisters of the K West Basin. The spent nuclear fuel samples were tested using a thermogravimetric analysis system modified for moist-gas operation to allow testing in moist environments. The tests were run at constant temperature and water vapor pressure. The moist helium tests used 6.5 H a water vapor, producing seventeen data between 75 C and 210 C. Eight of these data were excluded from primary consideration due to testing anomalies and balance drift issues. Regression analysis of the nine acceptable data provided good assurance that the moist-helium results are consistent with literature data within the temperature range of 25 C to 210 C. Concerns about possible oxygen poisoning from air in-leakage and mass transfer limitations on the test data were reviewed. If oxygen poisoning occurred it was not likely to have biased the data sufficiently to change the basic conclusions of comparability to the literature data. Mass transfer limitations did not appear to have had significant effect on the moist-helium data.

  19. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  20. Surface ozone in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Joel D.; Theiss, Sandra; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Gertler, Alan; Schilling, Susan; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentrations were measured in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin using both active monitors (2010) and passive samplers (2002, 2010). The 2010 data from active monitors indicate average summertime diurnal maxima of approximately 50-55 ppb. Some site-to-site variability is observed within the Basin during the well-mixed hours of 10:00 to 17:00 PST, but large differences between different sites are observed in the late evening and pre-dawn hours. The observed trends correlate most strongly with elevation, topography, and surface vegetation. High elevation sites with steeply sloped topography and drier ground cover experience elevated O3 concentrations throughout the night because they maintain good access to downward mixing of O3-rich air from aloft with smaller losses due to dry deposition. Low elevation sites with flat topography and more dense surface vegetation experience low O3 concentrations in the pre-dawn hours because of greatly reduced downward mixing coupled with enhanced O3 removal via efficient dry deposition. Additionally, very high average O3 concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the middle of the Lake in 2010. This latter result likely reflects diminished dry deposition to the surface of the Lake. High elevation Tahoe Basin sites with exposure to nocturnal O3-rich air from aloft experience daily maxima of 8-h average O3 concentrations that are frequently higher than concurrent maxima from the polluted upwind comparison sites of Sacramento, Folsom, and Placerville. Wind rose analyses of archived NAM 12 km meteorological data for the summer of 2010 suggest that some of the sampling sites situated near the shoreline may have experienced on-shore "lake breezes" during daytime hours and/or off-shore "land breezes" during the night. Back-trajectory analysis with the HYSPLIT model suggests that much of the ozone measured at Lake Tahoe results from the transport of "polluted background" air into the Basin from upwind

  1. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  2. Surface Ozone in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Zielinska, B.; Schilling, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentrations were measured in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin using both active monitors (12 sites in 2010) and passive samplers (31 sites 2002; 34 sites in 2010). The 2010 data from active monitors indicate average summertime diurnal maxima of approximately 50-55 ppb. Minimal site-to-site variability is observed within the Basin during the well-mixed hours of 10:00 to 17:00 PST, but large differences between different sites are observed in the late evening and pre-dawn hours. The observed trends correlate most strongly with elevation, topography, and surface vegetation. High elevation sites with steeply sloped topography and drier ground cover experience elevated O3 concentrations throughout the night because they maintain good access to downward mixing of ozone-rich air from aloft with minimal losses due to dry deposition. Low elevation sites with flat topography and wetter surface vegetation experience low O3 concentrations in the pre-dawn hours because of greatly reduced downward mixing coupled with enhanced O3 removal via efficient dry deposition. Very high average O3 concentrations (overall seasonal average = 64 ppb) were measured with passive samplers in the middle of the Lake in 2010. This latter finding may reflect high emissions of O3 precursors from vehicular traffic around the Lake, emissions from motorboats, and/or elevated rates of photochemical processes due to high solar radiation and stagnant air masses over the Lake. Tahoe Basin sites with good nocturnal exposure to ozone-rich air from aloft experience average O3 concentrations that are frequently higher than concurrent averages from the polluted upwind comparison sites of Sacramento, Folsom, and Placerville.

  3. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  4. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  5. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  6. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  7. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  8. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  9. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  10. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  11. Manure ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a Western dairy storage basin.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of ammonia (NH) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions from dairies to the federal government depends on the magnitude of the emissions. However, little is known about their daily NH and HS emissions and what influences those emissions. Emissions of NH and HS from two manure storage basins at a 4400-head western free-stall dairy were measured intermittently over 2 yr. Each basin went through stages of filling, drying, and then removal of the manure during the study period. Emissions were determined using backward Lagrangian Stochastic and vertical radial plume methods. Ammonia emissions ranged from 35 to 59 kg d in one basin and from 86 to 90 kg d in a second basin, corresponding to a range of 7 to 19 g d head. Basin NH emissions were highest during initial filling and when the manure was removed. Mean HS emissions ranged from 5 to 22 kg d (1.1-4.6 g d head). Basin HS emissions were highest when the basin was filling. Crusting of the basin surface reduced NH but not HS emissions. The cessation of basin filling reduced HS but not NH emissions. Air temperature and wind conditions were correlated with NH emissions. Barometric pressure decreases were correlated with episodic HS emissions. The variability in emissions with stage of manure handling and storage and meteorological conditions indicates that determining the maximum daily emissions and the annual emissions from such waste basins requires consideration of each stage in conjunction with the climatic conditions during the stage. PMID:25602327

  12. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  13. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  15. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  16. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  17. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  18. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  20. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  1. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  2. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  3. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  4. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  5. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  6. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  7. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  8. Elevated Wintertime Ozone in Utah's Uinta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Moore, K. D.; Hill, S.; Harper, K.

    2011-12-01

    Seemingly anomalous elevated wintertime ozone (O3) levels were first observed in Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in 2005 and have been recorded most in subsequent winters. While research continues, it has been hypothesized that the unacceptable levels are a unique combination of stagnant meteorology, enhanced insolation due to relatively high elevations and snow increased albedo, and abundant precursor sources owing to the region's recent rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration and production. The UGRB area has over 4,700 recorded gas/oil wells and sits mostly in rural Sublette County which has an estimated population of 7,925, an area of 12,644 km2, and a basin floor elevation around 2200 m asl, surrounded on three sides with mountains up to 4,200 km asl. Similarly, the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah is a rural area prone to frequent low-level wintertime inversion episodes and persistent snow cover, with an expanding economy significantly based on gas and oil development and production (approximately 11,500 wells, with an estimated 17,000 more planned in the future years). The Basin lies primarily in Duchesne and Uintah Counties which have a combined population of approximately 51,200 and an area of about 19,982 km2. The floor of the Basin has a typical elevation around 1,560 m asl and is surrounded by mountains up to 4,120 m asl. Ambient measurements at four sites in the winter of 2009-2010 found many instances of ozone concentrations well above the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS; 75 ppb, 8-hr average, 4th highest value). To more fully characterize the behavior and geographical extent of the Uinta Basin's wintertime O3 issue, the Uintah Impact Mitigation Special Service District (UIMSSD) funded a study which included deploying 10 portable O3 monitors (2B Technologies, Inc., Model 205, Dual Beam) throughout the Basin. Furthermore, cooperative partners including the USEPA, BLM, UDAQ, NPS, and Golder Associates provided

  9. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  10. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  11. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  12. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Northwind Ridge, magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin, and the geometry and timing of rifting in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Clark, D.L.; Phillips, R.L.; Srivastava, S.P.; Blome, C.D.; Gray, L.-B.; Haga, H.; Mamet, B.L.; McIntyre, D.J.; McNeil, D.H.; Mickey, M.B.; Mullen, M.W.; Murchey, B.I.; Ross, C.A.; Stevens, C.H.; Silberling, Norman J.; Wall, J.H.; Willard, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Cores from Northwind Ridge, a high-standing continental fragment in the Chukchi borderland of the oceanic Amerasia basin, Arctic Ocean, contain representatives of every Phanerozoic system except the Silurian and Devonian systems. Cambrian and Ordovician shallow-water marine carbonates in Northwind Ridge are similar to basement rocks beneath the Sverdrup basin of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Upper Mississippian(?) to Permian shelf carbonate and spicularite and Triassic turbidite and shelf lutite resemble coeval strata in the Sverdrup basin and the western Arctic Alaska basin (Hanna trough). These resemblances indicate that Triassic and older strata in southern Northwind Ridge were attached to both Arctic Canada and Arctic Alaska prior to the rifting that created the Amerasia basin. Late Jurassic marine lutite in Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from coeval strata in the Sverdrup and Arctic Alaska basins by rift shoulder and grabens, and is interpreted to be a riftogenic deposit. This lutite may be the oldest deposit in the Canada basin. A cape of late Cenomanian or Turonian rhyodacite air-fall ash that lacks terrigenous material shows that Northwind Ridge was structurally isolated from the adjacent continental margins by earliest Late Cretaceous time. Closing Amerasia basin by conjoining seafloor magnetic anomalies beneath the Canada basin or by uniting the pre-Jurassic strata of Northwind Ridge with kindred sections in the Sverdrup basin and Hanna trough yield simular tectonic reconstructions. Together with the orientation and age of rift-marine structures, these data suggest that: 1) prior to opening of the Amerasia basin, both northern Alaska and continental ridges of the Chukchi borderland were part of North America, 2) the extension that created the Amerasia basin formed rift-margin graben beginning in Early Jurassic time and new oceanic crust probably beginning in Late Jurassic or early Neocomian time. Reconstruction of the Amerasia basin on the

  13. LAKE ONTARIO BASIN POLLUTANT REDUCTION PROJECT - AIR DEPOSITION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Ontario LaMP identified six critical pollutants for the lake: PCBs, DDT, mirex, dieldrin, mercury and dioxins. In order to gain a better understanding of the movement of toxic chemicals through the Lake Ontario ecosystem, EPA Region 2, in coordination with the other LaMP...

  14. The influence of frozen soil change on water balance in the upper Yellow River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, B.

    2013-12-01

    Yellow River supports 30% of China's population and 13% of China's total cultivated area. About 35% of the Yellow River discharge comes from the upper Yellow River Basin. Seasonally frozen, continuous and isolated permafrost soils coexist and cover the entire upper Yellow River Basin. The spatial distribution of various frozen soisl is primarily determined by the elevation in the basin. Since the past five decades, air temperature has increased by a rate of 0.03 C/year in the upper Yellow River Basin. Many studies reported the conversions of continuous to isolated permafrost soil, permafrost soil to seasonally frozen soil and the thickening of the active layer due to rising temperature in the basin. However, very few studies reported the impact of the change of frozen soil on the water balance in the basin. In this study, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is applied in the upper Yellow River Basin to study the change of frozen soil and its impact on the water balance. Soil temperature and soil liquid content measured up to 3 m below ground surface at a number of sites in the upper Yellow River Basin and the surroundings are used to evaluate the model simulation. Streamflow is also calibrated and validated using historical streamflow records. The validated VIC model is then used to investigate the frozen soil change and the impact of the change on water balance terms including surface runoff, baseflow, evapotranspiration, soil water content, and streamflow in the basin.

  15. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  16. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  17. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  18. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  19. Modeling the influence of hypsometry, vegetation, and storm energy on snowmelt contributions to basins during rain-on-snow floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-10-01

    Point observations and previous basin modeling efforts have suggested that snowmelt may be a significant input of water for runoff during extreme rain-on-snow floods within western U.S. basins. Quantifying snowmelt input over entire basins is difficult given sparse observations of snowmelt. In order to provide a range of snowmelt contributions for water managers, a physically based snow model coupled with an idealized basin representation was evaluated in point simulations and used to quantify the maximum basin-wide input from snowmelt volume during flood events. Maximum snowmelt basin contributions and uncertainty ranges were estimated as 29% (11-47%), 29% (8-37%), and 7% (2-24%) of total rain plus snowmelt input, within the Snoqualmie, East North Fork Feather, and Upper San Joaquin basins, respectively, during historic flooding events between 1980 and 2008. The idealized basin representation revealed that both hypsometry and forest cover of a basin had similar magnitude of impacts on the basin-wide snowmelt totals. However, the characteristics of a given storm (antecedent SWE and available energy for melt) controlled how much hypsometry and forest cover impacted basin-wide snowmelt. These results indicate that for watershed managers, flood forecasting efforts should prioritize rainfall prediction first, but cannot neglect snowmelt contributions in some cases. Efforts to reduce the uncertainty in the above snowmelt simulations should focus on improving the meteorological forcing data (especially air temperature and wind speed) in complex terrain.

  20. 9. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin associated with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View, oxidizer waste tanks and containment basin associated with Components Test Laboratory (T-27) located directly uphill, looking north. Located uphill in the upper left portion of the photograph (from right to left) are the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D), Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B), and Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  2. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  3. Basin modeling of Jambi Subbasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Halik, N. ); Wu, C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Jambi Subbasin is part of the South Sumatra Basin, a Tertiary back-arc basin formed by the collision between the Sundaland and Indian Plate. The Oligocene synrift Lahat Formation, and the Miocene postrift Talang Akar, Batu Raja, Gumai, and Air Benakat formations are stratigraphic intervals for potential hydrocarbon exploration. Most of the hydrocarbons have been produced from the Talang Akar and Air Benakat formations. Detailed age-depth relationship, paleobathymetry, and eustatic sea level were studied for 11 wells. Degrees of transgression and regression, and relative movement of fault blocks were predicted from rates of total and tectonic subsidence. The structural evolution of the Jambi Subbasin was reconstructed using the backstripping method. Results from the burial history modeling have helped in predicting thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation, and structural development of the Jambi Subbasin. The timing of basement uplifting started from middle-late Miocene and reached the maximum in Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two hydrocarbon migration and accumulation mechanisms were proposed. In the depocenter, hydrocarbons were generated, migrated upward along faults, and trapped in the middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation, whereas in the basin flanks, hydrocarbons were migrated laterally from the depocenter and trapped in the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation. The methodology of this study can be applied to other subbasins in South Sumatra.

  4. Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime Temperature Trends in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, B. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values trends for each air basin. Results showed concurrent cooling in coastal areas and warming at further inland areas. This pattern suggests that the regional-warming of inland areas resulted in increased coastal sea breeze activity. Further investigations by use of mesoscale model simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-met model with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over SoCAB were undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term changes due to green house gas (GHG) warming and land-use land-cover changes on coastal flows. Comparison of simulated present (2000-4) and past climate (1970-4) conditions showed significant increases in sea breeze activity and thus coastal cooling, which supports the observational analysis results that coastal cooling is an indirect “reverse reaction” of GHG warming. The magnitude and location of the simulated and observed coastal-cooling region were in good agreement. Urbanization effects on coastal environment were twofold: increased urban mechanical surface roughness retards sea breeze flows, while urban heat islands (UHIs) enhance them. Significant beneficial societal impacts will result from this observed reverse-reaction to global-warming, especially during UHI-growth periods, include decreased maximum: agricultural production, O3 levels, per-capita energy requirements for cooling, and human thermal-stress levels. Similar “reverse-reaction” effects should be found in other mid-latitude western coastal-regions.

  5. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  6. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  7. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.H.; Rubin, L.A.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low- pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) {open_quotes}Cableless{close_quotes} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  8. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  9. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  10. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  11. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  12. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  13. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  14. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  15. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  16. Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

  17. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for 1986 through 1991 from two small basins in central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating the volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for their suitability as storage sites for nuclear waste. Two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to the ground water. The semiarid 3 Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. This publication presents the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Data were collected throughout the two basins. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins. Meteorological data are available from the lower sites from the winter of 1986 through the fall of 1991. Periods of data collection were shorter for additional sites in the basin.

  18. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  19. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  20. OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS HARVEST LABOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project assesses the effect of photochemical oxidants on the work performance of twelve individual citrus pickers in the South Coast Air Basin of southern California. A model of the picker's decision problem is constructed in which oxidants influence the individual's picking ...

  1. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  2. Characterization of air quality data for the southern California air quality study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, K.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Hopke, P.K.; Grosjean, D.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents research based on data acquired during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Various techniques were applied to identify the sources of acidity in the South Coast Air Basin of California. These Techniques included graphical analysis, box modeling, deterministic modeling, and receptor modeling. A fog model was developed to study the contribution of fog to acidic species formation and removal. A trajectory model was also used to examine the vertical distribution of acidity and the implications with respect to fog acidity. Receptor models with different complexity were used: principal component analysis, stepwise multiple regression, target transformation factor analysis, and potential source contribution function analysis.

  3. Modeling a mountain basin sediment cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Georgie; Molnar, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Mountain basins are most sensitive to climate change because of the dependence of snow and ice melt processes, surface weathering and erosion on air temperature, combined with their rapid rainfall-runoff response. Consequently, sediment yield from mountain basins will also likely be related to climate variability. Constructing sediment budgets is the first step towards understanding the interaction of climate and earth-surface processes. Recently, mountain basin sediment transfer has been conceptualized as a sediment cascade in which, following erosion, sediment travels through multiple cycles of storage and remobilization before exiting the basin. However, few studies have extended this concept beyond the identification and quantification of individual processes and storage units. In this study we have developed a probabilistic sediment cascade model based on a sediment budget spanning more than 4 decades in the Illgraben, an active, debris-flow prone basin in the Swiss Alps. We use this model to investigate the role of thresholds and hydrological and sediment storage dynamics in the transformation of the observed probability distribution of slope failures into that of debris flows. The sediment cascade model consists of a hydrological and sediment module, both of which are based on a spatially lumped storage reservoir representation of the involved physical processes. Water and sediment are generated and routed according to conceptual rules and thresholds which we define and calibrate based on observations. We run simulations with stochastic sediment input drawn from the power-law distribution of slope failures and observed climatic variables (precipitation and air temperature) at the daily resolution for the period 2000-2009, and investigate the outputs of the model in terms of (1) the probability distribution and (2) the timing of sediment discharge events compared to observed debris flows. The triggering of debris flows in our model is conditioned by the

  4. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  5. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is

  6. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  7. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose.

  8. 78 FR 38223 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...EPA is approving, as a revision to the California State implementation plan (SIP), the State's request to redesignate the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (South Coast) to attainment for the 24- hour particulate matter of ten microns or less (PM10) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). EPA is also approving the PM10 maintenance plan and the associated......

  9. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  10. 78 FR 51 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; Morongo Band of Mission Indians

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... following enactment of the 1977 Amendments to the CAA. See 43 FR 8962 (March 3, 1978). These designations... Basin and include it in the South Coast Air Basin. See 68 FR 57820 (October 7, 2003).\\5\\ Specifically... October 7, 2003, EPA approved California's boundary change request (68 FR 57820). \\5\\ California...

  11. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  14. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  15. HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO AIR POLLUTION IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN. (R825826)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  17. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  18. Reduction of VOC emissions from aeration basins using mobil hoods and circulating aeration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongwei; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    As regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) with large treatment capacities will be required to reduce their emissions of volatile organic hazardous air pollutants, primarily from the aeration basins. Previous studies indicate that circulating aeration may significantly reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, most of which are from the upstream portion of the aeration basin. Based on these findings, circulating aeration facilitated by partial tank covering using mobile hoods is proposed as an effective emission control strategy. Using this technology, less VOCs will be stripped into and concentrated in reduced amount of off-gases which can be efficiently treated by conventional control technologies. Compared with fixed rigid covers of aeration basins, mobile hoods are inexpensive to construct and easy to operate.

  19. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  20. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  1. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  2. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  3. The NACA Tank : A High-speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr

    1934-01-01

    This report describes the high-speed model towing basin of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, usually referred to as the NACA Tank. The purpose of this piece of equipment is to enable the Committee to provide information and data regarding the performance of seaplanes on the water analogous to the information furnished concerning the performance of airplanes in the air.

  4. Soil wind erodibility based on dry aggregate-size distribution in the Tarim Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tarim Basin is an important source of airborne particulate matter that contributes to poor air quality in China. However, little attention has been given to estimating wind erodibility of soils in the region. The objective of this study was to determine the soil wind erodibility for six land use...

  5. Structure and evolution of the Sporadhes basin of the North Aegean trough, northern Aegean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    1980-09-01

    Air gun and sparker profiling data from the northwest Aegean Sea provide detailed information on the structure of the Sporadhes basin (the western part of the North Aegean trough) and the adjacent shallow water area of Thermaicos Bay. Both areas are underlain by a thick postorogenic sedimentary sequence that exhibits "growth folds" (supratenuous folds attributable to synsedimentary tectonism) and associated antithetic faulting attributable to gravity creep down the limbs of the developing folds. The Sporadhes basin is an asymmetrical graben closely similar to Gulf Coast structures (down-to-basin faults) that have been modelled experimentally by Cloos (1968). Major listric faulting characterises the southern margin of the basin and the wide northern flank represents an associated downbend or reverse drag structure with antithetic faulting. Magmatism may occur in the axial zone of the basin. The Sporadhes basin has been formed in a late Cenozoic tensile stress regime and its evolution is discussed in terms of the regional tectonics and the process of back-arc extension. The structure and evolution of the northern Aegean area and the Pannonian basin are shown to be closely similar.

  6. Inversion Breakup in Small Rocky Mountain and Alpine Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Pospichal, Bernhard; Eisenbach, Stefan; Weihs, P.; Clements, Craig B.; Steinacker, Reinhold; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Dorninger, Manfred

    2004-08-01

    Comparisons are made between the post-sunrise breakup of temperature inversions in two similar closed basins in quite different climate settings, one in the eastern Alps and one in the Rocky Mountains. The small, high-altitude, limestone sinkholes have both experienced extreme temperature minima below -50°C. On undisturbed clear nights, temperature inversions reach to 120 m heights in both sinkholes, but are much stronger in the drier Rocky Mountain basin (24K versus 13K). Inversion destruction takes place 2.6 to 3 hours after sunrise and is accomplished primarily by subsidence warming associated with the removal of air from the base of the inversion by the upslope flows that develop over the sidewalls. Differences in inversion strengths and post-sunrise heating rates are caused by differences in the surface energy budget, with drier soil and a higher sensible heat flux in the Rocky Mountain sinkhole.

  7. Hydrologic sensitivity of Indian sub-continental river basins to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Lilhare, Rajtantra

    2016-04-01

    Climate change may pose profound implications for hydrologic processes in Indian sub-continental river basins. Using downscaled and bias corrected future climate projections and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we show that a majority of the Indian sub-continental river basins are projected to shift towards warmer and wetter climate in the future. During the monsoon (June to September) season, under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 (8.5), the ensemble mean air temperature is projected to increase by more than 0.5 (0.8), 1.0 (2.0), and 1.5 (3.5) °C in the Near (2010-2039), Mid (2040-2069), and End (2070-2099) term climate, respectively. Moreover, the sub-continental river basins may face an increase of 3-5 °C in the post-monsoon season under the projected future climate. While there is a large intermodel uncertainty, robust increases in precipitation are projected in many sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate especially in the Mid and End term climate. A sensitivity analysis for the Ganges and Godavari river basins shows that surface runoff is more sensitive to change in precipitation and temperature than that of evapotranspiration (ET). An intensification of the hydrologic cycle in the Indian sub-continental basins is evident in the projected future climate. For instance, for Mid and End term climate, ET is projected to increase up to 10% for the majority of the river basins under both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. During the monsoon season, ensemble mean surface runoff is projected to increase more than 40% in 11 (15) basins under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Moreover, streamflow is projected to increase more than 40% in 8 (9) basins during the monsoon season under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios. Results show that water availability in the sub-continental river basins is more sensitive towards changes in the monsoon season precipitation rather than air temperature. While in the majority

  8. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  9. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  10. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  11. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  12. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  13. Basin Overflow Floods on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    On Earth, the most intense recognized historical and paleofloods have been ice dambursts or overflows of large basins, often initiated by abundant runoff or meltwater from the contributing watersheds. Many impact craters and other basins also overflowed in the Martian cratered highlands, and some of their incised outlet valleys similarly record evidence of erosive floods. Otherwise, the commonly small, enclosed watersheds on Mars contain poorly developed valley networks and relatively simple depositional landforms, which record little evidence of intense (by terrestrial standards) meteorological floods. For these reasons, basin overflows may have been disproportionately important mechanisms for incision of large valleys on Mars. Many of the Martian outflow channels head in topographic settings that favored ponding, including large canyons, impact or intercrater basins, chaotic terrain basins, and grabens. This topography may have accumulated somewhat slower groundwater discharges from the subsurface to support peak channel discharges of 106-108 m3/s. To yield a discharge of 106, 107, and 108 m3/s from a dam failure with a width/depth ratio of 5, the model predicts that a breach of ~100, 250, and 640 m, respectively, must form rapidly with respect to the decline of lake level. Terrestrial damburst floods have not exceeded ~106 m3/s for earthen dams and ~107 m3/s for ice dams, but brecciation of the Martian surface by impact cratering may have allowed larger damburst failures, whereas solid bedrock was exposed at shallower depths in the terrestrial examples. Moreover, many of the Martian basins were much larger than enclosed continental basins on Earth, so long-lived overflows may have facilitated entrenchment of deeper channels. Some large, mid-latitude basins overflowed to carve Ma'adim Vallis and the Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system, which are similar in scale to the terrestrial Grand Canyon but record much larger formative discharges. Models of damburst

  14. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  15. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  16. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  17. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  18. A New Search for Lunar Mascon Basins using Detrended Kaguya (SELENE) Gravity: Implications for GRAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombard, A. J.; Hauck, S. A.; Balcerski, J.

    2012-12-01

    The collection of GRAIL data and imminent release of its first gravity models will revolutionize understanding of the lunar interior, which motivates an assessment of the current state of knowledge. A primary goal of the GRAIL mission is to understand better mascon basins, large impact craters that display significant positive free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Discovered in a handful of nearside basins during preparations for the Apollo landings and recently expanded by the global Kaguya (SELENE) gravity models, an important question is why is not every large crater a mascon basin, as less than half of the 41 impact basins > 300 km in diameter (minus South Pole-Aitken) have been previously determined to be mascons. An issue not generally considered in the identification of mascons is that the topography, and hence Bouguer gravity, display long-wavelength regional signals that might mask some mascons. Here, we use the SGM100i Kaguya gravity model and LRO's LOLA shape model to examine the free-air, topographic (arising solely from topography), and Bouguer gravity, detrended by omitting the first 5 spherical harmonic degrees from our expansions. In contrast to past studies, we find that most large basins (28 of 41) display characteristics of mascons (e.g., a strong positive Bouguer anomaly generally narrower than the surface rim). Negative annuli surrounding the central highs in the free-air gravity do not exist in the Bouguer gravity, with only 2 definitive exceptions. The fact that the majority of the Bouguer anomalies are narrower than the basin rim and that the negative free-air annulus appears to be a product of the surface topography has implications for the formation of the basins. We propose that beneath a forming large basin, the mantle uplifts in response to the large isostatic imbalance with the transient crater, while the surface topography forms from not only upward but inward collapse of the transient crater's rim wall and adjustment of the melt

  19. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  20. Crustal structure of the Levant Basin, eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ginzburg, Avihu; Makris, Jannis; Eppelbaum, Lev

    2002-02-01

    A seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment was undertaken in the Levant Basin, eastern Mediterranean. Two roughly east-west profiles extend from the continental shelf of Israel toward the Levant Basin. The northern profile crosses the Eratosthenes Seamount and the southern profile crosses several distinct magnetic anomalies. The marine operation used 16 ocean bottom seismometers deployed along the profiles with an air gun array and explosive charges as energy sources. The results of this study strongly suggest the existence of oceanic crust under portions of the Levant Basin and continental crust under the Eratosthenes Seamount. The seismic refraction data also indicate a large sedimentary sequence, 10-14 km thick, in the Levant Basin and below the Levant continental margin. Assuming the crust is of Cretaceous age, this gives a fairly high sedimentation rate. The sequence can be divided into several units. A prominent unit is the 4.2 km/s layer, which is probably composed of the Messinian evaporites. Overlying the evaporitic layer are layers composed of Plio-Pleistocene sediments, whose velocity is 2.0 km/s. The refraction profiles and gravity and magnetic models indicate that a transition from a two layer continental to a single-layer oceanic crust takes place along the Levant margin. The transition in the structure along the southern profile is located beyond the continental margin and it is quite gradual. The northern profile, north of the Carmel structure, presents a different structure. The continental crust is much thinner there and the transition in the crustal structure is more rapid. The crustal thinning begins under western Galilee and terminates at the continental slope. The results of the present study indicate that the Levant Basin is composed of distinct crustal units and that the Levant continental margin is divided into at least two provinces of different crustal structure.

  1. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  2. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines particles (+32%) and wood

  3. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  6. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  7. Plio-Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of Ross Sea eastern basin (Antarctica): Implications to glacial history and basin evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, M.B.; Diaz, J.I. ); Anderson, J.S.; Bartek, L. )

    1991-03-01

    From air-gun and water-gun high-resolution single-channel seismic records, seven seismic units are defined, overlying the Ross Sea Unconformity, in the Plio-Quaternary sequences of the Ross Sea Eastern basin. These units are up to 600 m in thickness and generally thin onshore, disappearing near the western limit of the basin. The units are separated by smooth erosional surfaces characterized by continuous, high-amplitude reflectors. By correlation to DSDP Site 272, seismic units I and II are Pliocene in age, and the overlying units (III or VII) are Quaternary in age. Units I, III, and VII are basinal in extension and the others are confined to the central part of the basin. Thickness of the units ranges from 50 to 120 m, and they are mainly characterized by lenticular and wedge geometrics. Three acoustic facies are discerned: stratified, semitransparent, and chaotic. Wide (7 km) lenticular deposits, containing chaotic facies, are incised by U-shaped channels in seismic units, II, III (both up to 0.5 km wide), and VI (2 km wide), The spatial distribution of these channels indicates a paleodrainage system in which ice streams followed flow paths similar to those of the present. The major geological events that occurred on the continental shelf during Plio-Quaternary time were: (1) the first channel incisions are identified near the boundary of the late Pliocene-Quaternary; (2) the advance and retreat of the ice sheet resulted in widespread erosion processes alternating with deposition of glacial and glaciomarine sediments; (3) the largest depocenter has been always situated in the shelf break environment, near the western limit of the basin; and (4) the only important progradation of the shelf occurred during the late Pliocene, and since then the shelf has been aggradational.

  8. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. PMID:25747376

  9. Late Tertiary and Quaternary geology of the Tecopa basin, southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-12-31

    Stratigraphic units in the Tecopa basin, located in southeastern California, provide a framework for interpreting Quaternary climatic change and tectonism along the present Amargosa River. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a climate that was appreciably wetter than today`s sustained a moderately deep lake in the Tecopa basin. Deposits associated with Lake Tecopa consists of lacustrine mudstone, conglomerate, volcanic ash, and shoreline accumulations of tufa. Age control within the lake deposits is provided by air-fall tephra that are correlated with two ash falls from the Yellowstone caldera and one from the Long Valley caldera. Lake Tecopa occupied a closed basin during the latter part, if not all, of its 2.5-million-year history. Sometime after 0.5 m.y. ago, the lake developed an outlet across Tertiary fanglomerates of the China Ranch Beds leading to the development of a deep canyon at the south end of the basin and establishing a hydrologic link between the northern Amargosa basins and Death Valley. After a period of rapid erosion, the remaining lake beds were covered by alluvial fans that coalesced to form a pediment in the central part of the basin. Holocene deposits consist of unconsolidated sand and gravel in the Amargosa River bed and its deeply incised tributaries, a small playa near Tecopa, alluvial fans without pavements, and small sand dunes. The pavement-capped fan remnants and the Holocene deposits are not faulted or tilted significantly, although basins to the west, such as Death Valley, were tectonically active during the Quaternary. Subsidence of the western basins strongly influenced late Quaternary rates of deposition and erosion in the Tecopa basin.

  10. Basin-Scale Wind Transport during the MILAGRO Field Campaign and Comparison to Climatology Using Cluster Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paech, S. J.; Phillips, D.; Walters, J. T.; Coulter, Richard L.; Martin, Tim J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.; Kastendeuch, P. P.; Marley, Nancy A.; Retama, A.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-03-03

    The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  11. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  12. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    spring. In irrigated areas near uplands or major rivers, the annual recharge rate may be about 1.2 ? 10-3 meters per year; however, in areas at lower altitude with little irrigation, the recharge rate may average about 0.7 ? 10-3 meters per year. With increasing population, the water needs of the Kabul Basin are estimated to increase from 112,000 cubic meters per day to about 725,000 cubic meters per day by the year 2057. In some areas of the basin, particularly in the north along the western mountain front and near major rivers, water resources are generally adequate for current needs. In other areas of the basin, such as in the east and away from major rivers, the available water resources may not meet future needs. On the basis of the model simulations, increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels that may cause more than 50 percent of shallow (typically less than 50 meters deep) supply wells to become dry or inoperative. The water quality in the shallow (less than 100 meters thick), unconsolidated primary aquifer has deteriorated in urban areas because of poor sanitation. Concerns about water availability may be compounded by poor well-construction practices and lack of planning. Future water resources of the Kabul Basin will likely be reduced as a result of increasing air temperatures associated with global climate change. It is estimated that at least 60 percent of shallow groundwater-supply wells would be affected and may become dry or inoperative as a result of climate change. These effects of climate change would likely be greatest in the agricultural areas adjacent to the Paghman Mountains where a majority of springs, karezes, and wells would be affected. The water available in the shallow primary aquifer of the basin may meet future water needs in the northern areas of the Kabul Basin near the Panjsher River. Conceptual groundwater-flow simulations indicate that the basin likely has groundwater reserves in unused unconsolidate

  13. Substantial contribution of anthropogenic air pollution to catastrophic floods in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-01

    Extreme weather events have become more frequent and are likely linked to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosols, which alter the Earth's radiative balance and cloud processes. On 8-9 July 2013, a catastrophic flood devastated the mountainous area to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Atmospheric simulations at a convection-permitting scale with aerosols and chemistry included show that heavy air pollution trapped in the basin significantly enhances the rainfall intensity over the mountainous areas through "aerosol-enhanced conditional instability." That is, aerosols suppress convection by absorbing solar radiation and increasing atmospheric stability in the basin during daytime. This allows excess moist air to be transported to the mountainous areas and orographically lifted, generating strong convection and extremely heavy precipitation at night. We show that reducing pollution in the Sichuan Basin can effectively mitigate floods. It is suggested that coupling aerosol with meteorology can be crucial to improve weather forecast in polluted regions.

  14. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  15. Eclogitisation as the cause of the West Siberian Basin subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, I. M.; Cherepanova, Y. V.; Herceg, M.; Thybo, H.; Arndt, N.

    2013-12-01

    The West Siberian Basin (WSB) is one of the largest in the world intracontinental basins (compared in size with Western Europe) located between the Urals mountains and the Siberian craton. Its basement formed by a mosaics of micro-continents, relict ocean basins, and island arcs ranging in age from Proterozoic to Paleozoic has been significantly reworked during the Permian-early Triassic rifting, followed by emplacement of the Siberian traps, which cover much of the basin. Despite a vast amount of drilling and exploration geophysical data for the sedimentary cover, little is known about the deep lithosphere structure of the WSB, which hampers understanding of its geodynamic evolution. Recent regional crustal model constrained by crustal-scale seismic profiles indicates significant variations in the depth to Moho (ranging from 32-35 km to ca. 45 km), thickness of sediments (from near-zero to ca. 15 km), and average crustal Vp velocity (from ca. 6.0 to ca. 6.7 km/s) (Cherepanova et al., 2013). However, near-zero free-air gravity indicates that the basin is close to isostatic equilibrium. Here we use two independent methods to calculate density variations in the mantle beneath the WSB, taking advantage of the new regional crustal model. The first approach is based on free-board modeling, while the second one is based on GOCE satellite gravity data. Both density calculations show the presence of a high-density material beneath the axial part of the major rift system. Recalculation of density anomalies to room P-T conditions, based on a regional thermal model (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001) and assuming different models for the lithosphere thickness, yields mantle density of 3.43-3.50 g/cc over half of the basin with local peak values up to ca. 3.55 g/cc. We interpret this density anomaly as the evidence for the presence of eclogites and speculate that eclogitisation may be the primary cause of basin subsidence. This conclusion is supported by high seismic velocities in

  16. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  17. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  18. Searching for Nectaris Basin Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    Because Nectaris Basin is a key stratigraphic marker for lunar bombardment, we are conducting an effort to identify Nectaris basin impact-melt rocks, to model their emplacement, and to examine sites where Nectaris impact melt is abundant.

  19. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  20. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona`s Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  1. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona's Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  2. Basin formation and inversion of the back-arc, Niigata basin, central Japan: New insight from deep seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo; Saito, Hideo; Kato, Naoko; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Fukasawa, Hikaru; Inaba, Mitsuru

    2010-05-01

    Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, rift-basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu. The Niigata basin, central Japan, is one of the such basins and filled by thick (< 8 km) Neogene sediments. By subsequent convergence since the Pliocene, an arc-parallel fold-and-thrust-belt has been developed along the Miocene rift-basins. In this belt devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (M7.4), 2004 Chuetsu (M6.8) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (M6.8) earthquakes, occurred by reverse faulting. Due to thick Neogene sediments, relationship between active faults/folds at near the surface and deep-sited seismogenic source faults is poorly understood. To reveal the crustal structure, in particular geometry of source faults, onshore-offshore integrated deep seismic profiling was undertaken along the two seismic lines in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 Aizu-Sado seismic line is a 135-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic line across Niigata basin and Sado island, which is located in the eastern part of Japan Sea. The 2008 Sanjo-Yahiko seismic line (Sato et al., 2009) is located 20 km south of the seismic line and trending parallel to it. The seismic source was air-gun (3020 cu. inch), four vibroseis trucks and explosives (< 200kg). Along the Sado strait, seismic data was acquired using two-ships to make large offset shot gather. Seismic signals were recorded by ocean bottom cables, cable-connected-recording system and offline recorders, forming a maximum 2400 channels receiver array. The basin fill consists of early to middle Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and overlying Neogene sedimentary rocks showing upward coarsening facies deposited under bathyal to fluvial environment. Main features of basin development, such as early Miocene normal faulting, associated with the formation of Japan Sea, and shortening deformation since Pliocene, are well demonstrated on the seismic sections. Particularly, boundary between pre-Tertiary meta-sedimentary rocks and Miocene

  3. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  4. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  5. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  6. Estimating CH4 and CO Emissions in California's Urban and Rural Regions Using Multi-site Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Graven, H. D.; Hsu, Y.; Newman, S.; Novakovskaia, E.; Vaca, P.; Salameh, P.; Sloop, C.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    California's commitment (Assembly Bill 32) to reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 (~20% reduction) requires quantification of current GHG emissions. We will present atmospheric inversion estimates of California's total CH4 emissions for summer 2013, using data from multiple sites covering urban and rural areas of California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), Central Valley, and San Francisco Bay Area. We will also use measured CO from two tall-tower sites (Central Valley and SoCAB) to quantify CO emissions as well as to evaluate atmospheric transport. We use Bayesian inverse modeling to estimate the CH4 and CO emissions from discrete regions of California by combining the atmospheric measurements, upstream background, high-resolution prior emission maps, and predicted atmospheric transport from WRF-STILT. We quantify site-specific model-measurement uncertainties due to transport using meteorological data from a network of atmospheric profilers and in-situ sensors, due to background using oceanic and aircraft observations, and the prior emissions. To reduce the uncertainty in transport, we assimilate available meteorological measurements from surface and upper air stations, and wind profilers into the WRF model. Preliminary inversion results during September 2010 - June 2011 and summer of 2012 suggest that state total CH4 emissions are 1.2 - 1.8 times higher than the current CARB inventory and we will update these estimates. We expect the results of this study will significantly improve upon existing work in quantifying CH4 and CO emissions in California's urban and rural regions.

  7. Factors controlling pollutant plume length downwind of major roadways in nocturnal surface inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; Winer, A. M.; Paulson, S. E.

    2014-07-01

    A fitting method using a semi-empirical Gaussian dispersion model solution was successfully applied to obtain both dispersion coefficients and a particle number emission factor (PNEF) directly from ultrafine particle (UFP; particles smaller than <0.1 μm in diameter) concentration profiles observed downwind of major roadways in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The effective Briggs' formulation for the vertical dispersion parameter σz was adopted in this study due to its better performance in describing the observed profiles compared to other formulations examined. The two dispersion coefficients in Briggs' formulation, α and β, ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 and from -0.5 × 10-3 to 2.8 × 10-3, respectively, for the four freeway transects studied and are significantly different for freeways passing over vs. under the street on which measurements of the freeway plume were made. These ranges are wider than literature values for α and β under stable conditions. The dispersion coefficients derived from observations showed strong correlations with both surface meteorology (wind speed/direction, temperature, and air stability) and differences in concentrations between the background and plume peak. The relationships were applied to predict freeway plume transport using a multivariate regression, and produced excellent agreement with observed UFP concentration profiles. The mean PNEF for a mixed vehicle fleet on the four freeways was estimated as 7.5 × 1013 particles km-1 vehicle-1, which is about 15% of the value estimated in 2001 for the I-405 freeway, implying significant reductions in UFP emissions over the past decade in the SoCAB.

  8. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  9. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  10. Precipitation and temperature changes in the major Chinese river basins during 1957-2013 and links to sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qing; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    The variation characteristics of precipitation and temperature in the three major Chinese river basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Pearl River) in the period of 1957-2013 were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis, as well as their links to sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean on both interannual and decadal time scales. Annual mean temperature of the three river basins increased significantly overall since 1957, with an average warming rate of about 0.19 °C/10a, but the warming was characterized by a staircase form with steps around 1987 and 1998. The significant increase of annual mean temperature could mostly be attributed to the remarkable warming trend in spring, autumn and winter. Warming rates in the northern basins were generally much higher than in the southern basins. However, both the annual precipitation and seasonal mean precipitation of the three river basins showed little change in the study area average, but distinct interannual variations since 1957 and clear regional differences. An overall warming-wetting tendency was found in the northwestern and southeastern river basins in 1957-2013, while the central regions tended to become warmer and drier. Results from a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) showed that the interannual variations of seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature over the three river basins were both associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since 1957. ENSO SST patterns affected precipitation and surface air temperature variability throughout the year, but with very different response patterns in the different seasons. For instance, temperature in most of the river basins was positively correlated with central-eastern equatorial Pacific SST in winter and spring, but negatively correlated in summer and autumn. On the decadal time scale, the seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature variations were strongly associated with the Pacific

  11. A process-based investigation into the impact of the Congo basin deforestation on surface climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jean P.; Tompkins, Adrian M.; Bouka-Biona, Clobite; Sanda, I. Seidou

    2015-06-01

    The sensitivity of climate to the loss of the Congo basin rainforest through changes in land cover properties is examined using a regional climate model. The complete removal of the Congo basin rainforest results in a dipole rainfall anomaly pattern, characterized by a decrease (˜-42%) in rainfall over the western Congo and an increase (˜10%) in the basin's eastern part. Three further experiments systematically examine the individual response to the changes in albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency that accompany deforestation. The increased albedo (˜) caused by the Congo basin rainforest clearance results in cooler and drier climate conditions over the entire basin. The drying is accompanied with a reduction in available surface energy. Reducing evapotranspiration efficiency or roughness length produces similar positive air temperature anomaly patterns. The decreased evapotranspiration efficiency leads to a dipole response in rainfall, similar to that resulting from a reduced surface roughness following Congo basin rainforest clearance. This precipitation anomaly pattern is strongly linked to the change in low-level water vapor transport, the influence of the Rift valley highlands, and the spatial pattern of water recycling activity. The climate responds linearly to the separate albedo, surface roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency changes, which can be summed to produce a close approximation to the impact of the full deforestation experiment. It is suggested that the widely contrasting climate responses to deforestation in the literature could be partly due to the relative magnitude of change of the radiative and nonradiative parameterizations in their respective land surface schemes.

  12. Large-scale diabase intrusion in the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina: geophysics and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bolich, R.E.; Bevis, M.G.; Won, I.J.; Fodor, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data obtained from the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina reveal pronounced positive gravity and magnetic anomalies of 10 milligals and 300 gammas, respectively, along the western border of the basin. In the vicinity of these anomalies, diabase outcrops, some with chilled margins and others with flow features, occur sporadically, but have a combined area of about 100 sq. km. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity data indicates that the diabase body accounts for the gravity anomaly as a semi-continuous subsurface intrusion. The intrusive body is greater than 250 m thick near the western border of the basin, but thins to about 100 m near the center of the basin. Geochemical data for samples recovered from 4 air-drill sites at one diabase outcrop in Butner, North Carolina yield high MgO concentrations, and low FeO, K2O, and TiO2. The geophysical and geochemical data are consistent with an uncontaminated basaltic magma ascending along a major fissure or fissures and into the basin. In the basin, the diabase encountered unlithified sediments, resulting in both intrusive and extrusive forms. Although similar chemical compositions for Mesozoic North American dikes have been reported, this is the first indication of an intrusive body of such a large extent and primitive chemical composition.

  13. Incidence and etiology of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, T; Fukuda, K

    1979-11-01

    Incidence of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin was either compiled from published reports or computed by the authors. The results showed a great variation in age-standardized annual incidence rates of lung cancer among 10 countries and 17 areas in the Pacific Basin where tumor registry statistics are available. For males the incidence rates ranged from 10 to over 70 and for females from less than 5 to over 30/100,000 population. The reason(s) for the great variation is unclear. Ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemical substances (e.g., chromium, arsenic compounds, asbestos, etc.), or air pollution are unlikely to be responsible. Because cigarette smoking is known to be a major cause of lung cancer, the authors have suggested that surveys on cigarette smoking be conducted among various populations in the Pacific Basin so that etiologic significance of cigarette smoking for the noted variation can be assessed. In Hawaii such a survey is underway, and a preliminary analysis was made to examine the association between lung cancer and cigarette smoking among five races. PMID:537621

  14. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  15. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  16. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  17. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  18. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  19. Bad Air Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... children living near busy roadways—surrounded by particulate air pollution—are more likely to develop asthma and other ... found that genes may affect your response to air pollution. At least one gene seems to protect against ...

  20. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  3. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Desheng; Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  5. Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C. ); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. ); Wade, L.O. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

  6. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  7. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  8. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  9. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  10. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  11. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  13. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  14. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  15. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  16. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  17. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  18. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  19. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  20. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  1. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  2. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  3. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  4. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  5. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  6. K West Basin canister survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-26

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

  7. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, F. F., Jr.; Sackett, W. M.

    1981-08-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and δ 13C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores frm the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and δ 13C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments.

  8. Floods simulation in the Crişul Alb River Basin using hydrological model CONSUL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mic, Rodica Paula; Corbus, Ciprian; Matreata, Marius

    2016-04-01

    For the simulation of floods, in the Crişul Alb River Basin, Romanian hydrological model CONSUL with lumped parameters was used. This deterministic mathematical rainfall-runoff model compute discharge hydrographs on configured river sub-basins, their channel routing and composition on the main river and tributaries and finally their routing and mitigation through reservoirs, according to the schematic representation (topological modelling) of how water flows and integrate in a river basin. After topological modelling 42 sub-basins and 19 river reaches resulted for the Crişul Alb River Basin model configuration, established according to the position of tributaries, hydrometric stations and reservoirs that influence flow. The CONSUL model used as input data, for each sub-basin, average values of precipitation and air temperature determined based on the measured values of weather stations in the basin. Calculation of average values was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Crişul Alb River Basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. Calibration of model parameters was performed by the simulation of 25 rainfall-runoff events from the period 1975 - 2010, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. By simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the closing sections of river sub-basins were determined the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters and by simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the downstream sections of the river reaches hydrometrically controlled were determined the routing equation parameters. The parameters thus determined allow building some generalization relationships of these parameters according to the morphometric characteristics of the river sub-basins (surface, slope) or river reaches (length, slope). Based on these

  9. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    SciTech Connect

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-11-11

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

  10. Genetic features of soils in the basin of Lake Kotokel, the Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsanova, L. D.; Gyninova, V. B.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.; Shakhmatova, E. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    The diversity of the soils and the specific features of the pedogenesis in the basin of Lake Kotokel have been studied. The specificity of the pedogenesis and soil cover patterns in the lake basin are controlled by the altitudinal zonation, the diversity of parent materials, and the influence of air masses from Lake Baikal. Gray metamorphic soils and raw-humus burozems developed under taiga vegetation in the mountains predominate in the basin of Lake Kotokel. The coastal landscapes and river valleys are occupied by swampy and meadow alluvial soils. The genetic features of the major soils have been characterized on the basis of field descriptions, laboratory data, and special macro- and micromorphological studies.

  11. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  12. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  13. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. Findings The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. Conclusions On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. PMID:23587020

  14. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  15. Hepa room air purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a portable air purification apparatus comprising a housing including a base portion and cover means, the base portion including an air deflection means and a plate means mounted in spaced relationship to the air deflection means so as to create a substantially continuous air exhaust opening therebetween. A centrifugal fan means is disposed between the plate means and the air deflection means and is mounted so as to direct air radially outwardly therefrom through the air exhaust opening, at least one opening through the plate means to permit air flow therethrough to the centrifugal fan means. The motor means carried by the base portion and extends upwardly with respect to the opening in the plate means, the motor means having drive shaft means for driving the centrifugal fan means. An air filter means is mounted between the base portion and the cover means so that air is drawn therethrough toward the centrifugal fan means, and a means for secures the cover means relative to the base means to thereby retain the air filter means therebetween.

  16. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  17. The Impact of Meteorology on Ozone Levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiss, Sandra

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone exceeding the 70 ppb California Air Resources Board (CARB) ambient air quality standard (8-hour average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation of ozone in the Basin and long-range transport from out-of-Basin sources are important in contributing to ozone exceedances, but little is known about the impact of meteorology on the distribution of ozone source regions. In order to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting ozone levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, this study combines observational data from a 2010 and 2012 summer field campaigns, HYSPLIT back trajectories, and WRF model output to examine the meteorological influences of ozone transport in the topographically complex Lake Tahoe Basin. Findings from the field work portions of this study include enhanced background ozone levels at higher elevations, the local circulation pattern of lake breezes occurring at Lake level sites, and an indication that ozone precursors are coming off the Lake. Our analysis also showed that if transport of ozone does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley to the south rather than originate in the large cities to the west, such as Sacramento and San Francisco. Analysis of modeled PBL schemes as compared with observational data showed that the ACM2 PBL scheme best represented the geographical domain. The ACM2 PBL scheme was then used to show wind circulation patterns in the Lake Tahoe Basin and concluded that there is decent vertical mixing over the Basin and no indication of ozone transport from the west however some indication of transport from the east. Overall this study concludes that transport from the west is less significant than transport from the south and east, and that transport only influences ozone values at higher elevations. Within the Basin itself (at lower elevations), local factors

  18. Seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Northwind Basin, Arctic Ocean in 1988, 1992 and 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; May, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected in generally ice-covered waters of the Canada Basin and the eastern part of the Chukchi Continental Borderland of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, during the late summers of 1988, 1992, and 1993. The data were acquired from a Polar class icebreaker, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star, using a seismic reflection system designed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The northernmost data extend to 78? 48' N latitude. In 1988, 155 km of reflection data were acquired with a prototype system consisting of a single 195 cubic inch air gun seismic source and a two-channel hydrophone streamer with a 150-m active section. In 1992 and 1993, 500 and 1,900 km, respectively, of seismic reflection profile data were acquired with an improved six air gun, 674 to 1303 cubic inch tuned seismic source array and the same two-channel streamer. In 1993, a 12-channel streamer with a 150-m active section was used to record five of the reflection lines and one line was acquired using a three air gun, 3,000 cubic inch source. All data were recorded with a DFS-V digital seismic recorder. Processed sections feature high quality vertical incidence images to more than 6 km of sub-bottom penetration in the Canada Basin. Refraction data were acquired with U.S. Navy sonobuoys recorded simultaneously with the seismic reflection profiles. In 1988 eight refraction profiles were recorded with the single air gun, and in 1992 and 1993 a total of 47 refraction profiles were recorded with the six air gun array. The sonobuoy refraction records, with offsets up to 35 km, provide acoustic velocity information to complement the short-offset reflection data. The report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles.

  19. Impact of regional meteorology on ozone levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayne, Sandra; Gertler, Alan; Zielinska, Barbara; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Burley, Joel; Kaplan, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone (O3) exceeding the California Air Resources Board ambient air quality standard (8-h average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation and long-range transport from out-of-basin sources are important in contributing to O3 exceedances, but little is known about the impact of regional meteorology on O3 source regions. To develop a better understanding of the factors affecting O3 levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, a comprehensive field study was performed in the summer of 2010. Included in this effort was a meteorological analysis addressing potential regional meteorological influences leading to periods of elevated levels of O3. Three approaches were used to conduct the analysis: (1) regional atmospheric pressure difference (i.e., the Washoe Zephyr) to access potential transport, (2) back trajectory modeling using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine where the air masses originated and, (3) composite soundings to evaluate in-Basin atmospheric influences. These analyses indicate the Washoe Zephyr did not strongly impact O3 levels; however, higher O3 levels were found to correspond with both a more southerly wind component and a dip in dew point temperature around 400 hPa. The results also indicate that if transport does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley and move to the southern part of the Basin, rather than originating in the large cities to the west (i.e., Sacramento and San Francisco).

  20. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  1. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  2. The role of Amazon Basin on the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, R. O.; Drumond, A.; Gimeno, L.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we use an objective 3-D Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) to investigate the role of Amazon Basin as source and sink of moisture in the hydrological cycle along the year. The method is based on the movement of a large number of air particles using 3D data from ERA40 reanalysis. The flow is described by the position of the particles and the time. The increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in specific humidity (q) with time (being recorded every 6 hours). Adding these changes for all the air particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we can obtain a measure of the surface freshwater flux E-P (the evaporation minus the precipitation rate). For this study we track (E-P) from Amazon Basin backwards and forwards in time along the trajectories, limiting the transport times to 10 days. Climatological monthly (E-P) fields of the backwards and forwards trajectories were calculated for the period from 1980 to 1999. The backwards tracking allows us to identify where the particles gain humidity along their trajectories towards the target area, regions hereafter denominated as sources of moisture. On the other hand, the forwards method allows to investigate the role of the basin as source of moisture, identifying those particles that leave it and following them to found where they lose moisture. Preliminary analysis suggests the role of the Tropical Atlantic (TA) as one of the most important external sources of moisture for Amazon Basin. Northern TA contributes mainly during the Austral Summer, while the contribution of southern TA is more evident in the rest of the year. It seems that Amazon receives some contribution of moisture from La Plata Basin, except during Summer months. Some moisture from the Pacific South American coast also reaches Amazon along the year. Analysing the role of Amazon Basin as a source of moisture, forwards tracking suggests that its main contribution occurs for southeastern

  3. Hydrologic response of a high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binquan; Yu, Zhongbo; Liang, Zhongmin; Acharya, Kumud

    2014-07-01

    Hydrologic cycles of most high altitude glacierized watersheds in the Tibetan Plateau are not closely monitored due to their inaccessibility. Understanding the hydrologic cycle in such a basin may provide insight into the role climate plays on changes in glacier mass. Thus, hydrologic simulations with a physical perspective in the Tibetan glacierized watershed are of great significance. A high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau, Qugaqie basin, was investigated with an energy-balance based glacier-melt model and the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. With these two models, glacier mass balance was estimated and basin runoff from glaciers was simulated at a daily time step. Results from the simulation period (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2011) demonstrated that the glaciers experienced a large negative surface mass balance with the cumulative value of - 300 cm w.e.. In other words, up to 13.93 × 106 m3 water volume was melting out from the glaciers during these five years. In the 2007/08 year, however, the glaciers experienced a surplus mass balance because of the low air temperature and increased precipitation in the summer season. Infiltration, evapotranspiration (ET), and overland flow were also calculated using the GSSHA model. Results showed that precipitation, the main water source, contributed roughly 95% to the total mass gain of the annual water balance in the Qugaqie basin during the study period, while the glacial runoff (snow/ice melting) contributed 5% water balance. In the water loss, 17% of annual water volume was consumed by the ET process. As a result, the remaining water volume (83%) converted to the basin river flow to the Lake Nam Co. In the summertime, the glacial runoff accounted for 15% of the total basin runoff volume, while this contribution increased in the upstream portion to 46% due to a large percentage of glacierized area. The analysis showed that the glacial runoff contributions to the

  4. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  5. UPPER SNAKE RIVER PRIORITY BASIN ACCOMPLISHMENT PLAN, APRIL 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake Accomplishment Basin (17040104, 170402, 170501) is defined as the Idaho and Oregon portions of 2 STORET Basins, the Upper Snake Basin and the Central Snake Basin. The Basin drains approximately 62,100 square miles in Southern Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Four ...

  6. Comparative study of compensation mechanism of lunar impact basins from new gravity field model of SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, N.; Sugita, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Goossens, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Ssasaki, S.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Araki, H.

    2009-04-01

    The gravity field is a fundamental physical quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of planetary bodies. The most significant problem of the previous lunar gravity models, however, is the lack of direct observations of the far side gravity signals [1]. We then developed a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system for SELENE [2]. In this study, we adopt our new gravity field model with nearly full coverage of the lunar far side to discuss dichotomy of the lunar basins. Because all the nearside impact basins are filled with extensive mare basalt deposits, it is difficult to estimate the subsurface structures, such as uplift of the Moho surface, from gravity measurements. In contrast, far-side impact basins have much less or no mare basalt coverage. This may allow us to investigate the internal structure underneath impact basins. Such knowledge will be important in understanding the response of a solid planetary body to large meteoritic impacts and also the thermal state of the Moon during the late heavy bombardment period. There are distinctive differences between the anomalies of the near side principal mascons and the far side basins. As shown previously [1, 3], the near side principal mascons have sharp shoulders with a gravity plateau and a weakly negative gravity anomaly in the surroundings. In contrast, the far side basins are characterized by concentric rings of positive and negative anomalies. The circular gravity highs agree well with the topographic rims of the basins revealed by SELENE topography model STM-359_grid-02 [4]. In our gravity model, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Lorentz, and Humboldtianum show more affinity with the far side basins than the near side principal mascons [5]. Korolev, Mendeleev, Planck, and Lorentz basins have sharp central peaks of which magnitude in free-air anomalies is almost equivalent to the one in Bouguer anomalies. On the other hand, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, Moscoviense

  7. Geologic evolution of the eastern Eridania basin: Implications for aqueous processes in the southern highlands of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Le Deit, Laetitia; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The Terra Sirenum region of Mars is thought to have hosted the Eridania paleolake during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and it offers an insight into the regional aqueous history of Mars. We focus on four basins, including Atlantis, Simois, Caralis, and an unnamed basin. They are hypothesized to have hosted isolated lakes after the drainage of the Eridania Lake. We produced a geologic map and derived model absolute ages of our main mapped units. The map and model ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The basin floors are covered by light-toned materials containing Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates. Across most of the region, the Electris unit covers the highlands and is eroded into mesas. The deposition of this unit corresponds to air fall and/or fluvial mechanisms that transported the material into the basins and accumulated it on the plateaus and basin floors and rims. The deposits on the basin floors were later degraded into light-toned knobs that are rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates. On the rim of the Simois and the unnamed basins, a sequence of Al-phyllosilicates on top of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates has been observed. These Al-phyllosilicate-rich materials may have been formed by pedogenic leaching. The presence of chloride in the area suggests that a playa environment prevailed during the last stage of water presence or after desiccation of the lakes. In the Early Amazonian, the last aqueous activity cemented the postlacustrine air fall deposits in the basins and shows that liquid water was present in Terra Sirenum long after the Noachian.

  8. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  9. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Critical role of meteorological conditions in a persistent haze episode in the Guanzhong basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bei, Naifang; Xiao, Bo; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, the critical role of the meteorological condition in a persistent extreme haze episode that occurred in Guanzhong basin of China on December 16 to 25, 2013 has been investigated. Analyses of the large-scale meteorological conditions on 850hPa during the episode have been performed using the NCEP FNL data set, indicating that synoptic situations generally facilitate the accumulation of pollutants either in horizontal or vertical directions in the basin. The FLEXPART model has been utilized to illustrate the pollutant transport patterns during the episode, further showing the dominant role of synoptic conditions in accumulation of pollutants in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, and low-level horizontal wind speed also contribute to the extreme haze episode. In addition, the WRF-CHEM model has been used to evaluate the responses of the surface PM2.5 level to the emission mitigation. Generally, the predicted PM2.5 spatial patterns and temporal variations agree well with the observations at the ambient monitoring sites. Sensitivity studies show that the emissions in the basin need to be mitigated by more than 91% to meet the excellent level of the China National Air Quality Standard under the extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, demonstrating that it is imperative to implement stringent controls on emissions to improve the air quality. PMID:26820931

  11. Spatial and temporal characteristics of stable isotopes in the Tarim River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjian; Li, Xingong; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Stotler, Randy L; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-06-01

    By using 233 isotope samples, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation and surface water, and the contribution of different water sources in the rivers within the Tarim River Basin (TRB), which receives snow/glacier meltwater, groundwater, and rainfall. Our study revealed a similar seasonal pattern of precipitation δ(18)O and δ(2)H at both the north and south edges of the basin, indicating the dominant effect of westerly air masses in the summer and the combined influence of westerly and polar air masses during the winter, although the southern part showed more complex precipitation processes in the summer. River water in the basin has relatively large temporal variations in both δ(18)O and δ(2)H showing a distinct seasonal pattern with lower isotope values in May than in September. Higher d-excess values throughout the year in the Aksu river and the Tizinafu river suggest that water may be intensively recycled in the mountains of the TRB. Based on isotopic hydrograph separation, we found that groundwater is the main water source that discharges the entire basin although individual rivers vary. PMID:26862902

  12. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  13. Petroleum geology of Norton basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Basement rocks beneath the main part of the Norton basin were deformed and heated during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous to the extent that these rocks were not capable of generating hydrocarbons when the basin formed during the latest Cretaceous or early Paleogene. Consequently, source rocks for oil, if they exist, are most likely to be within the basin fill. If the Norton basin began to form 65 m.y. ago, subsided at a nearly constant rate, and had an average geothermal gradient of between 35 and 45/sup 0/C/km, then rocks as young as late Oligocene are in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65 and 1.30%). The appearance on seismic sections of reflections from rocks in and below the calculated oil window suggests that these rocks were deposited in a nonmarine environment. Thus, gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons to be present in the basin. Because of their shallow depth of burial, Neogene (possibly marine) rocks are not likely to be thermally mature anywhere in the basin. Deep parts of the basin formed as isolated faultbounded lows; consequently, the volume of mature rocks makes up at most 11% of the total basin fill. Numerous potential traps for hydrocarbons exist in the Norton basin; the traps include fractured or weathered basement rocks in horsts, strata in alluvial fans on the flanks of horsts, and arched strata over horsts.

  14. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  15. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  16. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  17. Regional geophysics and the basement of cratonic basins: a comparative study with the Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Lidiak, E.G.

    1986-08-01

    The basement of the Michigan basin consists of four major provinces - the complex metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and igneous rocks of the Penokean orogenic assemblage in the north, the felsic anorogenic igneous rocks to the south, the highly metamorphosed schists, gneisses, and related igneous intrusions of the Grenville province in the east, and a middle Proterozoic rift zone, which transects the basin from the north to the southeast margin. Sparse basement drill holes and characteristic geophysical patterns support this interpretation. The direct geologic information on the basement of other cratonic basins is not as well known. However, regional geophysical surveys and sparse, poorly distributed basement drill holes provide information on the complex character and structural relationships of the basement of other basins. Like the Michigan basin, many cratonic basins (e.g., Illinois, Williston, and Paris basins) are underlain by dense and commonly more magnetic rocks than adjacent areas. As in the Michigan basin, these rocks are interpreted to have a profound effect on the origin and tectonic development of the basins. Geologic and geophysical evidence indicates that many of these dense basement rocks originated in rifts that formed hundreds of millions of years prior to basin development. A comparison of the basement in cratonic basins provides important constraints on the origin and tectonic development of the Michigan basin.

  18. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  19. Diagnosis of Hydrological Resiliency and Functional Change in a Canadian Rockies Mountain Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, P.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Siemens, E.; Fang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A well-instrumented headwater basin in the Canadian Rockies, Marmot Creek Research Basin, has experienced substantial warming at a range of elevations with evidence of hydrological functional change, but there has been no change observed in the streamflow regime over the last 50 years. Despite observations of increased air temperature of up to 4 oC in winter, concentration of precipitation into multiple day events in the spring, decreased peak snow accumulation at lower elevations by 50%, and decreased (increased) low (high) elevation groundwater storage; there are no trends in streamflow timing, peak or seasonal volumes since records began in 1962. This suggests a remarkable resilience in runoff generation to changing temperature and precipitation regime in a cold regions basin. To diagnose possible reasons for this resilience the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) simulated the basin hydrological processes and response over two periods that had excellent driving meteorology; 1969-1987 and 2006-2013. CRHM calculates all of the relevant hydrological processes including blowing snow redistribution, intercepted snow and rain loss, sublimation, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, overland flow, interflow in organic soils, sub-surface runoff in mineral soils, soil water redistribution and groundwater flow. Model results show that compared to the first period, increases in annual, basin-averaged fluxes occurred in the latter period for rainfall (37%), snowfall (20%), snowmelt (30%), evapotranspiration (23%), and sublimation (42%), but no significant trend in runoff developed between the two periods. Snowmelt, sublimation and runoff increases were primarily at high elevations and sometimes reversed at lower elevations, whilst evapotranspiration and rainfall increases were at all elevations. This suggests that there are compensatory, altitude dependent increases in evaporative losses from sublimation and evapotranspiration that

  20. Hyperspectral air-to-air seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum; Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep; Steiner, Todd D.

    1994-07-01

    Synthetic hyperspectral signatures representing an airborne target engine radiation, a decoy flare, and the engine plume radiation are used to demonstrate computational techniques for the discrimination between such objects. Excellent discrimination is achieved for a `single look' at SNR of -10 dB. Since the atmospheric transmittance perturbs the signature of all objects in an identical fashion, the transmittance is equivalent to a modulation of the target radiance (in the spectral domain). The proper spectral signal decomposition may, therefore, recover the original unperturbed signature accurately enough to allow discrimination. The algorithms described here, and in two accompanying papers, have been tested over the spectral range that includes the VNIR and MWIR and are most appropriate for an intelligent, autonomous, air-to-air or surface-to-air guided munitions. With additional enhancements, the techniques apply to ground targets and other dual-use applications.

  1. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  2. Hospital air is sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    2000-11-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:11185833

  3. Solar Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  4. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  5. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  6. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  7. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  8. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  9. Basin-scale relations via conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  11. Dissolved Gas Composition of Groundwater in Taipei Basin and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Nga-Chi; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Chen, Wen-Fu; Wang, Yun-Shuen

    2015-04-01

    This study is the first comprehensive analysis for dissolved gases of groundwater in Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan. In addition to conventional water chemistry, the dissolved-gas compositions of groundwater from 34 observation wells have been systematically analyzed. The relationship between dissolved gases and geological environment, and probable sources of the gases are discussed in this study. According to the water chemistry data of Piper plot, most of the groundwater samples in this study can be classified as Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 types. Several samples exhibit NaCl type characteristic which reveals the mix with seawater. Isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen for groundwater, surface water and meteoric water in Taipei Basin are aligned with Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), which indicates that they are influenced by meteoric water. Composition of groundwater in the southern part of the basin has similar characteristics with surface water. However, stratifications occurred in the observation wells from northern part of the basin. It reveals different recharge sources for groundwater samples in northern basin with the southern basin. Based on the major dissolved gases compositions, three major components are identified which are CH4, N2 and CO2. The d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicates microbial activities are dominant in the studied area. Dissolved radon concentrations are in the range of 200 - 20,667 Bq/m3 in the studied area and the deeper well usually exhibits a higher radon value than the shallow one from the same site. Several sites with high radon values are correlated with the locations of fault zones, which may provide the conduit for deeper gas migrate to shallower aquifers. The groundwater samples from northern part of the basin exhibit unexpectedly high helium isotopic ratios (RA >2, where RA is the 3He/4He ratio of air). Samples from five observation wells have RA values more than 3 RA and the highest one is 4.2 RA, which

  12. Impact of Aerosol Direct Effect on East Asian Air Quality During the EAST-AIRE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three WRF-Chem simulations were conducted for East Asia region during March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) period to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. WRF-Chem captured the temporal and spatial variations of meteorological fields, trace gases, and aerosol loadings. Surface shortwave radiation changes due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE) were calculated and compared with data from six World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) stations. The comparison indicated that WRF-Chem can simulate the surface short wave radiation moderately well, with temporal correlations between 0.4 and 0.7, and high biases between 9 to 120 W/m2. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 22 W/m2 in surface SW radiation due to the aerosol direct effect, consistent with observational studies. The ADE demonstrates diverse influences on air quality in East Asian. For example, the surface concentration of PM2.5 increases in eastern China (~11.1%) due to ADE, but decreases in central China (-7.3%), western China (-8.8%), and Sichuan Basin (-4%). Surface 1-hour maximum ozone is reduced by 2.3%, owing to less radiation reaching the surface due to the ADE. Since PM2.5 pollution raises serious public concern in China, regulations that control the emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors have been implemented. We investigate the impact of reducing two different types of aerosols, sulfate (scattering) and black carbon (absorbing), by cutting 80% of SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions in two sensitivity simulations. We found that reducing SO2 emissions results in the decline of PM2.5 as much as 16mg/m3 in eastern China, and 20mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. Reducing the BC emissions by the same percentage causes the PM2.5 to decrease as much as 40mg/m3 in eastern China, and 25mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. The monthly averaged surface 1-hour maximum ozone increases 3

  13. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

  14. Hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation beneath a rapid infiltration basin, Reedy Creek Improvement District, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Bradner, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement District disposes of about 7.5 million gallons per day (1992) of reclaimed water through 85 1-acre rapid infiltration basins within a 1,000-acre area of sandy soils in Orange County, Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field experiments in 1992 at an individual basin to examine and better understand the hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation of reclaimed water beneath a rapid infiltration basin. At the time, concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in reclaimed water were about 3 and 0.25 milligrams per liter, respectively. A two-dimensional, radial, unsaturated/saturated numerical flow model was applied to describe the flow system beneath a rapid infiltration basin under current and hypothetical basin loading scenarios and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the soil and sediment beneath a basin. The thicknesses of the unsaturated and saturated parts of the surficial aquifer system at the basin investigated were about 37 and 52 feet, respectively. The model successfully replicated the field-monitored infiltration rate (about 5.5 feet per day during the daily flooding periods of about 17 hours) and ground-water mounding response during basin operation. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the saturated part of the surficial aquifer system were estimated to be 150 and 45 feet per day, respectively. The field-saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the shallow soil, estimated to be about 5.1 feet per day, was considered to have been less than the full- saturation value because of the effects of air entrapment. Specific yield of the surficial aquifer was estimated to be 0.41. The upper 20 feet of the basin subsurface profile probably served as a system control on infiltration because of the relatively low field-saturated, vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments within this layer. The flow model indicates that, in the vicinity of the basin, flow in the deeper

  15. BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The U.S EPA's water programs and their counterparts in states and pollution control agencies are increasingly emphasizing watershed- and water quality-based assessment and integrated analysis of point and nonpoint sources. Better Assessment Science Integra...

  16. Continuous flow simulation in the Bârlad river basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbuş, Ciprian; Mic, Rodica Paula; Mătreaţă, Marius

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the partial results obtained into the project CLIMHYDEX ("Changes in Climate Extremes and associated impact on hydrological events in Romania") project that, among others, have as objectives the development of hydrological models at different spatial and temporal scales and the impact of climate change on extreme runoff in Bârlad catchment. To estimate the impact of climate change and variability on the flow regime in Bârlad catchment CONSUL hydrological model, with lumped parameters, was used. This rainfall-runoff deterministic model simulates the most significant hydrological processes within a hydrographic basin: snow-melting, interception, retention in the depressions, evapotranspiration, infiltration, surface runoff, hypodermic runoff, percolation, base runoff. According to the schematic representation (physiographic modelling) of how water flows and collects in a river basin the model computes the discharge hydrographs on selected simulation points on the river network and then performs their routing and composition on the main river and tributaries. After physiographic modelling resulted for Bârlad river basin: 56 sub-basins and 30 river reaches. CONSUL model was calibrated using historical data in Bârlad river basin by simulating the flow during 1975-2010. Calculation of average precipitation and air temperature (hydrological model input data) for each sub-basin was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from original rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Bârlad river basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. In order to estimate the initial values of CONSUL model parameters the generalization relationships of these parameters based on morphometric characteristics of the river basin or river reach were used. Calibration of model parameters was performed in two stages: (i) individual and (ii) globally. (i) Individual

  17. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel shall be turned about in any canal,...

  18. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... vessels up to 180 m in overall length. (c) Turning Basin No. 3—Immediately south of Port Robinson (Mile...

  19. BASINS/HSPF WATERSHED MODEL TRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basins is an interactive Windows based interface to several DOS based water quality computer simulations, of which HSPF is one. The training course helped train 30 water quality modelers from the USEPA, States and Tribes in the use of Basins and HSPF. The training was three da...

  20. Sedimentary basins in Ross Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; Davey, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Ross Sea lies in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic continental margin. Three major sedimentary basins (from east to west, the Eastern, Central, and Victoria Land basins) lie beneath the broad, deep continental shelf of the Ross Sea. These north-south-trending basins occur in the extensionally deformed region between East and West Antarctica. Multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) surveys have been conducted over these basins since 1980 by West German, French, Japanese, and US expeditions. The MCS and previous geophysical surveys have shown that the three basins contain 5-6 km of sedimentary rock, possibly Late Cretaceous and younger. An additional 6-8 km of sedimentary and volcanic rock lies within the deeper parts of the Victoria Land basin. The basins are separated by uplifted and eroded basement ridges covered by thin sedimentary sections. Each basin has distinct characteristics, commonly related to its extensional origin. Petroleum hydrocarbons are unknown from the Ross Sea region, with the possible exception of ethane gas recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Previous model studies, based on estimated sediment thickness, assumed temperature gradients, and postulated seismostratigraphy, indicate that hydrocarbons could be generated at depths of 3.5-6km within the sedimentary section. However, this hypothesis cannot be verified without further geologic and geophysical data from the Ross Sea region.

  1. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  2. The structure of Nansen and Amundsen Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micksch, U.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    During the AMORE expedition in August/September 2001, a US-German joint project, the Gakkel Ridge and the adjoining basins were investigated. In this contribution we report on the results of the seismic investigations in the Nansen Basin as well as in the Amundsen Basin. We obtained two almost parallel profiles through the Nansen Basin from the northeastern continental margin of Svalbard (29°E and 32°E) to the Gakkel Ridge at 17°E and 21°E. To investigate the Amundsen Basin, we left Gakkel Ridge at about 70°E towards Lomonossov Ridge for another transect. In total 1360 km of seismic reflection data with very good data quality were recorded. Parallel to the seismic reflection transects up to 30 sonobuoys were deployed. The data from both basins shows striking differences in the basement topography. While in the Nansen Basin the oceanic crust is more or less continuously shallowing, this is not the case in the Amundsen Basin. This points to some asymmetric spreading history of the Gakkel Ridge in northern and southern directions. Some of the Sonobuoys recorded also weak arrivals from the Moho discontinuity. The analysis of the wide angle and gravity data shows, that there are areas with a significant thinning of the oceanic crust. Results of the reflection and refraktion seismic as well as the gravity interpretation will be presented.

  3. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  4. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  5. Scientific review of great basin wildfire issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  6. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. ...

  7. Relation between Tethys sea and Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Junchao )

    1988-08-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest continental basin in China. It is known as the heart of central Asia. Still it was related to the Mediterranean Sea in the geological past. Based on the investigations of paleontology, stratigraphy, tectonics, and remote sensing, it is suggested that Tethys and the Tarim basin should be connected from the Late Cretaceous to Miocene. The northern branch of the Tethys sea channel began to pass through the Alay gap and invade the Tarim basin at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Up to the Miocene, marine invasion and marine regression must have happened six times in the western Tarim basin. The Paleocene marine invasion encroached upon the widest area and lasted the longest of the six times, which extended to the region of the southern Hotan River. The occurrence of the Paleocene marine fossils in the Kuqa Seg indicates the influence of the marine invasion. At the end of the Miocene, seawater receded fully from the Tarim basin. A Miocene petroleum field has been found in the Yecheng Seg of the western Tarim basin. According to the relationship between Tethys and the Tarim basin, the potentialities of the Late Cretaceous-Miocene hydrocarbon source are considered to be great.

  8. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  9. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  10. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  11. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  12. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  13. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  14. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  15. Protective air lock

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  16. Lawsuits in the Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why indoor air quality problems in schools should be treated, not only as a health problem issue, but as a potential for legal actions. What types of proof are needed to make a legal claim involving indoor air problems are addressed as are the elements which constitute a "sick building." (GR)

  17. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  19. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  2. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  3. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  4. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  5. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  6. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  7. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  8. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  9. China, JNOC start exploration in Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that a joint venture of China National Oil and Natural Gas Corp and Japan National Oil Corp (JNOC) has begun exploration in Northwest China's remote Tarim basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. That marks the first time China has allowed a foreign oil company to participate in exploration of the highly prospective basin. China pins much of its hope for the future on the Tarim basin as production declines from its older, mainstay fields in the east and offshore results have proved largely disappointing. The Chinese-Japanese combine began operations in the southwest part of the 560,000 sq km basin. The 200 member exploration team plans to complete a seismic survey covering 3,500 line km in the Kashi and Yecheng areas during the next 4 1/2 years. The survey follows a feasibility study that began last October covering 30,000 sq km in the basin.

  10. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  11. AIRE-Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  12. [Pulmogenic air embolism].

    PubMed

    Adebahr, G

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial emphysema and pulmonic hemorrhage alone are not the causes of pulmonic air embolism. The conditions making the entrance of air from the lungs to the vessels of pulmonary circulation are obviously present only if the expiration pressure is suddenly strongly elevated. Based on this point of view, investigations were performed in autopsy cases--falls from a height, being run over, a gunshot in the abdomen. We have succeeded in proving the entrance of air into capillaries and branches of the pulmonary vein. The precipitation of thrombocytes at the margin of large air bubbles in pulmonary veins shows the finding of air in the vessels as a vital or supravital reaction. PMID:4090761

  13. An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of

  14. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  15. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to <4D7M km2). For the period of study, results suggest basin-wide total water storage changes in the Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Flood Change Assessment and Attribution in Austrian alpine Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claps, Pierluigi; Allamano, Paola; Como, Anastasia; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of flood peaks to global warming in the Austrian alpine basins. A group of 97 Austrian watersheds, with areas ranging from 14 to 6000 km2 and with average elevation ranging from 1000 to 2900 m a.s.l. have been considered. Annual maximum floods are available for the basins from 1890 to 2007 with two densities of observation. In a first period, until 1950, an average of 42 records of flood peaks are available. From 1951 to 2007 the density of observation increases to an average amount of contemporary peaks of 85. This information is very important with reference to the statistical tools used for the empirical assessment of change over time, that is linear quantile regressions. Application of this tool to the data set unveils trends in extreme events, confirmed by statistical testing, for the 0.75 and 0.95 empirical quantiles. All applications are made with specific (discharges/area) values . Similarly of what done in a previous approach, multiple quantile regressions have also been applied, confirming the presence of trends even when the possible interference of the specific discharge and morphoclimatic parameters (i.e. mean elevation and catchment area). Application of a geomorphoclimatic model by Allamano et al (2009) can allow to mimic to which extent the empirically available increase in air temperature and annual rainfall can justify the attribution of change derived by the empirical statistical tools. An comparison with data from Swiss alpine basins treated in a previous paper is finally undertaken.

  17. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  18. Preliminary evaluation of nominal drainage basin volume as a potentially useful morphometric parameter for small mountain basins

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric basin parameters have been used in quantitative geomorphic assessments since Horton's Hydrophysical Approach in 1945. A relationship between basin form and dominant process in small mountain basins in the western United States would be valuable for use in differentiating basins which produce deep-seated landslides from those which produce debris flows from debris slides. Drainage basin volume seems like it should be a parameter directly related to the dominant process operating in a basin. Consequently, it may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter. Nominal drainage basin volume is herein defined as the volume creates by the basin topography and linear projection of topographic contours across the basin. Incremental volume is computed from area encompassed by topographic contours and projections and the contour interval using the formula for the volume of the frustrum of a cone. Seven basins in the Wasatch Range and five in the Wasatch Plateau of Utah show strong relationship of log Basin Area to log Basin Volume (r/sup 2/ = 0.97). The relationship between average Basin Slope and log Basin Volume was poorer (r/sup 2/ = 0.78) than between Basin Slope and log Basin Area (r/sup 2/ = 0.87). This suggests that basin area may be a more useful parameter than basin volume, especially since area is more easily measured.

  19. Thermal subsidence and generation of hydrocarbons in Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A.; Moore, W.E.; Sleep, N.H.

    1984-03-01

    Temperature histories for selected stratigraphic horizons in the Michigan Basin are computed from threedimensional continually filled subsidence models. Mechanical evolution of the Michigan basin is modeled as flexure of the lithosphere caused by thermal contraction. Results are compatible with the subsidence record of the sediments and free-air gravity anomalies. Paleotemperature is determined from excess temperature due to the thermal anomaly plus burial temperature predicted from subsidence curves. For an equilibrium temperature gradient of 22/sup 0/C/km (1.2/sup 0/F/100 ft), surface temperature of 20/sup 0/C (68/sup 0/F), and an equilibrium surface heat flow of 1.1 HFU, excess temperature, paleotemperature, and surface heat flow do not exceed 15/sup 0/C (27/sup 0/F), 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F), and 2.5 HFU, respectively. These estimates are consistent with upper limits set by paleomagnetic studies. The low value for excess temperature is caused by concentration of the thermal anomaly below 15 km (9 mi), in agreement with gravity results. The great depth of the thermal anomaly can explain the lack of evidence for an initial heating event prior to subsidence.

  20. Hydrologic investigations in the Araguaia-Tocantins River basin (Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snell, Leonard J.

    1979-01-01

    The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin system of central and northern Brazil drains an area of about 770,000 square kilometers and has the potential for supporting large-scale developments. During a short visit to the headquarters of the Interstate Commission for the Araguaia-Tocantins Valley and to several stream-gaging stations in June 1964, the author reviewed the status of the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the streamflow and meteorological data-collection programs in relation to the pressing needs of development project studies. To provide data for areal and project-site studies and for main-stream sites, an initial network of 33 stream gaging stations was proposed, including the 7 stations then in operation. Suggestions were made in regard to operations, staffing and equipment. Organizational responsibilities for operations were found to be divided uncertainly. The Brazilian Meteorological Service had 15 synoptic stations in operation in and near the basin, some in need of reconditioning. Plans were at hand for the addition of 15 sites to the synoptic network and for limited data collection at 27 other sites. The author proposed collection of precipitation data at about 50 other locations to achieve a more representative areal distribution. Temperature, evaporation, and upper-air data sites were suggested to enhance the prospective hydrometeorological studies. (USGS)

  1. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  2. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: 2. Modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; SchäR, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    After completing a 9-month field experiment studying air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we set up the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 to simulate the Kathmandu Valley's meteorology with a horizontal resolution of up to 1 km. After testing the model against available data, we used it to address specific questions to understand the factors that control the observed diurnal cycle of air pollution in this urban basin in the Himalayas. We studied the dynamics of the basin's nocturnal cold air pool, its dissipation in the morning, and the subsequent growth and decay of the mixed layer over the valley. During mornings, we found behavior common to large basins, with upslope flows and basin-center subsidence removing the nocturnal cold air pool. During afternoons the circulation in the Kathmandu Valley exhibited patterns common to plateaus, with cooler denser air originating over lower regions west of Kathmandu arriving through mountain passes and spreading across the basin floor, thereby reducing the mixed layer depth. We also examined the pathways of pollutant ventilation out of the valley. The bulk of the pollution ventilation takes place during the afternoon, when strong westerly winds blow in through the western passes of the valley, and the pollutants are rapidly carried out through passes on the east and south sides of the valley. In the evening, pollutants first accumulate near the surface, but then are lifted slightly when katabatic flows converge underneath. The elevated polluted layers are mixed back down in the morning, contributing to the morning pollution peak. Later in the morning a fraction of the valley's pollutants travels up the slopes of the valley rim mountains before the westerly winds begin.

  3. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  4. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  5. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  6. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  7. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  8. Development of foreland basins around western Sichuan basin, and implications for mountain building in eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau to the west, and the Michang Shan and Daba Shan mountains to the north and northwest. Foreland basins have been developed along the western and northern margins of the Sichuan basin since Triassic, receiving sediments with significant along-strike variations. These sediment records provide useful insights into the history of mountain building around the Sichuan Basin. We have collected exploration well data from western Sichuan Basin. Using backstripping, we reconstructed the basement deformation history, which reflect sedimentary and tectonic loadings related to mountain building. We used a 3-D numerical modeling technique with multi-grid technique to simulate flexural deformation of the Sichuan Basin lithosphere, and to infer tectonic loading and mountain building along western and northern margins of the Sichuan Basin from the late Triassic to the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the shortening of the Daba Shan and Michuan Shan orogens mainly occurred during the late Jurassic-Cretaceous. During Cenozoic, the tectonic loading mainly occurred along the southwestern margins of the Sichuan Basin, corresponding to the development of the Longmen Shan mountain belt. The tectonic loading of the northern Longmen Shan on the Sichuan Basin has been markedly reduced since the Cenozoic, evidenced by the lack of Cenozoic foreland basin development. This indicates mechanical decoupling between uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with the deep down-cutting of the Longmen Shan fault and predominantly strike-slip motion on the fault. The limited Cenozoic foreland basin development in the southwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin is consistent with localized high-angle thrusting of the southern Longmen Shan mountains. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41104046).

  9. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    1999-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  12. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  16. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  17. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  18. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  19. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  20. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  1. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  2. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  3. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Caylor, K. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  4. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  5. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.; Lounissi, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Upper Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.

  6. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  7. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  8. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

  9. The Sabrina Subglacial Basin - What lies in it? And does it influence the East Antarctic Ice Sheet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Alan; Greenbaum, Jamin; Young, Duncan; Richter, Thomas; Roberts, Jason; Siegert, Martin; Blankenship, Donald

    2014-05-01

    The ICECAP (International Collaborative Exploration of the Cryosphere through Airborne Profiling) project has defined a broad topographic low (which we term the Sabrina Subglacial Basin or SSB) under the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Wilkes Land, using long range aerogeophysics. This previously unknown topographic basin lies between the Aurora and Vincences Subglacial Basins in the ice sheet interior and the the Totten Glacier and Moscow University Ice Shelf catchments at the margin, which are some of East Antarctica's largest glacial catchments, and possibly some of the most vulnerable to change. Here we outline evidence for a major sedimentary basin that occupies the SSB, which is defined primarily by airborne magnetic data using depth to magnetic basement estimates that indicate platform basin geometry. Airborne gravimetry shows a broad free air gravity high over the SSB region, reflecting dense basement rocks beneath, and possibly a shallow Moho. The gravity signature of the sedimentary basin itself is subtle. Nevertheless, a weak anti-correlation exists between depth to magnetic basement and the isostatic residual gravity anomaly, albeit with significant scatter. Through 2.5D gravity and magnetic forward modelling we define some candidate geological scenarios for the fundamental properties of this sedimentary basin (density, thickness and magnetic susceptibility). Plausible scenarios include a high-density carbonate-dominated platform basin above a moderate-density basement, a low-density (carbonate or clastic) sedimentary basin above a high-density basement, and a high-density but non-magnetic metasedimentary basin. We go on to discuss the likely influence that each of these scenarios may have had on the structure, development and dynamics of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We suggest that the existence of a broad, low lying platform sedimentary basin, perhaps geologically similar to Australia's Eucla Basin, provides the opportunity for extensive deglaciation

  10. Modeling and analysis of secondary particulate matter formation in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Satish Kumar

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is one of the major environmental challenges the world is facing today. A significant fraction of ambient PM is derived from gas-to-particle conversion processes---known as secondary PM---from gas-phase emissions such as oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The formation of secondary PM in a given region depends on the emissions profile and atmospheric conditions (temperature, wind, relative humidity, etc.) of the region. Therefore, three-dimensional computational models are needed to gain insights on PM formation and develop strategies to mitigate particulate pollution. The organic component of secondary PM, known as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), is formed in the atmosphere from gas-phase VOC emissions. In this dissertation, a three-dimensional model for SOA simulation is constructed and applied to the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB). Model predictions show that atmospheric transport plays a significant role in SOA formation in the region. Inland areas experience high SOA levels due to transport of precursor emissions from urban coastal areas of the basin. Similar to SOA, a non-linear relationship exists between the formation of secondary inorganic PM and precursor emissions; Therefore three-dimensional air quality models are often applied to study impacts from emission sources of interest. This dissertation presents two such studies. The UCI-CIT air quality is applied to quantify PM impacts from ship emissions in the region. Results show that ships contribute to particulate nitrate and sulfate increase up to 12.8 and 1.7 mug/m3 respectively, mostly from the secondary formation. Simulations of future year scenario shows dramatic increase of impacts from ships. After the SoCAB, San Joaquin Valley (SJV) region experiences high levels of ambient PM in California. Additional emissions may occur in the SJV from distributed generation (DG) of electricity to meet future power needs. Air

  11. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may

  12. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from aeration tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.; Orton, T.L.; Wang, M.; Siddiqui, K.F.

    1998-12-31

    Regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POT Ws) need to inventory and control their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutants in the form of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the aeration units of POTWs have been investigated by systematic monitoring and mathematical modeling. Using a verified off-gas sampling system and CC-MS analytical method, a large wastewater treatment plant has been tested to understand the air emissions from its aeration basins. Variations of VOC emissions along the length of the aeration units have been tested and modeled. Most VOCs have decreasing concentration profiles. A simple PFR model has been developed to obtain the spatial information of the VOC fate. This model can be easily used to validate model parameters and accurately simulate the process especially in the case where the aeration tanks are operated with varied airflow rates along the tank length. Using this simple model, air emissions can be accurately estimated and the simulation results are useful to support an emissions control analysis. This study also reveals that simple multiplication of measured off-gas concentration and total airflow over-estimates the overall emissions.

  13. Evaluation of Ordos Basin in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    Ordos basin lies in the north-central China, in a compression tectonic regime, with an area of approximately 250,000 km{sup 2}, including several pay zones ranging from Cambrian to Jurassic. It is one of the earliest-formed marine to continental-superimposed basin in China, characterized by Proterozoic basin-marginal rifling and Lower-Paleozoic carbonate platform development followed by western thrusting and foreland depression during Mesozoic. It underwent several tectonic movements and is covered by several structural layers, with many play types developed, primarily thrust and anticlinal plays in the west, and differential compaction (river-channel sand lens) or drape as well as buried hill plays in the basin center and east. Ordos basin is a prolific gas basin with an estimated resource potential of gas 656,091 billion m{sup 3} in the Paleozoic strata and oil 2.0474 billion tons in the Mesozoic strata. In 1986, in the western part of the basin, the well Tian-1 on the Tianchi structure tested gas at a rate of 16 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d (about 5.6496 MCF per day). By year-end 1991, only 26 wells had been drilled in the Jingbian to Hengshan areas (northeastern part of the basin), but 16 of them flowed commercial gas, ranging from 3.2 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d to 126 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}/d. However, the gas pipe just starts budding. Therefore, there will be a lot of gas yet to find, and the most critical factor for petroleum potential of each local structure or play in this basin is the reservoir development.

  14. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  15. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  16. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  17. Developing a Great Lakes air toxic emission inventory for Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Wong, S.; Bobet, E.; Wong, S.; Doan, C.

    1997-12-31

    In meeting the increasing needs for an emission inventory of toxic air pollutants around the Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Region, this pilot study was the first phase of the development of a comprehensive toxic air pollutant emission inventory system which will meet the demand from the Ontario domestic and international environmental management programs. In the ongoing development of a toxic air pollutant emission inventory for Ontario, source-release information gaps and emission estimation methodology deficiencies have been identified for future improvement. The state-of-the-art Regional Air Pollutant Inventory Development System (RAPIDS), being developed by the eight Great Lakes states and under the project management of the Great Lakes Commission, was used in this study to compile the emission inventories of selected toxic air pollutants from point, area and mobile sources for 1990. Other emission inventory related models/tools used in this study included the MOBILE 5C (modified version of US MOBILE 5a by Environment Canada), PART5 and other Environment Canada or Ontario specific emission profiles. An emission inventory of toxic air pollutants from the Great Lakes Commission`s 49 targeted compounds and the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) was developed in this study. This study identified major point source and area source categories that contributed significant emissions of the specified toxic air pollutants. This study demonstrated that RAPIDS can be used as a framework for the development of an Ontario toxic air pollutant emission inventory. However, further refinement of the RAPIDS system, the emission factors, and source specific toxic air speciation profiles would be required.

  18. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  19. Impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in terrestrial biomass distribution under climate change will have a tremendous impact on water availability and land productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Assessment of future change of biomass distribution in the regional or the river basin scale is strongly needed. An eco-hydrological model that fully couples a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with a distributed biosphere hydrological model is applied to multi-model assessment of climate change impact on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin. In addition, a distributed and auto optimization system of parameters in DVM is developed to make it possible to model a diversity of phonologies of plants by using different parameters in the different model grids. The simple carbon cycle modeling in a distributed hydrological model shows reliable accuracy in simulating the seasonal cycle of vegetation on the river basin scale. Model outputs indicate that generally, an extension of dry season duration and surface air temperature rising caused by climate change may cause a dieback of vegetation in West Africa. However, we get different seasonal and spatial changes of leaf area index and different mechanisms of the degradation when we used different general circulation models' outputs as meteorological forcing of the eco-hydrological model. Therefore, multi-model analysis like this study is important to deliver meaningful information to the society because we can discuss the uncertainties of our prediction by this methodology. This study makes it possible to discuss the impact of future change of terrestrial biomass on climate and water resources in the regional or the river basin scale although we need further sophistications of the system. Performance of the eco-hydrological model (WEB-DHM+DVM) in Volta River Basin, with basin-averaged leaf area index from model (blue solid line) and AVHRR satellite-derived product (red rectangles).

  20. Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.