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Sample records for air blast frozen

  1. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  2. Pseudo-stationary oblique-shock-wave reflections in frozen and equilibrium air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-H.; Glass, I. I.

    An analytical and numerical investigation has been undertaken concerning the reflection of oblique shock waves in pseudostationary flow, with emphasis on air (due to its importance in the determination of structural loading caused by blast). The transition boundaries between the four types of shock wave reflection (regular, single Mach, complex Mach, and double Mach; respectively, RR, SMR, CMR, and DMR) were established up to an initial shock Mach number M(S) of 20 for both frozen (perfect) and imperfect air in thermodynamic equilibrium. It is confirmed that RR persists below the frozen gas RR-MR transition line determined by the von Neumann detachment criterion, and that some SMR, CMR, and DMR occurred outside their analytically predicted domains.

  3. Effect of freezing time on the quality of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Lakshmisha, I P; Ravishankar, C N; Ninan, G; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K S

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to find the effect of freezing methods on the quality of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in commercial plate and air blast freezers during freezing and subsequent frozen storage (-18 degrees C). Total time for freezing was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the plate and air blast freezers (90 and 220 min, respectively). This difference in the freezing time could be attributed to the varied quality of the 2 samples. Upon freezing, the moisture content decreased in air blast frozen samples compared to plate freezer where protein content decreased in both the samples. Upon freezing and during frozen storage, lipid oxidation products (peroxide value, thiobarbutiric acid value, and free fatty acid value) and volatile bases (total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen) showed an increasing trend in both the samples with values slightly higher in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The total plate counts showed a significantly (P < 0.05) decreasing trend in both the samples. K value did not show any significant (P < 0.05) difference between the samples where as the histamine formation was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The taste and overall acceptability was significantly different (P < 0.05) in plate frozen samples compared to air blast frozen samples on 3rd month. Both samples were in acceptable condition up to 3 mo but the plate frozen samples quality was slightly better than the air blast frozen samples.

  4. A Blast of Cool Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  5. 7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. The air blast circuit breakers are visible in the left background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  6. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joel B.; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  8. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  9. Detailed Comparison of Blast Effects in Air and Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Garza, R G; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J D; Lauderbach, L M; Vincent, E R; Wong, B M

    2007-07-26

    Although blast mitigation is most often achieved with solid shielding, ambient gas pressure can also affect the coupling of shock waves to solid targets. In this work the role of air as an energy transfer medium was examined experimentally by subjecting identical large-area rectangular witness plates to short-range blast effects in air and vacuum ({approx}50 mtorr) at 25 C. The expanding reactant front of 3 kg C4 charges was observed by fast camera to be cylindrically symmetric in both air and vacuum. The horizontal component of the reactant cloud velocity (perpendicular to the witness plates) was constant in both cases, with values of 3.0 and 5.9 km/s for air and vacuum, respectively. As a result of the blast, witness plates were plastically deformed into a shallow dish geometry, with local maxima 30 and 20 mm deep for air and vacuum, respectively. The average plate deflection from the air blast was 11 mm, {approx}10% deeper than the average vacuum plate deflection. Shock pressure estimates were made with a simple impedance-matching model, and indicate peak values in the 30-50 MPa range are consistent with the reactant cloud density and velocity. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to definitely establish the mechanisms by which air couples shock energy to the plates.

  10. Detailed Comparison of Blast Effects in Air and Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Molitoris, J. D.; Garza, R. G.; Andreski, H. G.; Batteux, J. D.; Lauderbach, L. M.; Vincent, E. R.; Wong, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The role of air as an energy transfer medium was examined experimentally by subjecting identical large-area rectangular witness plates to short-range blast effects in air and vacuum (˜50 mtorr) at 25 °C. The expanding reactant front of 3 kg C4 charges was observed by fast camera to be cylindrically symmetric in both air and vacuum. The horizontal component of the reactant cloud velocity (perpendicular to the witness plates) was constant in both cases, with values of 3.0 and 5.9 km/s for air and vacuum, respectively. As a result of the blast, witness plates were plastically deformed into a shallow dish geometry, with local maxima 30 and 20 mm deep for air and vacuum, respectively. The average plate deflection from the air blast was 11 mm, ˜10% deeper than the average vacuum plate deflection. Shock pressure estimates were made with a simple impedance-matching model, and indicate peak values in the 30-50 MPa range are consistent with the reactant cloud density and velocity. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to better understand the time-dependent coupling of shock energy that plastically deforms the plates.

  11. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  12. The Safe Removal of Frozen Air from the Annulus of an LH2 Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-01-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modeling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  13. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  14. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  15. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  17. The Air Blast Wave from a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    The sudden, large scale release of energy in the explosion of a nuclear bomb in air gives rise, in addition to nuclear emanations such as neutrons and gamma rays, to an extremely hot, rapidly expanding mass of air.** The rapidly expanding air mass has an initial temperature in the vicinity of a few hundred thousand degrees and for this reason it glows in its early stages with an intensity of many suns. It is important that the energy density in this initial "ball of fire" is of the order of 3 × 103 times that found in a detonating piece of TNT and hence that the initial stages of the large scale air motion produced by a nuclear explosion has no counterpart in an ordinary. H. E. explosion. Further, the relatively low temperatures ˜2,000°C associated with the initial stages of an H. E. detonation implies that the thermal radiation which it emits is a relatively insignificant fraction of the total energy involves. This point is made more striking when it is remembered that the thermal energy emitted by a hot object varies directly with the temperature in the Rayleigh Jeans region appropriate to the present discussion. The expansion of the air mass heated by the nuclear reaction produces, in qualitatively the same manner as in an H.E. explosion or the bursting of a high pressure balloon, an intense sharp pressure pulse, a shock wave, in the atmosphere. As the pressure pulse spreads outward it weakens due to the combined effects of divergence and the thermodynamically irreversible nature of the shock wave. The air comprising such a pressure pulse or blast wave moves first radially outward and then back towards the center as the blast wave passes. Since a permanent outward displacement of an infinite mass of air would require unlimited energy, the net outward displacement of the air distant from an explosion must approach zero with increasing distance. As the distance from the explosion is diminished the net outward displacement due to irreversible shock heating of

  18. Experiments on cylindrically converging blast waves in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hideo; Nakamura, Yuichi

    1980-06-01

    Cylindrically converging blast waves have been produced in normal atmospheric conditions by the detonation of the explosives, pentaerythritoltetranitrate, (PETN), over cylindrical surfaces. The shocks generated in this way are so strong that the fronts propagating through the air become luminous of themselves. The production and the propagation of the shocks have been monitored with a framing camera and a streak camera, and the time-space relations of the shock propagations have been determined using an electrical ionization probing system. The results have shown that the trajectory of the shock fronts near the axis of the cylinder can be approximately represented by the Guderley's formula.

  19. Computer Simulation of Blast Wall Protection under Methane-Air Explosion on an Offshore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjian; Yan, Weigang; Guo, Jin; Guo, Changming

    An in-house explosion program is presented to evaluate blast wall protection under Methane-Air Explosion on an offshore platform, based on two-dimensional, time-dependent, reactive Navier-Stokes equations including the effects of viscosity, thermal conduction and molecular diffusion. The results show that this program can successfully produce explosion process of methane-air gas cloud. Because the overpressure behind the blast wall and on the lifeboat plate is more than 1.0atm when explosion wave passes, the current blast wall is not enough to keep the person and lifeboat safe. So the blast wall needs to be re-designed. The explosion wave of methane-air gas cloud undergoes a successive process of detonation formation, detonation transmission, shock attenuation, regular reflection and Mach reflection etc. Additionally, due to high overpressure generated in gas cloud explosion, it is extremely devastating and must be avoided at all times on offshore platform.

  20. Droplet Breakup Mechanisms in Air-blast Atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir Abbas; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Lim, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Atomization processes are encountered in many natural and man-made phenomena. Examples are pollen release by plants, human cough or sneeze, engine fuel injectors, spray paint and many more. The physics governing the atomization of liquids is important in understanding and utilizing atomization processes in both natural and industrial processes. We have observed the governing physics of droplet breakup in an air-blast water atomizer using a high magnification, high speed, and high resolution LASER imaging technique. The droplet breakup mechanisms are investigated in three major categories. First, the liquid drops are flattened to form an oblate ellipsoid (lenticular deformation). Subsequent deformation depends on the magnitude of the internal forces relative to external forces. The ellipsoid is converted into a torus that becomes stretched and disintegrates into smaller drops. Second, the drops become elongated to form a long cylindrical thread or ligament that break up into smaller drops (Cigar-shaped deformation). Third, local deformation on the drop surface creates bulges and protuberances that eventually detach themselves from the parent drop to form smaller drops.

  1. The Effect of Charge Reactive Metal Cases on Air Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wilson, William

    2009-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in a 23 m^3 closed chamber using explosive encased in a cylindrical reactive metal case to study the effect on air blast from the case fragments. Parameters varied included explosive material, case material, case/explosive mass ratio and charge internal diameter, which ranged from 7.62 to 12.7 cm. The pressure histories measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock followed by the primary shock, suggesting the early-time reaction of small case fragments. During the early reflections on the chamber wall, the pressure rise achieves a factor of 1.6 versus the steel-cased and a factor of 1.2-1.4 versus the bare charges, indicating combustion of a large amount of small case particles generated by secondary fragmentation. The analysis of explosion pressures and recovered fragments and solid products showed that the burnt case mass increases with detonation pressure and case/explosion mass ratio over a test range from 0.29 to 1.75 in a quadratic function. The influences of charge diameter and various reactive metal cases on the burnt case mass are further investigated.

  2. The Effect of Charge Reactive Metal Cases on Air Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wilson, William H.

    2009-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a 23 m3 closed chamber using a charge encased in a cylindrical reactive metal case to study the effect on air blast from the case fragments. Parameters varied included case/charge mass ratio, charge diameter and charge type (i.e., detonation energy and pressure). The pressure histories measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock followed by the primary shock, suggesting the early-time reaction of small case fragments. During the early reflections on the chamber wall, significant pressure rises versus the steel-cased and bare charges indicated combustion of a large amount of small case particles generated by secondary fragmentation. The analysis of explosion pressures and recovered fragments and solid products gave an expression for burnt casing mass as a function of Gurney velocity and charge diameter. The equivalent bare charge mass that yields the same explosion pressure as the cased charge increased with case/charge mass ratio and reached 2.5 times charge mass at the ratio of 1.75.

  3. A History of Air-Blast Sprayer Development and Future Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design and operating procedures of air-blast sprayers have been greatly improved over the past 50 years. Early tree and vine s pray application equipment used hand-guns that required large amount of water. Later, sprayers with efficient fans, producing large volumes of air at high velocities, ...

  4. Prediction of blast-induced air overpressure: a hybrid AI-based predictive model.

    PubMed

    Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Hajihassani, Mohsen; Marto, Aminaton; Shirani Faradonbeh, Roohollah; Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam

    2015-11-01

    Blast operations in the vicinity of residential areas usually produce significant environmental problems which may cause severe damage to the nearby areas. Blast-induced air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most important environmental impacts of blast operations which needs to be predicted to minimize the potential risk of damage. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized by the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for the prediction of AOp induced by quarry blasting. For this purpose, 95 blasting operations were precisely monitored in a granite quarry site in Malaysia and AOp values were recorded in each operation. Furthermore, the most influential parameters on AOp, including the maximum charge per delay and the distance between the blast-face and monitoring point, were measured and used to train the ICA-ANN model. Based on the generalized predictor equation and considering the measured data from the granite quarry site, a new empirical equation was developed to predict AOp. For comparison purposes, conventional ANN models were developed and compared with the ICA-ANN results. The results demonstrated that the proposed ICA-ANN model is able to predict blast-induced AOp more accurately than other presented techniques. PMID:26433903

  5. Prediction of blast-induced air overpressure: a hybrid AI-based predictive model.

    PubMed

    Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Hajihassani, Mohsen; Marto, Aminaton; Shirani Faradonbeh, Roohollah; Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam

    2015-11-01

    Blast operations in the vicinity of residential areas usually produce significant environmental problems which may cause severe damage to the nearby areas. Blast-induced air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most important environmental impacts of blast operations which needs to be predicted to minimize the potential risk of damage. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized by the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for the prediction of AOp induced by quarry blasting. For this purpose, 95 blasting operations were precisely monitored in a granite quarry site in Malaysia and AOp values were recorded in each operation. Furthermore, the most influential parameters on AOp, including the maximum charge per delay and the distance between the blast-face and monitoring point, were measured and used to train the ICA-ANN model. Based on the generalized predictor equation and considering the measured data from the granite quarry site, a new empirical equation was developed to predict AOp. For comparison purposes, conventional ANN models were developed and compared with the ICA-ANN results. The results demonstrated that the proposed ICA-ANN model is able to predict blast-induced AOp more accurately than other presented techniques.

  6. Cold air outbreaks along a non-frozen sea channel: effects of wind on snow bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savijärvi, Hannu

    2015-08-01

    Wintertime cold air outbreaks along a non-frozen sea channel or a long lake can become destructive if the related bands of heavy snowfall hit onto land. The forcing for such bands is studied with a 2D numerical model set across an east-west sea channel at 60oN (`Gulf of Finland'), varying the basic geostrophic wind V g. Without any V g opposite coastal land breezes emerge with convergence. This results in a quasi-steady rising motion w max ~ 7.5 cm/s at 600 m in the middle of the gulf, which can force a snow band. During weak V g, the rising motion is reduced but least so for winds from 60o to 80o (~ENE), when modest alongshore bands could exist near the downstream (Estonian) coast. During V g of 4-6 m/s from any direction, the land breezes and rising motions are reduced more effectively, so snow bands are not expected during moderate basic flow. In contrast, during a strong V g of 20-25 m/s from 110o to 120o (~ESE) the land breeze perturbations are intense with w max up to 15-18 cm/s. The induced alongshore bands of heavy snowfall are located in these cases at the sea but quite close to the downstream (Finnish) coast. They can suddenly make a landfall if the basic wind turns clockwise.

  7. Quality changes during frozen storage and thawing of mixed bread.

    PubMed

    Fik, M; Macura, R

    2001-04-01

    In the present work investigations of the dependence between frozen storage time, the method of thawing (air blast at 50 degrees C and microwave), organoleptic and physico-chemical changes in bread are reported. The quality of the thawed product was analysed directly after thawing and after two days of storage at room temperature. It was found that changes in quality of bread are more affected by frozen storage than by the employed thawing method. The thawing methods had a significant (p < or = 0.01) effect on the investigated physico-chemical parameters of the product, however, their statistically significant (p < or = 0.01) effect on the sensory quality could only be revealed after two days of storage of the previously thawed bread at room temperature rather than directly after thawing. The results obtained in the present study suggest that bread which underwent microwave thawing had generally better quality in comparison with air blast thawing.

  8. 500-kV HVDC air-blast circuit breaker. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, B.; Ruoss, E.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes the first HVDC circuit breaker to be tested on a full-scale utility system. Modular in construction to ensure economic feasibility, this breaker has a standard ac air-blast breaker as its main component and interrupts current up to 2200-A dc.

  9. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  10. A Technique for Determining the Nozzle-Flow Properties of Air in an Equilibrium, Nonequilibrium, or Frozen State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayman, Lovick O.; Stewart, Roger B.

    1961-01-01

    One of the problems associated with the development of high-enthalpy hypersonic test facilities hos been the determination of nozzle flow properties. This note presents a technique for determining the flow properties of air in an equilibrium, non-equilibrium, or frozen state using two test section measurements. A knowledge of two stagnation properties is required before the technique can be applied. The stagnation pressure can be measured, and reference 1 offers a method for determining stagnation enthalpy. Results of the calculations using the method of reference 1 are presented in reference 2 in a chart (chart 21) which can be readily used to determine the stagnation enthalpy from measurements of stagnation pressure, mass flow of air through the tunnel, and throat diameter.

  11. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Compton, S; Walton, O R; Shingleton, N; Kane, J O; Holtmeier, G; Loey, H; Mirkarimi, P B; Dunlop, W H; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes. PMID:25273784

  12. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  13. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-15

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  14. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, M.M.; Savage, W.Z.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt % dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ???220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (???220 m/s versus ???110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  16. Dislodgeable azinphosmethyl residues from air blast spraying of apple foliage in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Hall, F R; Reichard, D L; Krueger, H R

    1975-01-01

    The distribution and decay rates of dislodgeable residues of azinphosmethyl applied by two types of air blast sprayers on apple foliage in Ohio were investigated. Leaf discs were taken from nine sites located on the periphery of Cortland apple trees at five dates after spraying. The sprayer delivering the higher airflow rate, but lower velocity, deposited the pesticide much more uniformly over the trees and applied more in the top of the tree. The other sprayer deposited the greatest proportion of pesticide on the site nearest the sprayer. The residue decreased at all sites and ranged from 42 to near 100% decrease at 14 days after spraying.

  17. Human response to house vibrations caused by sonic booms or air blasts.

    PubMed

    Schomer, P D

    1978-07-01

    Descriptions of the effects of sonic booms of air blasts by observers in buildings have included such statements as "noticeable vibrations" in addition to phrases such as "the house rattles," "the windows rattle," or "bric-à-brac rattles." Analysis of studies of human response to vibrations, vibration complaints in the Toronto area, special tests by Kryter at Edwards Air Force Base, and laboratory studies of human response to sonic booms show that perceived vibration is not normally a factor that contributes significantly to human response to airborne, large-amplitude impulse noise. Rather, human response is solely the result of the impulse noise itself and of audible noise due to induced radiation from vibrating surfaces. PMID:711997

  18. German Air Forces experiences with plastic media blasting and future requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoermer, Matthias

    1993-03-01

    German Air Force (GAF) has been researching a method of paint removal for a couple of years to replace the chemical method still in use. This is to improve corrosion prevention, environmental protection and health care. With the support of German aerospace company MBB and the University of the Armed Forces in Munich GAF selected Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) as the most suitable method. Having a stripping facility for the entire aircraft at MBB Manching already in existence, GAF decided that the next step forward to gain more experiences is to establish a smaller 'stripping cabin' at an air force base. This cabin is suitable for stripping removable parts and components of aircraft and equipment with the max. size of a half dismantled TORNADO wing. With these gained experiences GAF will be in position to formulate the specific requirements for an entire on-base aircraft stripping plant which will be suitable for F-4's, TORNADO's and EFA's, too.

  19. Effect of freezing method and frozen storage duration on lamb sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of three freezing methods with three frozen storage durations (1, 3, and 6 months) on the sensory quality of lamb. Methods were: air blast freezer, freezing tunnel+air blast freezer, and nitrogen chamber+air blast freezer. Meat was frozen after 48 h of ageing (0-4°C). Fresh meat (72 h ageing at 2-4°C) was used as control. Sensory analyses (trained panel and consumer tests) were performed on loin chops (Longissimus lumborum) after 24 h of thawing. Results from the trained panel test showed that freezing (method and/or storage duration) had no significant effect. Consumers found that freezing affected sensory quality. Cluster analysis for overall acceptability divided the population into four classes with different preference patterns, and none of them showed a significant preference for fresh meat. The small differences between fresh and thawed meat shown in this study should not give consumers concerns about buying frozen meat or consuming thawed meat.

  20. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Estimation of Yield and Height-of-Burst for Near-Surface Explosions from Joint Inversion of Air-Blast and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Xu, H.; Templeton, D. C.; Ramirez, A. L.; Chipman, V.; Ford, S. R.; Chambers, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Near-surface explosions generate air-blast overpressure and seismic ground motions. It is well known that air-blast and seismic amplitudes depend on explosive yield and range. However for explosions near the ground surface the excitation of air-blast overpressure in the atmosphere and seismic motions depends strongly on the height-of-burst (HOB) for above ground or depth-of-burial (DOB, negative HOB) for buried explosions. We report an algorithm for estimating yield and HOB from near-surface explosions by joint inversion of air-blast overpressure and seismic ground motion amplitudes. The HUMBLE REDWOOD series of chemical explosions conducted at Kirtland AFB were explicitly designed to investigate the effect of HOB on air-blast and seismic motions. Analysis of these data indicates that scaled-range and HOB effects separate and provide calibration data for signal behavior with yield, range and HOB. Variation of air-blast measurements with scaled range for above ground explosions is reasonably well fit by reported models. Dependence with scaled HOB is determined with residuals from above ground air-blast models fit to a parameterized curve. Resampling of the data allows estimates of model errors for both scaled range and scaled HOB and is also used to propagate model errors in the inversion. Similar analysis is performed for the dependence of seismic amplitudes with scaled range and scaled HOB. The inversion of air-blast and seismic amplitudes for yield and HOB uses either a grid search or Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The algorithm runs very quickly in either case because the forward calculations are algebraic and very efficient for this two-dimensional model space. We show that inversion results obtained with only one data type (air-blast or seismic) are strongly non-unique and often have large bias. However, joint inversion of air-blast and seismic data breaks the trade-offs between yield and HOB and leads to more accurate estimates. We find that

  2. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Size and location of ice crystals in pork frozen by high-pressure-assisted freezing as compared to classical methods.

    PubMed

    Martino, M N; Otero, L; Sanz, P D; Zaritzky, N E

    1998-11-01

    In high-pressure-assisted freezing, samples are cooled under pressure (200 MPa) to - 20 °C without ice formation then pressure is released (0.1 MPa) and the high super-cooling reached (approx. 20 °C), promotes uniform and rapid ice nucleation. The size and location of ice crystals in large meat pieces (Longissimus dorsi pork muscle) as a result of high-pressure-assisted freezing were compared to those obtained by air-blast and liquid N(2). Samples from the surface and centre of the frozen muscle were histologically analysed using an indirect technique (isothermal-freeze fixation). Air-blast and cryogenic fluid freezing, having thermal gradients, showed non-uniform ice crystal distributions. High-pressure-assisted frozen samples, both at the surface and at the central zones, showed similar, small-sized ice crystals. This technique is particularly useful for freezing large pieces of food when uniform ice crystal sizes are required.

  4. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  5. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  6. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  8. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  9. Evaluation of overpressure prediction models for air blast above the triple point.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, L; Boutillier, J; Magnan, P; Deck, C; De Mezzo, S; Willinger, R; Cheinet, S

    2016-07-01

    The increase of blast exposures leads to the need for better assessment of the blast threat. Empirical models describing the blast propagation in ideal conditions as free-field or surface detonations are commonly employed, but in some configurations the ground-reflected shock should be treated explicitly. Empirical models permit the prediction of the blast characteristics with the ground-reflected shock. The present study uses some original experimental data to evaluate the accuracy of the predicted overpressure with time regarding the reflected shock characteristics. Three methods are tested. The first method, called method of images (MOI) and linearly adding a virtual ground-symmetrical source blast to the free-field blast, is quick but lacks accuracy regarding the reflected shock characteristics. The second method, based on the LOAD_BLAST_ENHANCED function of the commercial LS-DYNA framework, better captures the reflected shock compared to the MOI, but the overall differences with experimental data are of the same order of magnitude as for the MOI. An original fit is introduced, based on standard physical parameters. The accuracy of this fit on the reflected shock characteristics, and the better match with the overall overpressure time series, shows its potential as a new empirical blast predicting tool.

  10. Gas and drop behavior in reacting and non-reacting air-blast atomizer sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of the two-phase flow produced by a gas-turbine air-blast atomizer is performed with the goal of identifying the interaction between the two phases for both nonreacting and reacting conditions. A two-component phase Doppler interferometry is utilized to characterize three flowfields produced by the atomizer: (1) the single-phase flow, (2) the two-phase nonreacting spray, and (3) the two-phase reacting spray. Measurements of the mean and fluctuating axial and azimuthal velocities for each phase are obtained. In addition, the droplet size distribution, volume flux, and concentration are measured. The results reveal the strong influence of the dispersed phase on the gas, and the influence of reaction on both the gas and the droplet field. The presence of the spray significantly alters the inlet condition of the atomizer. With this alteration quantified, it is possible to deduce that the inertia associated with the dispersed phase damps the fluctuating velocities of the gas. Reaction reduces the volume flux of the droplets, broadens the local volume distribution of the droplets in the region of the reaction zone, increases the axial velocities and radial spread of the gas, and increases the anisotropy in the region of the reaction zone.

  11. An experimental investigation on the spray flow exhausted from a co-swirling air-blast nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Daniel Dean

    The velocity field for a spray produced by an air-blast atomizer is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). These measurements are conducted at a variety of input liquid and air mass flow rates producing many different air to liquid mass flow ratios (ALR). The experiment is repeated with two different liquids, water and a hydrocarbon based fuel substitute. It is found that the velocity field depends heavily on the type of fluid used as opposed to the ALR. The experiments are repeated using a Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurement technique. These results are compared to the 2D PIV results, and the differences are discussed. Finally, the 2D PIV and SPIV results are compared to existing Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) results. It is seen that the results from the two different techniques are not well correlated.

  12. Rock blasting environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Agreda, C.

    1995-12-31

    The rock blasting environmental impacts such as: flyrock, ground vibrations, air-blast, and/or noise, dust and fumes are identified and mentioned. Some comments on the correction factors that might be taken into consideration to calculate the initial velocity and the maximum projection of the rock fragments are mentioned as well. The blast fumes causes, its alleviation and protective measures are identified, described and discussed. To mitigate, minimize and/or avoid blast fumes, the AN/FO, Al/AN/FO and S/AN/FO dry blasting agents optimum equations are developed, discussed and recommended.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of...

  14. The effect of air temperature, velocity and visual lean (VL) composition on the tempering times of frozen boneless beef blocks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; James, Stephen J

    2006-08-01

    Beef blocks of two compositions, 100% and 50% visual lean (VL), in standard commercial packaging with nominal dimensions of 510×390×150mm were tempered from -18°C to -3°C using air at temperatures from 3°C to -3°C and velocities of 0.5 and 5ms(-1). These conditions were then modelled using a finite difference mathematical model and the accuracy of the model assessed by comparison with the experimental results. An extended range of conditions (including an intermediate air velocity of 2ms(-1) and an intermediate composition of 75% VL) was then modelled to produce data that can be used to design tempering processes. The results show that single stage air tempering of even single blocks within their cartons needs to be a long process. In air at 3°C and 5ms(-1), blocks of 50% VL rose to deep temperatures of -10°C and -3°C after 4.0 and 22.5h, respectively, while with 100% VL 4.6 and 27.3h were required. Under these conditions, the surface layers of the meat would have spent many hours in a thawed condition that would be detrimental to both drip and optimal processing. Using lower temperatures avoids thawing and at the same time produces an optimum temperature difference for subsequent processing. However, tempering times are substantially extended. For example, times to the above temperatures using air at -1°C and 5ms(-1) were 4.8 and 37.5h for 50% VL and 5.1 and 44.5h for 100% VL.

  15. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P < 0.05) than those of CB batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P < 0.05) rapidly decreased and was not different (P > 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets at 9, 12, 18, and 24 min. Similarly, the protein of 1% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets from 12 min. Stress values of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC gels were higher (P < 0.05) than those of 1 and 2% salt CB gels, with intermediate values for 1% salt HB-¼CFAC gels. In the scanning electron microscope image, prerigor batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity.

  16. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P < 0.05) than those of CB batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P < 0.05) rapidly decreased and was not different (P > 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets at 9, 12, 18, and 24 min. Similarly, the protein of 1% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets from 12 min. Stress values of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC gels were higher (P < 0.05) than those of 1 and 2% salt CB gels, with intermediate values for 1% salt HB-¼CFAC gels. In the scanning electron microscope image, prerigor batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. PMID:25012854

  17. Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-01

    Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd : glass laser pulse (λ = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ηbw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (λ = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ηLSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ηbw/ηLSD≈90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case.

  18. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  19. Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad

    2014-03-01

    Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.

  20. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  1. Effect of freezing method and frozen storage duration on instrumental quality of lamb throughout display.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of freezing method (FM) (air blast freezer, freezing tunnel, or nitrogen chamber) and frozen storage duration (FSD) (1, 3, or 6 months) on the instrumental measurements of quality of thawed lamb, aged for a total of 72 h, throughout a 10-d display period, compared to the quality of fresh meat. pH, colour, lipid oxidation, thawing, and cooking losses in Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle, were determined following standard methods. FM affected yellowness, FSD redness and thawing losses, and both affected oxidation (increased as freezing rate decreased and/or as storage duration increased). When compared with fresh meat, the main differences appeared on oxidation (where a significant interaction between treatment (3FM x 3FSD + fresh meat) with display duration was detected), and on total losses (thaw + cook losses). Oxidation was lower in fresh meat, but values were not significantly different from those stored frozen for 1 month. Fresh meat had smaller total losses than did thawed meat, but losses were not significantly different from meat frozen in the freezing tunnel and stored frozen for 1 month. Display duration had a greater effect on instrumental quality parameters than did FM or FSD. pH, b*, and oxidation increased, and L* and a* decreased with an increase in the number of days on display. In conclusion, neither freezing method nor frozen storage up to 6 months influenced extensively the properties of lamb when instrumental measurements of quality were measured in meat that had been displayed for 1d after thawing. The small deterioration shown in this study should not give consumers concerns about frozen meat.

  2. Microstructure and physical changes in the Mexican cooked lamb meat barbacoa made with chilled and frozen meat.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Solís, Joaquín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Hernández-Rosas, Francisco; Hernández-Cazares, Aleida S

    2016-08-01

    Longissimus dorci (LD) samples of different origin (imported and domestic) with pre-treatments (imported meat stored at -18°C for 6months, domestic meat stored at -18°C for 10days, and domestic meat stored at 4°C for 24h) were cooked as barbacoa and frozen using two treatments (air blast and liquid immersion) and then evaluated after 30days of storage. The results showed that the origin and pre-treatment of meat affected L*, a*, instrumental texture and microstructure; that the storage time affected pH, aw, b* and microstructure; and that the freezing treatments did not affect the meat. Overall, the frozen cooked lamb dish barbacoa could present some problems at the conservation stage due to an increase in pH, aw and changes in microstructure; however, the physical traits (color and texture) remained mostly unchanged and depended more on the quality of the raw meat.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of explosives and detonators. (e) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall be... performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of explosives and detonators. (e) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall be... performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed...

  5. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  6. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1. (g) When tunnel excavation in... explosives shall not be stored or kept in tunnels, shafts, or caissons. Detonators and explosives for each... of explosives and detonators. (e) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1. (g) When tunnel excavation in... explosives shall not be stored or kept in tunnels, shafts, or caissons. Detonators and explosives for each... of explosives and detonators. (e) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall...

  8. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  9. A novel closed-body model of spinal cord injury caused by high-pressure air blasts produces extensive axonal injury and motor impairments.

    PubMed

    del Mar, Nobel; von Buttlar, Xinyu; Yu, Angela S; Guley, Natalie H; Reiner, Anton; Honig, Marcia G

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse axonal injury is thought to be the basis of the functional impairments stemming from mild traumatic brain injury. To examine how axons are damaged by traumatic events, such as motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports activities, or explosive blasts, we have taken advantage of the spinal cord with its extensive white matter tracts. We developed a closed-body model of spinal cord injury in mice whereby high-pressure air blasts targeted to lower thoracic vertebral levels produce tensile, compressive, and shear forces within the parenchyma of the spinal cord and thereby cause extensive axonal injury. Markers of cytoskeletal integrity showed that spinal cord axons exhibited three distinct pathologies: microtubule breakage, neurofilament compaction, and calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown. The dorsally situated axons of the corticospinal tract primarily exhibited microtubule breakage, whereas all three pathologies were common in the lateral and ventral white matter. Individual axons typically demonstrated only one of the three pathologies during the first 24h after blast injury, suggesting that the different perturbations are initiated independently of one another. For the first few days after blast, neurofilament compaction was frequently accompanied by autophagy, and subsequent to that, by the fragmentation of degenerating axons. TuJ1 immunolabeling and mice with YFP-reporter labeling each revealed more extensive microtubule breakage than did βAPP immunolabeling, raising doubts about the sensitivity of this standard approach for assessing axonal injury. Although motor deficits were mild and largely transient, some aspects of motor function gradually worsened over several weeks, suggesting that a low level of axonal degeneration continued past the initial wave. Our model can help provide further insight into how to intervene in the processes by which initial axonal damage culminates in axonal degeneration, to improve outcomes after traumatic injury. Importantly

  10. A novel closed-body model of spinal cord injury caused by high-pressure air blasts produces extensive axonal injury and motor impairments

    PubMed Central

    del Mar, Nobel; von Buttlar, Xinyu; Yu, Angela S.; Guley, Natalie H.; Reiner, Anton; Honig, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury is thought to be the basis of the functional impairments stemming from mild traumatic brain injury. To examine how axons are damaged by traumatic events, such as motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports activities, or explosive blasts, we have taken advantage of the spinal cord with its extensive white matter tracts. We developed a closed-body model of spinal cord injury in mice whereby high-pressure air blasts targeted to lower thoracic vertebral levels produce tensile, compressive, and shear forces within the parenchyma of the spinal cord and thereby cause extensive axonal injury. Markers of cytoskeletal integrity showed that spinal cord axons exhibited three distinct pathologies: microtubule breakage, neurofilament compaction, and calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown. The dorsally situated axons of the corticospinal tract primarily exhibited microtubule breakage, whereas all three pathologies were common in the lateral and ventral white matter. Individual axons typically demonstrated only one of the three pathologies during the first 24 h after blast injury, suggesting that the different perturbations are initiated independently of one another. For the first few days after blast, neurofilament compaction was frequently accompanied by autophagy, and subsequent to that, by the fragmentation of degenerating axons. TuJ1 immunolabeling and mice with YFP-reporter labeling each revealed more extensive microtubule breakage than did βAPP immunolabeling, raising doubts about the sensitivity of this standard approach for assessing axonal injury. Although motor deficits were mild and largely transient, some aspects of motor function gradually worsened over several weeks, suggesting that a low level of axonal degeneration continued past the initial wave. Our model can help provide further insight into how to intervene in the processes by which initial axonal damage culminates in axonal degeneration, to improve outcomes after traumatic injury. Importantly

  11. Project to develop and demonstrate methods to eliminate frozen-coal-handling problems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This paper represents an evaluation of methods of removing frozen coal from railroad hopper cars. The work was based on a careful study of previous methods and examination of innovative methods proposed. It was found that chemical freeze conditioning and side release additives helped for temperatures above 5/sup 0/F but were of marginal benefit for lower temperatures. Further, the effectiveness varied with the particular material and the amount and method of application, and was not well correlated with the price. An innovative method United Coal liked and continued development at their own expense involved an auger/air cannon system in which the auger penetrated the frozen crust to within 2 to 3 feet of the bottom hopper doors and then an air blast from a tank at 140 to 350 psi freed the coal. This was particularly effective when used in connection with the existing overhead shaker facility. Other methods were also evaluated. Some were too expensive in energy, damaged the cars, or were ineffective (or in some cases dangerous). (LTN)

  12. Frozen shoulder - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome - aftercare; Pericapsulitis - aftercare; Stiff shoulder - aftercare; Shoulder pain - frozen shoulder ... Call your doctor if: The pain in your shoulder is getting worse You re-injure your arm or shoulder Your frozen shoulder is making you feel sad or depressed

  13. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  14. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  15. Frozen-intensity test research of frozen coal with steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Weibo

    2002-05-01

    As a sort of multiple component, and dispersed state granule aggregation, frozen coal behaves similar to frozen soil. On the basis of its unique ice-cementation effect and not-frozen water along with dynamical balance state between the frameworks of mineral granule, the mechanical behavior of frozen coal is more complex than usual in compact medium, restrictedly with force amount, process time period and temperature. In all factors which impact on frozen intensity of frozen coal frozen with steel plate, water content is relatively easy to control. From results of this test research, values of frozen intensity is changeable under different water content. Up to the critical water content, the value of frozen intensity increase rapidly till a certain steady value. Under a certain temperature and water content condition, the granule component of frozen coal has somewhat effect on the frozen intensity. Usually, the frozen intensity of large granule coal is greater than the small granule's However, the distributing of coal granule size present a steady probability rule. So the effect from granule size is tiny.

  16. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  19. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  20. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  1. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  2. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  3. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  4. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  5. FROZEN HYDROCARBONS IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Simonia, Irakli

    2011-02-15

    Recent investigations of the luminescence of frozen hydrocarbon particles of icy cometary halos have been carried out. The process of luminescence of organic icy particles in a short-wavelength solar radiation field is considered. A comparative analysis of observed and laboratory data leads to 72 luminescent emission lines in the spectrum of the comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. The concept of cometary relict matter is presented, and the creation of a database of unidentified cometary emission lines is proposed.

  6. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  7. Method of blast heating

    SciTech Connect

    Voges, B.

    1984-06-05

    A method of and a device for blast heating is described, employing separate indirect heat exchangers for combustion air and fuel gas fed to a regenerator and flue gases discharged from the regenerator. The indirect heat exchangers share heat-transfer liquid recirculating in a circuit in which an auxiliary heat exchanger is connected. In the latter exchanger, the temperature of transfer liquid is increased by combustion of partial streams of combustion air and fuel gas branched off downstream of the indirect heat exchangers. The temperature is increased to such a value which preheats the fuel gas to a temperature at which a substitution of fuel gas of a low calorific value, such as waste gas from a blast furnace, for fuel gas of high calorific value, is made possible.

  8. Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

  9. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  10. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  11. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  12. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - I. General phenomenology and external blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshara, F. B. A.

    1994-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the prediction of dynamic effects of unconfined explosions needed for the structural analysis of blast-loaded aboveground structures. The basic features of the explosion and blast wave phenomena are presented along with a discussion of TNT equivalency and blast scaling laws. The characteristics of incident overpressure loading due to atomic weapons, conventional high explosives and unconfined vapour cloud explosions are addressed and followed by a description of the other blast loading components associated with air flow and reflection process. In the final part, the modelling of external blast loads on the different faces of aboveground rigid structures is considered. A unified approach is followed in the presentation of the governing equations of modelling of blast loads for mathematical and practical applications.

  15. Frozen Chemistry Effects on Nozzle Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; O'Gara, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of exhaust nozzle flows are typically conducted assuming the gas is calorically perfect, and typically modeled as air. However the gas inside a real nozzle is generally composed of combustion products whose thermodynamic properties may differ. In this study, the effect of gas model assumption on exhaust nozzle simulations is examined. The three methods considered model the nozzle exhaust gas as calorically perfect air, a calorically perfect exhaust gas mixture, and a frozen exhaust gas mixture. In the latter case the individual non-reacting species are tracked and modeled as a gas which is only thermally perfect. Performance parameters such as mass flow rate, gross thrust, and thrust coefficient are compared as are mean flow and turbulence profiles in the jet plume region. Nozzles which operate at low temperatures or have low subsonic exit Mach numbers experience relatively minor temperature variations inside the nozzle, and may be modeled as a calorically perfect gas. In those which operate at the opposite extreme conditions, variations in the thermodynamic properties can lead to different expansion behavior within the nozzle. Modeling these cases as a perfect exhaust gas flow rather than air captures much of the flow features of the frozen chemistry simulations. Use of the exhaust gas reduces the nozzle mass flow rate, but has little effect on the gross thrust. When reporting nozzle thrust coefficient results, however, it is important to use the appropriate gas model assumptions to compute the ideal exit velocity. Otherwise the values obtained may be an overly optimistic estimate of nozzle performance.

  16. [The characteristics of blast traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hatano, Ben; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji

    2010-08-01

    With the increase in terrorist activity in recent times, the number of blast injuries has also increased in civilian and military settings. In a recent war, the number of patients who suffered blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) increased, so treatment of bTBI is currently a very important issue. Blast injury is complicated and can be divided into 4 categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury results from exposure to blast waves; secondary blast injury is trauma caused by fragments of explosive devices; tertiary blast injury is the result of collision with objects; and quaternary blast injury is the result of exposure to toxic and other substances. Blast waves mainly injure air-containing organs such as the lung, bowel, and ear. The brain may also be affected by blast waves. From the clinical perspective, hyperemia and severe cerebral edema occur frequently in patients who sustain significant bTBI. Penetrating or closed head injury caused by the explosion may be associated with vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Mild traumatic brain injury during war can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. To elucidate the mechanism of bTBI, many research works using animal models and computer analysis are underway. Such studies have so far shown that blast waves can cause damage to the brain tissue and cognitive deficits; however, detailed investigations on this topic are still required. Treatment of bTBI patients may require clinical knowledge and skills related to intensive care, neurology, and neurosurgery. Moreover, further research is required in this field. PMID:20697143

  17. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  18. Management of primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Argyros, G J

    1997-07-25

    Blast waves are produced following the detonation of munitions, the firing of large caliber guns, or from any type of explosion. These blast waves can be powerful enough to injure the individuals exposed to them. This type of injury is called primary blast injury (PBI) and the organs most vulnerable to PBI are the gas-filled organs, namely the ear, the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The approach to the casualty with PBI is the same as it would be for any trauma victim, i.e. the initiation of life support measures. Attention should be directed to the common life-threatening manifestation of thoracic and abdominal PBI. Pulmonary manifestations would include hemorrhage, barotrauma and arterial air embolism, while abdominal manifestations would include hemorrhage and hollow organ rupture. Therapy is directed at the specific manifestations as well as avoiding additional iatrogenic injury. PMID:9217319

  19. Factors Affecting Internal Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.; Felts, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products and atmosphere in the space, separate from the effect of incomplete combustion of excess fuel when that atmosphere is air. Chamber and test geometry affect gas mixing, which has been inferred through temperature and pressure measurements and compared to calculations. Late-time combustion is observed for TNT compared to HMX.

  20. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  1. Blast waves produced by interactions of femtosecond laser pulses with water.

    PubMed

    Li, Y T; Zhang, J; Teng, H; Li, K; Peng, X Y; Jin, Z; Lu, X; Zheng, Z Y; Yu, Q Z

    2003-05-01

    The behaviors of the blast waves produced by femtosecond laser-water interactions, and the blast waves induced by laser self-focusing in air, have been investigated using optical shadowgraphy at a maximum intensity of 1 x 10(16) W/cm(2). The temporal evolution of the blast wave launched by the water plasma can be described by a planar blast wave model including source mass. An aneurismlike structure, due to the quick propagation inside a hollow channel formed by laser self-focusing, is observed. The expansion of the channel in air is found to agree with a cylindrical self-similar blast wave solution. PMID:12786283

  2. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. A Multi-Mode Shock Tube for Investigation of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Reneer, Dexter V.; Hisel, Richard D.; Hoffman, Joshua M.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Lusk, Braden T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave

  5. A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W

    2011-01-01

    Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components

  6. Automated Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  7. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  8. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  9. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source. PMID:26133878

  10. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  11. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in full- and reduced-fat pepperoni after manufacture of sticks, storage of slices at 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C under air and vacuum, and baking of slices on frozen pizza at 135, 191 and 246 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Faith, N G; Wierzba, R K; Ihnot, A M; Roering, A M; Lorang, T D; Kaspar, C W; Luchansky, J B

    1998-04-01

    Pepperoni batter was prepared with fat contents of about 15, 20, and 32% (wt/wt) and inoculated with a pediococcal starter culture and > or = 2.0 x 10(7) CFU/g of a five-strain inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The batter was fermented at 96 degrees F (ca. 36 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) to pH < or = 4.8 and then dried at 55 degrees F (ca. 13 degrees C) and 65% RH to a moisture/protein ratio of < or = 1.6:1. For storage, slices were packaged under air or vacuum and stored at 39 degrees F (ca. 4 degrees C) and 70 degrees F (ca. 21 degrees C). For baking, frozen slices were placed on retail frozen cheese pizzas that were subsequently baked at 275 degrees F (ca. 135 degrees C), 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C), or 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 0 to 20 min. Appreciable differences related to fat levels were observed after drying; pathogen numbers decreased by 1.04, 1.31 and 1.62 log10 units in sticks prepared from batter at initial fat levels of 15, 20, and 32%, respectively. During storage, the temperature rather than the atmosphere had the greater effect on pathogen numbers, with similar viability observed among the three fat levels tested. At 70 degrees F (ca. 21 degrees C), compared to original levels, pathogen numbers decreased by > or = 5.56 and > or = 4.53 log10 units within 14 days in slices stored under air and vacuum, respectively, whereas at 39 degrees F (ca. 4 degrees C) numbers decreased by < or = 2.43 log10 CFU/g after 60 days of storage under either atmosphere. Baking, as expected, resulted in greater reductions in pathogen numbers as the temperature and/or time of baking increased. However, it was still possible to recover the pathogen by enrichment after baking frozen slices on frozen pizza at 475 degrees F (ca. 246 degrees C) for 10 min or at 375 degrees F (ca. 191 degrees C) for 15 min. The calculated D values for all three temperatures tested increased as the fat content of the batter increased from 15 to 20 to 32%. The

  12. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Müller, L A; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic and clinical features of the frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are similar in many aspects. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in affected areas in both diseases, while native radiographs show a progressive demineralisation. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative digital radiography objectified these local decalcification processes in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome; 10 of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder had BMD decreases greater 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the non-affected side. In the immobilised control group with degenerative changes of the rotator cuff, calcifying tendinitis and shoulder instability (n = 12) and in the group of healthy probands (n = 20), the difference between the affected and non-affected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was only more than 21% in one case each. There are several references in the literature that assume frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process; our observations support this hypothesis, possibly leading to earlier diagnoses and extended therapeutic management. PMID:10653111

  13. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  14. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  15. 24. GENERAL VIEW OF NEW CONCRETE BLAST BERM FOR NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. GENERAL VIEW OF NEW CONCRETE BLAST BERM FOR NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  17. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  18. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  19. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  20. The JLab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C. D.

    2009-08-04

    A polarized, frozen spin target has been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol are polarized via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to approximately 90% using microwaves and an external, 5 T solenoid magnet. The target sample is then cooled to approximately 30 mK while an internal 0.56 T superconducting magnet is used to maintain the polarization. Relaxation times in excess of 3500 hours have been observed.

  1. Computer modeling of thoracic response to blast.

    PubMed

    Stuhmiller, J H; Chuong, C J; Phillips, Y Y; Dodd, K T

    1988-01-01

    Primary blast injury affects the gas-containing structures of the body. Damage to the lungs with resultant respiratory insufficiency and arterial embolization of air from alveolar pulmonary venous fistulae is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality following high-level blast exposure. In an effort to generate a widely applicable damage-risk criterion for thoracic injury from blast we are developing a complex computer finite element model (FEM) of the thorax. Taking an engineering approach, a horizontal cross-section of the thorax is divided into small discrete units (finite elements) of homogeneous structure. The necessary physical properties (density, bulk modulus, etc.) are then determined for each element. Specifying the material constants and geometry of the elements, the computer can load the surface of the structure with some force-time function (blast pressure-time history) and calculate the resultant physical events such as displacement, compression, stress, strain, etc. Computer predictions of pressure wave phenomena in the lung parenchyma are compared with trans-bronchially measured pressures in blast-exposed animals. The model should prove useful in assessing the risk of blast injury in diverse overpressure environments and may give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms and strategies for protection.

  2. Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.

  3. A new approach to oxygen enriched high temperature blast generation

    SciTech Connect

    Queille, P.H.; Macauley, D.

    1996-12-31

    When increasing fuel injection in a blast furnace in order to reduce coke consumption and/or to increase production, the blast furnace operator tries to keep similar raceway conditions, for instance, an equivalent flame temperature. To compensate for the cooling effect due to the higher injection rate, two solutions can be selected or combined: to raise the temperature of the blast and/or to increase the level of oxygen in the blast. Whatever the choice, the Blast Furnace manager will certainly try to reduce the resulting investment and operating costs to a minimum. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are trying to provide a new way to address these needs by offering a new technology for blast heating. A higher blast temperature will not only allow a higher fuel injection at tuyere level, a lower coke consumption, but also a lower oxygen consumption. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are now able to offer a new heat regenerator with major advantages over conventional stoves. This new device can be used as a permanent substitute for a stove, or as a temporary one during repair, or stove improvement. It can also be added to an existing set of stoves to increase the average blast temperature.

  4. Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

    2011-06-01

    We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: Δps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R < 10 cm /g 1 / 3) , each explosive had its own (unique) blast wave (e.g., Δps (R , HE) ~ a /Rn , where n is different for each explosive); (ii) these close-in blast waves do not scale with the ``Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.

  5. Modern BLAST Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Louxin

    The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is arguably the most widely used program in bioinformatics. By sacrificing sensitivity for speed, it makes sequence comparison practical on huge sequence databases currently available. The original version of BLAST was developed in 1990. Since then it has spawned a variant of specialized programs. This chapter surveys the development of BLAST and BLAST-like programs for homology search, discusses alignment statistics that are used in assessment of reported matches in BLAST, and provides the reader with guidance to select appropriate programs and set proper parameters to match research requirements.

  6. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  7. The past and present of blast injury research in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury, the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention. Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma. For example, soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage, combined injuries and arterial air embolism. Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden, but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained, including the development of biological shock tube, the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs, as well as protective measures under special environments. This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China.

  8. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  9. Performance of Novel Composites and Sandwich Structures Under Blast Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Arun; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Gardner, Nate; Jackson, Matt; Wang, Erheng

    The current chapter focuses on the experimental observations of the resistance of different composite material systems to air blast loadings. These material systems include traditional two dimensional (2D) woven laminated composites, layered composites and sandwich composite materials. A controlled blast loading of pre-defined pressure magnitude and rise time were obtained using a shock tube apparatus. Rectangular plate elements of the desired material system were subjected to such a controlled blast loading and the effect of the blast loading on these elements were studied using optical and residual strength measurements. A high speed imaging technique was utilized to study the damage modes and mechanisms in real time. It was observed that layering of a conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer provided better blast resistance and sandwiching the polymer greatly enhanced its survivability under extreme air blast conditions. Aside from layering the conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer, it was observed that layering or grading the core can successfully mitigate the impact damage and thus improve the overall blast resistance as well. In addition to these, three dimensional (3D) woven skin and core reinforcements were introduced in the conventional sandwich composites and their effects on the blast resistance were studied experimentally. It was observed that these reinforcements also enhance the blast resistance of conventional sandwich composites by changing the mechanism of failure initiation and propagation in these sandwich structures. The energies during the blast loading process were estimated to illustrate the energy absorption and energy redistribution properties of the composite panels. The effect of pre-existing impact damage on the failure mechanisms in sandwich structures was also studied.

  10. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  11. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Arora, H.; Kelly, M.; Worley, A.; Del Linz, P.; Fergusson, A.; Hooper, P. A.; Dear, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson–Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg−1/3, 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411–413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  12. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    PubMed

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  13. [Deep frozen fresh plasma in blood component therapy: preparation--quality control--indications].

    PubMed

    Koerner, K; Stampe, D; Kubanek, B

    1981-10-01

    Fresh frozen plasma is prepared within 6 hrs after collection in a double bag system. A second centrifugation at 4600 x g is necessary to obtain a platelet poor plasma. A special bag freezing system fitted to a conventional cryostat and cooled with ethanol to -50 degrees C was developed to reach the required cooling rate. It is possible to freeze 25 plasma bags simultaneously within 30 min in this new apparatus. Fresh frozen plasma prepared in this manner contains all coagulation factors and inhibitors with almost normal activities. Freezing at -40 degrees C in the air, prolonged storage of the starting material, or insufficient cooling of the frozen product deteriorate its quality. The influence of these variables with the discussed in detail. Indications of fresh frozen plasma, especially for dilution- and posttraumatic consumption coagulopathy as well as liver disease, are presented.

  14. Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced Tbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.; Christou, G.; Goel, R.; Young, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. Our hypothesis is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were dynamically loaded using a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-scale explosive charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the high density fillers surpassing all others tested. These results lead to a conclusion that low porosity, high density materials offer superior attenuation by reducing air blast features and spatially distributing the transmitted wave.

  15. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  16. The influence of personal blast protection on the distribution and severity of primary blast gut injury.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1996-03-01

    Primary blast injuries have been recognized since World War I when the most significant reported injury was to the lung. The prevalence of injury to tissues containing air was underlined by the frequency of gut blast injury in underwater explosions mostly reported during World War II. Gut injury is the most likely cause of mortality after the more immediate effects of pulmonary primary blast injury. Effective protection has been achieved for lungs exposed to short duration external blast waves by the placement of stress wave decouplers on to the thoracoabdominal wall in a pig model, thus modifying the energy coupled into the body. A combination of two densities of glass-reinforced plastic plate and Plastazote foam (GRP/PZ) effectively eliminated pulmonary injury in 17 protected animals, compared with the production of severe blast lung in nine unprotected animals (p < 0.001). Partial pulmonary protection was achieved using a plasticized lead and plastazote foam decoupling combination (PbPVC/PZ) in a further group of 10 animals. Peak incident overpressures were not significantly different in any group. Small bowel contusions were highly significantly reduced in the GRP/PZ groups when compared with unprotected animals and with PbPVC protected animals (both p < 0.001); no significant reduction was observed in the summed colonic contusion size in any protected group. Intestinal perforations were also highly significantly reduced in both GRP/PZ groups (p < 0.001). Primary pulmonary blast injury and probably small bowel injury are caused by the propagation of coupled stress waves within the body. Elimination of these injuries implies prevention of stress wave propagation. Because colonic injury was not prevented by the same protection, a different mechanism for the injury is suggested: transmission and propagation of shear waves. These findings have important implications for blast protection and the clinical management of primary blast casualties. PMID:8606411

  17. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents. PMID:19224092

  18. Dry ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  19. Shoulder pain in primary care: frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Angela; Mohammed, Khalid D

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that follows a protracted clinical course. We aim to review the management of patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder who are referred for specialist orthopaedic evaluation against existing guidelines in primary care. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Referrals and clinical records were reviewed for all patients referred for orthopaedic specialist assessment who received a specialist diagnosis of frozen shoulder. Diagnostic, investigation and management practices from a regional primary health care setting in New Zealand were compared with guideline-recommended management. RESULTS Eighty patients with frozen shoulder were referred for orthopaedic evaluation in the 13 month study period, mostly from general practice. Fifteen patients (19%) were identified as having a frozen shoulder in their medical referral. Most (99%) had received previous imaging. Seven patients (12%) had received guideline recommended treatment. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Education of all clinicians involved in patient management is important to ensure an understanding of the long natural history of frozen shoulder and provide reassurance that outcomes are generally excellent. HealthPathways now include more information regarding diagnosis, imaging and evidence-based management for frozen shoulder. LESSONS Frozen shoulder may be under-diagnosed among patients referred for orthopaedic review. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used and may identify occult and unrelated pathology in this age-group. When managed according to clinical guidelines, patients report significant clinical and functional improvement with most reporting 80% function compared with normal after 1 year. KEYWORDS Adhesive capsulitis; bursitis; injections; practice guideline; primary health care; ultrasound.

  20. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  1. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  2. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  3. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  4. Molecular Changes and Vision Loss in a Mouse Model of Closed-Globe Blast Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Hines-Beard, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize retinal changes and assess vision after an eye-directed air blast. Methods. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a blast directed at one eye. Optical coherence tomography and histology were performed to assess retina and optic nerve integrity. Cell death, oxidative stress, and glial reactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visual changes were measured by ERG recordings and the optokinetic reflex. Results. In the outer retina, eye blast caused retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and rare retinal detachments followed by regional cell death. Labeling for nitrotyrosine and markers of pyroptosis (caspase-1) and necroptosis (receptor-interacting protein kinases-1, -3) increased, primarily in the inner retina, after blast. Caspase-1 labeling was restricted primarily to the starburst amacrine cells. A few degenerating axons were detected at 28 days post blast. Despite a lack of substantial cell death or decreased ERG, there was a deficit in visual acuity after blast. Conclusions. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death became increasingly prevalent, over time post blast suggestive of an ongoing neurodegenerative response. Outer retinal changes either resolved or remained focal. In contrast, inner retinal changes were more robust and spread from focal regions to the entire retina over time post blast. Our model of eye blast trauma causes molecular changes and a decrease in visual acuity within the first month post blast despite a lack of overt eye injury. This subtle response matches the delayed presentation of visual deficits in some blast-exposed Veterans. PMID:24994864

  5. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  6. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  7. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  8. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  9. Spermatozoa and spermatids retrieved from frozen reproductive organs or frozen whole bodies of male mice can produce normal offspring.

    PubMed

    Ogonuki, Narumi; Mochida, Keiji; Miki, Hiromi; Inoue, Kimiko; Fray, Martin; Iwaki, Takamasa; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Obata, Yuichi; Morozumi, Kazuto; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Ogura, Atsuo

    2006-08-29

    Cryopreservation of male germ cells is a strategy to conserve animal species and strains of animals valuable to biomedical research. We tested whether mouse male germ cells could be cryopreserved without cryoprotection by simply freezing epididymides, testes, or whole bodies. The reproductive organs were isolated from killed mice and frozen for 1 week to 1 year at -80 degrees C before spermatozoa and spermatids were collected and injected into mature oocytes. Normal pups were born irrespective of strains tested (ICR and C57BL/6). Epididymides and testes frozen and transported internationally to another laboratory by air could produce pups of inbred C57BL/6 mice. Testicular spermatozoa retrieved from the bodies of male mice (BALB/c nude and C3H/He strains) that had been kept frozen (-20 degrees C) for 15 years could also produce normal offspring by microinsemination. Thus, freezing of either male reproductive organs or whole bodies is the simplest way to preserve male germ cells. Restoration of extinct species could be possible if male individuals are found in permafrost.

  10. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 1. Nuclear explosions, 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.F.; Simonds, B.T.

    1984-10-31

    The primary objective of this experiment was to obtain accurate information on the pressure in the shock wave in the free-air region. In particular, it was desired to know the peak pressure as a function of distance in this region. Secondary objectives were to determine the path of the triple point and to determine the peak pressure in the Mach-stem region.

  11. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C.; Snyder, George W.; Hill, Scott D.; Johnson, Gregory L.; Wlodarski, J. Frank; von Spakovsky, Alexis P.; Emerson, John D.; Cole, James M.; Tipton, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  12. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  13. Blast wave energy diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Thomas E; Tierney, Heidi E; Idzorek, George C; Watt, Robert G; Peterson, Robert R; Peterson, Darrell L; Fryer, Christopher L; Lopez, Mike R; Jones, Michael C; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, James E

    2008-10-01

    The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations. PMID:19044574

  14. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

  15. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact.

  16. Frozen shoulder--an algoneurodystrophic process?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Rittmeister, M; John, J; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    1998-12-01

    The frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are clinically in many aspects similar. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in the affected areas in both diseases, while standard radiographs show a progressive demineralization. With measurement of bone-mineral density by quantitative digital radiography these local decalcification processes were diagnosed in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome: of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder 10 had a bone-mineral density decrease of more than 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the unaffected side. In the control groups (n = 32) the difference between affected and unaffected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was in only one case each above 21%. There are several indications in the literature assuming the frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process. Our observation supports this hypothesis, and may possibly lead to earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic management. PMID:9922549

  17. Group for frozen soil and rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Society for Testing and Materials wants participants for D18.19, its new subcommittee on frozen soil and rock. The group will write standards for engineering practices in northern Canada, Alaska, and other areas where soil and rock are commonly in the frozen or recently thawed state. Three standards are currently under development: axial compressive load tests o n piles in frozen soils, laboratory rate of frost-heave tests, and laboratory creep testing of frozen soil.The next D18.19 meeting is June 26 in St. Louis, Mo. Scientists who want to work on the subcommittee should contact Bill Lovell, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, tel. 317-494- 5034; or Wendy Dyer, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, tel. 215-299-5526.

  18. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  19. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  20. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  1. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  2. Frozen singularities in M and F theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the duality between ALE singularities in M-theory and 7-branes on a circle in F-theory. We see that a frozen M-theory singularity maps to a circle compactification involving a rotation of the plane transverse to the 7-brane, showing an interesting correspondence between commuting triples in simply-laced groups and Kodaira's classification of singular elliptic fibrations. Our analysis strongly suggests that the O7+ plane is the only completely frozen F-theory singularity.

  3. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  4. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. PMID:25403947

  5. Method of forming frozen spheres in a force-free drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Hollow glass spheres are shaped by the effects of surface tension acting on bubbles of glass in its molten state. A downwardly flowing stream of air accelerated at a one-G rate of acceleration is established through a drop bubbles on molten glass are introduced into the stream of air and frozen and as they are accelerated at a one-G rate of acceleration.

  6. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  7. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  8. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  9. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  10. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  11. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  12. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  15. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. (Discussion of plastic media blasting): Foreign trip report, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1988-07-21

    The visit to MBB was to see and discuss the plastic media blasting equipment developed and manufactured as a cooperative effort by Schlick and MBB. The Germans emphasized a systematic approach and complete control over most parameters. The goal is to achieve conditions which do not cause damage to the aircraft. To arrive at the goal the air pressure that delivers the air to entrain the media, the flow rate of media, and the media itself are carefully and accurately controlled. Distance of nozzle and angle of blasting were systematically investigated. The wet (freon) cleanup system under development at Schlick was not discussed.

  18. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  19. Blast94: Bromine latitudinal air/sea transect 1994. Report on oceanic measurements of methyl bromide and other compounds. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Lobert, J.M.; Butler, J.H.; Geller, L.S.; Yvon, S.A.; Montzka, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is of particular interest because it is both produced and consumed in the ocean, thus allowing the ocean to act as a buffer for CH3Br in the atmosphere. The main objective of the two NOAA/CMDL Bromine Latitudinal Air/Sea Transect Expeditions has been to resolve the discrepancy in previously reported data for oceanic CH3Br, and to extend the understanding of the distribution and cycling of CH3Br between the atmosphere and ocean. This was pursued by making frequent, shipboard measurements of CH3Br in the surface water and the marine atmosphere along the cruise tracks and by obtaining depth profiles of CH3Br at selected stations. Secondary objectives included obtaining atmospheric and surface water data for other methyl halides, most notably CH3Cl, CH3I, CH2Br2, and CHBr3.

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure. PMID:1482718

  1. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  2. Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

  3. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  8. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  9. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  10. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  11. PhyloBLAST: facilitating phylogenetic analysis of BLAST results.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, F S; Wan, I; Hancock, R E; Rose, A M; Jones, S J

    2001-04-01

    PhyloBLAST is an internet-accessed application based on CGI/Perl programming that compares a users protein sequence to a SwissProt/TREMBL database using BLAST2 and then allows phylogenetic analyses to be performed on selected sequences from the BLAST output. Flexible features such as ability to input your own multiple sequence alignment and use PHYLIP program options provide additional web-based phylogenetic analysis functionality beyond the analysis of a BLAST result.

  12. Alaskan frozen soil impact tests of the B83-C/S and Strategic Earth Penetrator

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, H.A.; Clarke, J.B.; Stull, S.P.; Cain, S.G.; Everett, R.N.; Flower, E.C.; Huntting, J.D.; Spencer, C.R.; Todaro, A.F.; Vidlak, A.J.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the penetrability of the B83 strategic bomb and a Strategic Earth Penetrator design into frozen soil and ice, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, assisted by the US Air Force and US Army, conducted a series of tests in 1987. In April, Strategic Earth Penetrator units were dropped into multi-year sea ice and frozen tundra near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Calculated impact velocity ranged from 200 to 308 ft/s into ice and from 200 to 444 ft/s into frozen tundra. Tests in May include drops of a B83 design with specially designed ogive nose shape, a B83 with a cap over the production ''cookie cutter'' nose, and a Strategic Earth Penetrator. The May tests were conducted near Fairbanks, Alaska, at Eielson Air Force Base and at Donnelly Flats on the Fort Greely Military Reservation. The type of frozen soil encountered at Eielson was very homogeneous in composition; however. Two drops impacted areas with very thin frozen soil layers at depths of about 24 in. below the surface. Velocities of these drops prior to impact ranged from 256 to 308 ft/s, and peak axial deceleration ranged from 160 to 490 g. The units penetrated to depths of 7.5-12 ft. Three other events impacted in a target area where frozen soil averaging 35 in. thick extended essentially to the surface. We calculated velocities prior to impact at 200-256 ft/s; and penetration depths of 3.2-9.6 ft. The geologic material at Donnelly Flats was primarily a very hard, rocky glacial deposit with a variable degree of ice bonding. Here, the test units dropped from 10,000 ft above ground level and achieved an average calculated velocity of 802 ft/s. Depth of penetration ranged from 7.6 to 13.5 ft.

  13. Explosive blast neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris; Armonda, Rocco; Grant, Gerald; Ecklund, James

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the more serious wounds suffered by United States service members injured in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some military medical treatments for blast TBI that have been introduced successfully in the war theater include decompressive craniectomy, cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler, hypertonic resuscitation fluids, among others. Stateside neurosurgery, neuro-critical care, and rehabilitation for these patients have similarly progressed. With experience, military physicians have been able to clinically describe blast TBI across the entire severity spectrum. One important clinical finding is that a significant number of severe blast TBI victims develop pseudoaneurysms and vasospasm, which can lead to delayed decompensation. Another is that mild blast TBI shares clinical features with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Observations suggest that the mechanism by which explosive blast injures the central nervous system may be more complex than initially assumed. Rigorous study at the basic science and clinical levels, including detailed biomechanical analysis, is needed to improve understanding of this disease. A comprehensive epidemiological study is also warranted to determine the prevalence of this disease and the factors that contribute most to the risk of developing it. Sadly, this military-specific disease has significant potential to become a civilian one as well.

  14. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  15. Frozen red cells in Rhesus immunization.

    PubMed

    Cook, I A; Robb, A L; Mitchell, R; McLaren, E A; Urbaniak, S; Robertson, A E

    1980-04-01

    The use of frozen washed cells in varying doses in primary Rh immunization is compared to two groups of men with the use of fresh washed cells in a third group. In the first two groups, using frozen cells, doses ranging from 0.5 to 20 ml of whole blood (Group I) are compared with a 200.0 ml dose of red cell concentrate (Group II), while Group III served as a control using a 20 ml dose of fresh washed red cell suspension (9.0 ml concentrated red cell equivalent). The response rate was 93% in Group II compared with only 43% in Group I, suggesting the desirability of using relatively large doses of Rh-positive red cells for primary Rh immunization. The use of frozen washed cells from a special panel for 'booster' injections is also recommended.

  16. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  17. Blast Wave Exposure Impairs Memory and Decreases Axon Initial Segment Length

    PubMed Central

    Baalman, Kelli L.; Cotton, R. James; Rasband, S. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to a blast wave has been proposed to cause mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with symptoms including altered cognition, memory, and behavior. This idea, however, remains controversial, and the mechanisms of blast-induced brain injury remain unknown. To begin to resolve these questions, we constructed a simple compressed air shock tube, placed rats inside the tube, and exposed them to a highly reproducible and controlled blast wave. Consistent with the generation of a mild injury, 2 weeks after exposure to the blast, we found that motor performance was unaffected, and a panel of common injury markers showed little or no significant changes in expression in the cortex, corpus callosum, or hippocampus. Similarly, we were unable to detect elevated spectrin breakdown products in brains collected from blast-exposed rats. Using an object recognition task, however, we found that rats exposed to a blast wave spent significantly less time exploring a novel object when compared with control rats. Intriguingly, we also observed a significant shortening of the axon initial segment (AIS) in both the cortex and hippocampus of blast-exposed rats, suggesting altered neuronal excitability after exposure to a blast. A computational model showed that shortening the AIS increased both threshold and the interspike interval of repetitively firing neurons. These results support the conclusion that exposure to a single blast wave can lead to mTBI with accompanying cognitive impairment and subcellular changes in the molecular organization of neurons. PMID:23025758

  18. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  19. Preference mapping of frozen and fresh raspberries.

    PubMed

    Villamor, R R; Daniels, C H; Moore, P P; Ross, C F

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify key sensory attributes that influence consumer liking for frozen and fresh red raspberries using preference mapping. Sensory profiling of different raspberry cultivars and selections from the Washington State Univ. and Oregon State Univ. breeding programs was carried out using a trained panel (frozen, n = 12 and fresh, n = 10). In addition, a subset of frozen and fresh raspberries of each cultivar was assessed by consumers for sensory acceptability (n = 105 and n = 100, respectively). Based on overall hedonic ratings, cluster analysis identified 3 clusters of frozen raspberry consumers from day 1 (41% "nondistinguishers," 34% "likers," and 25% "nonlikers") and day 2 (41% "group 1 likers," 26% "nonlikers," and 34% and 33% group 2 likers"). For fresh raspberry consumers, 2 clusters were detected from day 1 (54% "likers" and 46% nondistinguishers") and day 2 (54% "group 1 likers" and 46% "group 2 likers"). Preference mapping was applied on the descriptive sensory and acceptability of clustered consumer data. Partial least squares regression results showed that liking of frozen raspberries was driven by high raspberry flavor, firmness, and sweetness. Conversely, disliking of frozen raspberries was related to high sour and aftertaste intensity. In the case of fresh raspberries, high color uniformity, raspberry aroma, raspberry flavor, floral aroma, green flavor, bitter, astringency, and aftertaste increased the acceptability, whereas high color intensity and green aroma were associated with negative drivers of liking. The information obtained in this study can be a useful guide for breeders in the selection of characteristics for growing superior quality raspberries.

  20. 30 CFR 56.6603 - Air gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air gap. 56.6603 Section 56.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap shall be provided between the blasting circuit and...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6603 - Air gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air gap. 56.6603 Section 56.6603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6603 Air gap. At least a 15-foot air gap shall be provided between the blasting circuit and...

  2. Explosively-Driven Blast Waves in Small-Diameter Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. A.; Marinis, R. T.; Oliver, M. S.

    Studies on blast waves are motivated by the need to understand dynamic pressure loadings in accident scenarios associated with rapid energy release in confined geometries. Explosions from fuel-air mixtures, explosives and industrial accidents often occur within a range of length scales associated with ducts, pipes, corridors, and tunnels [1, 2].

  3. Mechanisms and pathophysiology of the low-level blast brain injury in animal models.

    PubMed

    Säljö, Annette; Mayorga, Maria; Bolouri, Hayde; Svensson, Berndt; Hamberger, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of primary blast-induced mTBI, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression overlap. Evidence of an organic basis for these entities has been scarce and controversial. We present a review of animal studies demonstrating that low-level blast causes pathophysiological and functional changes in the brain. We monitor a time period from minutes to approximately 1 week after blast exposure from multiple modes (air, underwater, localized and whole body). The most salient findings observed were (1) the peak pressures (P(max)) in the brain, elicited from the blast from the firing of military weapons (P(max) 23-45 kPa), have a similar magnitude as that registered in air close to the head. Corresponding measurements during the detonation pulse from explosives under water show a P(max) in the brain, which is only 10% of that in water outside the head. (2) The rise time of the pressure curve is 10 times longer in the brain as compared with the blast in air outside the head during firing of military weapons. (3) The lower frequencies in the blast wave appear to be transmitted more readily to the brain than the higher frequencies. (4) When animals are exposed to low levels of blast, the blast wave appears mostly transmitted directly to the brain during air exposure, not via the thorax or abdomen. (5) Low levels of blast cause brain edema, as indicated by increased bioelectrical impedance, an increase in the intracranial pressure, small brain hemorrhages and impaired cognitive function. PMID:20580846

  4. Primary blast injury: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Part III: Injury to the central nervous system and the limbs.

    PubMed

    Guy, R J; Glover, M A; Cripps, N P

    2000-01-01

    There are some structures in which changes consistent with primary blast may be found despite secondary and tertiary blast being the most frequent sources of injury. The Central Nervous System for example, especially the brain, is well protected yet there are historical and experimental accounts of damage which cannot be attributed to secondary or tertiary blast or even air embolism resulting from pulmonary disruption. Similarly, analysis and experimental simulation of specific skeletal injuries has shown that primary blast alone can fracture bones and that it is likely to be responsible for limb avulsions in victims exposed to stress waves of sufficiently high intensity. PMID:10892035

  5. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  6. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  7. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  8. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  9. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  10. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  11. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  12. Fresh frozen plasma: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, L J

    1989-12-01

    Fresh frozen plasma has been transfused for decades. However, the dramatic increase in its use has caused concern that much of it is transfused without the proper indications. Because of this, the National Institutes of Health held a Consensus Conference to clarify its genuine indications and contraindications.

  13. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  14. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  15. 25. "GAFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "G-AFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC RUN 5." View of track rail mounting and the water brake trough at 20,000-foot track. Looking northeast. File no. 12,358-60. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  17. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of parotid lesions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H; Calcaterra, T C; Paglia, D E

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was analyzed in a review of 132 parotid lesions. Of 107 benign lesions, 93% were correctly diagnosed on frozen section analysis, but of 25 malignant lesions, only 9 frozen sections were accurately interpreted. This study points out the difficulty encountered in using the frozen section technique when dealing with malignant parotid lesions and the importance of the surgeon's active participation in the analysis.

  18. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  19. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO{sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}), as shown in a front view is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO{sub 2} xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. The cryogenesis subsystem performs the actual decontamination work and consists of the dry ice supply unit, the blasting nozzle, the remotely controlled electric and pneumatic valves, and the vacuum work-head. The COYOTEE subsystem positions the blasting work-head within a planar work space and the vacuum subsystem provides filtration and containment of the debris generated by the CO{sub 2} blasting. It employs a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration unit to separate contaminants for disposal. All of the above systems are attached to the vehicle subsystem via the support structure.

  20. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  6. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  9. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  10. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  11. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  12. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  13. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  18. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  19. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  20. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  2. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  3. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  4. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  5. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  6. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  7. Emulsified blasting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes an improved blasting agent which is being tailor-blended with bulk ANFO to provide more explosive energy and better water resistance when the blasting conditions call for it. The proportions of the emulsion/ANFO mix are easily changed at the blasthole site because both materials can be selectively mixed in modified bulk-explosive trucks before loading the blasting agents into the holes. Such blends are helping speed stripping at a number of surface mines and are leading to cost savings in production, ranging from 10% to 30%, depending upon application, even though the actual cost of a blend will be higher than if bulk ANFO is used alone.

  8. Cylindrically converging blast waves in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.

  9. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  10. Visual system degeneration induced by blast overpressure.

    PubMed

    Petras, J M; Bauman, R A; Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    The effect of blast overpressure on visual system pathology was studied in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 360-432 g. Blast overpressure was simulated using a compressed-air driven shock tube, with the aim of studying a range of overpressures causing sublethal injury. Neither control (unexposed) rats nor rats exposed to 83 kiloPascals (kPa) overpressure showed evidence of visual system pathology. Neurological injury to brain visual pathways was observed in male rats surviving blast overpressure exposures of 104-110 kPa and 129-173 kPa. Optic nerve fiber degeneration was ipsilateral to the blast pressure wave. The optic chiasm contained small numbers of degenerated fibers. Optic tract fiber degeneration was present bilaterally, but was predominantly ipsilateral. Optic tract fiber degeneration was followed to nuclear groups at the level of the midbrain, midbrain-diencephalic junction, and the thalamus where degenerated fibers arborized among the neurons of: (i) the superior colliculus, (ii) pretectal region, and (iii) the lateral geniculate body. The superior colliculus contained fiber degeneration localized principally to two superficial layers (i) the stratum opticum (layer III) and (ii) stratum cinereum (layer II). The pretectal area contained degenerated fibers which were widespread in (i) the nucleus of the optic tract, (ii) olivary pretectal nucleus, (iii) anterior pretectal nucleus, and (iv) the posterior pretectal nucleus. Degenerated fibers in the lateral geniculate body were not universally distributed. They appeared to arborize among neurons of the dorsal and ventral nuclei: the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (parvocellular and magnocellular parts); and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The axonopathy observed in the central visual pathways and nuclei of the rat brain are consistent with the presence of blast overpressure induced injury to the retina. The orbital cavities of the human skull contain frontally-directed eyeballs for binocular

  11. Application of ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis as a tool for optimizing the blast design in large open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explains the methodology for assessing the efficiency of rockmass fragmentation by explosive blasting, from ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis of the blast event. Explosives are used in the mining, quarrying and construction industries for fragmenting rockmass to a suitable size. When an explosive charge is detonated, in addition to fragmenting the rockmass, it will also generate ground vibration and air vibrations. Efficiency of a blast depend upon percentage of blast energy wasted in generating ground vibrations and air vibrations. This in turn will depend upon rockmass characteristics, amount of explosive energy used per delay and spatial distribution of explosive in the rockmass. Ground vibrations and air vibrations, arising out of explosive detonation in a rockmass, could be captured by micro-computer based engineering seismograph and sound level meter. Typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation for a particular rockmass can be identified from ground vibration frequency spectra analysis of the blast event on a personal computer applying Fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation depends upon rockmass impedance and can be estimated from rockmass characteristics and monitoring few trial blasts. Blast event efficiency is estimated by comparing the typical frequency range with the dominant frequency range of the blast event record. A large number of blast events monitored and analyzed by the author in different rockmass formations and correlation of the results with observations made while fragmented material is lifted and loaded into trucks indicated that ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis could be used as a reliable and cost effective tool for assessing the blasting efficiency and optimizing blast design in large open-pit mines.

  12. Blast-induced color change in photonic crystals corresponds with brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Cullen, D Kacy; Browne, Kevin D; Xu, Yongan; Adeeb, Saleena; Wolf, John A; McCarron, Richard M; Yang, Shu; Chavko, Mikulas; Smith, Douglas H

    2011-11-01

    A high incidence of blast exposure is a 21st century reality in counter-insurgency warfare. However, thresholds for closed-head blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remain unknown. Moreover, without objective information about relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and may remain in harm's way. Accordingly, we have engineered a blast injury dosimeter (BID) using a photonic crystalline material that changes color following blast exposure. The photonic crystals are fabricated using SU-8 via multi-beam interference laser lithography. The final BID is similar in appearance to an array of small colored stickers that may be affixed to uniforms or helmets in multiple locations. Although durable under normal conditions, the photonic crystalline micro- and nano-structure are precisely altered by blast to create a color change. These BIDs were evaluated using a rat model of bTBI, for which blast shockwave exposure was generated via a compressed air-driven shock tube. With prototype BID arrays affixed to the animals, we found that BID color changes corresponded with subtle brain pathologies, including neuronal degeneration and reactive astrocytosis. These subtle changes were most notable in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. These data demonstrate the feasibility of using a materials-based, power-free colorimetric BID as the first self-contained blast sensor calibrated to correspond with brain pathology.

  13. Blast-Induced Color Change in Photonic Crystals Corresponds with Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, D. Kacy; Browne, Kevin D.; Xu, Yongan; Adeeb, Saleena; Wolf, John A.; McCarron, Richard M.; Yang, Shu; Chavko, Mikulas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A high incidence of blast exposure is a 21st century reality in counter-insurgency warfare. However, thresholds for closed-head blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remain unknown. Moreover, without objective information about relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and may remain in harm's way. Accordingly, we have engineered a blast injury dosimeter (BID) using a photonic crystalline material that changes color following blast exposure. The photonic crystals are fabricated using SU-8 via multi-beam interference laser lithography. The final BID is similar in appearance to an array of small colored stickers that may be affixed to uniforms or helmets in multiple locations. Although durable under normal conditions, the photonic crystalline micro- and nano-structure are precisely altered by blast to create a color change. These BIDs were evaluated using a rat model of bTBI, for which blast shockwave exposure was generated via a compressed air-driven shock tube. With prototype BID arrays affixed to the animals, we found that BID color changes corresponded with subtle brain pathologies, including neuronal degeneration and reactive astrocytosis. These subtle changes were most notable in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. These data demonstrate the feasibility of using a materials-based, power-free colorimetric BID as the first self-contained blast sensor calibrated to correspond with brain pathology. PMID:22082449

  14. Examining lethality risk for rodent studies of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Siva Sai Suijith Sajja, Venkata; Lavik, Erink; VandeVord, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  15. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  17. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  18. Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Murray, J M

    1986-01-01

    Resting and active sea urchin sperm flagella have been examined by low-dose electron microscopy of frozen hydrated specimens. The flagella are unfixed, unstained, completely intact, and able to swim vigorously after going through the entire preparative procedure. The most prominent features of the image arise from the edges of the axonemal doublets and central-pair microtubules seen in projection. By comparison with these longitudinal markings, transverse features are less easy to discern, being camouflaged by superposition. However, Fourier transforms of digitized micrographs reveal a remarkable degree of crystalline order in quiescent flagella. Filtered images derived from these Fourier transforms show clearly features arising from the central-pair complex and radial spokes that were obscured in the original data. Potentially complicating effects of specimen thickness are shown to be quantitatively insignificant in the formation of images of unstained frozen hydrated flagella. Determination of native flagellar structure by 3-D reconstruction from multiple-tilted views appears to be feasible.

  19. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media. PMID:26738962

  20. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  1. Phase separation in frozen erythrocyte membrane preparations.

    PubMed

    Finean, J B; Hutchinson, A; Mills, D

    1985-10-01

    The reversible formation of a lipid-like phase in frozen preparations of erythrocyte membranes has been studied by X-ray diffraction and by electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas. The observations provide strong evidence for lateral migration or displacement at specific temperatures of intra-membrane particles. This creates large areas of particle-free membranes which fracture preferentially so as to dominate the freeze-fracture image.

  2. Preferential Water Flow in a Frozen Soil - a Two-Domain Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, Manfred; Jansson, Per-Erik; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    1996-10-01

    Earlier modelling studies have shown the difficulty of accurately simulating snowmelt infiltration into frozen soil using the hydraulic model approach. Comparison of model outputs and field measurements have inferred the occurrence of rapid flow even during periods when the soil is still partly frozen. A one-dimensional, physically based soil water and heat model (SOIL) has been complemented with a new two-domain approach option to simulate preferential flow through frozen layers. The ice is assumed to be first formed at the largest water filled pore upon freezing. Infiltrating water may be conducted rapidly through previously air-filled pores which are not occupied by ice. A minor fraction of water is slowly transferred within the liquid water domain, which is absorbed by the solid particles. A model validation with field measurements at a location in the middle-east of Sweden indicated that the two-domain approach was suitable for improving the prediction of drainage during snowmelting. In particular, the correlation between simulated and observed onset of drainage in spring was improved. The validation also showed that the effect of the high flow domain was highly sensitive to the degree of saturation in the topsoil during freezing, as well as to the hydraulic properties at the lower frost boundary regulating the upward water flow to the frozen soil and ice formation.

  3. The new frozen spin target at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Borisov, N. S.; Arends, H.-J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Gurevich, G. M.; Kondratiev, R. L.; Korolija, M.; Lazarev, A. B.; Martinez, M.; Meyer, W.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Pavlov, V. N.; Ortega, H.; Reicherz, G.; Usov, Yu. A.

    2013-11-01

    The new frozen spin polarized target for experiments at the polarized beam of the real photon facility A2 of the MAMI accelerator is described. The A2-collaboration at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is measuring photon absorption cross section using circularly and linearly polarized photons up to the energy of 1.5 GeV. The photons are produced in the' Bremsstrahlungs' process. In the years 2005/2006 the Crystal Ball detector with its unique capability to cope with multi photon final states was set up in Mainz. Since 2010 the experimental apparatus has been completed by a polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen-Spin Target has been constructed and is operated in close cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers the opportunity to provide longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuteron. In this paper the operation experience of this new Frozen-Spin Target and first results from the runs in 2010 and 2011 are presented.

  4. Viscous Energy Dissipation in Frozen Cryogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitner, S. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Andraschko, M. R.

    2008-03-01

    ITER is an international research and development project with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power. The fuel for the ITER plasma is injected in the form of frozen deuterium pellets; the current injector design includes a batch extruder, cooled by liquid helium. A more advanced fuel system will produce deuterium pellets continuously using a twin-screw extruder, cooled by a cryocooler. One of the critical design parameters for the advanced system is the friction associated with the shearing planes of the frozen deuterium in the extruder; the friction determines the required screw torque as well as the cryocooler heat load. An experiment has been designed to measure the energy dissipation associated with shearing frozen deuterium. Deuterium gas is cooled to its freezing point in the gap between a stationary outer canister and a rotating inner cylinder. The dissipation is measured mechanically and through calorimetric means. The experiment has also been used to measure dissipation in other cryogens, such as neon, as a function of rotational velocity and temperature. This paper describes the design and construction of the experiment and presents measurements over a range of cryogens and test conditions.

  5. Rapid detection of irradiated frozen hamburgers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    DNA comet assay can be employed as a rapid and inexpensive screening test to check whether frozen ground beef patties (hamburgers) have been irradiated as a means to increase their safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Such a detection procedure will provide an additional check on compliance with existing regulations, e.g. enforcement of labelling and rules in international trade. Frozen ready prepared hamburgers from the market place were `electron irradiated' with doses of 0, 1.3, 2.7, 4.5 and 7.2kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation. DNA fragmentation in the hamburgers was made visible within a few hours using the comet assay, and non-irradiated hamburgers could be easily discerned from the irradiated ones. Even after 9 months of frozen storage, irradiated hamburgers could be identified. Since DNA fragmentation may also occur with other food processes (e.g. temperature abuse), positive screening tests shall be confirmed using a validated method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment, e.g. EN 1784 or EN 1785.

  6. Rapid miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for blast wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions. Since the pathophysiology of TBI associated with a blast wave is not clearly defined, it is crucial to have a sensing system to accurately quantify the blast wave dynamics. This paper presents an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle that is capable of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. The blast event in the experiment was generated by a starter pistol blank firing at close range, which produced a more realistic wave profile compared to using compressed air driven shock tubes. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first study to utilize fiber optic pressure sensors to measure the ballistics shock wave of a pistol firing. The results illustrated that the fiber optic pressure sensor has a rise time of 200 ns which demonstrated that the sensor has ability to capture the dynamic pressure transient during a blast event. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the sensor was determined to be 4.11 MHz, which agrees well with the specific designed value.

  7. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  8. Metallurgical Evaluation of Grit Blasted Versus Non-Grit Blasted Iridium Alloy Clad Vent Set Cup Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, George B; Longmire, Hu Foster

    2010-02-01

    Metallurgical evaluations were conducted to determine what, if any, grain size differences exist between grit blasted and non-grit blasted DOP-26 iridium alloy cup surfaces and if grit blasting imparts sufficient compressive cold work to induce abnormal grain growth during subsequent temperature exposures. Metallographic measurements indicated that grit blasting cold worked the outside cup surface to a depth of approximately 19 {micro}m. Subsequent processing through the air burn-off (635 C/4h) and vacuum outgassing (1250 C/1h) operations was found to uniformly recrystallize the cold worked surface to produce grains with an average diameter of approximately 8.5 {micro}m (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) grain size number 11). Follow-on heat treatments at 1375 C, 1500 C, and 1900 C for durations ranging from 1 min to 70 h yielded uniform grain sizes and no abnormal grain growth from grit blasting. Abnormal grain growth was noted at the 1500 C and 1900 C heat treatments in areas of cold work from excessive clamping during sample preparation.

  9. A healthy patient with bilateral frozen hips preceding bilateral frozen shoulders: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Abigail R; Arnot, Dean; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) is a common disease characterised by spontaneous onset of pain and restriction of movement, followed by 'thawing', with complete or near-complete resolution. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip has been reported in around a dozen patients. This report describes an otherwise-healthy middle-aged woman with apparent sequential resolving adhesive capsulitis of all four ball-and-socket joints over a 9-year period, initially affecting each hip and then each shoulder sequentially. The likely hip diagnosis became clear only retrospectively with development of the second frozen shoulder, 5 years after the first pain. All joints subsequently resolved within the expected timeframe and the patient remains healthy, other than having mild hypertension. This case illustrates that, when hip precedes shoulder involvement, there is the potential for the frozen hip to receive alternate diagnoses for which invasive open hip surgery could unnecessarily be recommended. PMID:26564111

  10. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part II: Methodology for Inducing Blast Injury to in vitro Models

    PubMed Central

    Effgen, Gwen B.; Hue, Christopher D.; Vogel, Edward; Panzer, Matthew B.; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.; Morrison, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) results from the translation of a shock wave in-air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull–brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530 ± 17.7-kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017-ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581 ± 10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ± 0.006-ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI. PMID

  11. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without... explosives aboard vessels used in underwater blasting operations shall be according to provisions...

  2. Accuracy of frozen-section diagnosis in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rigual, N R; Milley, P; Loré, J M; Kaufman, S

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of 100 patients with major or minor salivary gland neoplasms was conducted to ascertain the accuracy and effect on therapy of frozen-section diagnosis. Of these patients, 23% had malignant and 77% benign neoplasms. Twelve patients benefited by further surgery during the initial operation, and no treatment delay occurred as a result of frozen-section diagnosis. There were four incorrect diagnoses of clinical significance, two false positives (benign tumor called malignant on frozen section) and two false negatives (malignant tumor called benign on frozen section). The accuracy of frozen section for specific pathologic diagnosis was 92%. No unnecessary radical surgery was performed. Frozen-section diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms in our institution was found to be accurate and useful.

  3. Imaging radar observations of frozen Arctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Bryan, M. L.; Weeks, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic aperture imaging L-band radar flown aboard the NASA CV-990 remotely sensed a number of ice-covered lakes about 48 km northwest of Bethel, Alaska. The image obtained is a high resolution, two-dimensional representation of the surface backscatter cross section, and large differences in backscatter returns are observed: homogeneous low returns, homogeneous high returns and/or low returns near lake borders, and high returns from central areas. It is suggested that a low return indicates that the lake is frozen completely to the bottom, while a high return indicates the presence of fresh water between the ice cover and the lake bed.

  4. Optimal use of fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    DomBourian, Melkon; Holland, Lorne

    2012-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma contains a number of therapeutically useful substances, most notably coagulation factors. As with any transfusion, there are risks associated with plasma transfusion. Ironically, the risk of viral transmission (human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis), although widely publicized, is extremely small. On the other hand, less well-known, noninfectious complications are common. Indeed, these noninfectious complications are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality following transfusion. Although certain patients undeniably benefit from plasma transfusion, the benefit for many patients is less clear. This review will discuss indications for plasma transfusion, the associated risks, and special considerations for plasma administration.

  5. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  6. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  7. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track

  8. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  10. [Blast injuries of the ear].

    PubMed

    Haralampiev, K; Ristić, B

    1991-01-01

    Blast injury of the ear is the actual military medical problem. The ear, due to its anatomo-physiologic characteristics, is more sensitive to effects of blast waves than other organs and systems. The anatomic and functional ear damages, their symptoms, etiology and clinical course are described. The diagnosis and treatment have been pointed out. PMID:1807053

  11. Post-vaccination frozen shoulder syndrome. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Degreef, I; Debeer, Ph

    2012-01-01

    The cause of frozen shoulder syndrome is unknown in most cases, although it can be preceded by minor trauma. Here, we report 3 patients with severe frozen shoulder after an intramuscular vaccination in the deltoid muscle. A distention arthrography resulted in good pain relief and improved the mobility. Frozen shoulder syndrome can be a severe manifestation of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction. Correct intramuscular administration is crucial to prevent post-vaccination frozen shoulder and on the other hand, physicians' awareness is needed to recognize this feature early on.

  12. Survival of salmonella in processed chicken products during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Frozen chicken products have been identified recently as a cause of salmonellosis. At least eight salmonellosis outbreaks from 1998 to 2008 have implicated undercooked frozen chicken nuggets, strips, and entrees as infection vehicles. Thus, the presence of Salmonella in frozen products may pose an infection risk if the product is improperly cooked. The objective of this study was to assess the survivability of Salmonella during frozen storage (-20 degrees ) when inoculated in processed chicken products. Four Salmonella strains originally isolated from poultry were inoculated into frozen chicken nuggets (fully cooked) and frozen chicken strips (containing raw poultry) at initial populations of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Survival was assessed during storage at -20 degrees for 16 weeks by measuring bacterial growth on minimal, selective, and nonselective agars. Results indicate that cell populations measured in nonselective agars (plate count agar and plate count agar supplemented with tetracycline) and minimal (M9) agar remained relatively constant during the entire -20 degrees storage period studied (16 weeks) for both chicken nuggets and strips. However, cell populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when measured in selective agar (XLT4) during the 16 weeks of frozen storage for both chicken nuggets and strips, suggesting that these cells were structurally injured. The data presented in this study indicate that Salmonella can survive frozen storage when inoculated in frozen, processed chicken products and confirm that microbial counts on selective agar are not representative of the total population of samples subject to freezing.

  13. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  14. Frozen spin targets in ribosomal structure research.

    PubMed

    Stuhrmann, H B

    1991-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering strongly depends on nuclear spin polarisation, particularly on proton spin polarisation. A single proton in a deuterated environment then is as efficient as 10 electrons in X-ray anomalous diffraction. Neutron scattering from the nuclear spin label is controlled by the polarisation of neutron spins and nuclear spins. Pure deuteron spin labels and proton spin labels are created by NMR saturation. We report on results obtained from the large subunit of E. coli ribosomes which have been obtained at the research reactor of GKSS using the polarized target facility developed by CERN. The nuclear spins were oriented with respect to an external field by dynamic nuclear polarisation. Proton spin polarisations of more than 80% were obtained in ribosomes at temperatures below 0.5 K. At T = 130 mK the relaxation time of the polarized target is one month (frozen spin target). Polarized small-angle neutron scattering of the in situ structure of rRNA and the total ribosomal protein (TP) has been determined from the frozen spin targets of the large ribosomal subunit, which has been deuterated in the TP and rRNA respectively. The results agree with those from neutron scattering in H2O/D2O mixtures obtained at room temperature. This is a necessary prerequisite for the planned determination of the in situ structure of individual ribosomal proteins and especially of that of ribosome bound mRNA and tRNAs. PMID:1720669

  15. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  16. Stability of Frozen Orbits Around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Josué; Vilhena de Moraes, R.; Carvalho, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA) and Jupiter IcyMoon Explorer (JUICE, ESA). In this work we are formulating theories and constructing computer programs to be used in the design of aerospace tasks as regards the stability of artificial satellite orbits around planetary satellites. The studies are related to translational motion of orbits around planetary satellites considering polygenic perturbations due to forces, such as the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body. The equations of motion will be developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. For a description of canonical formalism are used the Delaunay canonical variables. The canonical set of equations, which are nonlinear differential equations, will be used to study the stability of orbits around Europa. We will use a simplified dynamic model, which considers the effects caused by non-uniform distribution of mass of Europa (J2, J3 and C22) and the gravitational attraction of Jupiter. Emphasis will be given to the case of frozen orbits, defined as having almost constant values of eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre. An approach will be used to search for frozen orbits around planetary satellites and study their stability by applying a process of normalization of Hamiltonian. Acknowledges: FAPESP

  17. Characterizing explosives and blasting emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.B.; Bacon, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    With the advance of science, rise of public interest in environmental matters, and continuing erosion of air quality, Federal and state regulators are demanding an increasing complex array of data concerning emissions produced by burning and detonating energetic materials. The US Department of Defense, one of the world`s largest consumers of energetic materials, now must characterize combustion products resulting from open burning/open detonation disposal operations. The catch-all phrase ``below detection limits`` no longer satisfies the regulators who now want testing to delve into the ppt level for volatile organic compounds and ppt level for semivolatile organic compounds. Regulators are also expanding their scope of interest and may soon be asking for emissions data on training operations such as artillery firing. Providing this type of information is no longer an impossibility. The Army, as the single manager of conventional munitions for the three military services, anticipated the tightening of data requirements and in the mid-1980s funded a study into technologies to characterize emissions produced by open-air destruction of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. This study, conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, has resulted in a unique testing system which gathers data from small detonations and burns and can accurately scale the data to allow characterizing combustion products of field open-burning/open-detonation disposal operations. The system and its technologies apply to other operations involving energetic materials. This paper describes the system (known as the BangBox Testing System), its component technologies, emerging results, and potential applications in the explosives and blasting industries.

  18. A pinch of salt is all it takes: chemistry at the frozen water surface.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tara F; Wren, Sumi N; Donaldson, D James

    2014-05-20

    Chemical interactions at the air-ice interface are of great importance to local atmospheric chemistry but also to the concentrations of pollutants deposited onto natural snow and ice. However, the study of such processes has been hampered by the lack of general, surface-specific probes. Even seemingly basic chemical properties, such as the local concentration of chemical compounds, or the pH at the interface, have required the application of assumptions about solute distributions in frozen media. The measurements that have been reported have tended for the most part to focus on entire ice or snow samples, rather than strictly the frozen interface with the atmosphere. We have used glancing-angle laser spectroscopy to interrogate the air-ice interface; this has yielded several insights into the chemical interactions there. The linear fluorescence and Raman spectra thus measured have the advantage of easy interpretability; careful experimentation can limit their probe depth to that which is relevant to atmospheric heterogeneous processes. We have used these techniques to show that the environment at the interface between air and freshwater ice surfaces is distinct from that at the interface between air and liquid water. Acids such as HCl that adsorb to ice surfaces from the gas phase result in significantly different pH responses than those at liquid water surfaces. Further, the solvation of aromatic species is suppressed at freshwater ice surfaces compared with that at liquid water surfaces, leading to extensive self-association of aromatics at ice surfaces. Photolysis kinetics of these species are much faster than at liquid water surfaces; this can sometimes (but not always) be explained by red shifts in the absorption spectra of self-associated aromatics increasing the extent to which solar radiation is absorbed. The environment presented by frozen saltwater surfaces, in contrast, appears to be reasonably well-described by liquid water. The extent of hydrogen

  19. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  20. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  1. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). First, by using the original WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, the land surface parameters and two van Genuchten parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil moistures at upper layers (5, 10 and 20 cm depths) at the DY station in July. Second, by using the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme, two frozen soil parameters were calibrated using the observed soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the DY station from 21 November 2007 to 20 April 2008; while the other soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak in 2008. With these calibrated parameters, the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong validation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  2. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  3. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  4. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  5. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  6. Aspects of three field approximations: Darwin, frozen, EMPULSE

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.

    1985-05-25

    The traditional approach used to study high energy beam propagation relies on the frozen field approximation. A minor modification of the frozen field approximation yields the set of equations applied to the analysis of the hose instability. These models are constrasted with the Darwin field approximation. A statement is made of the Darwin model equations relevant to the analysis of the hose instability.

  7. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  8. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  9. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  10. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145 Section 864.9145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  12. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice,...

  14. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice,...

  15. Title: Characterizing a Frozen Extrasolar World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs-near infrared spectroscopy-is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 micrometers spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but this time on an extrasolar world.

  16. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  17. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  18. A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, John T.

    1981-06-01

    A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.

  19. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M; Porter, John L.

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  20. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  1. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Thailand. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  2. Frozen Ground Controls on Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Kane, D. L.; Woo, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Frozen ground establishes a unique discipline of hydrologic science where the hydrologic regime is intimately coupled with the thermal regime to the extent that one may not be completely understood without correct characterization of the other. In permafrost regions, material properties may change drastically on a scale of centimeters to meters, particularly in the vertical dimension due to distinct changes in soil and thermal characteristics. Properties may vary just as dramatically in the horizontal dimension across the boundary of discontinuous permafrost. Although the spatial extent of permafrost changes on relatively slow time scales in response to disturbance or a changing climate, this too introduces an added level of complexity. Permafrost may nearly eliminate the interactions between near-surface and sub-permafrost aquifers, which in essence defines the hydrologic response of every watershed that is directly influenced by permafrost. Even though the principles governing water movement in permafrost areas are the same as those in more temperate regions, interactions of extremes in climate and the land surface characteristics render permafrost hydrology different from the hydrology of temperate latitudes. Ice-rich permafrost prevents deep percolation of rainfall or snowmelt water, often maintaining a moist to saturated active layer above the permafrost table. Most hydrologic activities are confined above-ground or in the thin active layer, which supplies summer moisture for baseflow and/or plant transpiration. Limited storage capacity of the thawed active layer does not support extended baseflow in a stream, though the proportion of baseflow increases as the percentage of permafrost extent decreases. In areas where permafrost is discontinuous or where it has thawed substantially near the surface, local hydrology may display a markedly different character as there are stronger exchanges between the surface water and the ground water system, or water may drain

  3. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  4. A study of blast waveforms detected simultaneously by a microphone and a laser probe during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaci, J.; Možina, J.

    1992-10-01

    We examine blast waves generated in air during irradiation of absorbing samples with Nd: YAG laser pulses of fluences exceeding the ablation threshold. Blast waves were detected simultaneously by a wideband microphone and a laser beam deflection probe. By a comparative analysis of both signals in the time and frequency domain we investigate characteristic features of their nonlinear waveform evolution. To explain the observed phenomena we employ the weak shock solution of the point explosion model.

  5. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  6. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  7. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  9. Blast waves with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbutina, B.

    2015-04-01

    Blast waves appear in many astrophysical phenomena, such as supernovae. In this paper we discuss blast waves with cosmic rays, i.e., with a component with a power-law number density distribution function N( p) ∝ p -Γ that may be particulary important in describing the evolution of supernova remnants. We confirm some previous findings that a significant amount of cosmic ray energy is deposited towards the center of a remnant.

  10. [Ovarian tumours--accuracy of frozen section diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S; Ivanov, S; Khadzhiolov, N

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study of 450 ovarian biopsy results were examined for the period of 1998 till 2004 to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis. In addition to this we performed a review of the literature for all previous studies in this field in order to study the accuracy rates of the different clinics throughout the world. The histhopathological results of the frozen section diagnosis were equal with the diagnosis of the paraffin blocks in 90%. The sensitivity rates for benign, malignant and borderline tumours, were 96%, 84% and 60% respectively. We had 10 patients (2,1%) false-positive results (overdiagnosed) and 26 (5,2%) false-negative results (underdiagnosed) in frozen section examinations. Frozen section examination of mucinous tumours showed hogher underdiagnosis--18%. The review of the literature showed that there is no significant difference in accuracy rates of frozen section diagnosis for benign and malignant ovarian tumours in relation with time. We found low accuracy rates for borderline tumours which was similar with most of the foreign publications. However the accuracy of the frozen section diagnosis is bettering with the time. As a result of this we conclude that the accuracy rates of the frozen section diagnosis for evaluation of the malignant and benign tumours is quite enough for correct diagnosis. Since accuracy rates for borderline ovarian tumours are low we have to take care and attention of improvement in this field.

  11. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  12. 78 FR 54835 - Air Quality Implementation Plan; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Troy Area 2008 Lead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... hoods over each blast furnace and compliance with the Secondary Lead MACT (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart X... hoods over each blast furnace with supply air to reduce worker lead exposures. Additionally, the furnace... background for EPA's proposed action? On November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964), EPA revised the Lead...

  13. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  14. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  15. Generating attenuation-resistant frozen waves in absorbing fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate a class of nondiffracting beams, called frozen waves, with a central spot that can be made to maintain a predefined intensity profile while propagating in an absorbing fluid. Frozen waves are composed of Bessel beams with different transverse and longitudinal wavenumbers, and are generated using a programmable spatial light modulator. The attenuation-resistant frozen waves demonstrated here address the problem of propagation losses in absorbing media. This development can be beneficial for many applications in particle micro-manipulation, data communications, remote sensing, and imaging. PMID:27519067

  16. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military.

    PubMed

    Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F

    2006-06-01

    For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757

  17. Generating attenuation-resistant frozen waves in absorbing fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate a class of nondiffracting beams, called frozen waves, with a central spot that can be made to maintain a predefined intensity profile while propagating in an absorbing fluid. Frozen waves are composed of Bessel beams with different transverse and longitudinal wavenumbers, and are generated using a programmable spatial light modulator. The attenuation-resistant frozen waves demonstrated here address the problem of propagation losses in absorbing media. This development can be beneficial for many applications in particle micro-manipulation, data communications, remote sensing, and imaging.

  18. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  19. Blast mitigation capabilities of aqueous foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, William Franklin; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Boughton, Bruce A.

    2006-02-01

    A series of tests involving detonation of high explosive blanketed by aqueous foam (conducted from 1982 to 1984) are described in primarily terms of recorded peak pressure, positive phase specific impulse, and time of arrival. The investigation showed that optimal blast mitigation occurs for foams with an expansion ratio of about 60:1. Simple analyses representing the foam as a shocked single phase mixture are presented and shown inadequate. The experimental data demonstrate that foam slows down and broadens the propagated pressure disturbance relative to a shock in air. Shaped charges and flyer plates were evaluated for operation in foam and appreciable degradation was observed for the flyer plates due to drag created by the foam.

  20. Primary blast injury after a bomb explosion in a civilian bus.

    PubMed

    Katz, E; Ofek, B; Adler, J; Abramowitz, H B; Krausz, M M

    1989-04-01

    A 6-kg explosive charge detonated under a seat in the center of a crowded city bus in Jerusalem, killing three passengers immediately. Of the 55 survivors, all of whom were transferred to two major medical centers, 29 were hospitalized. Among those admitted, a high rate of primary blast injuries was found, including perforated ear drums (76%), blast lung (38%), and abdominal blast injuries (14%). Two of the latter patients suffered bowel perforations, which were diagnosed with considerable delay. Eight patients (31%) had sustained life-threatening trauma, consisting of a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. The large number of primary blast injuries, including the unexpected finding of bowel perforations, is explained by the high amplitude of the air pressure wave (3.8-5.2 atm) and its relatively long duration (2-3 msec) resulting from the detonation of the high-energy explosive charge in the small, enclosed space of the bus. Besides the usual wounds sustained by victims of an explosion that occurs in a confined space, the possibility of primary blast injury to the abdomen and to the lungs should be taken into account by the treating surgeon.

  1. New findings on the impact of an explosive VOD on blast results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiappetta, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    An explosive`s velocity of detonation (VOD), can be used to indicate a number of important characteristics regarding the product`s performance under specific field and test conditions. A number of new characteristic and transient VOD curves have been identified in the field, which can be used to evaluate explosive performance, control ground vibration amplitudes and frequencies, select the correct amount and type of stemming for use at the collar and in stem decks, eliminate explosive desensitization, evaluate primer performance, design air deck based blasts, evaluate contaminated explosives and to overcome post blast noxious fumes. Tests were conducted over a six year period in single and multi-hole blasts using laboratory and full scale blast environments. Explosives tested ranged from pure Emulsion to Anfo and various grades of Emulsion/Anfo blends. Field test parameters were; borehole diameter (1 1/2--30 inches), hole depths (10--120 feet), primer size (0.5--6.4 pounds) and the blast environment varied from soft, jelly-like tar sands to some of the hardest iron ore formations. Most tests were instrumented with an array of blast monitoring instrumentation systems consisting of continuous velocity of detonation recorders, high-speed 16 mm cameras, laser-surveying instrumentation and seismographs which were placed in the near and far fields.

  2. Use Of High-Speed Motion Picture Photography In Blast Evaluation And Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappetta, R. F.; Mammele, Mark E.

    1988-02-01

    A useful and foolproof method of analyzing explosive phenomena and designing blasts is with information obtained from high-speed, 16mm motion picture photography. Utilizing this information along with the methodologies developed adds confidence to custom and site specific blast designs for use in mining, quarry, coal, utility, construction, research and specialized military applications. The numerical and analytical techniques developed allow a blaster or engineer to evaluate blasting performance, compare explosive efficiencies, optimize millisecond delay timing between detonations, evaluate damage to particular seams of material such as coal, optimize overburden casting, predict explosive energy required to displace toe burdens, compare over-all blast designs, investigate air decks for presplitting and reclamation purposes, and to study general detonation phenomena. Results are based on the analysis of a few hundred films of blasts performed in full-scale production environments. Instrumentation, field set-ups, and specific data interpre-tation are discussed in detail. The presentation is also supplemented with a 10 minute film of selected test blasts.

  3. Primary blast injury after a bomb explosion in a civilian bus.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, E; Ofek, B; Adler, J; Abramowitz, H B; Krausz, M M

    1989-01-01

    A 6-kg explosive charge detonated under a seat in the center of a crowded city bus in Jerusalem, killing three passengers immediately. Of the 55 survivors, all of whom were transferred to two major medical centers, 29 were hospitalized. Among those admitted, a high rate of primary blast injuries was found, including perforated ear drums (76%), blast lung (38%), and abdominal blast injuries (14%). Two of the latter patients suffered bowel perforations, which were diagnosed with considerable delay. Eight patients (31%) had sustained life-threatening trauma, consisting of a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. The overall mortality rate was 10.3%. The large number of primary blast injuries, including the unexpected finding of bowel perforations, is explained by the high amplitude of the air pressure wave (3.8-5.2 atm) and its relatively long duration (2-3 msec) resulting from the detonation of the high-energy explosive charge in the small, enclosed space of the bus. Besides the usual wounds sustained by victims of an explosion that occurs in a confined space, the possibility of primary blast injury to the abdomen and to the lungs should be taken into account by the treating surgeon. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2930293

  4. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  5. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  6. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Maintenance § 56.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  10. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  11. Microscopic origin of self-similarity in granular blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, M.; Villamaina, D.; Trizac, E.

    2016-08-01

    The self-similar expansion of a blast wave, well-studied in air, has peculiar counterparts in dense and dissipative media such as granular gases. Recent results have shown that, while the traditional Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov (TvNS) derivation is not applicable to such granular blasts, they can nevertheless be well understood via a combination of microscopic and hydrodynamic insights. In this article, we provide a detailed analysis of these methods associating molecular dynamics simulations and continuum equations, which successfully predict hydrodynamic profiles, scaling properties, and the instability of the self-similar solution. We also present new results for the energy conserving case, including the particle-level analysis of the classic TvNS solution and its breakdown at higher densities.

  12. Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2006-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

  13. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed.

  14. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed. PMID:9217311

  15. Physically-Based Parameterization of Frozen Ground Processes in Watershed Runoff Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    Seasonally frozen soil can significantly influence the amount of runoff generated during winter and spring seasons. Considerable research has been done to study physical processes of soil freezing/thawing at a point or over small areas. However, there is a lack of understanding of the effects of this process in watershed scale modeling. A conceptual representation of a soil profile in commonly used watershed models also complicates the implementation of physically-based heat-moisture transfer models. This study is focused on developing physically-based parameterization that can be linked to reservoir-type states of watershed models. Conceptual soil moisture states (from the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model widely used in the NWS operational practice) are recalculated into a desired number of soil layer states (required by a layer integrated heat transfer model) using soil texture data. At each time step, liquid water storage changes due to rainfall-snowmelt are estimated and transformed into soil profile moisture states of the heat transfer numerical scheme. The heat transfer component then calculates heat fluxes, and splits the total water content into frozen and liquid portions based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for the phase equilibrium. It is assumed that the main effect of frozen ground on water fluxes is due to increase in the specific surface of solid particles and liquid water. Theoretical modification of a hydraulic conductivity expression is used to account for this effect. The frozen ground formulation does not introduce new parameters to calibrate. Two types of tests were performed. First, the parameterization was tested using a number of sites in the Northwest of the US and a small research watershed (Valdai, Russia) when soil temperature measurements were available at few soil layers. Only daily precipitation and air temperature data were used in simulations. There was no parameter calibration in these tests. Soil-based a priori

  16. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  17. Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk--Maryland, 1991.

    PubMed

    1991-12-13

    During August 1991, three cases of cholera in Maryland were associated with the consumption of frozen coconut milk imported from Asia. Following an investigation, the product was recalled, and no other cases have been reported. PMID:1961175

  18. [Hygienic evaluation of frozen and canned Pacific saury (Cololabis saira)].

    PubMed

    Shul'gin, Iu P

    2004-01-01

    The storage of frozen Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and the cans prepared from the latter in the refrigerator was examined for its impact on their quality. Changes in the parameters of proteins and lipids were studied in the samples of frozen Pacific saury during storage and of the cans prepared from the fish. The relative food value of the frozen fish was determined by biological tests using the infusoria Tetrachymena pyriformis. It was established that storage of frozen Pacific saury led to flesh protein and lipid degradation whose depth determined the loss of the food value of the fish. The results of biological tests fully correlate with the data of chemical analysis in assessing the quality of raw fish stored in the refrigerator. PMID:15197858

  19. Frozen Embryos May Boost Pregnancy Odds for Some Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... embryos is generally preferred over frozen embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF). But, some evidence has suggested that using ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Assisted Reproductive Technology Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted ...

  20. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northeast, showing the retained alignment across the Beartooth Plateau - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  1. View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking northwest. The proposed realignment would be just to the southeast (right) of the existing alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  2. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking south, showing the setting and retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  3. View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northwest, showing retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  4. View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake (in midground), looking southwest, showing the general setting and retained switchback alignments - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  5. View of the highway, from just north of the frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from just north of the frozen Lake switchback, looking northwest, showing the retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  6. Non-climatic factors and long-term, continental-scale changes in seasonally frozen ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Nikolay I.

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the northern high latitudes are experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental change, including an increase in air temperatures (e.g. Serreze and Francis 2006), reduction of snow cover (e.g. Brown and Robinson 2011), ecosystem transformations and land cover changes (e.g. Callaghan et al 2011). Many of the potential environmental impacts of global warming in the high latitudes are associated with frozen ground, which occupies about 55% of the unglaciated land area in the northern hemisphere and consists of both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. Frozen soils have a tremendous impact on hydrologic, climatic and biologic systems. Periodic freezing and thawing promote changes in soil structure, affect the surface and subsurface water cycle, and regulate the availability of nutrients in the soil for plants and biota that depend upon them. Freezing and thawing cycles can affect the decomposition of organic substances in the soil and greenhouse gas exchange between the atmosphere and land surface. Significant efforts have been devoted to permafrost-related studies, including the establishment of standardized observations (e.g. Romanovsky et al 2010, Shiklomanov et al 2008), modeling (e.g. Riseborough et al 2008), and climate-related feedback processes (e.g. Schuur et al 2008). Despite its vast extent and importance, seasonally frozen ground has received much less attention. One of the major obstacles in assessing changes in seasonally frozen ground is the lack of long-term data. In general, observations on soil temperature and freeze propagation are available for a limited area and involve a relatively short time period, precluding assessment of long-term, climate-driven change. A few known exceptions include shallow soil temperature and freeze/thaw depth observations conducted as part of the standard hydrometeorological monitoring system in China (e.g. Zhao et al 2004) and the Soviet Union/Russia (e.g. Gilichinsky et al 2000

  7. Membrane characteristics for biological blast overpressure testing using blast simulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Venkata; Kemper, Andrew R; Rizel, Dave V; Duma, Stefan M; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70–210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70–210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators. PMID:25405432

  8. Dynamic response and optimal design of curved metallic sandwich panels under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Yang, Li-Jun; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a "soft" outer face and a "hard" inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  9. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances. PMID:25126606

  10. Quick reproduction of blast-wave flow-field properties of nuclear, TNT, and ANFO explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, C. P. T.

    1986-04-01

    In many instances, extensive blast-wave flow-field properties are required in gasdynamics research studies of blast-wave loading and structure response, and in evaluating the effects of explosions on their environment. This report provides a very useful computer code, which can be used in conjunction with the DNA Nuclear Blast Standard subroutines and code, to quickly reconstruct complete and fairly accurate blast-wave data for almost any free-air (spherical) and surface-burst (hemispherical) nuclear, trinitrotoluene (TNT), or ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosion. This code is capable of computing all of the main flow properties as functions of radius and time, as well as providing additional information regarding air viscosity, reflected shock-wave properties, and the initial decay of the flow properties just behind the shock front. Both spatial and temporal distributions of the major blast-wave flow properties are also made readily available. Finally, provisions are also included in the code to provide additional information regarding the peak or shock-front flow properties over a range of radii, for a specific explosion of interest.

  11. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Methods Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. Results There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. Conclusion There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst. PMID:27358829

  12. Preparation of slides for microscopy from frozen tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Freezing tissue is a convenient method for long-term storage. In addition, sectioning tissue under frozen conditions or embedded within a frozen matrix allows for stabilization of tissue during the sectioning process. This is advantageous for small and/or delicate tissue (e.g., rodent brains younger than postnatal day 7) and tissue that will be sectioned very thin (usually <150 μm).

  13. Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.

    1998-09-30

    A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.

  14. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty... are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from... frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced...

  15. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  16. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  17. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  18. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  19. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  20. Rates of surgery for frozen shoulder: an experience in England

    PubMed Central

    Kwaees, Tariq A.; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim the aim of this study was to identify the incidence of surgical treatment for frozen shoulder in a western population. Methods patients included in this study all resided within a well-defined area in the North West of England, all had surgery for frozen shoulder over a 3-year period and were identified from theatre logbooks of two local hospitals. Cases having surgery for shoulder stiffness other than frozen shoulder were excluded. Local and national population size estimates were based on data obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. Results 117 patients underwent surgery for frozen shoulder during the period examined; of these 101 had arthroscopic arthrolysis and 16 had manipulation under anaesthesia. The overall incidence of frozen shoulder surgery was calculated at 2.67 procedures per 10,000 general population per year, and at 7.55 for those aged 40–60. Conclusion surgical intervention for frozen shoulder is common, estimated at over 14,180 cases per year in England. Given the variation in costs associated with arthroscopic arthrolysis and manipulation under anaesthesia, comparative studies of the cost effectiveness of the two procedures would be of great value. Level of evidence 2C (outcome research). PMID:26958535

  1. Accuracy of frozen section in the evaluation of salivary tumors.

    PubMed

    Heller, K S; Attie, J N; Dubner, S

    1993-10-01

    The records of 333 patients who underwent surgery were reviewed to document the accuracy of frozen section in the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Frozen sections were obtained in 310 patients. The final pathologic diagnoses included 210 benign tumors and 45 malignancies. The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy was 69%, and the specificity was 96%. The specific accuracy to correctly identify the type of malignancy present was only 51%. In four patients, a false-positive diagnosis of malignancy was made. Frozen section was much more accurate in the evaluation of benign salivary tumors. Forty-three of 45 Warthin's tumors were correctly identified by frozen section. Two tumors thought to be Warthin's tumors on frozen section proved to be low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. One tumor reported to be a benign mixed tumor was actually a malignant mixed tumor. In this series of patients, frozen section proved to be no more accurate in the evaluation of salivary tumors than what has been reported in the literature for fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  2. Analysis of frozen salt solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S.; Pavlov, S. G.; Hübers, H.-W.; Rauschenbach, I.; Jessberger, E. K.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful analytical technique for determining the elemental composition of materials. It can be applied in-situ to geological surfaces on planetary missions. Since pure liquid water is unstable at the current surface conditions on Mars, i.e. low surface pressure and temperatures ranging from 140 K to 300 K, salt solutions or brines are of particular interest. It has been suggested that salts could stabilize liquid water on Mars lowering the freezing point of the solution and suppressing evaporation rates. The appropriate salts have been found on Mars in different locations. In this study LIBS is employed for the investigation of frozen sulphate and chloride solutions under Martian conditions in a dedicated simulation chamber. For the laboratory experiments, various salt solutions were prepared with different concentrations. To produce ice with only little inclusions of air, the samples were degassed before freezing them in a copper container. The measurements were performed at 240 K by cooling with liquid nitrogen and controlled heating. A constant flow of a Martian atmosphere-like gas mixture at a pressure of approximately 6 hPa was maintained through the chamber during the measurements. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064nm and at 10 Hz was used to ablate material and to generate a plasma on the frozen sample's surface. The emitted light of the plasma was collected into the entrance slit of an echelle spectrometer (LTB Aryelle Butterfly) by a toroid mirror. A time-gated ICCD camera (Andor) at the exit of the spectrometer recorded the plasma emission signal. The laser beam was focused at a new position for each measurement. The delay time and the integration time of the spectrometer have been optimized to obtain good signal-to-noise ratios up to 150 while at the same time not losing signals from fast recombining ions. First, the spectra of several frozen salt solutions were investigated qualitatively

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for analysis of frozen salt solutions under Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Susanne; Pavlov, Sergey; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Rauschenbach, Isabelle; Jessberger, Elmar K.

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful analytical technique for determin-ing the elemental composition of materials. It can be applied in-situ to geological surfaces on planetary missions. Since pure liquid water is unstable at the current surface conditions on Mars, i.e. low surface pressure and temperatures ranging from 140 K to 300 K, salt solutions or brines are of particular interest. It has been suggested that salts could stabilize liquid water on Mars lowering the freezing point of the solution and suppressing evaporation rates. The ap-propriate salts have been found on Mars in different locations. In this study LIBS is employed for the investigation of frozen sulphate and chloride solutions under Martian conditions in a dedicated simulation chamber. For the laboratory experiments, various salt solutions were prepared with different concen-trations. To produce ice with only little inclusions of air, the samples were degassed before freezing them in a copper container. The measurements were performed at 240 K by cooling with liquid nitrogen and controlled heating. A constant flow of a Martian atmosphere-like gas mixture at a pressure of approximately 6 hPa was maintained through the chamber during the measurements. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064nm and at 10 Hz was used to ablate material and to generate a plasma on the frozen sample's surface. The emitted light of the plasma was collected into the entrance slit of an echelle spectrometer (LTB Aryelle But-terfly) by a toroid mirror. A time-gated ICCD camera (Andor) at the exit of the spectrometer recorded the plasma emission signal. The laser beam was focused at a new position for each measurement. The delay time and the integration time of the spectrometer have been optimized to obtain good signal-to-noise ratios up to 150 while at the same time not losing signals from fast recombining ions. First, the spectra of several frozen salt solutions were investigated qualitatively

  4. Evidence for indications of fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Hyde, C J; Murphy, M F

    2007-12-01

    There continues to be a general but unfounded enthusiasm for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) usage across a range of clinical specialties in hospital practice. Clinical use of plasma has grown steadily over the last two decades in many countries. In England and Wales, there has not been a significant reduction in the use of FFP over the last few years, unlike red cells. There is also evidence of variation in usage among countries--use in England and Wales may be proportionately less per patient than current levels of usage in other European countries and the United States. Plasma for transfusion is most often used where there is abnormal coagulation screening tests, either therapeutically in the face of bleeding, or prophylactically in non-bleeding subjects prior to invasive procedures or surgery. Little evidence exists to inform best therapeutic plasma transfusion practice. Most studies have described plasma use in a prophylactic setting, in which laboratory abnormalities of coagulation tests are considered a predictive risk factor for bleeding prior to invasive procedures. The strongest randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence indicates that prophylactic plasma for transfusion is not effective across a range of different clinical settings and this is supported by data from non-randomised studies in patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There are also uncertainties whether plasma consistently improves the laboratory results for patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There is a need to undertake new trials evaluating the efficacy and adverse effects of plasma, both in bleeding and non-bleeding patients, to understand whether the "presumed" benefits outweigh the "real risks". In addition, new haemostatic tests should be validated which better define risk of bleeding.

  5. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... Cleaning/Water Blasting, Tank Cleaning, Welding, Burning, Brazing, Blacksmithing, Machining (inside...

  6. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... Cleaning/Water Blasting, Tank Cleaning, Welding, Burning, Brazing, Blacksmithing, Machining (inside...

  7. Study on the Mechanism of Adhesion Improvement Using Dry-Ice Blasting for Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms of adhesion improvement of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting were investigated. In this study, the change of substrate surface characteristics in both the topography and the wettability due to the treatment of dry-ice blasting was mainly studied. The effect of dry-ice blasting on Al2O3 splat morphology with different treatment durations was also examined. The residual stress of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting was measured by curvature method and compared to that of coatings deposited with conventional air cooling. Based on these numerous assessment tests, it could be concluded that the adhesion improvement of Al2O3 coatings could be attributed to the cleaning effect of dry-ice blasting on different organic substances adsorbed on the substrates and the peening effect.

  8. 21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner: (1) Shall... consists of all of the following: (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except that the name of... precede the word “dinner” (e.g., “frozen chicken dinner” or “frozen heat and serve beef dinner”)....

  9. Effect of freezing rate and dendritic ice formation on concentration profiles of proteins frozen in cylindrical vessels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Miller, Maria A; Glass, Matt A; Singh, Satish K; Johnston, Keith P

    2011-04-01

    The process of freezing protein solutions can perturb the conformation of the protein and potentially lead to aggregate formation during long-term storage in the frozen state. Radial macroscopic freeze concentration and temperature profiles for bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in small cylindrical stainless steel vessels were determined for various freezing rates. The measured concentrations of both BSA and immunoglobulin G2, as well as trehalose in sampled ice sections, increased by up to twofold to threefold toward the bottom and radial center for slow freezing rates produced in stagnant air freezers. The concentration and temperature profiles result in density gradients that transport solutes by convective flow. For faster external cooling by either forced convection of air or a liquid coolant, the increased freezing rate raised the ice front velocity resulting in enhanced dendritic ice growth. The ice trapped the solutes more effectively before they were removed from the ice front by diffusion and convection, resulting in more uniform solute concentration profiles. The dynamic temperature profiles from multiple radial thermocouples were consistent with the independently measured freeze concentration profiles. The ability to control the protein concentration profile in the frozen state offers the potential to improve stability of protein in long-term frozen storage.

  10. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  11. A Novel Closed-Head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Scott A.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H.; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25–40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50–60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2–8 weeks after blast, 50–60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60 psi mice 3–8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50–60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to “diffuse” axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

  12. A novel closed-head model of mild traumatic brain injury caused by primary overpressure blast to the cranium produces sustained emotional deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Heldt, Scott A; Elberger, Andrea J; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S; Honig, Marcia G; Reiner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to "diffuse" axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

  13. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  17. 9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  1. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact between... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall...

  4. Ranking Slope Stability in Frozen Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Walter, G. R.; Necsoiu, M.

    2011-12-01

    Motivated by the need to assess the risk of permafrost thaw to infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and pipelines, a landscape-scale approach was developed to rank the risk of slope failures and thermokarst development in areas of seasonally frozen soils underlain by permafrost. The approach has two parts: (i) identifying locations where permafrost thaw is likely to occur under future climates, and (ii) identifying areas where thaw would have consequences with respect to a disturbance. The developed screening tool uses (i) land classification maps developed from remotely sensed data and (ii) a thermohydrologic hazard risk assessment to identify areas susceptible to slope instability under current and future climate states. The screening tool combines a numerical ground thawing and freezing dynamics model for calculating the thickness of the active layer and depth of permafrost with a simple slope stability model that is based upon the Level I Stability Analysis (LISA) approach of Harrell et al. (1992). Instead of using the numerical models directly within probabilistic sampling, a response function for the factor of safety in slope stability is developed from numerical simulations that systematically vary input parameters across their range of applicability. The response function is used within Monte Carlo sampling for each grid cell in a landscape model, with a probability distribution for each input parameter assigned to each grid cell based on (i) classes defined for each grid cell; (ii) a digital elevation model; (iii) empirical, mathematical, and numerical interpretive models; and (iv) probabilistic descriptions of the parameters in the interpretive models. For example, the root cohesion distribution is defined by vegetation class, with vegetation spread across the landscape using Landsat-derived vegetation classification maps. The probability of slope failure is the fraction of parameter realizations that result in a factor of safety less than 1. Ranking

  5. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  6. Blast waves in rotating media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossner, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    The model investigated involves a cylindrically symmetric blast wave generated by an infinitely long line explosion in a cold and homogeneous gas rotating rigidly in its self-gravitational field. It is found that within the context of rotation in a gravitational field a blast wave will not adopt the one-zone form familiar from similarity solutions but, rather, a two-zone form. The inner compression zone arises as a response to the presence of the restoring force, which drives a rarefaction wave into the outer compression zone.

  7. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  8. Community response to blast noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.; Fidell, Sanford; Schomer, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would provide insight into the dynamics of community reaction to this distinctive form of noise exposure, and put its assessment and management on a common footing. This paper describes a systematic approach to the challenges of quantifying community reaction to blast noise. [Work supported by ERDC-CERL.

  9. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

  10. Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Muske, K.R.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.

  11. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). In the summer 2008, land surface parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil temperature profile at the Dadongshu-Yakou (DY) station in July; and then soil hydraulic parameters were obtained by the calibration of the July soil moisture profile at the DY station and by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak of 2008. The calibrated WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong simulation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008, to check its performance in cold seasons. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the DY station and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  12. Capillary bundle model of hydraulic conductivity for frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kunio; Flury, Markus

    2008-12-01

    We developed a capillary bundle model to describe water flow in frozen soil. We assume that the soil can be represented as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries. We consider that the freezing point in the capillaries is depressed according to the Gibbs-Thomson effect and that when stable ice forms in a capillary, the ice forms in the center of the capillaries, leaving a circular annulus open for liquid water flow. We use the model to demonstrate how the hydraulic conductivity changes as a function of temperature for both saturated and unsaturated soils, using a sand and two silt loam soils as examples. As temperature decreases, more and more ice forms, and the water flux consequently decreases. In frozen soil near 0°C, water predominantly flows through ice-free capillaries, so that the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is similar to that of an unfrozen soil with a water content equal to the unfrozen water content of the frozen soil. At low temperatures, however, ice forms in almost all capillaries, and the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is greater than that of unfrozen soil with the same water potential.

  13. Thawing Frozen Robust Multi-array Analysis (fRMA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A novel method of microarray preprocessing - Frozen Robust Multi-array Analysis (fRMA) - has recently been developed. This algorithm allows the user to preprocess arrays individually while retaining the advantages of multi-array preprocessing methods. The frozen parameter estimates required by this algorithm are generated using a large database of publicly available arrays. Curation of such a database and creation of the frozen parameter estimates is time-consuming; therefore, fRMA has only been implemented on the most widely used Affymetrix platforms. Results We present an R package, frmaTools, that allows the user to quickly create his or her own frozen parameter vectors. We describe how this package fits into a preprocessing workflow and explore the size of the training dataset needed to generate reliable frozen parameter estimates. This is followed by a discussion of specific situations in which one might wish to create one's own fRMA implementation. For a few specific scenarios, we demonstrate that fRMA performs well even when a large database of arrays in unavailable. Conclusions By allowing the user to easily create his or her own fRMA implementation, the frmaTools package greatly increases the applicability of the fRMA algorithm. The frmaTools package is freely available as part of the Bioconductor project. PMID:21923903

  14. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Tim D; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Background Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. Methods A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Results Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. Conclusions The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder? PMID:27582943

  15. An Investigation of The Reticulated Foam - Perforated Steel Sheet Sandwich Structure As A Blast Mitigation Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London Collaboration; Royal British Legion CentreBlast Injury Studies at Imperial College London Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Explosions have always been the main cause of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming more and more common nowadays. In this paper, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets, with varying thickness and configuration, is studied using an air-driven shock tube apparatus. The mitigation effects for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude as well as shock impulse. Schlieren photography together with other high-speed imaging was also used to visually investigate the matter. The results show that lower open area of perforated sheet and increased thickness of foam offer best protection. However, below a threshold thickness, no mitigation is seen. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  16. Localized Detection of Frozen Precipitation Events and the Rain/Snow Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Frozen precipitation in the mid-latitudes and semi-arid environments frequently serves a crucial role in the annual water budget. Often occurring along elevational gradients, the rain/snow transition (or, "snow line") in mountain systems determines the amount of water which enters the system slowly during melt phases as opposed to rain which immediately infiltrates or runs off to lower elevations. This in turn influences the location and composition of ecological communities such as conifer forests, as well as timing and nature of the entire mountain block annual hydrologic cycle. Characterization of the rain/snow transition is becoming a priority in mountainous semi-arid regions, as increasing human populations and repeated drought episodes combine to create water shortages. Atmospheric conditions (temperature and relative humidity) which signal the rain/snow transition have been described, but variability within the conditions window can create error in estimating true areal cover of frozen versus liquid precipitation. In populated, flood-prone regions, radar installations specifically tuned to the detection of the "bright band" transition elevation can be deployed; however these cannot be permanently installed at remote, solar-power-dependent climate stations or with fine geographical scale. Characterization of current trends in rain/snow transition can be made using automated weather stations placed along the elevational gradient fielding sensors for high-frequency (e.g. 1-10 minute) measurement of air temperature, relative humidity, liquid precipitation, and precipitation mass. Visual validation of precipitation modes detected through automated means is performed using time-series records from digital cameras placed at each station. Refinements of geographically-explicit relationships of atmospheric conditions to precipitation mode can be made over time, as well as detection of seasonally-anomalous but eco-hydrologically-significant frozen precipitation events

  17. Mixing Effect in Internal Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    Detonation product gases are usually assumed to be completely mixed with an existing atmosphere by the time a peak quasi-static pressure (Pqs) is reached within an enclosed internal blast environment. With incomplete mixing, however, comes a loss in pressure from unburned fuel as well as a previously unrecognized source of error: heat capacity of the gas increases substantially with temperature, providing an energy sink in regions of unmixed hot gas. Our objective was to look at the extent of mixing by measuring gas temperature at several locations within a blast chamber at the time of peak Pqs. We recorded ranges of up to 400° C depending on charge location within the chamber, which is presumed to affect turbulence and mixing. Losses in peak Pqs of up to 13% may be attributed to this mixing effect for 1-kg Pentolite charges in a 62-m3 chamber in the simple geometries tested. A reasonably accurate Pqs may be extracted from blast wave reverberations in a chamber, allowing a closer look at effects such as gas mixing and consistency among multiple gages. These results point to an explanation for missing energy and a better understanding of heat flow in internal blast.

  18. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  19. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Rader, W R; Cramer, S F; Cook, L L; Sciubba, J

    1987-04-01

    Three hundred and one salivary gland lesions (162 benign, 72 malignant, and 67 benign non-neoplastic) of 677 cases were evaluated by use of intraoperative frozen sections by 66 pathologists. In seven patients, the diagnosis was deferred for permanent sections. In four cases (1.3%), the diagnosis at permanent section changed from one category of benign tumor to another, and in five cases (1.7%), from one category of malignant tumor to another. In four tumors, a frozen section diagnosis of benign was changed to malignant on permanent sectioning; all four involved acinic cell carcinomas. Only two tumors were incorrectly diagnosed as malignant. We conclude that diagnoses of most salivary gland lesions based on frozen section examination are reliable and accurate. However, the literature does indicate that caution should be exercised when malignant tumors are dealt with.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  1. Head and brain response to blast using sagittal and transverse finite element models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dilaver; Cronin, Duane S; Haladuick, Tyler N

    2014-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury caused by blast exposure from Improvised Explosive Devices has become increasingly prevalent in modern conflicts. To investigate head kinematics and brain tissue response in blast scenarios, two solid hexahedral blast-head models were developed in the sagittal and transverse planes. The models were coupled to an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian model of the surrounding air to model blast-head interaction, for three blast load cases (5 kg C4 at 3, 3.5 and 4 m). The models were validated using experimental kinematic data, where predicted accelerations were in good agreement with experimental tests, and intracranial pressure traces at four locations in the brain, where the models provided good predictions for frontal, temporal and parietal, but underpredicted pressures at the occipital location. Brain tissue response was investigated for the wide range of constitutive properties available. The models predicted relatively low peak principal brain tissue strains from 0.035 to 0.087; however, strain rates ranged from 225 to 571 s-1. Importantly, these models have allowed us to quantify expected strains and strain rates experienced in brain tissue, which can be used to guide future material characterization. These computationally efficient and predictive models can be used to evaluate protection and mitigation strategies in future analysis.

  2. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  3. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2015-10-01

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable "frozen flux" slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the "frozen-in" condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, ΛΦ, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid "ion-diffusion" region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices, demonstrating that

  4. Segmental infarction of the testis: can frozen sections avoid orchidectomy?

    PubMed

    Pacella, E; Grillo, F; Lapetina, C; Cabiddu, F; Auriati, L; Tunesi, G; Mastracci, L

    2015-03-01

    Segmental infarction (SI) of the testis is a rare condition that can masquerade as a mass lesion, thus requiring exclusion of tumour. If clinical exams do not exclude a neoplastic lesion with certainty, orchidectomy is usually performed. A case of SI of the testis is presented; the use of frozen section of the enucleated mass demonstrated the ischaemic nature of the lesion, so avoiding orchidectomy. The 8 year follow-up was uneventful. The use of frozen section in SI could permit the selection of cases in which testicular-sparing surgery should be considered.

  5. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W.

    2015-10-15

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable “frozen flux” slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the “frozen-in” condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, Λ{sub Φ}, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid “ion-diffusion” region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices

  6. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  7. The pathology of primary blast overpressure injury.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, M A

    1997-07-25

    Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have been conducted. Organ systems other than the ear and the lung are playing a greater role in injury definition and research importance. This paper is an overview and update of the current understanding of the pathology of primary blast injury.

  8. ScalaBLAST 2.0: Rapid and robust BLAST calculations on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2013-03-15

    BLAST remains one of the most widely used tools in computational biology. The rate at which new sequence data is available continues to grow exponentially, driving the emergence of new fields of biological research. At the same time multicore systems and conventional clusters are more accessible. ScalaBLAST has been designed to run on conventional multiprocessor systems with an eye to extreme parallelism, enabling parallel BLAST calculations using over 16,000 processing cores with a portable, robust, fault-resilient design. ScalaBLAST 2.0 source code can be freely downloaded from http://omics.pnl.gov/software/ScalaBLAST.php.

  9. Mechanics of blast loading on the head models in the study of traumatic brain injury using experimental and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, S; Alai, A; Plougonven, E; Chandra, N

    2013-06-01

    Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices can cause mild, moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in soldiers and civilians. To understand the interactions of blast waves on the head and brain and to identify the mechanisms of injury, compression-driven air shock tubes are extensively used in laboratory settings to simulate the field conditions. The overall goal of this effort is to understand the mechanics of blast wave-head interactions as the blast wave traverses the head/brain continuum. Toward this goal, surrogate head model is subjected to well-controlled blast wave profile in the shock tube environment, and the results are analyzed using combined experimental and numerical approaches. The validated numerical models are then used to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of stresses and pressure in the human skull and brain. By detailing the results from a series of careful experiments and numerical simulations, this paper demonstrates that: (1) Geometry of the head governs the flow dynamics around the head which in turn determines the net mechanical load on the head. (2) Biomechanical loading of the brain is governed by direct wave transmission, structural deformations, and wave reflections from tissue-material interfaces. (3) Deformation and stress analysis of the skull and brain show that skull flexure and tissue cavitation are possible mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

  10. Mechanics of blast loading on the head models in the study of traumatic brain injury using experimental and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, S; Alai, A; Plougonven, E; Chandra, N

    2013-06-01

    Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices can cause mild, moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in soldiers and civilians. To understand the interactions of blast waves on the head and brain and to identify the mechanisms of injury, compression-driven air shock tubes are extensively used in laboratory settings to simulate the field conditions. The overall goal of this effort is to understand the mechanics of blast wave-head interactions as the blast wave traverses the head/brain continuum. Toward this goal, surrogate head model is subjected to well-controlled blast wave profile in the shock tube environment, and the results are analyzed using combined experimental and numerical approaches. The validated numerical models are then used to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of stresses and pressure in the human skull and brain. By detailing the results from a series of careful experiments and numerical simulations, this paper demonstrates that: (1) Geometry of the head governs the flow dynamics around the head which in turn determines the net mechanical load on the head. (2) Biomechanical loading of the brain is governed by direct wave transmission, structural deformations, and wave reflections from tissue-material interfaces. (3) Deformation and stress analysis of the skull and brain show that skull flexure and tissue cavitation are possible mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. PMID:22832705

  11. Analysis of Metmyoglobin Formation Rates in Frozen Tuna Meat during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viriyarattanasak, Chotika; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Formation of metmyoglobin (metMb) in frozen tuna meat stored at -90, -60, -40, -30, -20, and -10°C for approximately 6 months was investigated. The reaction rate of metMB formation was estimated from a linear plot of ln ([M∞ . Mt] /[M∞ . Mo]) and storage time (t) for each storage temperature (Ts) (M∞, Mt, and Mo are metMb contents at times t = t∞, t, and 0, respectively). When M∞ was assumed to be 100%, the rate of metMb formation followed the first-order reaction only during the early stage of storage period. MetMb formation, however obeyed the first-order reaction for all test temperatures even during long-term storage when M∞ was assumed to be dependent on storage temperature (M∞(Ts)). A discontinuity was observed in the temperature dependence of M∞(Ts) at storage temperature range between -60 and -40°C, which was attributed to the glass transition of protein system. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of metMb formation did not show a significant change over all storage temperatures.

  12. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  13. Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research

    PubMed Central

    Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M.; Meijer, S. R.; van den Berg, A. C.; Sibma, P. C.; van Bree, J. L. M. J.; de Vries, D. V. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull–brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull–brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid–structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull–brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field. PMID:21960984

  14. Numerical Simulation for Blast Analysis of Insulating Glass in a Curtain Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rong-bing; Jin, Xian-long

    2010-04-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation method for blast response calculation of insulating glass in a curtain wall based on multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation and high-performance computer. The whole analytical model consists of explosion, air, curtain wall system, and ground. In particular, detailed components including insulating glass panels, aluminum column, silicone sealant, and other parts in the curtain wall are set up in terms of actual size and actual assembly. This model takes account of the coupling between blast and structure, nonlinear material behavior, brittle failure of glass material, and non-reflecting boundary definition. Final calculation has been performed on the Dawning 4000A supercomputer using the finite-element code LS-DYNA 971 MPP. The propagation of shock wave in air and blast-structure interaction is quite well estimated by numerical calculation. The damage regions of outer and inner glass are reproduced in the numerical simulations, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. The result provides a global understanding of insulating glass panels under blast loading in the curtain wall system. It may be generated to supplement experimental studies for developing appropriate design guidelines for curtain wall systems as well.

  15. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. PMID:26794460

  16. Nitrate Concentration near the Surface of Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Harley A; Michelsen, Rebecca R H

    2014-12-26

    Photolysis of nitrate plays an important role in the emission of nitrogen oxides from snow and ice, which affects the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to quantify these reactions, it is necessary to know how much nitrate is available for photolysis near the surfaces of snow and ice. The concentration of nitrate excluded from frozen solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate was measured with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Liquid water and nitrate were observed at and near the bottom surface of frozen aqueous solutions during annealing from -18 to -2 °C. At -2 °C, the nitrate concentration was determined to be ∼1.0 mol/L for frozen NaNO(3) and Mg(NO(3))(2) solutions and ∼0.8 mol/L for frozen HNO(3) solutions. At lower temperatures, nitrate concentration ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 mol/L. Ideal thermodynamics overestimates nitrate concentration at colder temperatures where the brine is highly concentrated for all solutions. The nitrate concentration at ice surfaces is well described by bulk freezing point depression data close to the melting point of ice and for nitric acid at colder temperatures. Effects of temperature and counterions and implications for modeling snow chemistry are discussed. PMID:25495473

  17. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  18. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  19. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  20. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  1. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  2. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The...

  3. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  5. Quality indices of Jew's mallow and spinach during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Labib, A A; Abd el-Latife, S A; Omran, H

    1997-01-01

    In this study, Jew's mallow and spinach were heat treated and kept frozen, at -18 degrees C, for 3 months. Analysis of some chemical components and enzymatic activities as well as a sensory evaluation were undertaken. At the end of the storage period, blanched spinach showed no PPO (polyphenyloxidase) activity at all, but still contained PO (peroxydase) and LO (lipoxygenase) activities. The untreated spinach stored under the same conditions showed high activities of PO, PPO and LO. The heat treated mallow still contained high enzyme activities which decreased slowly during frozen storage. Statistical analysis of the chemical composition and the sensory evaluation results indicated that heat treatments of mallow caused significant differences in total solids, pH, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, while frozen storage, of samples of the same treatment for 3 months caused no significant differences in moisture, ash, oxalic acid, pH, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll. No significant differences could be noticed in the overall acceptability between mallow samples mixed with hot water and those mixed with a hot 0.1% MgCO3 solution. Significant differences were found between the heat treated and the untreated mallow. Changes of the chemical composition and the overall acceptability of blanched spinach during frozen storage showed almost the same trend noticed for the Jew's mallow.

  6. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  7. 6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  8. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for lemonade. 146.120 Section 146.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  9. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  10. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  11. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective September 30, 2013. SUMMARY: The...'') of the antidumping duty (``AD'') order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from...

  12. Evaluation of panoramic digital images using Panoptiq for frozen section diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Monaco, Sara E.; Parwani, Anil V.; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Duboy, Jon; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    near tissue folds and air bubbles. Panoptiq permitted fine focusing of tissue folds and air bubbles. Issues with panoramic images included difficulty interpreting low-resolution ×4 image maps and the presence of tiling artifacts. In some cases, Z-stacked areas of Panoptiq images were limited or not representative of diagnostic regions. The image file size of Panoptiq was more than 14 times smaller than that of WSI files. Conclusions: The Panoptiq imaging system is a novel tool that can be used for frozen section telepathology. Panoramic digital images were easy to generate and navigate, of relatively small file size, and offered a mechanism to overcome focusing problems commonly encountered with WSI of frozen sections. However, the acquisition of representative Panoptiq images was operator dependent with the individual creating files that may impact the final diagnosis. PMID:27217976

  13. Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

  14. Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2012-05-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  5. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the...

  6. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the...

  7. Clinical Outcomes after Arthroscopic Release for Recalcitrant Frozen Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. Results: The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months. The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months). Diabetes mellitus (38%) and history of shoulder trauma (23%) were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. Conclusions: According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and objective mid

  8. In-situ rock strength determination for blasting purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, D.K.; Jain, A.

    1994-12-31

    Compressive strength of rocks is often required by mining engineers and quarrying authorities for blasting operations. Uniaxial compressive strength of rocks can be predicted with reasonable accuracy with the help of point load strength tests which can be easily conducted at site by the field staff, simultaneously as the cores are recovered from drilling operations. A number of diametral point load tests and uniaxial compressive strength tests have been conducted on the specimens of different rock types under air dried, and saturated condition as well to study the effect of ground water saturation on strength. It has been observed that due to saturation uniaxial compressive strength and point load strength get reduced to a maximum of 32 and 29 percent respectively. It has also been observed that uniaxial strength is sixteen times the point load strength in air dried as well as saturated condition. However, this factor used for calculating uniaxial compressive strength may be reduced to a lower value for the safety of miners in field blasting operations.

  9. Non-explosive blast injury of the ear.

    PubMed

    Berger, G; Finkelstein, Y; Harell, M

    1994-05-01

    Non-explosive blast injury of the ear refers to the otological trauma caused by a blow to the ear that seals the external auditory meatus. It results in a sudden increase of air pressure within the ear canal that strikes the tympanic membrane. The present study portrays the various aspects of middle and inner ear damage in 91 patients resulting from an assault we entitled a 'non-explosive blast injury' to the ear. Sixty cases were caused by a slap or a fist, 13 patients suffered sport accidents, mostly in ball games, and 18 patients were injured during swimming and water sports activities. The common symptoms were hearing loss, earache, tinnitus, vertigo and otorrhoea. All 91 patients presented with acute perforations of their eardrums. The mean conductive hearing loss was 11.2 dB. A high tone sensorineural hearing loss was detected in only 20 per cent of the patients. A spontaneous closure of the perforation with a conservative management approach was observed in 94.8 per cent of the patients. Healing of the perforation was always associated with closure of the air-bone gap, while the results of the sensorineural hearing loss recovery were less favourable.

  10. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  11. Background to plastic media blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    Chemical strippers based on active phenolic components in a chlorinated solvent have been the traditional method for removing of paints and coatings from aircraft. With the recent recognition of the environmental and health concerns of chlorinated solvents and the problem disposing of phenols there have been some major developments in paint removal technology. One of the first techniques developed to replace chemical strippers and now one of the most widely used techniques for paint removal from aircraft was plastic media blasting (PMB). The PMB technique is similar to traditional grit blasting (slag, sand alumina or carborundum) techniques used on steel and other metals (based on grits) but using polymer based media that are softer and less aggressive. Plastic media are ranked by hardness and density as well as chemical composition.

  12. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  13. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  14. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  19. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  20. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). The period of... Investigation The products covered by this investigation are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns,...

  1. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  2. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  3. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Partial Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order on Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 74 FR 5638... Review, 73 FR 12103, 12106 (Mar. 6, 2008), unchanged in Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final... FR at 9994, unchanged in Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results and...

  4. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation (POI... are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or...

  5. 21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner: (1) Shall... consists of all of the following: (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except that the name...

  6. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...-mail: Myron.Betts@ams.usda.gov . The United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries are... revise the U.S. Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. AMS received two comments: one from the USDA... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY:...

  7. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... antidumping duty order on imports of non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China (65 FR 35606). Following... continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of non- frozen concentrated apple juice from China (70 FR... COMMISSION Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States International...

  8. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  9. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  10. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  11. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  12. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  13. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  14. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  18. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-13 - Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables. 318.13-13... Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-13 Movement of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be certified for movement from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam,...