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Sample records for air blast type

  1. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  2. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  3. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  4. Air Blast Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    library. A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state is used for each explosive considered, and a Sesame tabular equation of state is used to model the...explosives investigated (TNT, C4, PBXN-109, and NM) and the CTH material library parameters were used for each. Air was modeled using the Sesame tabular

  5. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1%) followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06%) had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%). Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%). Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24%) whereas 3 (1.94%) had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%). Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis. PMID:20025766

  6. 7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. The air blast circuit breakers are visible in the left background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  7. A Blast of Cool Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  8. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  10. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, Julie M.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Kim, Keehoon; Ford, Sean R.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  11. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L. A.

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  12. Detailed Comparison of Blast Effects in Air and Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Garza, R G; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J D; Lauderbach, L M; Vincent, E R; Wong, B M

    2007-07-26

    Although blast mitigation is most often achieved with solid shielding, ambient gas pressure can also affect the coupling of shock waves to solid targets. In this work the role of air as an energy transfer medium was examined experimentally by subjecting identical large-area rectangular witness plates to short-range blast effects in air and vacuum ({approx}50 mtorr) at 25 C. The expanding reactant front of 3 kg C4 charges was observed by fast camera to be cylindrically symmetric in both air and vacuum. The horizontal component of the reactant cloud velocity (perpendicular to the witness plates) was constant in both cases, with values of 3.0 and 5.9 km/s for air and vacuum, respectively. As a result of the blast, witness plates were plastically deformed into a shallow dish geometry, with local maxima 30 and 20 mm deep for air and vacuum, respectively. The average plate deflection from the air blast was 11 mm, {approx}10% deeper than the average vacuum plate deflection. Shock pressure estimates were made with a simple impedance-matching model, and indicate peak values in the 30-50 MPa range are consistent with the reactant cloud density and velocity. However, more detailed analysis is necessary to definitely establish the mechanisms by which air couples shock energy to the plates.

  13. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  15. Optimization of air-blast drying process for manufacturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast as industrial wine starters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Choi, Won-Seok; Jo, Hyun-Jung; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying. Our results showed that 7 g lactomil was the best excipient in terms of drying time, powder form, and the survival rate of the yeast in the final product. Finally, 7 types of sugars were investigated to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried yeast cells: 10% trehalose, 10% sucrose, and 10% glucose had the highest survival rate of 97.54, 92.59, and 79.49% for S. cerevisiae D8, H. uvarum S6, and I. orientalis KMBL5774, respectively. After 3 months of storage, S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 demonstrated good survival rates (making them suitable for use as starters), whereas the survival rate of I. orientalis KMBL5774 decreased considerably compared to the other strains. Air-blast dried S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 showed metabolic activities similar to those of non-dried yeast cells, regardless of the storage period. Air-blast dried I. orientalis KMBL5774 showed a noticeable decrease in its ability to decompose malic acid after 3 months of storage at 4 °C.

  16. Shape Optimization of Plates to Mitigate the Effects of Air Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-21

    has been given to analysis of metallic and composite panels, subject to both blast and ballistic loads. Regarding designing for impact mitigation...water. Yen, Skaags and Cheeseman [5] present an experimentally validated dynamic analysis procedure utilizing Ls- Dyna and the ConWep air blast function...orientations in a laminated composite to absorb energy while maintaining stiffness. Further details on effectiveness of blast mitigation solutions in a

  17. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  18. Droplet Breakup Mechanisms in Air-blast Atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir Abbas; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Lim, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Atomization processes are encountered in many natural and man-made phenomena. Examples are pollen release by plants, human cough or sneeze, engine fuel injectors, spray paint and many more. The physics governing the atomization of liquids is important in understanding and utilizing atomization processes in both natural and industrial processes. We have observed the governing physics of droplet breakup in an air-blast water atomizer using a high magnification, high speed, and high resolution LASER imaging technique. The droplet breakup mechanisms are investigated in three major categories. First, the liquid drops are flattened to form an oblate ellipsoid (lenticular deformation). Subsequent deformation depends on the magnitude of the internal forces relative to external forces. The ellipsoid is converted into a torus that becomes stretched and disintegrates into smaller drops. Second, the drops become elongated to form a long cylindrical thread or ligament that break up into smaller drops (Cigar-shaped deformation). Third, local deformation on the drop surface creates bulges and protuberances that eventually detach themselves from the parent drop to form smaller drops.

  19. A History of Air-Blast Sprayer Development and Future Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design and operating procedures of air-blast sprayers have been greatly improved over the past 50 years. Early tree and vine s pray application equipment used hand-guns that required large amount of water. Later, sprayers with efficient fans, producing large volumes of air at high velocities, ...

  20. Prediction of blast-induced air overpressure: a hybrid AI-based predictive model.

    PubMed

    Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Hajihassani, Mohsen; Marto, Aminaton; Shirani Faradonbeh, Roohollah; Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam

    2015-11-01

    Blast operations in the vicinity of residential areas usually produce significant environmental problems which may cause severe damage to the nearby areas. Blast-induced air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most important environmental impacts of blast operations which needs to be predicted to minimize the potential risk of damage. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized by the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for the prediction of AOp induced by quarry blasting. For this purpose, 95 blasting operations were precisely monitored in a granite quarry site in Malaysia and AOp values were recorded in each operation. Furthermore, the most influential parameters on AOp, including the maximum charge per delay and the distance between the blast-face and monitoring point, were measured and used to train the ICA-ANN model. Based on the generalized predictor equation and considering the measured data from the granite quarry site, a new empirical equation was developed to predict AOp. For comparison purposes, conventional ANN models were developed and compared with the ICA-ANN results. The results demonstrated that the proposed ICA-ANN model is able to predict blast-induced AOp more accurately than other presented techniques.

  1. Analysis of In-Flight Collision Process During V-Type Firing Pattern in Surface Blasting Using Simple Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Lalit Singh; Raina, Avtar K.

    2015-10-01

    Blasting is a unit operation in Mine-Mill Fragmentation System (MMFS) and plays a vital role in mining cost. One of the goals of MMFS is to achieve optimum fragment size at minimal cost. Blast fragmentation optimization is known to result in better explosive energy utilization. Fragmentation depends on the rock, explosive and blast design variables. If burden, spacing and type of explosive used in a mine are kept constant, the firing sequence of blast-holes plays a vital role in rock fragmentation. To obtain smaller fragmentation size, mining professionals and relevant publications recommend V- or extended V-pattern of firing sequence. In doing so, it is assumed that the in-flight air collision breaks larger rock fragments into smaller ones, thus aiding further fragmentation. There is very little support to the phenomenon of breakage during in-flight collision of fragments during blasting in published literature. In order to assess the breakage of in-flight fragments due to collision, a mathematical simulation was carried over using basic principles of physics. The calculations revealed that the collision breakage is dependent on velocity of fragments, mass of fragments, the strength of the rock and the area of fragments over which collision takes place. For higher strength rocks, the in-flight collision breakage is very difficult to achieve. This leads to the conclusion that the concept demands an in-depth investigation and validation.

  2. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-15

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  3. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  4. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, M.M.; Savage, W.Z.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt % dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ???220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (???220 m/s versus ???110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    1999-10-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  6. Suppression of blast pressure and noise from implosive-type connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Contestabile, E.; Thomas, C. |

    1995-12-31

    Implosive-type electrical/mechanical connectors such as XECONEX have been used extensively for joining electrical transmission lines. This implosive action of explosives has also been applied to other forms of high energy metal working with excellent results. However, as with many other products, the inherent blast energy of these units has caused some environmental concerns especially when used in proximity to inhabited areas. This paper identifies the problem associated with the use of this type of connector in inhabited areas and details the efforts directed toward its solution. A test program was designed in which various materials and configurations were evaluated as potential candidates for reducing the blast pressure. The explosive charges were in two configurations; linear charges assembled with detonating cord and steel pipes wrapped with detonating cord. Various materials of varying densities and sizes were then used as a wrap around the explosive charge. The effectiveness of these wraps as blast suppressing mediums was established by monitoring the blast pressure and sound levels. Although, a complete solution was not found within the performance requirements, materials such as vermiculite and cardboard were found to be particularly useful in suppressing blast overpressures. Plotted against scaled distance on a TNT output curve, the data indicates the effectiveness of these materials. Also practical are the plots showing the mitigation of blast pressure as the suppressant material thickness is varied.

  7. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  8. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  9. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  13. A 3D Computational Study on the Air-Blast Atomization of a Planar Liquid Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodi, Robert; Desjardins, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The air-blast atomization of a planar liquid layer is a complex fluid phenomenon involving the destabilization of a low speed liquid layer by a high speed gas coflow. While progress has been made in recent years on understanding the instability of the liquid surface, it remains difficult to accurately predict using stability analysis and requires special expertise and equipment to perform thorough experiments. Simulations provide an excellent way to conduct parametric studies to determine the effect of splitter plate geometry and momentum flux ratio on the frequency and wavelengths of instability, however, they are extremely difficult due to the high density ratio and large range of length and time scales present in the flow. Using an accurate conservative level set method in conjunction with a newly reformulated reinitialization equation, we perform 3D simulations of the air-blast atomization of a planar liquid layer and compare them to experiments. We then go on to explore the role momentum flux ratio plays in the longitudinal and transverse wavelengths of instability.

  14. Field Hydraulic and Air-Blast Sprayers for Row Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses techniques and equipment used in spraying field crops. In the discussion of field hydraulic sprayers, specific topics include types of sprayers, tanks, pumps, pressure regulators, hoses, boom spraying, directed spraying, and nozzle bodies. In the discussion…

  15. Marble-type glass based on blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, P.D.; Smirnov, V.G.; Trifonova, T.E.; Sergeev, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery and use of blast furnace wastes as coloring agents in the manufacture of imitation marble glass. The slags consist of a series of metal oxides each of which is tested for the color it generates when reacted and annealed with the molten glass. Comparative tests were also run against non-waste coloring agents and it was found that the waste-derived colorants were equal or superior both in process behavior and in generating the appropriate optical properties in the finished glass.

  16. Impact of blast induced transitory vibration and air-overpressure/noise on human brain--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raina, A K; Baheti, M; Haldar, A; Ramulu, M; Chakraborty, A K; Sahu, P B; Bandopadhayay, C

    2004-04-01

    Human response to blast induced ground vibration and air-overpressure/noise is a major concern of current mining activity. This is because the fact that mines are fast transgressing the habitats and people are getting educated. Consequently the response of humans is changing and expectedly will increase in days to come with no viable and economic alternative to blasting--an essential component of mining. The response of humans can be purely physiological or psychological in nature or combination of both depending upon the situation and conditions of mining. Where physiological response is documented in terms of effects on ears and lungs there is a meager amount or no literature available regarding effects of blasting on the brain. Moreover, the studies on transitory phenomenon like the effects of blasting on humans are rare in comparison to the whole body vibration studies. This study was designed to address the issues as a precursor to a major initiative. The preliminary investigations conducted with the monitoring of EEG responses of humans to vibration and air-overpressure/noise due to blasting revealed that there is no major response of the brain to transitory vibrations and noise.

  17. Brain injuries from blast.

    PubMed

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts.

  18. Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2008-11-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride.

  19. Use of Faraday instabilities to enhance fuel pulverisation in air-blast atomisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukra, Madjid; Cartellier, Alain; Ducasse, Éric; Gajan, Pierre; Lalo, Marie; Noel, Thomas; Strzelecki, Alain

    2009-06-01

    The atomization of liquids into a spray is an important process in many industrial applications and particularly in the aero-engine sector. Conventional air-blast injectors in aircraft engines today use aerodynamic shearing effects to atomize the liquid fuel. However, at operating conditions where the air velocity is below 30 m/s (such as ground start and high altitude restart) the atomization quality is poor. Consequently combustion is less efficient with high pollutant emissions. The objective of this study is to validate a new concept of injector which couples the shearing effects with the principle of ultrasonic atomization. The latter consists of using piezoelectric actuators to generate the oscillations of a wall in contact with the liquid film. This excitation perpendicular to the liquid film surface creates Faraday instabilities at the liquid/air interface. Amplitudes higher than a defined threshold value induce the break-up of ligaments and the formation of droplets. To cite this article: M. Boukra et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  20. Evaluation of overpressure prediction models for air blast above the triple point.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, L; Boutillier, J; Magnan, P; Deck, C; De Mezzo, S; Willinger, R; Cheinet, S

    2016-07-05

    The increase of blast exposures leads to the need for better assessment of the blast threat. Empirical models describing the blast propagation in ideal conditions as free-field or surface detonations are commonly employed, but in some configurations the ground-reflected shock should be treated explicitly. Empirical models permit the prediction of the blast characteristics with the ground-reflected shock. The present study uses some original experimental data to evaluate the accuracy of the predicted overpressure with time regarding the reflected shock characteristics. Three methods are tested. The first method, called method of images (MOI) and linearly adding a virtual ground-symmetrical source blast to the free-field blast, is quick but lacks accuracy regarding the reflected shock characteristics. The second method, based on the LOAD_BLAST_ENHANCED function of the commercial LS-DYNA framework, better captures the reflected shock compared to the MOI, but the overall differences with experimental data are of the same order of magnitude as for the MOI. An original fit is introduced, based on standard physical parameters. The accuracy of this fit on the reflected shock characteristics, and the better match with the overall overpressure time series, shows its potential as a new empirical blast predicting tool.

  1. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  2. Gas and drop behavior in reacting and non-reacting air-blast atomizer sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of the two-phase flow produced by a gas-turbine air-blast atomizer is performed with the goal of identifying the interaction between the two phases for both nonreacting and reacting conditions. A two-component phase Doppler interferometry is utilized to characterize three flowfields produced by the atomizer: (1) the single-phase flow, (2) the two-phase nonreacting spray, and (3) the two-phase reacting spray. Measurements of the mean and fluctuating axial and azimuthal velocities for each phase are obtained. In addition, the droplet size distribution, volume flux, and concentration are measured. The results reveal the strong influence of the dispersed phase on the gas, and the influence of reaction on both the gas and the droplet field. The presence of the spray significantly alters the inlet condition of the atomizer. With this alteration quantified, it is possible to deduce that the inertia associated with the dispersed phase damps the fluctuating velocities of the gas. Reaction reduces the volume flux of the droplets, broadens the local volume distribution of the droplets in the region of the reaction zone, increases the axial velocities and radial spread of the gas, and increases the anisotropy in the region of the reaction zone.

  3. Gas and drop behavior in reacting and non-reacting air-blast atomizer sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, Scott

    1991-10-01

    A detailed study of the two-phase flow produced by a gas-turbine air-blast atomizer is performed with the goal of identifying the interaction between the two phases for both nonreacting and reacting conditions. A two-component phase Doppler interferometry is utilized to characterize three flowfields produced by the atomizer: (1) the single-phase flow, (2) the two-phase nonreacting spray, and (3) the two-phase reacting spray. Measurements of the mean and fluctuating axial and azimuthal velocities for each phase are obtained. In addition, the droplet size distribution, volume flux, and concentration are measured. The results reveal the strong influence of the dispersed phase on the gas, and the influence of reaction on both the gas and the droplet field. The presence of the spray significantly alters the inlet condition of the atomizer. With this alteration quantified, it is possible to deduce that the inertia associated with the dispersed phase damps the fluctuating velocities of the gas. Reaction reduces the volume flux of the droplets, broadens the local volume distribution of the droplets in the region of the reaction zone, increases the axial velocities and radial spread of the gas, and increases the anisotropy in the region of the reaction zone.

  4. 3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, CIRCA 1978, INTERIOR OF BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  5. Performance Optimization of Cold Rolled Type 316L Stainless Steel by Sand Blasting and Surface Linishing Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, B.; Heine, B.; Engelberg, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sand blasting followed by a surface linishing treatment was applied to optimize the near-surface microstructure of cold rolled type 316L stainless steel. The introduction of cold rolling led to the formation of α-martensite. Specimens with large thickness reductions (40, 53%) were more susceptible to localized corrosion. The application of sand blasting produced a near-surface deformation layer containing compressive residual stresses with significantly increased surface roughness, resulting in reduced corrosion resistance. The most resistant microstructure was obtained with the application of a final linishing treatment after sand blasting. This treatment produced microstructures with compressive near-surface residual stresses, reduced surface roughness, and increased resistance to localized corrosion.

  6. Field calibration of two types of microphones in hyperbaric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul F.; Carpenter, Susan; Green, John

    1990-01-01

    The response of two microphones, one a condenser microphone and the other a diaphragm-activated piezoelectric ceramic microphone, were measured in compressed air at pressures as great as 810 kilopascals (8 atmospheres). The response of each microphone was compared to that of a hydrophone operated in air as a microphone. The results show that the two types of microphone respond similarly to high ambient pressure. Both types are less sensitive to sound pressure in compressed air than in air at normal pressures, and the frequency responses of both microphones are altered. The results are useful in the analyses of ambient noise measurements done during experiments in compressed air.

  7. A new formulation for air-blast fluid-structure interaction using an immersed approach: part II—coupling of IGA and meshfree discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevs, Y.; Moutsanidis, G.; Bueno, J.; Kamran, K.; Kamensky, D.; Hillman, M. C.; Gomez, H.; Chen, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    In this two-part paper we begin the development of a new class of methods for modeling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena for air blast. We aim to develop accurate, robust, and practical computational methodology, which is capable of modeling the dynamics of air blast coupled with the structure response, where the latter involves large, inelastic deformations and disintegration into fragments. An immersed approach is adopted, which leads to an a-priori monolithic FSI formulation with intrinsic contact detection between solid objects, and without formal restrictions on the solid motions. In Part I of this paper, the core air-blast FSI methodology suitable for a variety of discretizations is presented and tested using standard finite elements. Part II of this paper focuses on a particular instantiation of the proposed framework, which couples isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on non-uniform rational B-splines and a reproducing-kernel particle method (RKPM), which is a meshfree technique. The combination of IGA and RKPM is felt to be particularly attractive for the problem class of interest due to the higher-order accuracy and smoothness of both discretizations, and relative simplicity of RKPM in handling fragmentation scenarios. A collection of mostly 2D numerical examples is presented in each of the parts to illustrate the good performance of the proposed air-blast FSI framework.

  8. A new formulation for air-blast fluid-structure interaction using an immersed approach. Part I: basic methodology and FEM-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevs, Y.; Kamran, K.; Moutsanidis, G.; Benson, D. J.; Oñate, E.

    2017-03-01

    In this two-part paper we begin the development of a new class of methods for modeling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena for air blast. We aim to develop accurate, robust, and practical computational methodology, which is capable of modeling the dynamics of air blast coupled with the structure response, where the latter involves large, inelastic deformations and disintegration into fragments. An immersed approach is adopted, which leads to an a-priori monolithic FSI formulation with intrinsic contact detection between solid objects, and without formal restrictions on the solid motions. In Part I of this paper, the core air-blast FSI methodology suitable for a variety of discretizations is presented and tested using standard finite elements. Part II of this paper focuses on a particular instantiation of the proposed framework, which couples isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on non-uniform rational B-splines and a reproducing-kernel particle method (RKPM), which is a Meshfree technique. The combination of IGA and RKPM is felt to be particularly attractive for the problem class of interest due to the higher-order accuracy and smoothness of both discretizations, and relative simplicity of RKPM in handling fragmentation scenarios. A collection of mostly 2D numerical examples is presented in each of the parts to illustrate the good performance of the proposed air-blast FSI framework.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of...

  12. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  13. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  14. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  15. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  16. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public....142 Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air...

  17. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Southern California's Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute. "Poor air quality appears to be a catalyst for obesity and ... Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Air Pollution Diabetes Type 2 Hispanic American Health ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  18. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  19. Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-01

    Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd : glass laser pulse (λ = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ηbw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (λ = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ηLSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ηbw/ηLSD≈90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case.

  20. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, André; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials.

  1. Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad

    2014-03-01

    Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.

  2. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  4. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  7. Adaptive reconfigurable V-BLAST type equalizer for cognitive MIMO-OFDM radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, Mehmet Tahir

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive channel shortening equalizer design for multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) radio receivers is considered in this presentation. The proposed receiver has desirable features for cognitive and software defined radio implementations. It consists of two sections: MIMO decision feedback equalizer (MIMO-DFE) and adaptive multiple Viterbi detection. In MIMO-DFE section, a complete modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of multichannel input data is accomplished using sequential processing multichannel Givens lattice stages, so that a Vertical Bell Laboratories Layered Space Time (V-BLAST) type MIMO-DFE is realized at the front-end section of the channel shortening equalizer. Matrix operations, a major bottleneck for receiver operations, are accordingly avoided, and only scalar operations are used. A highly modular and regular radio receiver architecture that has a suitable structure for digital signal processing (DSP) chip and field programable gate array (FPGA) implementations, which are important for software defined radio realizations, is achieved. The MIMO-DFE section of the proposed receiver can also be reconfigured for spectrum sensing and positioning functions, which are important tasks for cognitive radio applications. In connection with adaptive multiple Viterbi detection section, a systolic array implementation for each channel is performed so that a receiver architecture with high computational concurrency is attained. The total computational complexity is given in terms of equalizer and desired response filter lengths, alphabet size, and number of antennas. The performance of the proposed receiver is presented for two-channel case by means of mean squared error (MSE) and probability of error evaluations, which are conducted for time-invariant and time-variant channel conditions, orthogonal and nonorthogonal transmissions, and two different modulation schemes.

  8. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  9. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  10. Primary Blast Injuries in the Open and in Foxholes Resulting from Nuclear Type Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    22 16 Liver from sheep, a seven-minute death. Upper photo is of the parietal surface showing subcapsular hematomas . Lower photo of...organs, including the liver (Figure 16), spleen and kidneys, ranges from light subcapsular contusions to subcapsular hematomas to rupture. Rupture or...these may injure nearby solid organs, such as the heart, liver and spleen. The short survival time of animal and human victims of blast is attribut- ed

  11. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  12. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  15. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  16. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  17. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  18. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  20. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  1. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  2. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  3. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  4. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  5. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  6. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  7. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  8. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... produced principally in the Green River section of Kentucky. (g) Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured...

  9. All-solid-state cable-type flexible zinc-air battery.

    PubMed

    Park, Joohyuk; Park, Minjoon; Nam, Gyutae; Lee, Jang-soo; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-02-25

    A cable-type flexible Zn-air battery with a spiral zinc anode, gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), and air cathode coated on a nonprecious metal catalyst is designed in order to extend its application area toward wearable electronic devices.

  10. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  11. Gas diffusion-type oxygen electrode using perovskite-type oxides for metal-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Takeo; Miura, Norio; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1995-12-31

    In order to develop an air cathode of metal-air batteries, oxygen reduction behavior of gas diffusion-type carbon electrodes loaded with perovskite-type oxides, La{sub 1{minus}x}A{prime}{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (A{prime} = Ca, Sr, Ba, 0 {le} x {le} 1.0), was examined in 8 M KOH at 60 C. Among the oxide catalysts tested, La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} (specific surface area: 21.5 m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1}) gave the highest electrode performance. On the basis of electrode reaction kinetics, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rates, and temperature programmed desorption of oxygen, it was concluded that such a performance was attributable to the active sites of the oxide for the direct 4-electron reduction of oxygen. Moreover, the electrode using La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} was found to be rather stable in a short-term operation for 90 h at 300 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  12. Effect of air-blast drying and the presence of protectants on the viability of yeast entrapped in calcium alginate beads with an aim to improve the survival rate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sae-Byuk; Park, Heui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Five yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8, M12, and S13; Hanseniaspora uvarum S6; and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774, isolated from Korean grapes, were entrapped in Ca-alginate beads, which are non-toxic, simple to use, and economical. Ca-alginate beads containing yeast cells were soaked in protective solutions, such as skim milk, saccharides, polyols, and nitrogen compounds, before air-blast drying to improve the yeast survival rate and storage ability. The results showed that both entrapment in Ca-alginate beads and soaking in protective agents favorably affected the survival of all strains. The microenvironment formed by the beads and protective agents can protect the yeast cells from harsh environmental conditions, such as low water (below 10 %). All the yeast strains entrapped in Ca-alginate beads showed greater than 80 % survival and less than 11 % water content after air-blast drying at 37 °C for 5 h. In addition, air-blast dried cells of S. cerevisiae D8, M12, S13; H. uvarum S6; and I. orientalis KMBL5774 entrapped in 2 % Ca-alginate beads and soaked in protective agents (10 % skim milk containing 10 % sucrose, 10 % raffinose, 10 % trehalose, 10 % trehalose, and 10 % glucose, respectively) after air-blast drying at 37 °C for 5 h showed 90, 87, 92, 90, and 87 % viability, respectively. All dried entrapped yeast cells showed survival rates of at least 51 % after storage at 4 °C for 3 months.

  13. [Cloning and analyzing of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta+ allele from Jinghong erect type of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff) in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Geng, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Xing-Qi; Cheng, Zai-Quan; Fu, Jian; Sun, Tao; Li, Jun

    2008-01-01

    A 4,672 bp DNA sequence including the whole coding region and partial non-coding region of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta+ has been cloned from Jinghong erect type of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff) in Yunnan by polymerase chain reaction method. The coding region shares 99.86% and 98.78% identity with the corresponding regions of the reported cultivated rice Yashiro-mochi and Yuanjiang type of common wild rice respectively. There are 4 nucleotides difference in the coding region and 6 in intron of the cloned Pi-ta+ gene,compared with Pi-ta from Yashiro-mochi. Pi-ta+ gene in Jinghong erect type of common wild rice has been proved to be a rare existing Pi-ta+ allele, because there was a alanine rather than a serine at the position 918 within the predicted amino acid sequence of PITA. Pi-ta+ allele can cause disease resistance response to rice blast pathogens in plant cells. Differences in DNA sequence, deduced amino acid sequence and antibacterial spectrum may make the Pi-ta+ allele new resistant characteristics. Finding and cloning of Pi-ta+ allele from Jinghong erect type of common wild rice in Yunnan provides a basement for further utilization of the wild rice resources.

  14. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  15. New findings on the impact of an explosive VOD on blast results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiappetta, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    An explosive`s velocity of detonation (VOD), can be used to indicate a number of important characteristics regarding the product`s performance under specific field and test conditions. A number of new characteristic and transient VOD curves have been identified in the field, which can be used to evaluate explosive performance, control ground vibration amplitudes and frequencies, select the correct amount and type of stemming for use at the collar and in stem decks, eliminate explosive desensitization, evaluate primer performance, design air deck based blasts, evaluate contaminated explosives and to overcome post blast noxious fumes. Tests were conducted over a six year period in single and multi-hole blasts using laboratory and full scale blast environments. Explosives tested ranged from pure Emulsion to Anfo and various grades of Emulsion/Anfo blends. Field test parameters were; borehole diameter (1 1/2--30 inches), hole depths (10--120 feet), primer size (0.5--6.4 pounds) and the blast environment varied from soft, jelly-like tar sands to some of the hardest iron ore formations. Most tests were instrumented with an array of blast monitoring instrumentation systems consisting of continuous velocity of detonation recorders, high-speed 16 mm cameras, laser-surveying instrumentation and seismographs which were placed in the near and far fields.

  16. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  17. Pulsed magnetic field excitation sensitivity of match-type electric blasting caps.

    PubMed

    Parson, Jonathan; Dickens, James; Walter, John; Neuber, Andreas A

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a study on energy deposition and electromagnetic compatibility of match-type electroexplosive devices (EEDs), which recently have found more usage in pulsed power environments with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) background. The sensitivity of these devices makes them dangerous to intended and unintended radiation produced by devices commonly used in pulsed power environments. Match-type EEDs have been found to be susceptible to such low levels of energy (7-8 mJ) that safe operation of these EEDs is vital when in use near devices that produce high levels of pulsed EMI. The scope of this paper is to provide an investigation that incorporates results of similar studies to provide detonation characteristics of these EEDs. The three topics included in this study are sensitivity testing, modeling of the thermodynamic heat propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility from pulsed electromagnetic radiation. The thermodynamic joule heating of the primary explosive has been modeled by a solution to the 1D heat equation. A simple pulsed generator, Marx generator with an inductive load, was used for the electromagnetic compatibility assessment of the coupled field between the pulse generator and shorted EED. The results of the electromagnetic compatibility assessment relate the resistive, inductive, and capacitive components of the pulse generator to the area of the shorted EED.

  18. Protrusions Beyond the Blast Waves of Young Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Hydrodynamic Instabilities or Ejecta Bullets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Ashton; Blondin, J. M.; Reynolds, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution imaging of two young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), Tycho and SN 1006, has revealed several morphological features which have resisted explanation with numerical simulations. One such feature is the presence of shocked ejecta blobs protruding beyond the mean forward shock radius. Two current theories explain the presence of such ejecta: highly dense ejecta shrapnel produced in the explosion penetrating the forward shock, or plumes generated by hydrodynamic instabilities long after the initial explosion. We investigate the shrapnel theory through hydrodynamic simulations in 2D and 3D of the evolution of dense ejecta clumps embedded in an exponential density profile, appropriate for Type Ia supernovae. We use high-resolution 2D simulations to identify relevant clump parameters which we investigate further in 3D. In contradiction to some former work, we find that sufficiently resolved clumps in 2D models shatter upon collision with the forward shock, yielding new protrusion features. In both 2D and 3D, shrapnel is capable of penetrating the forward shock, but the resultant protrusions in 3D simulations vary significantly from those in similar 2D runs, implying 2D simulations may not be an accurate method of investigating the shrapnel theory. We compare the our simulations with Chandra observations of projections seen in Tycho and SN 1006. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

  19. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances. PMID:25126606

  20. Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

  1. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B... positive pressures shall not be approved for use on Type B supplied-air respirators. (b) Terminal...

  2. Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

  3. Quasi-perpetual discharge behaviour in p-type Ge-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Jin Won; Abrenica, Graniel Harne A; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-11-07

    Metal-air batteries continue to become attractive energy storage and conversion systems due to their high energy and power densities, safer chemistries, and economic viability. Semiconductor-air batteries - a term we first define here as metal-air batteries that use semiconductor anodes such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) - have been introduced in recent years as new high-energy battery chemistries. In this paper, we describe the excellent doping-dependent discharge kinetics of p-type Ge anodes in a semiconductor-air cell employing a gelled KOH electrolyte. Owing to its Fermi level, n-type Ge is expected to have lower redox potential and better electronic conductivity, which could potentially lead to a higher operating voltage and better discharge kinetics. Nonetheless, discharge measurements demonstrated that this prediction is only valid at the low current regime and breaks down at the high current density region. The p-type Ge behaves extremely better at elevated currents, evident from the higher voltage, more power available, and larger practical energy density from a very long discharge time, possibly arising from the high overpotential for surface passivation. A primary semiconductor-air battery, powered by a flat p-type Ge as a multi-electron anode, exhibited an unprecedented full discharge capacity of 1302.5 mA h gGe(-1) (88% anode utilization efficiency), the highest among semiconductor-air cells, notably better than new metal-air cells with three-dimensional and nanostructured anodes, and at least two folds higher than commercial Zn-air and Al-air cells. We therefore suggest that this study be extended to doped-Si anodes, in order to pave the way for a deeper understanding on the discharge phenomena in alkaline metal-air conversion cells with semiconductor anodes for specific niche applications in the future.

  4. Simulation du fonctionnement de capteurs solaires à air de type tôle et de type absorbeur poreux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Michel; Maurissen, Yves

    1993-12-01

    The comparison between air-heated insolators, no porous and porous plate, often has been made experimentaly. The behaviour model of these insolators permit generalization of the study in the conditions where each insolator is the most performant. La comparaison des capteurs solaires à air à absorbeur de type tôle et de type poreux a été abordée le plus souvent de façon expérimentale. La modélisation du fonctionnement de ces types de capteur permet de généraliser cette comparaison et de définir les domaines de fonctionnement où un type de capteur se montre plus efficace que l'autre.

  5. 7 CFR 30.38 - Class 3; air-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and length of Class 3, Type 31, air-cured tobacco, but which is a low-nicotine strain or variety... which in its cured state is found by an authorized representative of the Department to have a nicotine... be a suitable low-nicotine strain or variety for the production of Type 31-V, by an agency...

  6. Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

    2010-11-01

    The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer's thermal stability are discussed.

  7. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  8. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  12. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  13. [Development of new type plastics air turbine handpiece for dental use].

    PubMed

    Kusano, M

    1989-06-01

    The noise generated by the metal air turbine handpiece employed in dental practice is considerable and attended with predominant high frequency components. Therefore, investigation of the noise generation mechanism and development of a silent air turbine handpiece was only a matter of course. In addition, the metal air turbine hardpiece is comparatively heavy and its production cost is high. From this point of view as well, production of a light air turbine handpiece at low cost is also desirable. In order to overcome the objections to the metal air turbine handpiece, appropriate plastics materials were employed wherever possible. In this study, the number of revolutions, noise level, frequency analysis, start pressure and weight of newly produced plastics handpieces and metal handpieces were examined and compared. The following results were obtained: 1. The number of revolutions of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with metal turbine rotors was higher than that of all-metal air turbine handpieces. The noise level of the former tended to be lower. 2. The number of revolutions of multi-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with turbine rotors with plastics turbine blades was almost equal to that of similar metal handpieces, with the noise level tending to be lower. 3. In the case of handpieces fitted with turbine rotors with dynamic balance, the number of revolutions was high and the noise level was low. This indicated that dynamic balance was a factor affecting the number of revolutions and noise level. 4. Narrow band sound frequency analysis of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces showed a sharp peak at the fundamental frequency which was the same as the number of revolutions multiplied by the number of rotor turbine blades. It is thought that the noise from air turbine handpieces was aerodynamic in origin, being generated by the periodical interruption of steady air flow by

  14. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  15. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory.

  16. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  17. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I – a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K.; Connor, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  18. Measurements of two types of dilatational waves in an air-filled unconsolidated sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.J.; Sabatier, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    This study consists of laboratory measurements of dilatational waves propagating through an air-filled unconsolidated sand. One excitation technique consists of a loudspeaker suspended in the air above the packing of sand. A second excitation technique uses a mechanical shaker in contact with the sand. The transmitted signals are received using microphones and geophones located at various depths within the sand. An interpretation based on measured phase speeds indicates that the transmitted energy from the suspended loudspeaker source is partitioned primarily but not exclusively into the type-II dilatational wave. This wave attenuates rapidly and is only detected at depths of less than about 15 cm for this particular sample. At the deeper depths the detected signal is associated with the type-I dilatational wave. The mechanical shaker produces only a type-I dilatational wave. Both the geophone and microphone sensors can detect both types of dilatational waves. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  19. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) SA 09866SC AGENCY: Federal... DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331- 10 or -12JR turboprop engine installed per... for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331-10 or...

  20. The Evaluation of Unitary & Central Type Air-Conditioning Systems in Selected Florida Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, William B.

    The study reported here was conducted in an effort to obtain data for comparing the combined owning and operating costs of two different types of air-conditioning systems in two elementary schools. Both schools were built during 1969-70 in the same geographical area along the southeast coast of Florida and are also served by the same electric…

  1. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. 84.148 Section 84.148 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... flow class; minimum requirements. (a) Respirators tested under this section shall be approved only...

  2. A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W

    2011-01-01

    Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components

  3. Blast waves from detonated military explosive reduce GluR1 and synaptophysin levels in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marquitta; Piehler, Thuvan; Benjamin, Richard; Farizatto, Karen L; Pait, Morgan C; Almeida, Michael F; Ghukasyan, Vladimir V; Bahr, Ben A

    2016-12-01

    Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1.7-gram assemblies of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) were detonated 15cm outside the tank, creating a distinct shockwave recorded at the culture plate position. Compared to control mock-treated groups of slices that received equal submerge time, 1-3 blast impacts caused a dose-dependent reduction in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. While only a small reduction was found in hippocampal slices exposed to a single RDX blast and harvested 1-2days later, slices that received two consecutive RDX blasts 4min apart exhibited a 26-40% reduction in GluR1, and the receptor subunit was further reduced by 64-72% after three consecutive blasts. Such loss correlated with increased levels of HDAC2, a histone deacetylase implicated in stress-induced reduction of glutamatergic transmission. No evidence of synaptic marker recovery was found at 72h post-blast. The presynaptic marker synaptophysin was found to have similar susceptibility as GluR1 to the multiple explosive detonations. In contrast to the synaptic protein reductions, actin levels were unchanged, spectrin breakdown was not detected, and Fluoro-Jade B staining found no indication of degenerating neurons in slices exposed to three RDX blasts, suggesting that small, sub-lethal explosives are capable of producing selective alterations to synaptic integrity. Together, these results indicate that blast waves from military explosive cause signs of synaptic compromise without

  4. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

  7. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  8. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  9. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  10. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  11. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  12. Development of 72/84kV Dry Air Insulated Dead Tank Type VCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hitoshi; Nagatake, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Hideki; Takeshita, Yukihiro; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Katsumata, Kiyohito; Sakaki, Masayuki

    As a circuit breaker for over 84kV, SF6 gas circuit breaker (GCB) has been used for a long time, in virtue of its excellent characteristics as arc extinction and insulating medium. Although, SF6 gas has very high global warming potential (GWP) of 23,900, and it was designated to regulation object in COP3 in Kyoto in 1997. A lot of efforts have been done to reduce the amount of SF6 gas usage and emission from conventional equipments. On the other hand, SF6 gas free equipment has been researching and one strong candidate is air-insulated type switchgears with vacuum interrupters. In last few years, air-insulated switchgears, which include GIS, Cubicle type GIS (C-GIS) and dead tank type VCB, have been developed in succession. So far, we have already more than three years operation record for the air-insulated dead tank type VCB, and over 100 units is in-service in power systems. Recently, VCB technology, that is essential for SF6 gas-free equipments, has been advanced in the field of high-voltage, large current interruption and environment-conscious design. In this paper, the advanced dead tank type VCB and its technology is descried.

  13. MISR Aerosol Air Mass Type Mapping over Mega-City: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Most aerosol air-quality monitoring in mega-city environments is done from scattered ground stations having detailed chemical and optical sampling capabilities. Satellite instruments such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can retrieve total-column Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), along with some information about particle microphysical properties. Although the particle property information from MISR is much less detailed than that obtained from the ground sampling stations, the coverage is extensive, making it possible to put individual surface observations into the context of regional aerosol air mass types. This paper presents an analysis of MISR aerosol observations made coincident with aircraft and ground-based instruments during the INTEX-B field campaign. These detailed comparisons of satellite aerosol property retrievals against dedicated field measurements provide the opportunity to validate the retrievals quantitatively at a regional level, and help to improve aerosol representation in retrieval algorithms. Validation of MISR retrieved AOD and other aerosol properties over the INTEX-B study region in and around Mexico City will be presented. MISR’s ability to distinguish among aerosol air mass types will be discussed. The goal of this effort is to use the MISR aerosol property retrievals for mapping both aerosol air mass type and AOD gradients in mega-city environments over the decade-plus that MISR has made global observations.

  14. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  15. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  16. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  17. 30 CFR 816.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 816.67(e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  18. 30 CFR 817.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 817.67 (e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  19. 30 CFR 816.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 816.67(e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  20. 30 CFR 817.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 817.67 (e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  1. 30 CFR 817.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 817.67 (e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  2. 30 CFR 816.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 816.67(e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  3. 30 CFR 817.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 817.67 (e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  4. 30 CFR 816.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 816.67(e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting effects. (f) Type of material blasted. (g) Sketches of the blast pattern including number of holes, burden, spacing, decks, and delay pattern. (h) Diameter and depth of holes. (i) Types of explosives used....

  5. Automated Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  6. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given. PMID:26997903

  7. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  8. A comparison of measured radiances from AIRS and HIRS across different cloud types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, M. M.; Kahn, B. H.; Staten, P.

    2015-12-01

    The observation of Earth's atmosphere with passive remote sensing instruments is ongoing for decades and resulting in a long-term global dataset. Two prominent examples are operational satellite platforms from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or research platforms like NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The observed spectral ranges of these observations are often similar among the different platforms, but have large differences when it comes to resolution, accuracy and quality control. Our approach is to combine different kinds of instruments at the pixel-scale to improve the characterization of infrared radiances. We focus on data from the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and compare the observations to radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua. The high spectral resolution of AIRS is used to characterize and possibly recalibrate the observed radiances from HIRS. Our approach is unique in that we use additional information from other passive instruments on the same platforms including the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We will present comparisons of radiances from HIRS and AIRS within different types of clouds that are determined from the imagers. In this way, we can analyze and select the most homogeneous conditions for radiance comparisons and a possible re-calibration of HIRS. We hope to achieve a cloud-type-dependent calibration and quality control for HIRS, which can be extrapolated into the past via inter-calibration of the different HIRS instruments beyond the time of AIRS.

  9. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  10. Epidemiological and experimental links between air pollution and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Ying, Zhekang; Harkema, Jack; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-02-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting links between exposure to environmental toxins and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence to support this association that has been noted in many epidemiologic studies. Inflammation in response to particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposure in air pollution represents a common mechanism that may interact with other pro-inflammatory influences in diet and life style to modulate susceptibility to cardiometabolic diseases. The role of innate immune cytokines released from macrophages in the lung is well known. In addition, chemokine triggers in response to air-pollution exposure may mediate a cellular response from the bone marrow/spleen through toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain receptors (NLRs) pathways to mediate inflammatory response in organs. Emerging data also seem to support a role for PM(2.5) exposure in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and in brown adipose tissue dysfunction. Decreased expression of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue may account for reduced thermogenesis providing another link between PM(2.5) and insulin resistance. The implications of an experimental link between air-pollution exposure and type 2 DM are profound as air pollution is a pervasive risk factor throughout the world and even modest alleviation in exposure may provide substantial public health benefits.

  11. Blast Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Development Generic Hull Testing Airbag and Sensor Technology Development Blast Data Recorder Specifications and Fielding Numerical Model Improvement...seat designs, airbag and restraint systems, and energy absorbing flooring solutions  Vehicle event data recorders for collecting highly accurate...treatments.  Airbag or comparable technologies such as bolsters.  Sensors that can detect and deploy/trigger interior treatments within the timeframe of a

  12. 27. Launch Control Center, blast door at left, view from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Launch Control Center, blast door at left, view from tunnel junction. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  13. 24. GENERAL VIEW OF NEW CONCRETE BLAST BERM FOR NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. GENERAL VIEW OF NEW CONCRETE BLAST BERM FOR NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF A CAMERA PEDESTAL ON THE BLAST DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF A CAMERA PEDESTAL ON THE BLAST DECK OF THE 0 LEVEL - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. High resolution optical spectroscopy of air-induced electrical instabilities in n-type polymer semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Riccardo; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2012-07-03

    We use high-resolution charge-accumulation optical spectroscopy to measure charge accumulation in the channel of an n-type organic field-effect transistor. We monitor the degradation of device performance in air, correlate the onset voltage shift with the reduction of charge accumulated in the polymer semiconductor, and explain the results in view of the redox reaction between the polymer, water and oxygen in the accumulation layer.

  16. Relationships of Type A Behavior with Biographical Characteristics and Training Performance of Air Traffic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Helmreich, Beane , predictive of performance in the Academy screen and Lucker (1980), using the Jenkins Activity Survey, program. demonstrated that...Making it without losing it: Type A, achievement Matthews, K. A., Helmreich, R. L., Beane , W. F., & motivation, and scientific attainment revisited. Lucker...Aviation Medicine Report, the new aptitude testing procedures for selection DOT/ FAVA /A I-78-39. of FAA air traffic control specialists. In Schroeder, D. J

  17. Dry media blasting with wheat starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    The brand name TECHNOSTRIP covers several types of installations and facilities. These were developed mainly to meet the requirements of customers in the aeronautic field. The range of products includes: complete self-supporting and semi-automated system for aircraft stripping; large-size blasting booth for semi-automatic stripping; manual blasting booth; and sealed and portable manual stripping head. Wheat starch media was developed for particle blasting stripping and is used in TECHNOSTRIP. This paper reviews its origins and use as well as use of automated facilities, reliability, effects on materials, effects on environment, and utilization examples.

  18. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Ashley P; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years) were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  19. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  20. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  1. secureBLAST.

    PubMed

    Wiezer, Arnim; Merkl, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    secureBLAST supplements NCBI wwwblast with features necessary to control in an easy manageable way usage of BLAST data sets and their update. The concept we implemented allows to offer on a single BLAST server several data sets with individually configurable access rights. Security is provided by user authentication and encryption of the http traffic via SSL. By using secureBLAST, the administration of users and databases can be done via a web interface. Therefore, secureBLAST is valuable for institutions that have to restrict access to their datasets or just want to administer BLAST servers via a web interface.

  2. A new approach to oxygen enriched high temperature blast generation

    SciTech Connect

    Queille, P.H.; Macauley, D.

    1996-12-31

    When increasing fuel injection in a blast furnace in order to reduce coke consumption and/or to increase production, the blast furnace operator tries to keep similar raceway conditions, for instance, an equivalent flame temperature. To compensate for the cooling effect due to the higher injection rate, two solutions can be selected or combined: to raise the temperature of the blast and/or to increase the level of oxygen in the blast. Whatever the choice, the Blast Furnace manager will certainly try to reduce the resulting investment and operating costs to a minimum. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are trying to provide a new way to address these needs by offering a new technology for blast heating. A higher blast temperature will not only allow a higher fuel injection at tuyere level, a lower coke consumption, but also a lower oxygen consumption. Air Liquide and Kvaerner Davy are now able to offer a new heat regenerator with major advantages over conventional stoves. This new device can be used as a permanent substitute for a stove, or as a temporary one during repair, or stove improvement. It can also be added to an existing set of stoves to increase the average blast temperature.

  3. Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

  4. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  5. The impact of Circulation Weather Types in Urban Air Quality in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    It is now clear that emissions of the main air pollutants in Europe have declined significantly in recent decades (EEA, 2011). Nevertheless, many European countries (including Portugal) do not expect to comply with one (or more) pollutant emission ceilings and to air quality limit values, especially for particulate matter (PM), ground level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (EEA, 2011). Consequently, and considering that air pollution (AP) plays a role as a major cause of human mortality and morbidity, exposure to pollutants remains a key environment-related health concern (EEA 2010). Thus, and to comply with the new limits, new strategies must be applied for air quality management. The main objective of this work is to present an objective classification of pre-defined and widely used CWTs affecting Portugal and, based on the most relevant patterns, provide a framework that is useful to characterise the occurrence of pollution episodes, namely its inter-annual and intra-annual variability, as well as the occurrence of extreme events. CWTs were determined using the simple Geostrophic approximation according to the methodology proposed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000). The interannual variability of the resulting CWTs was determined for the period with AP data (2002-2010) and the number of days for each CWT and season for the same period was accounted for. During this period, the most frequent CWTs were found to be the anticyclonic (A), the north (N) and the northeast (NE) types, accounting respectively for 34.7%, 10.9% and 14% of the days. However, higher-than average episodes tend to occur associated predominantly with situations characterized by a few less frequent CWTs, namely easterly (E), northeasterly (NE) and southeasterly (SE) types (that together contributed to less than one fourth of all observed days), are the ones which are associated to higher median and maximum concentrations of the three pollutants. Results obtained highlight the existence of strong

  6. Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

    2011-06-01

    We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: Δps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R < 10 cm /g 1 / 3) , each explosive had its own (unique) blast wave (e.g., Δps (R , HE) ~ a /Rn , where n is different for each explosive); (ii) these close-in blast waves do not scale with the ``Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.

  7. Water-Processable, Air-Stable Organic Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Exhibiting n-Type Thermoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Tani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Goto, Chigusa; Tanifuji, Naoki; Uda, Ryoko M; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Water-dispersed organic base nanoparticles are utilized for the highly stable n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersion. Long-term stability is often a critical challenge in the application of n-type organic conductors. The present n-type organic materials exhibit almost no degradation in the thermoelectric properties over months, in air.

  8. Heart failure therapeutics on the basis of a biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor. Rationale and design of the BLAST-AHF study (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure).

    PubMed

    Felker, G Michael; Butler, Javed; Collins, Sean P; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Levy, Phillip D; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Soergel, David G; Teerlink, John R; Violin, Jonathan D; Voors, Adriaan A; Pang, Peter S

    2015-03-01

    The BLAST-AHF (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure) study is designed to test the efficacy and safety of TRV027, a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor, in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). AHF remains a major public health problem, and no currently-available therapies have been shown to favorably affect outcomes. TRV027 is a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor that antagonizes angiotensin-stimulated G-protein activation while stimulating β-arrestin. In animal models, these effects reduce afterload while increasing cardiac performance and maintaining stroke volume. In initial human studies, TRV027 appears to be hemodynamically active primarily in patients with activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, a potentially attractive profile for an AHF therapeutic. BLAST-AHF is an international prospective, randomized, phase IIb, dose-ranging study that will randomize up to 500 AHF patients with systolic blood pressure ≥120 mm Hg and ≤200 mm Hg within 24 h of initial presentation to 1 of 3 doses of intravenous TRV027 (1, 5, or 25 mg/h) or matching placebo (1:1:1:1) for at least 48 h and up to 96 h. The primary endpoint is a composite of 5 clinical endpoints (dyspnea, worsening heart failure, length of hospital stay, 30-day rehospitalization, and 30-day mortality) combined using an average z-score. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of dyspnea and change in amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. The BLAST-AHF study will assess the efficacy and safety of a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor in AHF.

  9. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static...) per minute shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches)...

  10. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  11. [Studies on the performance of the dental air turbine handpieces. (Part 1). Air pressure and bur length to be influenced over the rotational performance of the air bearing type handpieces (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Muramatsu, A

    1979-07-01

    Air turbine handpieces are used as the dental cutting instruments for the clinical use and many appliances. But, there are no studies on the performance of air turbine handpieces. So, this paper shows the rotational performance of air turbine handpieces which are influenced over the supplying air pressure and cutting bur length. Experimentally used air turbine handpieces is air bearing type and it's set up air pressure to be supplied is 3.5 kg/cm2. So, in this experiments, the range of air pressure is 1.8 approximately 3.5 kg/cm2, which is established five stages. And the bur length of the rotational parts is 5 approximately 9 mm with five steps. As the results, the rotational performance of air handpieces are influenced over these factors of the air pressure and the bur length. And air pressure to be supplied are influenced to be not only over the rotational speed but the load for the putting a stop to the revolutions.

  12. In-situ rock strength determination for blasting purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, D.K.; Jain, A.

    1994-12-31

    Compressive strength of rocks is often required by mining engineers and quarrying authorities for blasting operations. Uniaxial compressive strength of rocks can be predicted with reasonable accuracy with the help of point load strength tests which can be easily conducted at site by the field staff, simultaneously as the cores are recovered from drilling operations. A number of diametral point load tests and uniaxial compressive strength tests have been conducted on the specimens of different rock types under air dried, and saturated condition as well to study the effect of ground water saturation on strength. It has been observed that due to saturation uniaxial compressive strength and point load strength get reduced to a maximum of 32 and 29 percent respectively. It has also been observed that uniaxial strength is sixteen times the point load strength in air dried as well as saturated condition. However, this factor used for calculating uniaxial compressive strength may be reduced to a lower value for the safety of miners in field blasting operations.

  13. Progress Toward a Global, EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    The MISR and MODIS instruments aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite have been collecting data containing information about the state of Earth's atmosphere and surface for over eleven years. Data from these instruments have been used to develop a global, monthly climatology of aerosol amount that is widely used as a constraint on climate models, including those used for the 2007 IPCC assessment report. The next frontier in assessing aerosol radiative forcing of climate is aerosol type, and in particular, the absorption properties of major aerosol air masses. This presentation will focus on the prospects for constraining aerosol type globally, and the steps we are taking to apply a combination of satellite and suborbital data to this challenge.

  14. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  16. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  17. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  18. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  19. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  2. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator will meet with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the bases for those limitations, and the methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring system... standards of § 816.67 including the type, capability, and sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment...

  3. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator will meet with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the bases for those limitations, and the methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring system... standards of § 816.67 including the type, capability, and sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment...

  4. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator will meet with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the bases for those limitations, and the methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring system... standards of § 816.67 including the type, capability, and sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment...

  5. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator will meet with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the bases for those limitations, and the methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring system... standards of § 816.67 including the type, capability, and sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment...

  6. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator will meet with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the bases for those limitations, and the methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring system... standards of § 816.67 including the type, capability, and sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment...

  7. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  8. Clonal Evolution and Blast Crisis Correlate with Enhanced Proteolytic Activity of Separase in BCR-ABL b3a2 Fusion Type CML under Imatinib Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Weiß, Christel; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Müller, Martin C.; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Unbalanced (major route) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) indicate an increased risk of progression and shorter survival. Moreover, newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment and clonal evolution are considered features of acceleration and define failure of therapy according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations. On the basis of 1151 Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase patients of the randomized CML-study IV, we examined the incidence of newly arising ACA under imatinib treatment with regard to the p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants b2a2 and b3a2. We found a preferential acquisition of unbalanced ACA in patients with b3a2 vs. b2a2 fusion type (ratio: 6.3 vs. 1.6, p = 0.0246) concurring with a faster progress to blast crisis for b3a2 patients (p = 0.0124). ESPL1/Separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in chromosomal segregation during mitosis. Separase overexpression and/or hyperactivity has been reported from a wide range of cancers and cause defective mitotic spindles, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. We investigated the influence of p210BCR-ABL breakpoint variants and imatinib treatment on expression and proteolytic activity of Separase as measured with a specific fluorogenic assay on CML cell lines (b2a2: KCL-22, BV-173; b3a2: K562, LAMA-84). Despite a drop in Separase protein levels an up to 5.4-fold increase of Separase activity under imatinib treatment was observed exclusively in b3a2 but not in b2a2 cell lines. Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. Our data suggest the existence of a fusion type-related feedback mechanism that posttranslationally stimulates Separase proteolytic activity after therapy-induced decreases in Separase protein levels. This could render b3a2 CML cells more prone to aneuploidy and clonal evolution than b2a2 progenitors

  9. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Arora, H.; Kelly, M.; Worley, A.; Del Linz, P.; Fergusson, A.; Hooper, P. A.; Dear, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson–Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg−1/3, 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411–413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  10. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    PubMed

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  11. Fuel-air ratio (Lambda) correcting apparatus for a rotor-type carburetor for integral combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, R.

    1988-02-23

    This patent describes a fuel-air ratio correcting apparatus in a rotor-type carburetor for internal combustion engines with spark ignition for producing ingestion air with fuel-air ratios within a predetermined range defined by lean and rich limits matched to the requirements of the various operational points of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotating element including a turbine which is driven by a turbine driving airstream which is induced by the engine and which becomes at least a portion of the ingested air stream, the rotating element containing a centrifugal pump for delivering a quantity of fuel which is in a substantially constant ratio to the rotational velocity of the rotating element. The fuel is delivered to a coaxial atomization means on the rotating element for broad-casting atomized fuel into the driving airstream. The centrifugal pump is sized to deliver a quantity of fuel to the driving airstream to establish a fuel-air ratio at one limit of the predetermined range, and means for sensing one or more parameters(s) affecting operation of the internal combustion engine and for selectively varying the volume of at least one of the constituents of the fuel-air mixture ingested by the engine for establishing a predetermined fuel-air ratio variable over the remainder of the range of fuel-air ratios in dependence on one or more measured operating parameter(s) of the internal combustion engine. The rotor-type carburetor has a rotor driven via an impeller by the ingested air stream, the rotor containing a centrifugal pump for delivering via at least one lateral fuel discharge bore a qantity of fuel which is in a constant ratio to the ingested air and which is dimensioned for a lean mixture.

  12. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  13. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  14. Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants on Platelet Activation in People with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Mark W.; Bausch, Jan; Chalupa, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Little, Erika L.; Oakes, David; Stewart, Judith C.; Utell, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that increases in exposure to ambient air pollution are associated with platelet activation and formation of circulating tissue-factor-expressing microparticles. We studied 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes, without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, who had previously participated in a human clinical study of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP). Blood was obtained for measurements of platelet activation following an overnight stay in the Clinical Research Center, prior to each of their two pre-exposure visits. Air pollution and meteorological data, including UFP counts, were analyzed for the 5 days prior to the subjects’ arrival at the Clinical Research Center. Contrary to expectations, increases in UFP were associated with decreases in surface expression of platelet activation markers. The number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates decreased by −80 (95% confidence interval (CI) −123 to −37, p=0.001) on the first lag day (20–44 hours prior to the blood draw) and by −85 (CI −139 to −31, p=0.005) on combined lag days 1 to 5, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFP particle number (2482). However, levels of soluble CD40L increased 104 (CI 3 to 205, p=0.04) pg/ml per IQR increase in UFP on lag day 1, a finding consistent with prior platelet activation. We speculate that, in people with diabetes, exposure to UFP activates circulating platelets within hours of exposure, followed by an increase in soluble CD40L and a rebound reduction in circulating platelet surface markers. PMID:23033996

  15. Effects of outdoor air pollutants on platelet activation in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark W; Bausch, Jan; Chalupa, David; Hopke, Philip K; Little, Erika L; Oakes, David; Stewart, Judith C; Utell, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that increases in exposure to ambient air pollution are associated with platelet activation and formation of circulating tissue factor-expressing microparticles. We studied 19 subjects with type 2 diabetes, without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, who had previously participated in a human clinical study of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP). Blood was obtained for measurements of platelet activation following an overnight stay in the Clinical Research Center, prior to each of their two pre-exposure visits. Air pollution and meteorological data, including UFP counts, were analyzed for the 5 days prior to the subjects' arrival at the Clinical Research Center. Contrary to expectations, increases in UFP were associated with decreases in surface expression of platelet activation markers. The number of platelet-leukocyte conjugates decreased by -80 (95% confidence interval (CI) -123 to -37, p = 0.001) on the first lag day (20-44 h prior to the blood draw) and by -85 (CI -139 to -31, p = 0.005) on combined lag days 1 to 5, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in UFP particle number (2482). However, levels of soluble CD40L increased 104 (CI 3 to 205, p = 0.04) pg/ml per IQR increase in UFP on lag day 1, a finding consistent with prior platelet activation. We speculate that, in people with diabetes, exposure to UFP activates circulating platelets within hours of exposure, followed by an increase in soluble CD40L and a rebound reduction in circulating platelet surface markers.

  16. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents.

  17. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-01-31

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m(2) ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m(2) were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes.

  18. Air-water ‘tornado’-type microwave plasmas applied for sugarcane biomass treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Amorim, J.

    2014-02-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane biomass is an attractive alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Pretreatment is needed to separate the cellulosic material, which is packed with hemicellulose and lignin in cell wall of sugarcane biomass. A microwave ‘tornado’-type air-water plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz and atmospheric pressure has been applied for this purpose. Samples of dry and wet biomass (˜2 g) have been exposed to the late afterglow plasma stream. The experiments demonstrate that the air-water highly reactive plasma environment provides a number of long-lived active species able to destroy the cellulosic wrapping. Scanning electron microscopy has been applied to analyse the morphological changes occurring due to plasma treatment. The effluent gas streams have been analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Optical emission spectroscopy and FT-IR have been applied to determine the gas temperature in the discharge and late afterglow plasma zones, respectively. The optimal range of the operational parameters is discussed along with the main active species involved in the treatment process. Synergistic effects can result from the action of singlet O2(a 1Δg) oxygen, NO2, nitrous acid HNO2 and OH hydroxyl radical.

  19. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes.

  20. [Unusual and fatal type of burn injury: hot air sauna burn].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Koljonen, V

    2007-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a popular recreational activity in Finland and is generally considered safe even for pregnant women and patients suffering from heart problems; but mixing alcohol with sauna bathing can be hazardous. In the normal Finnish recreational sauna the temperature is usually between 80 and 90 degrees C. A wide variety of burn injuries, in all age groups, are related to sauna bathing; scalds and contact burns account for over 85% while hot air, steam and flame burns for only 15%. Dehydration in patients under the influence of alcohol heightens the risk of hypotension which impairs skin blood circulation. This increased warming of the skin is an effect that is more marked on the outer and upper parts of the body exposed to hot air. Such patients require intensive care on admission: fluid replacement according to the Parkland formula, forced diuresis and immediate correction of acidosis and myoglobinuria. These patients have significant rhabdomyolysis on admission. The best predictor of survival is the creatine kinase level on the second post-injury day. CT scans are necessary to diagnose the underlying conditions of unconsciousness. The necrotic area extends to subcutaneous fat tissue and even to the underlying muscles. The level of excision is typically fascial and, in some areas, layers of the muscle must be removed. Owing to the popularity of sauna bathing throughout the world, it is important to know the extent of damage in this type of injury, in order not to underestimate the severity of such lesions.

  1. Molecular Changes and Vision Loss in a Mouse Model of Closed-Globe Blast Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Hines-Beard, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize retinal changes and assess vision after an eye-directed air blast. Methods. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a blast directed at one eye. Optical coherence tomography and histology were performed to assess retina and optic nerve integrity. Cell death, oxidative stress, and glial reactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visual changes were measured by ERG recordings and the optokinetic reflex. Results. In the outer retina, eye blast caused retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and rare retinal detachments followed by regional cell death. Labeling for nitrotyrosine and markers of pyroptosis (caspase-1) and necroptosis (receptor-interacting protein kinases-1, -3) increased, primarily in the inner retina, after blast. Caspase-1 labeling was restricted primarily to the starburst amacrine cells. A few degenerating axons were detected at 28 days post blast. Despite a lack of substantial cell death or decreased ERG, there was a deficit in visual acuity after blast. Conclusions. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death became increasingly prevalent, over time post blast suggestive of an ongoing neurodegenerative response. Outer retinal changes either resolved or remained focal. In contrast, inner retinal changes were more robust and spread from focal regions to the entire retina over time post blast. Our model of eye blast trauma causes molecular changes and a decrease in visual acuity within the first month post blast despite a lack of overt eye injury. This subtle response matches the delayed presentation of visual deficits in some blast-exposed Veterans. PMID:24994864

  2. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  3. A genomics study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Lott, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    The military community is at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially as it relates to military beneficiaries, although preventive measures can be implemented to reduce disease onset. This study evaluates the prevalence of risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients diagnosed with T2D within active duty, retired military, and military-dependent populations on Lackland Air Force Base compared to nondiabetic controls. Results will be used as a basis of comparison to analyze risk-conferring genotypes in the young, healthy active duty population to generate the prevalence of T2D risk-associated factors in our current and future war fighters. Identifying genetic markers of T2D prior to abnormal glucose control and insulin resistance may ultimately adjust future risk through early detection, healthy lifestyle modifications, and disease management programs.

  4. N-type doping of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) with air-stable dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingtao; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2011-10-01

    The electron transport in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives blended with the air-stable n-type dopant (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl)dimethylamine (N-DMBI) is investigated. This dopant is activated after thin film deposition by annealing and strongly enhances the electron transport due to filling of electron traps as well as donation of free electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of PPV. As a result, the electron current in a doped device exceeds the trap-free hole current. The total generated free electron density in the LUMO by the dopant typically amounts to 1023 m-3.

  5. Cost analysis of new and retrofit hot-air type solar assisted heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Hawkins, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed cost analysis/cost improvement study was performed on two Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration operational test sites to determine actual costs and potential cost improvements of new and retrofit hot air type, solar assisted heating and hot water systems for single family sized structures. This analysis concentrated on the first cost of a system which included procurement, installation, and integration of a solar assisted heating and hot water system on a new or retrofit basis; it also provided several cost projections which can be used as inputs to payback analyses, depending upon the degree of optimism or future improvements assumed. Cost definitions were developed for five categories of cost, and preliminary estimates were developed for each. The costing methodology, approach, and results together with several candidate low cost designs are described.

  6. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    single blast insult did not demonstrate a change in the post-synaptic marker GluR1. Triple blast shockwaves greatly reduced the level of GluR1...the air-water interface (Fig. 2). The aquarium test provides an excellent method for visualization of shockwave movements and their interactions with...Piezotronics Inc., Depew, NY) were used to measure the shockwave overpressure duration at a position of 2 cm above the cultured samples. All pressure gauges

  7. Performance of Steel Stud Walls Subjected to Blast Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    20, 2006, St. Louis, MO, USA. Grumbach, Steven D., Clay Naito, and Robert J. Dinan (2007). “Use of Precast Concrete Walls for Protection of Steel...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0012 PREPRINT PERFORMANCE OF STEEL STUD WALLS SUBJECTED TO BLAST LOADS Bryan Bewick Air Force Research Laboratory...Performance of Steel Stud Walls Subjected to Blast Loads (PREPRINT) FA4819-09-C-0032 62012F 4918 C1 Q103013 +Bewick, Bryan; *Hoemann, John

  8. Head Kinematics Resulting from Simulated Blast Loading Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-17

    pressure wave and the body which commonly damages air-filled organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ears. Secondary blast injury...subsequent impact with surrounding obstacles or the ground. Quaternary injury is the result of other factors including burns or inhalation of dust and gas... Woods , W., Feldman, S., Cummings, T., et al. (2011). Survival Risk Assessment for Primary Blast Exposures to the Head. Journal of neurotrauma, 2328

  9. Peak Overpressures for Internal Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    61 70 115 132 CSHSN4 012 PETN , ,fltrythritltitraitr~l. 52 56 103 110 CaNS012 HNS , Hianitrobenrene 48 57 94 112 C6N~O Peftanitrobertuaqw 56 64 107...TEMPERATURE, K FIGURE 7. Heat Capacity Ratio k (CV + R)/C for Explosion Products. pentaerythritol tetranitrate ( PETN ), an explosive approxi- mately balanced in...overpressure range, the overpressures devel- oped by a given fuel-air ratio of PETN are less than those for TNT. The internal blast yield for PETN is

  10. 3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Model-based flow rate control for an orfice-type low-volume air sampler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method of measuring air suspended particulate matter concentration per volume of air consists of continuously drawing a defined volume of air across a filter over an extended period of time, then measuring the mass of the filtered particles and dividing it by the total volume sampled ov...

  12. AN IMPROVED AIR-DRIVEN TYPE OF ULTRACENTRIFUGE FOR MOLECULAR SEDIMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Johannes H.; Pickels, Edward G.

    1937-01-01

    1. A description is given of the construction details and operation characteristics of an improved type of air-driven ultracentrifuge operating in vacuum and suitable for the determination of sedimentation constants of protein molecules. 2. The rotor of the centrifuge is made of a forged aluminum alloy; it is oval in shape, measures 185 mm. at its greatest diameter, and weighs 3,430 gm. It carries a transparent cell located at a distance of 65 mm. from the axis of rotation and designed to accommodate a fluid column 15 mm. high. 3. The rotor has been run repeatedly over long periods at a speed of 60,000 R.P.M., which corresponds to a centrifugal force of 260,000 times gravity in the center of the cell. At this speed no deformation of the rotor nor leakage of the cell has been observed. 4. The sharp definition of sedimentation photographs taken at high speed serves to indicate the absence of detectable vibrations in the centrifuge. 5. When a vacuum of less than 1 micron of mercury is maintained in the centrifuge chamber, the rise in the rotor temperature amounts to only 1 or 2°C. after several hours' run at high speed. 6. There has been no evidence of convection currents interfering with normal sedimentation of protein molecules in the centrifugal field. 7. A driving air pressure of about 18 pounds per square inch is sufficient to maintain the centrifuge at a steady speed of 60,000 R.P.M. With a driving pressure of 80 pounds per square inch, it can be accelerated to this speed in less than 20 minutes, and also brought to rest in about the same length of time by the application of the braking system. 8. The adaptation of Svedberg's optical systems to this centrifuge for photographically recording the movement of sedimentation boundaries is described. PMID:19870619

  13. Foliage response of young central European oaks to air warming, drought and soil type.

    PubMed

    Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Vollenweider, P

    2013-01-01

    Three Central European oak species, with four provenances each, were experimentally tested in 16 large model ecosystem chambers for their response to passive air warming (AW, ambient +1-2 °C), drought (D, -43 to -60% irrigation) and their combination (AWD) for 3 years on two forest soil types of pH 4 or 7. Throughout the entire experiment, the influence of the different ambient and experimental climates on the oak trees was strong. The morphological traits of the Quercus species were affected in opposing ways in AW and D treatments, with a neutral effect in the AWD treatment. Biochemical parameters and LMA showed low relative plasticity compared to the morphological and growth parameters. The high plasticity in physiologically important parameters of the three species, such as number of intercalary veins or leaf size, indicated good drought acclimation properties. The soil type influenced leaf chlorophyll concentration, C/N and area more than drought, whereas foliage mass was more dependent on drought than on soil type. Through comparison of visible symptom development with the water deficits, a drought tolerance threshold of -1.3 MPa was determined. Although Q. pubescens had xeromorphic leaf characteristics (small leaf size, lower leaf water content, high LMA, pilosity, more chlorophyll, higher C/N) and less response to the treatments than Q. petraea and Q. robur, it suffered more leaf drought injury and shedding of leaves than Q. petraea. However, if foliage mass were used as the criterion for sustainable performance under a future climate, Q. robur would be the most appropriate species.

  14. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  16. Apparent contact angles induced by evaporation into air: interferometric measurements and lubrication-type modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colinet, Pierre; Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey

    2014-11-01

    For volatile liquids, finite contact angles on solid substrates can occur even in the case of perfect wetting, immobile contact lines and ideally smooth surfaces. This is a fluid-dynamic effect due to evaporation typically intensifying towards a small vicinity of the contact line. In the present talk, we first overview recent theoretical results on the subject, where we focus primarily on the case of diffusion-limited evaporation into air. The model is based upon the so-called de Gennes' paradigm, incorporating simultaneously the spreading coefficient and the disjoining pressure in the form of an inverse cubic law. Then we carry out comparison with experimental results for the contact angles of evaporating sessile drops of several perfectly-wetting HFE liquids of different volatility recently obtained by Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The scaling-type theoretical prediction for the apparent contact angle is found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Another model based upon the Kelvin effect (curvature dependence of the saturation conditions) is also briefly discussed, an important conceptual feature of which being that contact-line singularities (both evaporation- and motion-induced) can be fully regularized, in contrast with the first model. Support from ESA, BELSPO and FRS-FNRS is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Rothia aeria Type Strain JCM 11412, Isolated from Air in the Russian Space Laboratory Mir.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Takayuki; Tsuzukibashi, Osamu; Uchibori, Satoshi; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hugo; Wang, Pao-Li; Mugita, Naho; Morioka, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuya; Komasa, Yutaka; Mashimo, Chiho

    2016-12-29

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Rothia aeria type strain JCM 11412, isolated from air in the Russian space laboratory Mir. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports on infections caused by R. aeria The genomic information will enable researchers to identify the pathogenicity of this organism.

  18. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

  19. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Tunnel in Weathered Rock Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rohit; Chakraborty, Tanusree; Matsagar, Vasant

    2016-11-01

    The present study deals with three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses of a tunnel in rock with reinforced concrete (RC) lining subjected to internal blast loading. The analyses have been performed using the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian analysis tool available in FE software Abaqus/Explicit. Rock and RC lining are modeled using three-dimensional Lagrangian elements. Beam elements have been used to model reinforcement in RC lining. Three different rock types with different weathering conditions have been used to understand the response of rock when subjected to blast load. The trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive and surrounding air have been modeled using the Eulerian elements. The Drucker-Prager plasticity model with strain rate-dependent material properties has been used to simulate the stress-strain response of rock. The concrete damaged plasticity model and Johnson-Cook plasticity model have been used for the simulation of stress-strain response of concrete and steel, respectively. The explosive (TNT) has been modeled using Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state. The analysis results have been studied for stresses, deformation and damage of RC lining and the surrounding rock. It is observed that damage in RC lining results in higher stress in rock. Rocks with low modulus and high weathering conditions show higher attenuation of shock wave. Higher amount of ground shock wave propagation is observed in case of less weathered rock. Ground heave is observed under blast loading for tunnel close to ground surface.

  1. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  2. Lightweight blast shield

    SciTech Connect

    Mixon, Larry C.; Snyder, George W.; Hill, Scott D.; Johnson, Gregory L.; Wlodarski, J. Frank; von Spakovsky, Alexis P.; Emerson, John D.; Cole, James M.; Tipton, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  3. Brecciated Chely Abinsk Near-Earth Asteroid and its Catastrophic Air Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, D. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the hazards of near-Earth asteroid (NEA) impacts has been vexed by a paucity of precise data. Existing estimates of blast damage (e.g., [1]), for example, rely on uncertain impact energies for events like Sikhote-Alin, Tunguska, and Barringer Meteorite Crater. The Chelyabinsk air burst event of 15 February 2013, involving an LL-type NEA, provides an excellent calibration point for enhancing those assessments.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Tensile Strength of a Type IV Gypsum Using Microwave and Air Drying Methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuraag; Shetty, Manoj; Hegde, Chethan; Shetty, N Sridhar; Prasad, D Krishna

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate dimensional accuracy and tensile strength of a type IV gypsum product, at different time intervals, dried in air or a microwave oven. Eighty specimens prepared from a cylindrical mould were used for measuring tensile strength (group A). Twenty specimens from a master die mould were used for determining dimensional accuracy (group B). In group A, 40 specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (A1). The other 40 were removed after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were subjected to microwave oven drying for 5 min (A2). Ten specimens each were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after drying. In group B, ten specimens were dried in open air at room temperature (B1). Ten specimens were removed from the mould after 30 min and air dried for 20 min. These were then dried in a microwave oven for 5 min (B2). The data was statistically analyzed using students unpaired "t" test. At all time intervals, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values for specimens dried in microwave oven were significantly higher than for those dried in open air. There were no significant differences between the dimensional accuracy of the two groups. In this study, microwave oven drying had a positive effect on the DTS of a type IV gypsum and the microwave oven dried specimens were as accurate as the air dried specimens over the same time period.

  5. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  6. Injury risk prediction from computational simulations of ocular blast loading.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Sarah M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-04-01

    A predictive Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element eye model was used to analyze 2.27 and 0.45 kg trinitrotoluene equivalent blasts detonated from 24 different locations. Free air and ground level blasts were simulated directly in front of the eye and at lateral offset locations with box, average, less protective, and more protective orbital anthropometries, resulting in 96 simulations. Injury risk curves were developed for hyphema, lens dislocation, retinal damage, and globe rupture from experimental and computational data to compute risk from corneoscleral stress and intra-ocular pressure computational outputs. Corneoscleral stress, intra-ocular pressure, and injury risks increased when the blast size was larger and located nearer to the eye. Risks ranged from 20-100 % for hyphema, 1-100 % for lens dislocation, 2-100 % for retinal damage, and 0-98 % for globe rupture depending on the blast condition. Orbital geometry affected the stresses, pressures, and associated ocular injury risks of the blast conditions simulated. Orbital geometries that more fully surrounded the eye such as the more protective orbit tended to produce higher corneoscleral stresses and compression of the eye against the surrounding rigid orbit contributing to high stresses as the blast wave propagated. However, the more protective orbit tended to produce lower intra-ocular pressures in comparison with the other three orbital geometries which may indicate that the more protective orbit inhibits propagation of the blast wave and reduces ocular loading. Results of this parametric computational study of ocular blast loading are valuable to the design of eye protection equipment and the mitigation of blast-related eye injuries.

  7. On the association between daily mortality and air mass types in Athens, Greece during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Gryparis, Alexandros; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we examined the short-term effects of air mass types on mortality in Athens, Greece. An objective air mass types classification was used, based on meteorological parameters measured at the surface. Mortality data were treated with generalized additive models (GAM) and extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns, adjusting also for temperature, long-term trends, day of the week, and ambient particle concentrations. The introduced air mass classification explains the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southerly flow conditions for both the cold (increase in relative risk for mortality 9%; with a 95% confidence interval: 3-14%), and the warm period (7%; with a 95% confidence interval: 2-13%) of the year. The northeasterly flow is associated with the lowest mortality. Effects on mortality, independent of temperature, are observed mainly for lag 0 during the cold period, but persist longer during the warm period. Not adjusting for temperature and/or ambient particle levels slightly alters the results, which then reflect the known temperature and particle effects, already reported in the literature. In conclusion, we find that air mass types have independent effects on mortality for both the cold and warm season and may be used to predict weather-related adverse health effects.

  8. An Investigation of the Effects of Density, Size and Shape Upon the Air Classification of Municipal Type Solid Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    municipal solid waste type materials into more than two fractions by passing the material through a vertical air classifier. This feasibility was demonstrated by suspending specimens of varying densities, sizes, and shapes in a vertical air classifier and noting the terminal velocities of the materials. Since most shredded solid waste approximates flat plates of varying sizes and shapes, flat plates of six different materials in aspect ratios (length over width) from one to four and in four different sizes from 0.0625 to 1.000 square inches (0.4032 to 6.4516

  9. Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD): a prospective study investigating the impact of air pollution exposure and propensity for type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhichao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Brook, Robert D; Gatts, Geoffrey A; Yang, Fumo; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Jeffrey R; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-03-15

    There is a paucity of prospective cohort studies investigating the impact of environmental factors on the development of cardiometabolic (CM) disorders like type II diabetes (T2DM). The objective of the Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD) study is to investigate the impact of personal level air pollution measures [personal black carbon (BC)/sulfate measures] and ambient fine particulate matter [(PM2.5)/NO2] levels on propensity to type II diabetes in Beijing, China. Subjects with metabolic syndrome will undergo four repeated study visits within each season over a one year period following an initial screening visit. At each study visit, subjects will be monitored for sub-acute exposure to personal and ambient measures of air-pollution exposure and will undergo a series of functional CM outcomes. The primary endpoints include independent associations between integrated 5-day mean exposure to PM2.5 and BC and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) measures, 24-hour mean diastolic and mean arterial pressure and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. The secondary endpoints will explore the mechanistic explanation for a causal relationship between exposures and propensity for type II diabetes and will include additional functional outcomes such as arterial compliance, heart rate variability and plasma adipokines. The novel aspects of the study include the launch of infrastructure for future translational investigations in highly polluted urbanized environments and the creation of novel methodologies for linking personalized exposure measurements with functional CM outcomes. We believe that AIRCMD will allow for unprecedented new investigations into the association between environmental risk factors and CM disorders.

  10. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  11. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 1. Nuclear explosions, 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.F.; Simonds, B.T.

    1984-10-31

    The primary objective of this experiment was to obtain accurate information on the pressure in the shock wave in the free-air region. In particular, it was desired to know the peak pressure as a function of distance in this region. Secondary objectives were to determine the path of the triple point and to determine the peak pressure in the Mach-stem region.

  12. Compressed air blast injury with palpebral, orbital, facial, cervical, and mediastinal emphysema through an eyelid laceration: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of orbital or periorbital compressed air injuries from air guns or hoses have been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 30-year-old man was accidentally injured when a compressed air hose nozzle hit his right eye. The right half of his face was markedly swollen and a skin laceration near the right medial canthus was identified. A computed tomography scan showed subcutaneous and intraorbital emphysema around the right eye as well as cervical and mediastinal emphysema. He was prophylactically treated with systemic and topical antibiotics to prevent infection. All emphysemas had completely resolved 2 weeks after the injury. Conclusions A review of all 15 cases (including ours) showed that all patients were male and that 6 of the 15 (40.0%) cases were related to industrial accidents. Although emphysema was restricted to the subconjunctival space in 2 (13.3%) cases, it spread to the orbit in the remaining 13 (86.7%) cases. Cervical and mediastinal emphysemas were found in 3 (20.0%) cases, and intracranial emphysema was confirmed in 6 (40.0%) cases. Prophylactic antibiotics were used in most cases and the prognosis was generally good in all but one patient, who developed optic atrophy and blindness. PMID:24195485

  13. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types.

  14. Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

  15. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  16. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  17. Impact of Moderate Blast Exposures on Thrombin Biomarkers Assessed by Calibrated Automated Thrombography in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Serebruany, Victor L.; Svetlov, Artem; Hayes, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Severe blast exposures are frequently complicated with fatal intracranial hemorrhages. However, many more sustain low level blasts without tissue damage detectable by brain imaging. To investigate effects of nonlethal blast on thrombin-related biomarkers, rats were subjected to two different types of head-directed blast: 1) moderate “composite” blast with strong head acceleration or 2) moderate primary blast, without head acceleration. Thrombin generation (TG) ex vivo after blast was studied by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT). In the same blood samples, we assessed maximal concentration of TG (TGmax), start time, peak time, mean time, and concentrations of protein markers for vascular/hemostatic dysfunctions: integrin α/β, soluble endothelial selectin (sE-selectin), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Blast remarkably affected all TG indices. In animals exposed to “composite” blast, TGmax peaked at 6 h (∼4.5-fold vs. control), sustained at day 1 (∼3.8-fold increase), and declined to a 2-fold increase over control at day 7 post-blast. After primary blast, TGmax also rose to ∼4.2-fold of control at 6 h, dropped to ∼1.7-fold of control at day 1, and then exhibited a slight secondary increase at 2-fold of control at day 7. Other TG indices did not differ significantly between two types of blast exposure. The changes were also observed in other microvascular/inflammatory/hemostatic biomarkers. Integrin α/β and sICAM-1 levels were elevated after both “composite” and primary blast at 6 h, 1 day, and 7 days. sE-selectin exhibited near normal levels after “composite” blast, but increased significantly at 7 days after primary blast; MMP-2, MMP-8, and MMP-13 slightly rose after “composite” blast and significantly increased (∼2-4-fold) after primary blast. In summary, CAT may have a clinical diagnostic utility in combination with selected

  18. Molecular typing of Legionella pneumophila from air-conditioning cooling waters using mip gene, SBT, and FAFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangli; Li, Juntao; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Shuiping; Qu, Pinghua; Yang, Zhicong; Chen, Shouyi

    2017-04-07

    Legionella spp. are important waterborne pathogens. Molecular typing has become an important method for outbreaks investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires. In a survey program conducted by the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, multiple serotypes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) were isolated from waters in air-conditioning cooling towers in urban Guangzhou region, China between 2008 and 2011. Three genotyping methods, mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) genotyping, SBT (sequence-based typing), and FAFLP (fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) were used to type these waterborne L. pneumophila isolates. The three methods were capable of typing all the 134 isolates and a reference strain of L. pneumophila (ATCC33153), with discriminatory indices of 0.7034, 0.9218, and 0.9376, for the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. Among the 9 serotypes of the 134 isolates, 10, 50, and 34 molecular types were detected by the mip, SBT, and FAFLP methods respectively. The mip genotyping and SBT typing are more feasible for inter-laboratory results sharing and comparison of different types of L. pneumophila. The SBT and FAFLP typing methods were rapid with higher discriminatory abilities. Combinations of two or more of the typing methods enables more accurate typing of Legionella isolates for outbreak investigations and source tracking of Legionnaires.

  19. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  20. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently.

  1. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (>100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  3. Low-Level Blast Exposure Increases Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Expression in the Rat Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Por, Elaine D.; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Lund, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Blast-related ocular injuries sustained by military personnel have led to rigorous efforts to elucidate the effects of blast exposure on neurosensory function. Recent studies have provided some insight into cognitive and visual deficits sustained following blast exposure; however, limited data are available on the effects of blast on pain and inflammatory processes. Investigation of these secondary effects of blast exposure is necessary to fully comprehend the complex pathophysiology of blast-related injuries. The overall purpose of this study is to determine the effects of single and repeated blast exposure on pain and inflammatory mediators in ocular tissues. Methods: A compressed air shock tube was used to deliver a single or repeated blast (68.0 ± 2.7 kPa) to anesthetized rats daily for 5 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed on ocular tissues to determine the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) following single and repeated blast exposure. Neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression were also assessed in blast tissues via immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, respectively. Results: TRPV1 expression was increased in rat corneas exposed to both single and repeated blast. Increased secretion of CGRP, SP, and ET-1 was also detected in rat corneas as compared to control. Moreover, repeated blast exposure resulted in neutrophil infiltration in the cornea and stromal layer as compared to control animals. Conclusion: Single and repeated blast exposure resulted in increased expression of TRPV1, CGRP, SP, and ET-1 as well as neutrophil infiltration. Collectively, these findings provide novel insight into the activation of pain and inflammation signaling mediators following blast exposure. PMID:27049881

  4. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  5. Impacts of grassland types and vegetation cover changes on surface air temperature in the regions of temperate grassland of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Li, Guangdi; Yu, Pujia; Zhou, Daowei

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of surface air temperature response to different grassland types and vegetation cover changes in the regions of temperate grassland of China was analyzed by observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method. The basis of the OMR approach is that reanalysis data are insensitive to local surface properties, so the temperature differences between surface observations and reanalysis can be attributed to land effects. Results showed that growing-season air temperature increased by 0.592 °C/decade in the regions of temperate grassland of China, with about 31 % of observed warming associated with the effects of grassland types and vegetation cover changes. For different grassland types, the growing-season OMR trend was the strongest for temperate desert steppe (0.259 °C/decade) and the weakest for temperate meadow (0.114 °C/decade). Our results suggest that the stronger intraseasonal changes of grassland vegetation are present, the more sensitive the OMR trend responds to the intraseasonal vegetation cover changes. In August and September, the OMR of temperate meadow showed a weak cooling trend. For temperate meadow, about 72.2 and 72.6 % of surface cooling were explained by both grassland type and increase of vegetation cover for August and September, respectively. For temperate steppe and temperate desert steppe, due to the limited soil moisture and little evaporative cooling feedback, the vegetation changes have no significant effect on the surface air temperature. These results indicate that the impact of grassland types and vegetation cover changes should be considered when projecting further climate change in the temperate grassland region of China.

  6. Neuronal and glial changes in the brain resulting from explosive blast in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, James A; Kim, Jung H; Situ, Robert; Taylor, Wesley; Westmoreland, Ted; Du, Fu; Parks, Steven; Ling, Geoffrey; Hwang, Jung Y; Rapuano, Amedeo; Bandak, Faris A; de Lanerolle, Nihal C

    2016-11-24

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the signature injury in warfighters exposed to explosive blasts. The pathology underlying mTBI is poorly understood, as this condition is rarely fatal and thus postmortem brains are difficult to obtain for neuropathological studies. Here we report on studies of an experimental model with a gyrencephalic brain that is exposed to single and multiple explosive blast pressure waves. To determine injuries to the brain resulting from the primary blast, experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate any secondary or tertiary injury from blasts. We found small but significant levels of neuronal loss in the hippocampus, a brain area that is important for cognitive functions. Furthermore, neuronal loss increased with multiple blasts and the degree of neuronal injury worsened with time post-blast. This is consistent with our findings in the blast-exposed human brain based on magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. The studies on this experimental model thus confirm what has been presumed to be the case with the warfighter, namely that exposure to multiple blasts causes increased brain injury. Additionally, as in other studies of both explosive blast as well as closed head mTBI, we found astrocyte activation. Activated microglia were also prominent in white matter tracts, particularly in animals exposed to multiple blasts and at long post-blast intervals, even though injured axons (i.e. β-APP positive) were not found in these areas. Microglial activation appears to be a delayed response, though whether they may contribute to inflammation related injury mechanism at even longer post-blast times than we tested here, remains to be explored. Petechial hemorrhages or other gross signs of vascular injury were not observed in our study. These findings confirm the development of neuropathological changes due to blast exposure. The activation of astrocytes and microglia, cell types potentially involved in inflammatory processes, suggest an

  7. The Effect of Underwater Blast on Aggregating Brain Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Thomas W; Lee, Julian J; Villanueva, Mercy; Wang, Yushan; Nelson, Peggy; Song, Yanfeng; Fan, Chengyang; Barnes, Julia; McLaws, Lori

    2017-01-15

    Although the deleterious effects of primary blast on gas-filled organs are well accepted, the effect of blast-induced shock waves on the brain is less clear because of factors that complicate the interpretation of clinical and experimental data. Brain cell aggregate cultures are comprised of multiple differentiated brain cell types and were used to examine the effects of underwater blast. Suspensions of these cultures encased in dialysis tubing were exposed to explosive-generated underwater blasts of low (∼300 kPa), medium (∼2,700 kPa), or high (∼14,000 kPa) intensities and harvested at 1-28 days post-exposure. No changes in gross morphology were noted immediately or weeks after blast wave exposure, and no increases in either apoptotic (caspase-3) or necrotic (lactate dehydrogenase) cell death were observed. Changes in neuronal (neurofilament H, acetylcholinesterase, and choline acetyltransferase) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase) endpoints did not occur. However, significant time- and pressure-related increases in Akt (protein kinase B) phosphorylation were noted, as well as declines in vascular endothelial growth factor levels, implicating pathways involved in cellular survival mechanisms. The free-floating nature of the aggregates during blast wave exposure, coupled with their highly hydrolyzed dialysis tubing containment, results in minimized boundary effects, thus enabling accurate assessment of brain cell response to a simplified shock-induced stress wave. This work shows that, at its simplest, blast-induced shock waves produce subtle changes in brain tissue. This study has mechanistic implications for the study of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury and supports the thesis that underwater blast may cause subtle changes in the brains of submerged individuals.

  8. Modelling and Testing of Blast Effect On the Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuli, Lucia; Jangl, Štefan; Papán, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    As a blasting agent in the blasting and mining engineering, has been using one of so called new generation of explosives which offer greater flexibility in their range and application, and such explosive is ANFO. It is type of explosive consists of an oxidiser and a fuel (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). One of such ANFO explosives which are industrially made in Slovakia is POLONIT. The explosive is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, methyl esters of higher fatty acids, vegetable oil and red dye. The paper deals with the analysis of structure subjected to the blast load created by the explosion of POLONIT charge. First part of paper is describing behaviour and characteristic of blast wave generated from the blast (detonation characteristics, physical characteristics, time-history diagram etc.) and the second part presents the behaviour of such loaded structures, because of the analysis of such dynamical loaded structure is required knowing the parameters of blast wave, its effect on structure and the tools for the solution of dynamic analysis. The real field tests of three different weight of charges and two different structures were done. The explosive POLONIT was used together with 25 g of ignition explosive PLNp10. Analytical and numerical model of blast loaded structure is compared with the results obtained from the field tests (is compared with the corresponding experimental accelerations). For the modelling structures were approximated as a one-degree system of freedom (SDOF), where the blast wave was estimated with linear decay and exponential decay using positive and negative phase of blast wave. Numerical solution of the steel beam dynamic response was performed via FEM (Finite Element Method) using standard software Visual FEA.

  9. Conjugate acene fused buckybowls: evaluating their suitability for p-type, ambipolar and n-type air stable organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Uppula; Sastry, G Narahari

    2013-04-14

    Elaborate and exhaustive first principles calculations were carried out to screen the novel properties of a series of acene fused buckybowls. The acene fused compounds exhibit hole transport property due to their higher electron injection and lower hole transport barrier relative to the work function potential of Au electrodes. The higher HOMO and lower LUMO energy levels suggest lower hole and electron injection barriers of F and CN substituted and boron doped bowls which indicates ambipolar property of these bowls. The dicyano substituted pentacene fused bowls show only electron transport property with lower LUMO (-4.26 eV to -4.27 eV) and higher HOMO (-5.56 eV to -5.90 eV) energy levels. High electron affinity (>2.80 eV) and low LUMO energy (< -4.00 eV) attributes air stability to these bowls. Curvature decreased frontier orbital energies and increased ionization energy and electron affinity of bowls. This study reveals substitution of electron withdrawing groups and boron doped acene fused bowls can be a prominent materials for ambipolar and electron transport organic semiconductors.

  10. 75 FR 70106 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... fuel tank explosion. Viking Air Limited has revised Chapter 5 of the DHC-7 Maintenance Manual, PSM 1-7... (TR) listed in Chapter 5 of the Viking Dash 7 Series 1/100 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM), PSM 1-7..., 2008, to Chapter 5 of the Viking Dash 7 Series 100 Maintenance Manual PSM 1-7-2. Note 1: This may...

  11. Cerebrovascular Injury in Blast Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  12. Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) program users manual. Volume 1: Supplement (version 3.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, D.; Walton, G.; Lawrie, L.

    1981-03-01

    BLAST Version 3.0 can be used to model passive solar applications and to analyze large-scale industrial facilities. Parameters, users can study with BLAST Version 3.0 (in addition to BLAST 2.0 capabilities) include (1) interzone heat transfer and ventilation, (2) movable insulation, (3) daylighting, (4) exact internal solar distribution, (5) radiant temperature control, (6) exterior radiant interchange, (7) mechanical ventilation, (8) process heat as heat source, (9) latent air-to-air heat recovery, (10) water-cooled packaged systems, (11) induction unit systems, (12) direct-drive chillers, and (13) purchased steam from utilities. BLAST version 3.0 also offers the user a generalized report writer and several new output report options not available from BLAST Version 2.0. Although the simulation capabilities of BLAST Version 3.0 are expanded over BLAST Version 2.0, users familiar with BLAST Version 2.0 can use Version 3.0 without modifying their approach or their BLAST input.

  13. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  14. Blast injury with particular reference to recent terrorist bombing incidents.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The aetiology of primary blast lung is discussed with reference to the biodynamics of blast injury, and the clinical and pathological features of the condition are described. An analysis of casualties from bomb blast incidents occurring in Northern Ireland leads to the following conclusions concerning the injuries found in persons exposed to explosions: (1) there is a predominance of head and neck trauma, including fractures, lacerations, burns, and eye and ear injuries; (2) fractures and traumatic amputations are common and often multiple; (3) penetrating trunk wounds carry a grave prognosis; and (4) primary blast lung is rare. A comparison of four bombing incidents in England in 1973 and 1974 shows how the type and severity of injury are related to the place in which the explosion occurs. The administrative and clinical aspects of the management of casualties resulting from terrorist bombing activities are discussed. PMID:369445

  15. Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

  16. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO{sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}), as shown in a front view is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO{sub 2} xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. The cryogenesis subsystem performs the actual decontamination work and consists of the dry ice supply unit, the blasting nozzle, the remotely controlled electric and pneumatic valves, and the vacuum work-head. The COYOTEE subsystem positions the blasting work-head within a planar work space and the vacuum subsystem provides filtration and containment of the debris generated by the CO{sub 2} blasting. It employs a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration unit to separate contaminants for disposal. All of the above systems are attached to the vehicle subsystem via the support structure.

  17. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  18. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.

  19. Type of wear for the pair Ti6Al4V/PCTFE in ambient air and in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozet, J.-L.

    1993-04-01

    The pair Ti6Al4V/polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) on a pin-on-disk tribometer in ambient air and liquid nitrogen with the contact pressure and sliding speed ranging from 3 to 9 MPa and 0.03 to 0.05 m/s, respectively, is evaluated within the framework of a high pressure valves for cryogenic rocket engines project. Results show that an abrasion wear process, which is closely connected with a tribochemical wear process producing fluorides and an abrasive form of carbon, exists when PCTFE is continuously rubbed against Ti6Al4V in ambient air, liquid nitrogen, and gaseous argon. Degradations detected on the Ti6Al4V surface are found to be unacceptable in most cases, but in the real cryotechnic valves this type of wear was not observed. The latter is attributed to the great dwell time between actuations and the low speed of the reciprocating movements which considerably limit the heating.

  20. 75 FR 43092 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... explosion. Viking Air Limited has revised Chapter 5 of the DHC-7 Maintenance Manual, PSM 1-7-2, to introduce..., and 5-113, all dated December 15, 2008, to the Viking DHC-7 Dash 7 Maintenance Manual, PSM-1-7-2... of this AD, to Chapter 5 of the Viking DHC-7 Dash 7 Maintenance Manual (MM), PSM 1- 7-2;...

  1. Calculations of relative optical air masses for various aerosol types and minor gases in Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Petkov, Boyan H.

    2014-02-01

    The dependence functions of relative optical air mass on apparent solar zenith angle θ have been calculated over the θ < 87° range for the vertical profiles of wet-air molecular number density in the Arctic and Antarctic atmospheres, extinction coefficients of different aerosol types, and molecular number density of water vapor, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen dimer. The calculations were made using as weight functions the seasonal average vertical profiles of (i) pressure and temperature derived from multiyear sets of radiosounding measurements performed at Ny-Ålesund, Alert, Mario Zucchelli, and Neumayer stations; (ii) volume extinction coefficients of background summer aerosol, Arctic haze, and Kasatochi and Pinatubo volcanic aerosol measured with lidars or balloon-borne samplings; and (iii) molecular number concentrations of the above minor gases, derived from radiosonde, ozonesonde, and satellite-based observations. The air mass values were determined using a formula based on a realistic atmospheric air-refraction model. They were systematically checked by comparing their mutual differences with the uncertainties arising from the seasonal and daily variations in pressure and temperature conditions within the various ranges, where aerosol and gases attenuate the solar radiation most efficiently. The results provide evidence that secant-approximated and midlatitude air mass values are inappropriate for analyzing the Sun photometer measurements performed at polar sites. They indicate that the present evaluations can be reliably used to estimate the aerosol optical depth from the Arctic and Antarctic measurements of total optical depth, after appropriate corrections for the Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption optical depths.

  2. Investigation of Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cements. Report 2. Supplementary Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    significantly less for steel in this concrete than for steel in type II portland cement concrete. Bond-to-steel tests indicated similar relations for both blast-furnace slag and type II portland cements.

  3. 25. "GAFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "G-AFFTC 19 OCT 60, BLAST EFFECTS ON AIRFOILS, STATIC RUN 5." View of track rail mounting and the water brake trough at 20,000-foot track. Looking northeast. File no. 12,358-60. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Chiral discrimination of a gemini-type surfactant with rigid spacer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Shankar, B Vijai; Patnaik, Archita

    2007-10-04

    Spontaneous separation of chiral phases was observed in the monolayers of a racemate of gemini-type twin-tailed, twin-chiral amphiphiles, (2R,3R)-(+)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid and (2S,3S)-(-)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid. The pressure-area isotherms of the interfacial monolayers formed at the liquid-air interface, and the 2D lattice structures studied through surface probe measurements revealed that the racemate exhibits a homochiral discrimination of the enantiomers in two dimensions. An enantiomeric excess (e,e) of 20% was sufficient to break the chiral symmetry at the air-water interface for a homochiral interaction. Langmuir monolayers on ZnCl2 and CaCl2 subphases manifested chiral discrimination with Zn2+ evidencing homochiral interaction with a chelate-type complex, whereas Ca2+ resulted in a heterochiral interaction forming an ionic-type complex. For the chiral asymmetric units, oblique and rectangular unit cells of the racemic monolayer had exclusive requirements of homo- and heterochiral recognitions for Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions, respectively. Monolayers transferred from the condensed phase at 25 mN/m onto hydrophilic Si(100) and quartz substrates revealed the formation of bilayers through transfer-induced monolayer buckling. The emergence of homochiral discrimination was explained using the effective-pair-potential (EPP) approach.

  5. Performance Characteristics of a Micro Air Grinder Operated by a Two-Stages Axial-Type Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Choi, Sang-Kyu

    Performance characteristics are experimentally studied with various nozzles, stators and rotors on a partially admitted small axial-type turbine, which could be applied to a driver of micro air grinders. When air tools adopt axial-type turbines as a driver, they could operate without friction and abrasion because the turbine rotor does not make contact with the casing. In order to maintain these merits on a small axial-type turbine without reducing power, performance characteristics are examined through measuring the specific output power with eight different stators and three different rotors and nozzles. The tested turbine consists of two-stages and its mean radius of flow passage is 9.2mm. The experimental results show that the output power improvement on the first stage is significant comparing with that on the second stage because partially admitted flow is fully diffused in the second stage. Meanwhile, the output power is increased to 16-22% by changing the nozzle blade angle from 60° to 70° because the first stage performance is directly affected by the flow spouted from the nozzle. These results indicate that blade angles greatly influence the performance of a micro turbine operating in partial admission. When an appropriate stator and rotor that are designed in accordance with the flow spouted from the nozzle are installed in the rotating part, the output power is increased up to 38% depending on the blade angle.

  6. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  7. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  8. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  9. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  10. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  11. Application of ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis as a tool for optimizing the blast design in large open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explains the methodology for assessing the efficiency of rockmass fragmentation by explosive blasting, from ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis of the blast event. Explosives are used in the mining, quarrying and construction industries for fragmenting rockmass to a suitable size. When an explosive charge is detonated, in addition to fragmenting the rockmass, it will also generate ground vibration and air vibrations. Efficiency of a blast depend upon percentage of blast energy wasted in generating ground vibrations and air vibrations. This in turn will depend upon rockmass characteristics, amount of explosive energy used per delay and spatial distribution of explosive in the rockmass. Ground vibrations and air vibrations, arising out of explosive detonation in a rockmass, could be captured by micro-computer based engineering seismograph and sound level meter. Typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation for a particular rockmass can be identified from ground vibration frequency spectra analysis of the blast event on a personal computer applying Fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation depends upon rockmass impedance and can be estimated from rockmass characteristics and monitoring few trial blasts. Blast event efficiency is estimated by comparing the typical frequency range with the dominant frequency range of the blast event record. A large number of blast events monitored and analyzed by the author in different rockmass formations and correlation of the results with observations made while fragmented material is lifted and loaded into trucks indicated that ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis could be used as a reliable and cost effective tool for assessing the blasting efficiency and optimizing blast design in large open-pit mines.

  12. The Effects of Highlighting, Validity, and Feature Type on Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cultura I taget Target type Validity X target X leadin interaction on initial response time (highlighted trials) WRONG HIGHLIGHTING ÖU - M ea...natural - leadin cultural ndurd cultura taget I taget Target type Figure 3.10: Validity X lead-in X Target interaction Confirmation time A

  13. VOCs Emissions from Multiple Wood Pellet Types and Concentrations in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia; Ashley, William J.; Bregg, Sandar; Walier, Drew; LeBouf, Ryan; Hopke, Philip K.; Rossner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Wood pellet storage safety is an important aspect for implementing woody biomass as a renewable energy source. When wood pellets are stored indoors in large quantities (tons) in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings, such as in basements, off-gassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can significantly affect indoor air quality. To determine the emission rates and potential impact of VOC emissions, a series of laboratory and field measurements were conducted using softwood, hardwood, and blended wood pellets manufactured in New York. Evacuated canisters were used to collect air samples from the headspace of drums containing pellets and then in basements and pellet storage areas of homes and small businesses. Multiple peaks were identified during GC/MS and GC/FID analysis, and four primary VOCs were characterized and quantified: methanol, pentane, pentanal, and hexanal. Laboratory results show that total VOCs (TVOCs) concentrations for softwood (SW) were statistically (p < 0.02) higher than blended or hardwood (HW) (SW: 412 ± 25; blended: 203 ± 4; HW: 99 ± 8, ppb). The emission rate from HW was the fastest, followed by blended and SW, respectively. Emissions rates were found to range from 10−1 to 10−5 units, depending upon environmental factors. Field measurements resulted in airborne concentrations ranging from 67 ± 8 to 5000 ± 3000 ppb of TVOCs and 12 to 1500 ppb of aldehydes, with higher concentrations found in a basement with a large fabric bag storage unit after fresh pellet delivery and lower concentrations for aged pellets. These results suggest that large fabric bag storage units resulted in a substantial release of VOCs into the building air. Occupants of the buildings tested discussed concerns about odor and sensory irritation when new pellets were delivered. The sensory response was likely due to the aldehydes. PMID:27022205

  14. Air backed mandrel type fiber optic hydrophone with low noise floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, R.; V, Sreehari C.; N, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, R. L.; K, Vivek; B, Vishnu M.; Santhanakrishnan, T.; Moosad, K. P. B.; Mathew, Basil

    2014-10-01

    Low noise fiber optic hydrophone based on optical fiber coil wound on air-backed mandrel was developed. The sensor can be effectively used for underwater acoustic sensing. The design and characterization of the hydrophone is illustrated in this paper. A fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) was developed and coupled with a Distributed Feedback (DFB) fiber laser source and an optical phase demodulation system, with an active modulation in one of the arms. The sensor head design was optimized to achieve noise spectral density <10 μrad/√Hz, for yielding sufficient sensitivity to sense acoustic pressure close to Deep Sea Sate Zero (DSS0).

  15. Formation of H-type liquid crystal dimer at air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, C. Gupta, Adbhut Joshi, Aditya Manjuladevi, V. Gupta, Raj Kumar; Varia, Mahesh C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-04-24

    We have formed the Langmuir monolayer of H-shaped Azo linked liquid crystal dimer molecule at the air-water interface. Isocycles of the molecule showed hysteresis suggesting the ir-reversible nature of the monolayer formed. The thin film deposited on the silicon wafer was characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The images showed uniform domains of the dimer molecule. We propose that these molecules tend to take book shelf configuration in the liquid phase.

  16. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  17. The Fort Collins Commuter Study: Impact of route type and transport mode on personal exposure to multiple air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nicholas; Mölter, Anna; Ackerson, Charis; Bachand, Annette; Carpenter, Taylor; Clark, Maggie L; Fedak, Kristen M; Kayne, Ashleigh; Koehler, Kirsten; Moore, Brianna; L'Orange, Christian; Quinn, Casey; Ugave, Viney; Stuart, Amy L; Peel, Jennifer L; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, yet few studies have examined strategies to reduce individual exposure while commuting. The present study aimed to quantify how choice of mode and route type affects personal exposure to air pollutants during commuting. We analyzed within-person difference in exposures to multiple air pollutants (black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)) during commutes between the home and workplace for 45 participants. Participants completed 8 days of commuting by car and bicycle on direct and alternative (reduced traffic) routes. Mean within-person exposures to BC, PM2.5, and PNC were higher when commuting by cycling than when driving, but mean CO exposure was lower when cycling. Exposures to CO and BC were reduced when commuting along alternative routes. When cumulative exposure was considered, the benefits from cycling were attenuated, in the case of CO, or exacerbated, in the case of particulate exposures, owing to the increased duration of the commute. Although choice of route can reduce mean exposure, the effect of route length and duration often offsets these reductions when cumulative exposure is considered. Furthermore, increased ventilation rate when cycling may result in a more harmful dose than inhalation at a lower ventilation rate. PMID:26507004

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Leukocytes Enhance Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in a Mouse Air-Pouch-Type Inflammation Model.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hatayama, Takahiro; Jiangxu, Dong; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Endo, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a key cytokine that exacerbates allergic and fibrotic reactions. Several microbes and virus components have been shown to induce TSLP production, mainly in epithelial cells. TLR4 activators, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce TSLP production in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LPS-activated leukocytes to the production of TSLP in a mouse air-pouch-type inflammation model. LPS induced the production of TSLP in this model but not in the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Transfer of the infiltrated leukocytes collected from an LPS-injected air pouch to the air pouch of another mouse enhanced TSLP production. Further, the LPS-activated leukocytes produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); a deficiency in these cytokines attenuated the LPS-induced production of TSLP. TSLP production was induced by TNF-α and enhanced by IL-1β and LPS in the PAM212 cells. These results demonstrated that TNF-α and IL-1β, which are partly produced by LPS-activated leukocytes, contribute to TSLP production via TLR4 activation in vivo.

  19. Evaluation of Novel Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Derived Lipid Mediators of Inflammation to Ameliorate the Deleterious Effects of Blast Overpressure on Eye and Brain Visual Processing Centers in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    to high fidelity simulated blast over pressure waves (Friedlander waveform), as produced by a compressed air driven shock tube. Eye and brain ... brain , suggesting they have a rather limited potential as visual system therapeutics. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: Brain , eye, retina, blast wave , neuronal...face. It is also possible that the brain visual processing centers are being directly affected, since it is well established that blast wave exposure

  20. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  1. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  2. Near-field investigation of the explosive dispersal of radioactive material based on a reconstructed spherical blast-wave flow.

    PubMed

    Hummel, David; Ivan, Lucian

    2017-03-15

    A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours. Dispersion models are extremely sensitive, however, to the particle size and source characterization, which are determined in distances measured in micrometers to meters, over milliseconds or less. This study examines the extent to which the explosive blast determines the transport of contaminant particles relative to the atmospheric wind over distances relevant to "near-field" dispersion problems (i.e., hundreds of meters), which are relevant to urban environments. Our results indicate that whether or not the effect of the blast should be included in a near-field dispersion model is largely dependent on the size of the contaminant particle. Relatively large particles (i.e., >40 μm in diameter), which are most likely to be produced by a RDD, penetrate the leading shock front, thereby avoiding the reverse blast wind. Consequently, they travel much farther than suspended aerosols (<10 μm) before approaching the ambient wind velocity. This suggests that, for these "near-field" dispersion problems in urban environments, the transport of contaminants from the blast wave may be integral to accurately predicting their dispersion.

  3. Study on characteristics of different types of nozzles for coal-water slurry atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kun; Chen, Lifang; Wu, Chengkang

    2001-10-01

    Three types of nozzles: a low-pressure multistage nozzle, an effervescent nozzle and a newly developed internal-mixing air-blast nozzle, for atomization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) were investigated. Influence of CWS properties including surface tension and apparent viscosity on atomization was studied. Comparisons among the nozzles were carried out in terms of spray droplet mean diameter and fuel output. Versatility of each nozzle was investigated and atomization mechanism of each nozzle was analyzed as well. The results showed that the newly developed internal-mixing air-blast nozzle has high fuel output and small mean droplet size in the spray, but the multistage nozzle has high versatility for handling of low quality CWS.

  4. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2.

  5. Rapid miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for blast wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions. Since the pathophysiology of TBI associated with a blast wave is not clearly defined, it is crucial to have a sensing system to accurately quantify the blast wave dynamics. This paper presents an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle that is capable of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. The blast event in the experiment was generated by a starter pistol blank firing at close range, which produced a more realistic wave profile compared to using compressed air driven shock tubes. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first study to utilize fiber optic pressure sensors to measure the ballistics shock wave of a pistol firing. The results illustrated that the fiber optic pressure sensor has a rise time of 200 ns which demonstrated that the sensor has ability to capture the dynamic pressure transient during a blast event. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the sensor was determined to be 4.11 MHz, which agrees well with the specific designed value.

  6. 75 FR 75932 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    .... This condition could lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator... tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could lead to possible loss of... redundant control linkage installed according to Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) No. SA01059SE; and...

  7. 76 FR 10220 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... condition could lead to loss of tab control linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could... and redundant control linkage installed according to Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) No. SA01059SE... linkage and severe elevator flutter. Such elevator flutter could lead to possible loss of...

  8. Metallurgical Evaluation of Grit Blasted Versus Non-Grit Blasted Iridium Alloy Clad Vent Set Cup Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, George B; Longmire, Hu Foster

    2010-02-01

    Metallurgical evaluations were conducted to determine what, if any, grain size differences exist between grit blasted and non-grit blasted DOP-26 iridium alloy cup surfaces and if grit blasting imparts sufficient compressive cold work to induce abnormal grain growth during subsequent temperature exposures. Metallographic measurements indicated that grit blasting cold worked the outside cup surface to a depth of approximately 19 {micro}m. Subsequent processing through the air burn-off (635 C/4h) and vacuum outgassing (1250 C/1h) operations was found to uniformly recrystallize the cold worked surface to produce grains with an average diameter of approximately 8.5 {micro}m (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) grain size number 11). Follow-on heat treatments at 1375 C, 1500 C, and 1900 C for durations ranging from 1 min to 70 h yielded uniform grain sizes and no abnormal grain growth from grit blasting. Abnormal grain growth was noted at the 1500 C and 1900 C heat treatments in areas of cold work from excessive clamping during sample preparation.

  9. Psychological Type: An Assessment and Applications for Senior Air Force Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    quantified on four preference scales: Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I), Sensing (S) or Intuition (N), Thinking MT or Feeling (F, and Perception ~ (P...toward the inner world of ideas and feelings . Sensing types sniff out detail, while intuitive souls prefer to focus on the big picture. Thinkers want...functionst sensing is 67, intuition is 51, thinking is 65, and feeling is 43 for women and 37 for men. (28:16) The significance of these scores on the MBTI

  10. Co-blasting of titanium surfaces with an abrasive and hydroxyapatite to produce bioactive coatings: substrate and coating characterisation.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; O'Neill, Liam; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of two blast media on the deposition of hydroxyapatite onto a titanium substrate using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. CoBlast was developed to address the problems with high temperature coating techniques. The blasting media used in this study were Al2O3 and a sintered apatite powder. The prepared and coated surfaces were compared to plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite on the same substrates using the same hydroxyapatite feedstock powder. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original hydroxyapatite feedstock powder for the CoBlast samples while evidence of amorphous hydroxyapatite phases and β-TCP was observed in the plasma sprayed samples. The blast media type significantly influences the adhesive strength of the coating, surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The coating adhesion increased for the CoBlasted samples from 50 MPa to 60 MPa for sintered apatite powder and alumina, respectively, while plasma spray samples were significantly lower (5 MPa) when tested using a modified pull-test. In conclusion, the choice of blast medium is shown to be a key parameter in the CoBlast process. This study indicates that sintered apatite powder is the most suitable candidate for use as a blast medium in the coating of medical devices.

  11. Muzzle Blast Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Report) 1». SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Contlnua on reverse » Ida if nacaaeary and Identity by block number) Muzzle Blast...Range NM 88002 Commander US Army Research Office ATTN: CRD -AA-EH P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park NC 27709 Director US Army BMD Advanced

  12. Household air pollution following replacement of traditional open fire with an improved rocket type cookstove.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Caroline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Tonne, Cathryn

    2017-02-15

    Cooking with biomass fuel is an important source of household air pollution (HAP) in developing countries, and a leading risk factor for ill-health. Although various designs of "improved cookstoves" (ICS) have been promoted as HAP interventions in these settings, few of them have undergone in-field evaluation, partly due to the challenge of conducting field measurements in remote settings. In this study we assessed the change in carbon monoxide (CO) exposure following the replacement of the traditional three-stone stove with a popular ICS in 49 homes in Western Kenya. We also assessed the suitability of using kitchen CO as a proxy for kitchen PM2.5. Reduction in 48h mean kitchen CO was 3.1ppm (95% CI: -8.1, 1.8) and in personal CO was 0.9ppm (95% CI: -4.3, 2.6) following stove replacements. Overall, 48-h kitchen and personal CO exposures were lower after stove replacement (28% and 12%, respectively) but with wide confidence intervals that also suggested possible increases in exposure. There were statistically significant reductions in peak kitchen and personal CO concentrations represented by the 8-h 95th percentile: reductions of 26.1ppm (95% CI: -44.6, -7.6) and 8.0ppm (95% CI: -12.2, -3.8), respectively. This is equivalent to 53% reduction in kitchen CO and 39% reduction in personal CO. We found good correlation between kitchen CO and PM2.5 concentrations overall (r=0.73, n=33 over averaging periods approximating 1day), which varied by time of day and exposure setting. These variations limit the applicability of CO as a proxy measure for PM2.5 concentrations. A combination of interventions, including better designed stoves, improved ventilation and cleaner fuels, may be needed to reduce HAP to levels that are likely to improve health.

  13. A catheter-type flow sensor for measurement of aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the bronchial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, M.; Naito, J.; Yokota, T.; Kawabe, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Sato, K.

    2009-10-01

    We developed a novel catheter-type flow sensor for measuring the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics trans-bronchially. An on-wall in-tube thermal flow sensor is mounted inside the tube, and it is used as a measurement tool in a bronchoscope. The external diameter of the tube is less than a few mm, and therefore, it can evaluate the flow characteristics in the small bronchial region. We newly developed a fabrication process to miniaturize it to less than 2.0 mm in the external diameter by using a heat shrinkable tube. A film sensor fabricated by photolithography was inserted into the tube by hand. By applying a heat shrinking process, the film was automatically mounted on the inner wall surface, and the outer size of the tube was miniaturized to almost half its original size. The final inner and outer diameters of the tube were 1.0 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively. The relationship between the input power of the sensor and the flow rate obeyed King's equation in both forward and reverse flow conditions. The sensor output dependence on ambient temperature was also studied, and the curve obtained at 39.2 °C was used as the calibration curve in animal experiments. The sensor characteristics under reciprocating flow were studied by using a ventilator, and we confirmed that the sensor was able to measure the reciprocating flow at 2.0 Hz. Finally, we successfully measured the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the air passage of a rat.

  14. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  15. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    in vivo animal model research, and the effects of interspecies scaling on current and future in vivo animal model experimentation for blast trauma...and gut. To improve FE modeling capabilities, brain tissue mechanics in common blast TBI animal model species were investigated experimentally and...importance of interspecies scaling for investigation of blast neurotrauma. This work looks at existing in vivo animal model data to derive appropriate

  16. Development of an algorithm to regulate pump output for a closed air-loop type pneumatic biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jung Joo; Hwang, Chang Mo; Choi, Jaesoon; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Seong Wook; Sun, Kyung

    2009-12-01

    The closed air space-type of extracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center utilizes a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate the air pressure required to pump blood. This operating mechanism can reduce the size and weight of the driving unit; however, the output of the blood pump can be affected by the pressure loading conditions of the blood sac. Therefore, to guarantee a proper pump output level, regardless of the pressure loading conditions that vary over time, automatic pump output regulation of the blood pump is required. We describe herein a pump output regulation algorithm that was developed to maintain pump output around a reference level against various afterload pressures, and verified the pump performance in vitro. Based on actual operating conditions in animal experiments, the pumping rate was limited to 40-84 beats per minute, and the afterload pressure was limited to 80-150 mm Hg. The tested reference pump output was 4.0 L/min. During experiments, the pump output was successfully and automatically regulated within the preset area regardless of the varying afterload conditions. The results of this preliminary experiment can be used as the basis for an automatic control algorithm that can enhance the stability and reliability of the applied VAD.

  17. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  18. SCC Propagation Rate of Type 304, 304L Steels Under Oceanic Air Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Kosaki

    2006-07-01

    Corrosion integrity of canister in the concrete cask for spent fuel storage is very important because the canister serves to maintain the sealability over the storage period of 40 to 60 years. Natural exposure and accelerated corrosion tests of conventional stainless steels for canister, that are Type 304, 304L, and 316(LN), for concrete cask's canister have been conducted by using many three Point Bending (3PB) test specimens and compared. The SCC propagation rates in Type 304 and 304L at the natural condition were about 1.2 E-12 to 1.8 E-11 m/s at the K (Stress Intensity Factor) range of 0.6 to 9.0 MPa/m, and that of the accelerate test (60 degrees C, 95%RHS., filled with NaCl mist.) were about 1.0 E-10 to 3.5 E-9 m/s at the K range of 0.3 to 32 MPa/m. The SCC propagation rates under both natural and accelerated conditions were independent with K. Both da/dt values of the direct exposure test and of the under glass exposure test were in the same scattering band. (author)

  19. Burning Velocity Measurements in Aluminum-Air Suspensions using Bunsen Type Dust Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John; Goroshin, Samuel; Kolbe, Massimiliano

    2001-01-01

    Laminar burning velocity (sometimes also referred in literature as fundamental or normal flame propagation speed) is probably the most important combustion characteristic of the premixed combustible mixture. The majority of experimental data on burning velocities in gaseous mixtures was obtained with the help of the Bunsen conical flame. The Bunsen cone method was found to be sufficiently accurate for gaseous mixtures with burning velocities higher than 10-15 cm/s at normal pressure. Hans Cassel was the first to demonstrate that suspensions of micron-size solid fuel particles in a gaseous oxidizer can also form self-sustained Bunsen flames. He was able to stabilize Bunsen flames in a number of suspensions of different nonvolatile solid fuels (aluminum, carbon, and boron). Using the Bunsen cone method he estimated burning velocities in the premixed aluminum-air mixtures (particle size less than 10 microns) to be in the range of 30-40 cm/s. Cassel also found, that the burning velocity in dust clouds is a function of the burner diameter. In our recent work, we have used the Bunsen cone method to investigate dependence of burning velocity on dust concentration in fuel-rich aluminum dust clouds. Burning velocities in stoichiometric and fuel-rich aluminum dust suspensions with average particle sizes of about 5 microns were found to be in the range of 20-25 cm/s and largely independent on dust concentration. These results raise the question to what degree burning velocities derived from Bunsen flame specifically and other dust flame configurations in general, are indeed fundamental characteristics of the mixture and to what degree are they apparatus dependent. Dust flames in comparison to gas combustion, are thicker, may be influenced by radiation heat transfer in the flame front, respond differently to heat losses, and are fundamentally influenced by the particular flow configuration due to the particles inertia. Since characteristic spatial scales of dust flames are

  20. A RGB-Type Quantum Dot-based Sensor Array for Sensitive Visual Detection of Trace Formaldehyde in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Hu, Jing; Tang, Jie; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    A simple colorimetric sensor array based on red-emitting CdTe QDs and green-colored fluorescein that exhibited RGB-type color change was proposed for visual detection of trace formaldehyde. In the presence of formaldehyde, the red fluorescence from CdTe QDs was quenched while the green fluorescein was inert thus as a reference. Through harvesting the varied quenching efficiency of different ligand-capped CdTe QDs by formaldehyde, a simple sensor array can be constructed for both selective detection of formaldehyde with high sensitivity (LOD of 0.08 ppm) and identification of the existence of potential interference from acetaldehyde. The quenching mechanisms of formaldehyde toward different ligand capped CdTe QDs were studied with fluorescence lifetime, zeta potential, and also theoretical calculations. The results from theoretical calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed sensor array was successfully explored for visual analysis of formaldehyde in indoor air samples.

  1. External stress-corrosion cracking of a 1.22-m-diameter type 316 stainless steel air valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Telesman, Jack; Moore, Allan S.; Johnson, Dereck F.; Kuivinen, David E.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure of a massive AISI Type 316 stainless steel valve which controlled combustion air to a jet engine test facility. Several through-the-wall cracks were present near welded joints in the valve skirt. The valve had been in outdoor service for 18 years. Samples were taken in the cracked regions for metallographic and chemical analyses. Insulating material and sources of water mist in the vicinity of the failed valve were analyzed for chlorides. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine whether foreign elements were present in a crack. On the basis of the information generated, the failure was characterized as external stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking resulted from a combination of residual tensile stress from welding and the presence of aqueous chlorides. Recommended countermeasures are included.

  2. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdlová, Martina; Čechmánek, René; Řídký, Radek

    2015-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer) of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load). The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  3. Effect of silane type and air-drying temperature on bonding fiber post to composite core and resin cement.

    PubMed

    de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of silane type and temperature of silane application on push-out bond strength between fiberglass posts with composite resin core and resin cement. One hundred and sixty fiberglass posts (Exacto, Angelus) had the surface treated with hydrogen peroxide 24%. Posts were divided in 8 groups according to two study factors: air-drying temperature after silane application (room temperature and 60 ºC) and silane type: three pre-hydrolyzed--Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE) and one two-component silane--Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply). The posts (n=10) for testing the bond strength between post and composite core were centered on a cylindrical plastic matrix and composite resin (Filtek Z250 XT, 3M ESPE) that was incrementally inserted and photoactivated. Eighty bovine incisor roots (n=10) were prepared for testing the bond strength between post and resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE) and received the fiberglass posts. Push-out test was used to measure the bond strength. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). ANOVA revealed that temperature and silane had no influence on bond strength between composite core and post. However, for bond strength between post and resin cement, the temperature increase resulted in a better performance for Silane Coupling Agent, Silano and RelyX Ceramic Primer. At room temperature Silane Coupling Agent showed the lowest bond strength. Effect of the warm air-drying is dependent on the silane composition. In conclusion, the use of silane is influenced by wettability of resinous materials and pre-hydrolyzed silanes are more stable compared with the two-bottle silane.

  4. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  5. Plasma kinetics in ethanol/water/air mixture in a 'tornado'-type electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Shchedrin, A.; Chernyak, V.; Olszewski, S.; Nedybaliuk, O.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a modified 'tornado'-type electrical discharge. Numerical modelling clarifies the nature of non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of non-equilibrium plasma chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to the characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  6. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  12. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  13. Evaluation of trauma patterns in blast injuries using multiple correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Smith, Martin; Hanson, Ian

    2016-10-01

    Anthropology features little in published literature about blast injuries. Contributions through case studies and experimental research are beginning to expand our understanding of the effect these injuries have on the human skeleton. This study examines blast injury and gunshot related fractures through multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with the aim of establishing injury patterns between the two types of trauma. Using a sample of 491 individuals from Bosnia, MCA is employed to identify which body regions differentiate between blast or gunshot related fractures. Cranial fractures were more closely associated with gunshot related cases. Post-cranial fractures were associated with blast-related cases. A differentiation in post-cranial and cranial fractures between gunshot and blast related cases was revealed in the samples. The high prevalence of extremity trauma in blast is similar to previous work, but the smaller amount of cranial blast-related fractures differs from previous studies and from what is found in gunshot-related cases. Differentiation of blast and gunshot wound injuries can be made on the human skeleton and can be used to possibly interpret injury mechanism in large skeletal assemblages as well as single cases.

  14. Experimental study of the types of cavitation by air seeding using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanyi; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhang, Li; Gao, Rongfu; Shao, Xuemeng

    2015-12-01

    Recently, three types of cavitation: (i) expanding gradually; (ii) expanding-exploding, becoming a long-shaped bubble-lengthening by degrees; (iii) suddenly exploding and fully filling the conduit instantly, were proposed. Directed by this theory, experiments were performed using light microscopy to study the natural drying processes of xylem sections of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. Three different phenomena of gas filling process in conduits were captured by replaying recorded videos. The first phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands and elongates gradually to fill the conduit. The second phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands gradually, and then suddenly becomes long-shaped, and extends continuously. The third phenomenon is that a bubble instantly fully fills a conduit. This paper suggests in these experiments that after losing the bulk water of a section, as the water stress of that section became more severe, the water pressures of different conduits of the section were not necessarily the same, and as time went on, the water pressures decreased constantly. Considering some practical factors, the three phenomena captured in our experiment are explained by our theory.

  15. Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of Cupressaceae pollen type in Ponferrada (Leon, Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; González-Parrado, Zulima; Vega-Maray, Ana María; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María; Fernández-González, Delia

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive periods of adverse cold climatic conditions, plant requirements are satisfied by means of physiological adaptations to prevent cells from freezing. Thus, the growth of woody plants in temperate regions slows down and they enter into a physiological state called dormancy. In order to identify the chilling and heat requirements to overcome the dormancy period of Cupressaceae pollen type in the south of Europe, we have carried out our study with aerobiological data from a 10-year (1996-2005) period in Ponferrada, León (Spain). For the chilling requirements the best result was with a threshold temperature of 7.1 degrees C and an average of 927 CH. Calculation of heat requirements was carried out with maximum temperature, with 490 growth degree days (GDD) needed, with a threshold temperature of 0 degrees C. We have used the 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 periods in order to determine the real validity of the model. We have not used these years in developing the models. The dates predicted differ in only a few days from those observed: in 2002-2003 there was a difference of 11 days, in 2003-2004 predicted and observed dates were the same, but in 2004-2005 the difference obtained was of 43 days.

  16. Microbes on-air: gut and tissue microbiota as targets in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serino, Matteo; Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Burcelin, Remy

    2012-10-01

    Each individual can be distinguished by the heterogeneity of the trillions of microbes inhabiting his gastrointestinal tract. This concept, together with the role that gut microbiota is considered to play in the induction of metabolic diseases, paves the way for the development of personalized medicine. By exploiting our unique animal model of metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet, we have recently shown that differential gut microbiota lead to different metabolic phenotypes--metabotypes. Moreover, we have also reported that a given metabotype can be distinguished by different profiles of gut microbes, symptomatic of the complexity of the regulation of host physiology by gut microbiota. Furthermore, in an effort to find bacterial predictors of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we discovered that in a healthy population, subjects who subsequently developed T2D had increased blood levels of bacterial 16S rDNA well before. In addition, tissue (blood) microbiota, mainly characterized by Proteobacteria (up to 90%), has been discovered both in healthy individuals and in diabetic patients. Altogether, our results confirm the presence of gut microbes and propose tissue microbiota as new targets for the innovative treatment of T2D.

  17. Alumina grit blasting parameters for surface preparation in the plasma spraying operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellali, M.; Grimaud, A.; Leger, A. C.; Fauchais, P.; Lu, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines how the grit blasting process influences the surface roughness of different sub-strates, the grit residue, and the grit erosion. The influence of grit blasting conditions on induced sub-strate residual stresses is also discussed. Aluminum alloy, cast iron, and hard steel were blasted with white alumina grits of 0.5,1, and 1.4 mm mean diameters. Grit blasting was performed using either a suction-type or a pressure-type machine equipped with straight nozzles made of B4C. The influence of the follow-ing parameters was studied: grit blasting distance (56 to 200 mm), blasting time (3 to 30 s), angle between nozzle and blasted surface (30°, 60°, 90°), and blasting pressure (0.2 to 0.7 MPa). The roughness of the substrate was characterized either by using a perthometer or by image analysis. The grit residue remain-ing at the blasted surface was evaluated after cleaning by image analysis. The residual stresses induced by grit blasting were determined by using the incremental hole drilling method and by measuring the de-flection of grit-blasted beams. Grit size was determined to be the most important influence on roughness. The average values of Ra and Rt and the percentage of grit residue increased with grit size as well as the depth of the plastic zone under the substrate. An increase of the pressure slightly increased the values of Äa and Rt but also promoted grit breakdown and grit residue. A blasting time of 3 to 6 s was sufficient to obtain the highest roughness and limit the grit breakdown. The residual stresses generated under the blasted surface were compressive, and the depth of the affected zone depended on the grit diameter, the blasting pressure, and the Young’s modulus of the substrate. More-over, the maximum residual stress was reached at the limit of the plastic zone (i.e., several tenths of a mil-limeter below the substrate surface).

  18. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  19. Numerical investigation of the effects of shock tube geometry on the propagation of an ideal blast wave profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. D.; Hu, Z. M.; Jiang, Z. L.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-shock tubes (BSTs) can approximately simulate the typical blast waves produced by nuclear or chemical charge explosions for use in biological damage studies. The profile of an ideal blast wave in air is characterized by the overpressure, the negative pressure, and the positive pressure duration, which are determined by the geometric configurations of BSTs. Numerical experiments are carried out using the Eulerian equations by the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme to investigate the effect of different structural components on ideal blast waveforms. The results show that cylindrical and conical frustum driver sections with an appropriate length can produce typical blast wave profiles, but a flattened peak pressure may appear when using a tube of a longer length. Neither a double-expansion tube nor a shrinkage tube set in BSTs is practical for the production of an ideal blast waveform. In addition, negative pressure recovery will occur, exceeding the ambient pressure with an increase in pressure in the vacuum section.

  20. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Add To and Alter Type III Hydrant Fueling System, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    materials or wastes , or contaminated sites during operation of the Proposed Action. Water Resources (EA §3.5.4) The Proposed Action would be constructed...to cumulative impacts on air quality, cultural resources, geologic resources and soils, hazardous materials and wastes , or water resources (surface...analysis are: air quality; cultural resources; geologic resources and soils, hazardous wastes and materials; and water resources (floodplains and wetlands

  1. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track

  2. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  3. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L

    2008-07-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement.

  4. Biomarkers of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Profiling Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Blast Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Murthy, J.M., Chopra, J.S., and Gulati, D.R. (1979). Subdural hematoma in an adult following a blast injury. Case report. J. Neurosurg. 50, 260–261. Nath...chro- matolytic changes in the neurons (due to degeneration of Nissl bodies, an indication of neuronal damage), diffuse brain injury, and subdural ...al., 2000b). The most common types of TBI are diffuse axonal injury, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage (Vander Vorst et al., 2007). Diffuse axonal

  5. Disability evaluation in acoustic blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acoustic blast trauma is different from Noise induced hearing loss. Blast trauma can damage the tympanic membrane, ossicles and cochlea singly or in combination. It produces immediate severe hearing loss and may be associated with tinnitus and vestibular symptoms. Hearing loss recovers spontaneously in many cases but may be permanent in 30-55% cases. Thirteen patients working in an explosive manufacturing unit in Andhra Pradesh were exposed to blast trauma at work place. All these workers complained of immediate hearing loss and were subjected to audiological investigations. Methods: Initial evaluation showed a severe sensorineural type of hearing loss 10 of the 13 cases (77%). They were referred to our Medical board for disability evaluation after 2-3 years of initial injury. Pure tone audiometry indicated severe hearing loss in 12 of 13 cases (92%) that was not correlating clinically. Re-evaluation with Acoustic reflex and ABR (BERA) tests were done and permanent disability was evaluated with the results of these investigations. Observations: No significant hearing loss was found in most patients and these patients had minimal disability. Conclusion: Objective hearing tests should be carried out after one year or more before evaluation of permanent disability. PMID:26957811

  6. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  8. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Theta blast cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Carthy, W.W.

    1987-04-28

    An underground nuclear blast shelter is described comprising: cell means below ground level containing living space for one or more occupants of the shelter; underground command station means separated vertically and horizontally from the cell means having a dome at ground surface for providing access to the shelter, the dome being the only visible portion of the shelter; means for providing communication between the command station means and the cell means including a vertical hollow shaft extending down from the command station means and a horizontal hollow shaft connecting the vertical shaft to the cell means; the command station means including hatch means in the dome to provide the access and means for discharging waste products from the shelter; and flexing means in the vertical shaft to absorb a downward blast force on the dome.

  10. OPERATION JANGLE. Blast and Shock Measurements 1. Project 1.1. Ground Acceleration Measurement (WT-388). Project 1.2a-1. Peak Air Blast Pressures along the Ground from Shock Velocity Measurements (WT-323). Project 1.2a-2. Transient Ground Mechanical Effects from HE and Nuclear Explosions (WT-385)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-06-01

    reinforced concrete wall 5 ft thick. 2.8.1 EE of Accelertions to "e Measured. ; On the basis of these considerations of damage it was * decided that...1200 1800 2500 3500 50~00 700 R’ OISTA14CF FROM ZEIA0 (F T) vig. A.1. 4,000 Lb shot - Prediction of Maximuim Acceleration frcc I Lapon’s Theory and...of I concrete . The cast aluminum housing: called the velocity head, which contained one blast switch and two microphones is illustrated in Fig. 2.9. 0

  11. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  12. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  13. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  14. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  15. Microscopic Pattern of Bone Fractures as an Indicator of Blast Trauma: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pechníková, Marketa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Poppa, Pasquale; Gibelli, Daniele; Scossa Baggi, Emilio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fractures is a key issue in forensic anthropology; however, very few studies deal with the features of fractures due to explosion in comparison with other traumatic injuries. This study focuses on fractures resulting from blast trauma and two types of blunt force trauma (manual compression and running over), applied to corpses of pigs; 163 osteons were examined within forty fractures by the transmission light microscopy. Blast lesions showed a higher percentage of fracture lines through the Haversian canal, whereas in other types of trauma, the fractures went across the inner lamellae. Significant differences between samples hit by blast energy and those runover or manually compressed were observed (p<0.05). The frequency of pattern A is significantly higher in exploded bones than in runover and compressed. Microscopic analysis of the fracture line may provide information about the type of trauma, especially for what concerns blast trauma.

  16. Blast Scaling Parameters: Transitioning from Lung to Skull Base Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric Flint; Rosen, Charles L; Qaiser, Rabia

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrauma from blast exposure is one of the single most characteristic injuries of modern warfare. Understanding blast traumatic brain injury is critical for developing new treatment options for warfighters and civilians exposed to improvised explosive devices. Unfortunately, the pre-clinical models that are widely utilized to investigate blast exposure are based on archaic lung based parameters developed in the early 20th century. Improvised explosive devices produce a different type of injury paradigm than the typical mortar explosion. Protective equipment for the chest cavity has also improved over the past 100 years. In order to improve treatments, it is imperative to develop models that are based more on skull-based parameters. In this mini-review, we discuss the important anatomical and biochemical features necessary to develop a skull-based model. PMID:28386605

  17. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 5.3. Blast Effects on B-36 Type Aircraft in Flight. Report to the Test Director

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-03-01

    blast-induced loads was primarily the responsibility of Allied Research Associates, Inc. ( ARA ). Calculations relative to thermal radiation were...Beard ffk, Hcmdquarters, continental Amy Command, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Comnsndlng General, U.S. Army Caribbean, Ft. Amador , C.Z. Aimi: Cml. Off

  18. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  19. DIRECT COURSE blast shelter entranceway and blast door experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, S.A.; Hyde, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The DIRECT COURSE Event is a high-explosive simulation of a 1-kt height-of-burst nuclear weapon. DIRECT COURSE is sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency and is scheduled for September 1983 at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Three entranceway experiments will be fielded, one full size complete with two blast doors to document structural response and loading in the simulated 1-kt blast environment. Also, two 1/10-scale models, one double and one single entrance configuration, will be used to obtain blast pressure data that can be scaled to a 1-Mt blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast doors for the key worker blast shelter.

  20. AIRSLUG: A fortran program for the computation of type curves to estimate transmissivity and storativity from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, E.A.; Shapiro, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money.The Fortran code AIRSLUG can be used to generate the type curves needed to analyze the recovery data from prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests. These type curves, when used with a graphical software package, enable the engineer or scientist to analyze field tests to estimate transmissivity and storativity. Prematurely terminating the slug test can significantly reduce the overall time needed to conduct the test, especially at low-permeability sites, thus saving time and money.

  1. Use of Oriented Spray Nozzles to Set the Vapor-Air Flow in Rotary Motion in the Superspray Space of the Evaporative Chimney-Type Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrego, K. V.; Davydenko, V. F.; Koznacheev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper considers the problem of upgrading the thermal efficiency of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers due to the rotary motion of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space. To set the vapor-air flow in rotary motion, we propose to use the momentum of the sprayed water. It has been shown that the existing parameters of spray nozzles permit setting up to 30% of the water flow momentum in translatory motion, which is enough for changing considerably the aerodynamics of the vapor-air flow in the superspray space and improving the operation of the cooling tower. The optimal angle of axial inclination of the spray cone has been estimated. Recommendations are given and problems have been posed for engineering realization of the proposed technologies in a chimney-type cooling tower.

  2. A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, John T.

    1981-06-01

    A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.

  3. Zinc-lead blast furnace—the key developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Derek

    1980-09-01

    Because of his close association with the zinc-lead blast furnace process, the author has chosen to draw on this source to examine some key metallurgical advances. In addition to discussing the importance of some of these developments in the context of the zinc-lead blast furnace, comment is made on the more general role of the blast furnace technique in nonferrous extractive metallurgy. Naturally, the lead splash condenser system, without which the zinc-lead blast furnace would never have operated, occupies first place. The development of lead cooling launders is considered after discussion of the adoption of top air additions to minimize the reoxidation of zinc vapor in its passage from the furnace charge to the condenser. Without these two improvements on the original concept large capacity plants could not have been built. In addition, the development of the updraft technique of zinc-lead sinter production is examined; without this operating costs would have been excessive and expansion of the process would have ceased.

  4. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  5. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  6. A RGB-Type Quantum Dot-based Sensor Array for Sensitive Visual Detection of Trace Formaldehyde in Air

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Hu, Jing; Tang, Jie; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    A simple colorimetric sensor array based on red-emitting CdTe QDs and green-colored fluorescein that exhibited RGB-type color change was proposed for visual detection of trace formaldehyde. In the presence of formaldehyde, the red fluorescence from CdTe QDs was quenched while the green fluorescein was inert thus as a reference. Through harvesting the varied quenching efficiency of different ligand-capped CdTe QDs by formaldehyde, a simple sensor array can be constructed for both selective detection of formaldehyde with high sensitivity (LOD of 0.08 ppm) and identification of the existence of potential interference from acetaldehyde. The quenching mechanisms of formaldehyde toward different ligand capped CdTe QDs were studied with fluorescence lifetime, zeta potential, and also theoretical calculations. The results from theoretical calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed sensor array was successfully explored for visual analysis of formaldehyde in indoor air samples. PMID:27830733

  7. Ambient air quality and emission characteristics in and around a non-recovery type coke oven using high sulphur coal.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Saikia, Prasenjit; Boruah, Ratan; Saikia, Binoy K

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of gaseous species and aerosols in and around a non-recovery type coke making oven using high sulphur coals. In this paper, physico-chemical properties of the feed coal sample are reported along with the collection and measurement of the emitted gases (SO2, NO2, and NH3) and aerosol particles (PM2.5, PM10) during the coal carbonization in the oven. The coals used are from northeast India and they are high sulphur in nature. The concentrations of the gases e.g., SO2, NO2 and NH3 emitted are observed to be within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 24h. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are found to be 125.4 μg/m(3) and 48.6 μg/m(3) respectively, as measured during three days of coke oven operations. About 99% of the SO2 in flue gases is captured by using an alkali treatment during the coke oven operation. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after Centred Log Ratio (clr) transformation is also performed to know the positive and negative correlation among the coal properties and the emission parameters.

  8. A Survey Study of the Blast Furnace at Kuangshan Village Using 3D Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Huang, Xing; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The blast furnace from the Northern Song Dynasty at Kuangshan Village is the tallest blast furnace that remains from ancient China. Previous studies have assumed that the furnace had a closed mouth. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the blast furnace is constructed using 3D laser scanning technology, and accurate profile data are obtained using software. It is shown that the furnace throat is smaller than had been previously thought and that the furnace mouth is of the open type. This new furnace profile constitutes a discovery in the history of iron-smelting technology.

  9. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  10. Two reduced form air quality modeling techniques for rapidly calculating pollutant mitigation potential across many sources, locations and precursor emission types

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the computational cost of running regional-scale numerical air quality models, reduced form models (RFM) have been proposed as computationally efficient simulation tools for characterizing the pollutant response to many different types of emission reductions. The U.S. Envi...

  11. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  12. Neurological Effects of Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April, 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurological focus alone. PMID:20453776

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Dynamique de la désintégration pour trois types de processus nucléaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfoughal, T.; Mirea, M.

    1995-07-01

    In order to study the dynamic behaviours of three disintegration modes (cold fission, alpha-decay and cluster radioactivities), we use a numerical method based on the Euler-Lagrange's equation of motion to obtain a constrained minimum of the WKB-integral in a tridimensional configuration space. The inertia is determined using the Werner-Wheeler approximation and the energy is computed in agreement with the Yukawa-plus-exponential model extended for binary systems with different charge densities. The degrees of freedom of the system are: elongation, necking-in and mass-asymmetry. Least-action trajectories are found for three decay-modes of ^{238}Pu. Afin d'étudier le comportement dynamique de trois modes de désintégration nucléaire (fission froide, désintégration alpha et radioactivité par émission d'ions lourd), nous utilisons une méthode numérique basée sur les équations d'Euler-Lagrange pour obtenir la trajectoire dynamique optimale dans un espace de configuration à trois dimensions. Les degrés de liberté du système retenus sont l'élongation, la taille du col et l'assymétrie de masse. Pour le calcul de l'intégrale d'action par la méthode WKB, l'inertie du système est déterminée dans l'approximation Werner-Wheeler, et l'énergie de déformation est calculée dans le cadre du modèle de la goutte liquide pour une interaction nucléaire de type Yukawa-plus-exponentielle, étendu aux systèmes binaires avec des densités de charge différentes. Cette méthode est appliquée à l'étude de trois modes de désintégration du Pu-238: désintégration alpha, radioactivité par émission du Si-32 et fission froide avec, pour fragment léger, le Mo-104.

  15. Injury biomechanics, neuropathology, and simplified physics of explosive blast and impact mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bandak, F A; Ling, G; Bandak, A; De Lanerolle, N C

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact to the head are two types of loading shown to result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While mTBI from these two causes shares some common features behaviorally, there are distinct differences in the pathophysiology of the underlying injury mechanisms. Various elucidations have been offered in the literature to explain the organic damage associated with mTBI resulting from both types of loading. The current state of understanding in this field is somewhat limited by the degree of appreciation of the physics and biomechanics governing the effects of explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact on the head, which has resulted in the various approaches to the investigation of the operative brain injury "wounding mechanisms". In this chapter we provide a simplified description of terminology associated with forces on the head from explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact, to assist readers in the field in evaluating interpretations of brain injury "wounding" processes. Remarkably, mTBI from either loading is shown generally to result in only a small loss of neurons, with hippocampal neurons appearing to be particularly vulnerable to explosive blast shock waves. Explosive blast studies in large animal models show a unique pattern of periventricular injury, which is different from the classic diffuse axonal injury. Both astrocyte and microglial activation are also seen in explosive blast as well as impact trauma, but this may be a general secondary brain injury response, nonspecific to explosive blast or blunt trauma. Additionally, while moderate to severe impact closed head injuries sometimes result in petechial hemorrhages or hematomas, they do not appear to be associated with explosive blast mTBI even with repeated exposure to blasts.

  16. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  17. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

  18. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  19. Characterization of dust from blast furnace cast house de-dusting.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2016-12-14

    During casting of liquid iron and slag, a considerable amount of dust is emitted into the cast house of a blast furnace (BF). Usually, this dust is extracted via exhaust hoods and subsequently separated from the ventilation air. In most BFs the cast house dust is recycled. In this study a sample of cast house dust was split by air classification into five size fractions, which were then analysed. Micrographs showed that the dominating particle type in all size fractions is that of single spherical-shaped particles. However, some irregular-shaped particles were also found and in the finest size fraction also some agglomerates were present. Almost spherical particles consisted of Fe and O, while highly irregular-shaped particles consisted of C. The most abundant element was Fe, followed by Ca and C. These elements were distributed relatively uniformly in the size fractions. As, Cd, Cu, K, Pb, S, Sb and Zn were enriched significantly in the fine size fractions. Thus, air classification would be an effective method for improved recycling. By separating a small fraction of fines (about 10-20%), a reduction of the mass of Zn in the coarse dust recycled in the range of 40-55% would be possible.

  20. Behavioral Outcomes Differ between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stemper, Brian D.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Olsen, Christopher M.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Kurpad, Shekar N.; McCrea, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements. PMID:27014184

  1. Behavioral Outcomes Differ between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Shah, Alok S; Budde, Matthew D; Olsen, Christopher M; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Kurpad, Shekar N; McCrea, Michael; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements.

  2. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  3. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M; Porter, John L.

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  4. Perforation of the terminal ileum induced by blast injury: delayed diagnosis or delayed perforation?

    PubMed

    Paran, H; Neufeld, D; Shwartz, I; Kidron, D; Susmallian, S; Mayo, A; Dayan, K; Vider, I; Sivak, G; Freund, U

    1996-03-01

    Blast injuries are rare, and although blast-induced perforations of the bowel have been described in the past, the entity of a delayed perforation caused by an evolving injury has not been reported. We report three men injured by the explosion of a terrorist bombing in open air. They suffered primary blast injuries, which resulted in isolated perforations of the terminal ileum. They were operated at different times after the blast event. The resected specimens were examined under light microscopy. One patient was operated immediately, and had three perforations in the terminal ileum. In the other two patients, abdominal complaints appeared only 24 and 48 hours later. These two patients were found to have hematomas in the wall of the terminal ileum, and small perforations therein, with almost no contamination of the peritoneal cavity. On histological examination, there were small perforations with disruption of all intestinal layers. In the vicinity of the perforations, the mucosa was necrotic and disorganized. The submucosa showed edema and vascular thrombi, and at several points mucus was shown dissecting through the muscularis propria, thus creating minute microperforations. Because of the findings in these patients, we suggest a mechanism of evolving damage to the bowel wall and delayed perforation rather than delayed diagnosis, after blast injuries. We suggest that patients exposed to a significant blast should be watched carefully for at least 48 hours.

  5. Associations between size-fractionated particulate air pollution and blood pressure in a panel of type II diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Zhuohui; Yang, Changyuan; Lu, Jianxiong; Chen, Xuan; Kan, Haidong

    2015-07-01

    Little is known regarding how the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) air pollution influences its effect on blood pressure (BP), especially among patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term associations between size-fractionated PM and BP among diabetes patients. We scheduled 6 repeated BP examinations every 2 weeks from 13 April 2013 to 30 June 2013 in a panel of 35 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients recruited from an urban community in Shanghai, China. We measured real-time PM concentrations in the size range of 0.25 to 10 μm. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the short-term association of size-fractionated PM and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, mean temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, years with diabetes and use of antihypertensive medication. The association with systolic BP and pulse pressure strengthened with decreasing diameter. The size fractions with the strongest associations were 0.25 to 0.40 μm for number concentrations and ≤ 2.5 μm for mass concentrations. Furthermore, these effects occurred immediately even after 0-2h and lasted for up to 48 h following exposure. An interquartile range increase in 24-h average number concentrations of PM0.25-0.40 was associated with increases of 3.61 mmHg in systolic BP and 2.96 mmHg in pulse pressure. Females, patients younger than 65 years of age and patients without antihypertensive treatment were more susceptible to these effects. Our results revealed important size and temporal patterns of PM in elevating BP among diabetes patients in China.

  6. Mediatorless glucose biosensor and direct electron transfer type glucose/air biofuel cell enabled with carbon nanodots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Gao, Yue; Sun, Junyong; Gao, Feng

    2015-03-03

    Utilization of carbon nanodots (CNDs), newcomers to the world of carbonaceous nanomaterials, in the electrochemistry realm has rarely been reported so far. In this study, CNDs were used as immobilization supports and electron carriers to promote direct electron transfer (DET) reactions of glucose oxidase (GOx) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD). At the CNDs electrode entrapped with GOx, a high rate constant (k(s)) of 6.28 ± 0.05 s(-1) for fast DET and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) as low as 0.85 ± 0.03 mM for affinity to glucose were found. By taking advantage of its excellent direct bioelectrocatalytic performances to glucose oxidation, a DET-based biosensor for glucose detection ranging from 0 to 0.64 mM with a high sensitivity of 6.1 μA mM(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.07 ± 0.03 μM (S/N = 3) was proposed. Additionally, the promoted DET of BOD immobilized on CNDs was also observed and effectively catalyzed the reduction of oxygen to water at the onset potential of +0.51 V (vs Ag/AgCl). On the basis of the facilitated DET of these two enzymes at CNDs electrodes, a mediator-free DET-type glucose/air enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC), in which CNDs electrodes entrapped with GOx and BOD were employed for oxidizing glucose at the bioanode and reducing oxygen at the biocathode, respectively, was successfully fabricated. The constructed BFC displayed an open-circuit voltage (OCV) as high as 0.93 V and a maximum power density of 40.8 μW cm(-2) at 0.41 V. These important features of CNDs have implied to be promising materials for immobilizing enzymes and efficient platforms for elaborating bioelectrochemical devices such as biosensors and BFCs.

  7. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  9. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  10. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  11. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  12. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats.

    PubMed

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005-0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.

  13. Effects of Primary Blast Overpressure on Retina and Optic Tract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James; Sharrow, Keith; Hill, Miya; Berman, Jonathan; Oliver, Thomas; Long, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model. The amplitude of a- and b-waves on the electroretinogram (ERG) for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm postoptic chiasm) were evaluated 14 days after the blast. For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P = 0.005–0.01) Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P = 0.01), and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001). Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both postchiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves. PMID:27199884

  14. Types of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone marrow have at least one certain chromosome abnormality that is only seen in MDS or leukemia. The number of blasts in the bone marrow is less than 5%. Because this type ... this type of MDS, the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells are normal except ...

  15. Pyromellitic dithioimides: thionation improves air-stability and electron mobility of N-type organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Te-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Han; Chiu, Yi-Pang; Chen, Bo-Hsiang; Shih, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yu-Chang; Yao, Jie-Yi; Lee, Yao-Jen; Kuo, Ming-Yu

    2015-09-18

    Thionation and fluorination of pyromellitic diimides (PyDIs) increased the electron mobility and on/off ratio of the original diimides by two orders of magnitude and improved the threshold voltage and air-stability of diimide compounds.

  16. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  17. Microscopic origin of self-similarity in granular blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, M.; Villamaina, D.; Trizac, E.

    2016-08-01

    The self-similar expansion of a blast wave, well-studied in air, has peculiar counterparts in dense and dissipative media such as granular gases. Recent results have shown that, while the traditional Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov (TvNS) derivation is not applicable to such granular blasts, they can nevertheless be well understood via a combination of microscopic and hydrodynamic insights. In this article, we provide a detailed analysis of these methods associating molecular dynamics simulations and continuum equations, which successfully predict hydrodynamic profiles, scaling properties, and the instability of the self-similar solution. We also present new results for the energy conserving case, including the particle-level analysis of the classic TvNS solution and its breakdown at higher densities.

  18. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean, remove... qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean, remove... qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shunted until connected into the blasting circuit. (d) Blasting cables shall be— (1) Well insulated... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated; (3) Have a resistance no greater than 20-gauge copper wire; and (4) Be not more than 30 feet long....

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  3. Development of Repair and Reprocess Coatings for Air-Cooled Nickel Alloy Turbine Blades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NICKEL ALLOYS , METAL COATINGS, GAS TURBINE BLADES, MAINTENANCE, PROCESSING, ABRASIVE BLASTING, MATERIALS, REMOVAL, SUBSTRATES, SLURRY COATING...NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, OXIDATION, CORROSION, AIR COOLED, RUPTURE, CREEP, STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, EROSION, SPALLATION, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), COBALT ALLOYS , DIFFUSION.

  4. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... brought to the blast site, the blast site shall be attended; barricaded and posted with warning signs... permitted within the blast site shall be those activities directly related to the blasting operation and the... designed to facilitate a continuous process, with the blast fired as soon as possible following...

  5. Arene Trifluoromethylation: An Effective Strategy to Obtain Air-Stable n-Type Organic Semiconductors with Tunable Optoelectronic and Electron Transfer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haoran; Putta, Anjaneyulu; Billion, Michael

    2012-08-02

    Modulation of organic semiconductor band gap, electron affinities (EA), ionization potentials (IP), and reorganization energies (λ) associated with charge transfer is critical for its applications. We report here that trifluoromethylation not only increases both IP and EA significantly as expected but also narrows the HOMO–LUMO band gaps and increases considerably the air-stability of arene-based n-type organic semiconductors. The increased air-stability results from relatively high EA energies and a change in oxidation mechanism. Calculated EAs and IPs show that trifluoromethylated arenes are excellent candidates for n-type semiconductor materials; though a moderate increase of inner-sphere reorganization energy (λi) associated with charge transfer is the penalty for the improved performance of the trifluoromethylated compounds. However, since λi decreases as the π conjugation increases, a rational design to produce air-stable n-type semiconductor materials with reasonably small λi is simply to prepare trifluoromethylated arenes with extended π conjugation. Finally, we found that structural isomerization can fine-tune the optoelectronic and electronic transfer properties of the corresponding aromatics.

  6. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Balicki, Adrian; Michalski, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  8. Lift Increase by Blowing Out Air, Tests on Airfoil of 12 Percent Thickness, Using Various Types of Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwier, W.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA 23012-4 airfoil was investigated for the purpose of increasing lift by means of blowing out air from the wing, in conjunction with the effect of plain flap of variable contour and slotted flap of 25 percent chord length. The wing also was provided with a hinged nose, to be deflected at will. Air was blown out frcm the wing immediately in front of the flap; also at the opening between wing and hinged nose,tangentially to the surface of the wing. Another device employed to increase maximum lift was a movable slat, to be opened to form a clot. Lift was measured in relation to the volume of blown-out air and considerable increases were observed with increasing volume.

  9. A Novel Closed-Head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Scott A.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H.; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25–40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50–60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2–8 weeks after blast, 50–60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60 psi mice 3–8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50–60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to “diffuse” axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

  10. Evaluation of Five Additional Enhancements to the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF TEST/DEMONSTRATION U’ WORK UNIT NO./TITLE OF TEST: T3B, Blast Enhancements Evaluation PERFORMING LABORATORY: USACERL...gram, work unit EA-KAI, "Test New BLAST Enhancements," and project 4A162784AT45, "Energy and Energy Conservation," work unit XG2, "Energy Analysis...air economy cycle. 2. SZDT-DX. Single zone draw-through fan systems with a direct expansion condensing unit tor zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone I

  11. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  12. Air-stable conversion of separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors from p-type to n-type using atomic layer deposition of high-κ oxide and its application in CMOS logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Fu, Yue; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-04-26

    Due to extraordinary electrical properties, preseparated, high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes hold great potential for thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuit applications. One of the main challenges it still faces is the fabrication of air-stable n-type nanotube TFTs with industry-compatible techniques. Here in this paper, we report a novel and highly reliable method of converting the as-made p-type TFTs using preseparated semiconducting nanotubes into air-stable n-type transistors by adding a high-κ oxide passivation layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The n-type devices exhibit symmetric electrical performance compared with the p-type devices in terms of on-current, on/off ratio, and device mobility. Various factors affecting the conversion process, including ALD temperature, metal contact material, and channel length, have also been systematically studied by a series of designed experiments. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with rail-to-rail output, symmetric input/output behavior, and large noise margin has been further demonstrated. The excellent performance gives us the feasibility of cascading multiple stages of logic blocks and larger scale integration. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film macroelectronics.

  13. Effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions of reverse-flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The combustion process in a reverse-flow combustor suitable for a small gas turbine engine was investigated to evaluate the effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions. Fuel injector configurations using pressure-atomizing, spill-flow, air blast, and air-assist techniques were compared and evaluated on the basis of performance obtained in a full-scale experimental combustor operated at inlet conditions corresponding to takeoff, cruise, low power, and idle and typical of a 16:1-pressure-ratio turbine engine. Major differences in combustor performance and emissions characteristics were experienced with each injector type even though the aerodynamic configuration was common to most combustor models. Performance characteristics obtained with the various fuel injector types could not have been predicted from bench-test injector spray characteristics. The effect of the number of operating fuel injectors on performance and emissions is also presented.

  14. Blast resistance of CC-NB-LRR protein Pb1 is mediated by WRKY45 through protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Nagao; Matsushita, Akane; Xinqiong, Liu; Nakayama, Akira; Sugano, Shoji; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-06-04

    Panicle blast 1 (Pb1) is a panicle blast resistance gene derived from the indica rice cultivar "Modan." Pb1 encodes a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein and confers durable, broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae races. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Pb1-mediated blast resistance. The Pb1 protein interacted with WRKY45, a transcription factor involved in induced resistance via the salicylic acid signaling pathway that is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Pb1-mediated panicle blast resistance was largely compromised when WRKY45 was knocked down in a Pb1-containing rice cultivar. Leaf-blast resistance by Pb1 overexpression (Pb1-ox) was also compromised in WRKY45 knockdown/Pb1-ox rice. Blast infection induced higher accumulation of WRKY45 in Pb1-ox than in control Nipponbare rice. Overexpression of Pb1-Quad, a coiled-coil domain mutant that had weak interaction with WRKY45, resulted in significantly weaker blast resistance than that of wild-type Pb1. Overexpression of Pb1 with a nuclear export sequence failed to confer blast resistance to rice. These results suggest that the blast resistance of Pb1 depends on its interaction with WRKY45 in the nucleus. In a transient system using rice protoplasts, coexpression of Pb1 enhanced WRKY45 accumulation and increased WRKY45-dependent transactivation activity, suggesting that protection of WRKY45 from ubiquitin proteasome system degradation is possibly involved in Pb1-dependent blast resistance.

  15. Relationship between changes in the cochlear blood flow and disorder of hearing function induced by blast injury in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jichuan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The auditory system is the most susceptible to damages from blast waves. Blast injuries always lead to varying degrees of hearing impairment. Although a disorder of the cochlear blood flow (CoBF) has been considered to be related to many pathological processes of the auditory system and to contribute to various types of hearing loss, changes in the CoBF induced by blast waves and the relationship between such changes and hearing impairment are undefined. To observe the changes in the cochlear microcirculation after exposure to an explosion blast, investigate the relationship between changes in the CoBF and hearing impairment and subsequently explore the mechanism responsible for the changes in the CoBF, we detected the perfusion of the cochlear microcirculation and hearing threshold shift after exposure to an explosion blast. Then, an N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) solution and artificial perilymph were applied to the round window (RW) of the cochlea before the blast exposure, followed by an evaluation of the CoBF and hearing function. The results indicated that the changes in the CoBF were correlated to the strength of the blast wave. The cochlear blood flow significantly increased when the peak value of the blast overpressure was greater than approximately 45 kPa, and there was no significant change in the cochlear blood flow when the peak value of the blast overpressure was less than approximately 35 kPa. Following local administration of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the increase in the CoBF induced by the blast was inhibited, and this reduction was significantly associated with the hearing threshold. PMID:23412965

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  17. 9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  4. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. Experimental and computational study and development of the bituminous coal entrained-flow air-blown gasifier for IGCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Osipov, P. V.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the development of the advanced bituminous coal entrained-flow air- blown gasifier for the high power integrated gasification combined cycle is considered. The computational fluid dynamics technique is used as the basic development tool. The experiment on the pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was performed by “NPO CKTI” JSC for the thermochemical processes submodel verification. The kinetic constants for Kuznetsk bituminous coal (flame coal), obtained by thermal gravimetric analysis method, are used in the model. The calculation results obtained by the CFD model are in satisfactory agreements with experimental data. On the basis of the verified model the advanced gasifier structure was suggested which permits to increase the hydrogen content in the synthesis gas and consequently to improve the gas turbine efficiency. In order to meet the specified requirements vapor is added on the second stage of MHI type gasifier and heat necessary for air gasification is compensated by supplemental heating of the blasting air.

  8. Air kerma standard for calibration of well-type chambers in Brazil using {sup 192}Ir HDR sources and its traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Di Prinzio, Renato; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2009-03-15

    In Brazil there are over 100 high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy facilities using well-type chambers for the determination of the air kerma rate of {sup 192}Ir sources. This paper presents the methodology developed and extensively tested by the Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas (LCR) and presently in use to calibrate those types of chambers. The system was initially used to calibrate six well-type chambers of brachytherapy services, and the maximum deviation of only 1.0% was observed between the calibration coefficients obtained and the ones in the calibration certificate provided by the UWADCL. In addition to its traceability to the Brazilian National Standards, the whole system was taken to University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UWADCL) for a direct comparison and the same formalism to calculate the air kerma was used. The comparison results between the two laboratories show an agreement of 0.9% for the calibration coefficients. Three Brazilian well-type chambers were calibrated at the UWADCL, and by LCR, in Brazil, using the developed system and a clinical HDR machine. The results of the calibration of three well chambers have shown an agreement better than 1.0%. Uncertainty analyses involving the measurements made both at the UWADCL and LCR laboratories are discussed.

  9. Formation of Langmuir Monolayers of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at Air/Aqueous Interfaces by the Addition of Ions to the Subphase: Effect of Ion Concentration and Type.

    PubMed

    Iwafuji, Yuya; McNamee, Cathy E

    2015-09-17

    A Langmuir monolayer of bare, hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles (diameter = 75 nm) was formed at an air/pH 5.8 aqueous interface by adding salt to the subphase. The effect of the concentration and type of salt in the subphase on the surface pressure-area per particle isotherms was determined. Increasing the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 3.8 M increased the maximum surface pressure (Πmax) and shifted the isotherms to a larger area per particle. The ion type also affected the area at which the close packing commenced and the value of Πmax. The presence of salt in the subphase also stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles, suggesting that the ions in the subphase interacted with the dioxide groups on the particles. The combination of structure making or borderline ions with structure breaking ions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaCl, and CaCl2) appeared to stabilize the particulate monolayers more than the combination of structure breaking ions (KBr and KCl). These results suggested that the particles were stabilized by a hydrogen bond network between the particles or the formation of a salt bridge between the particles. Attractions between particles at the air/aqueous interface caused the particles to aggregate, resulting in the particles becoming more stable at the air/aqueous interface.

  10. N-type Cu2O doped activated carbon as catalyst for improving power generation of air cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Li, Kexun; Yan, Pengyu; Liu, Ziqi; Pu, Liangtao

    2015-01-01

    A novel n-type Cu2O doped activated carbon (AC) air cathode (Cu/AC) was developed as an alternative to Pt electrode for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum power density of MFCs using this novel air cathode was as high as 1390±76mWm(-2), almost 59% higher than the bare AC air cathode. Specifically, the resistance including total resistance and charge transfer resistance significantly decreased comparing to the control. Tafel curve also showed the faster electro-transfer kinetics of Cu/AC with exchange current density of 1.03×10(-3)Acm(-2), which was 69% higher than the control. Ribbon-like Cu2O was deposited on the surface of AC with the mesopore surface area increasing. Cubic Cu2O crystals exclusively expose (111) planes with the interplanar crystal spacing of 2.48Å, which was the dominate active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). N-type Cu2O with oxygen vacancies played crucial roles in electrochemical catalytic activity.

  11. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  12. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

  13. An Investigation of The Reticulated Foam - Perforated Steel Sheet Sandwich Structure As A Blast Mitigation Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London Collaboration; Royal British Legion CentreBlast Injury Studies at Imperial College London Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Explosions have always been the main cause of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming more and more common nowadays. In this paper, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets, with varying thickness and configuration, is studied using an air-driven shock tube apparatus. The mitigation effects for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude as well as shock impulse. Schlieren photography together with other high-speed imaging was also used to visually investigate the matter. The results show that lower open area of perforated sheet and increased thickness of foam offer best protection. However, below a threshold thickness, no mitigation is seen. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  14. Maximal exercise performance-impairing effects of simulated blast overpressure in sheep.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mundie, T G; Dodd, K T

    1997-07-25

    Lung contusion has been identified as a primary blast injury. These experiments addressed a fundamental and overt endpoint of primary blast injury, incapacitation (performance decrement). Respiration, hemodynamics, and blood gases were measured in sheep undergoing incremental exercise challenge before and 1 h after simulated blast exposure of the thorax. Pathologic examination of lung tissue was performed after exposure and exercise testing. Blast overpressure was simulated in the laboratory using a compressed air-driven shock tube. Three levels of lung injury (Levels 1-3, 'Trivial', 'Slight', and 'Moderate' injury, respectively) were examined for effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO[2max]), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness. Resting hemodynamics and blood gases were relatively normal an hour after exposure, immediately before exercise. However, Levels 1-3 lung injury were associated with average 4.8, 29.9 and 49.3% VO(2max). decreases, respectively. These performance decrements for Levels 2 and 3 were significantly different from respective controls (non-exposed). Exercise caused significant hemoconcentration in sheep under control conditions, before exposure (resting 9.5 +/- 0.9, end-exercise 11.8 +/- 0.9 g/100 ml). Blast exposure resulted in average decreases of 4.9 +/- 3.4, 12.8 +/- 4.0, and 12.6 +/- 3.3% in exercise-induced hemoconcentration for Levels 1-3 injury, respectively. Normal exercise-induced hemodynamic increases were also attenuated after exposure. Levels 2 and 3 injury resulted in average 22.6 +/- 2.9 and 18.5 +/- 11.2% stroke volume decreases, and also 22.3 +/- 8.4 and 29.0 +/- 14.2% cardiac output decreases, respectively, during exercise. While blast lung pathology and pulmonary function changes could account for post-blast performance decrements, these experiments suggest that in sheep, early after exposure, diminished hemoconcentration and cardiac disfunction may also contribute to decreased exercise performance.

  15. Techniques for Reducing Gun Blast Noise Levels: An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    gun muzzle blast noise level were in- vestigated experimentally to determine potential effectiveness and utility for existing major-caliber guns...impact on training and testing operations was to be minimized. Most of the noise reduction techniques that were investigated involve the use of some type ...shock noise level at the earth’s surface varies according to a complicated dependence upon projectile trajectory, projectile speed along the trajectory

  16. Subcritical crack growth behavior of 10NiMo8.5 steel and type A 508 Cl.3a steel in air and high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J.; Jahns, J.; Siegl, J.; Nedbal, I.

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of fatigue crack growth behaviors of the two low alloy pressure vessel steels (10NiMo8,5 and A 508 Cl 3a) in different environments (air, high temperature water) has been made. No differences were found in fatigue crack growth behavior in air and high temperature water between the two steels investigated. A reasonable agreement between anodic dissolution/film rupture model and experimental data obtained at 295 C was noted. It has been confirmed also by microfractographic observations of the striation spacings. To be able to predict environmentally enhanced fatigue crack growth in a quantitative manner over the whole temperature range understanding of the operative mechanisms must be achieved. Some ideas concerning the above mentioned mechanisms are presented to explain the fractographic evidence and the crack growth behavior of low alloy pressure vessel steel of type 10NiMo8.5 tested as well in water at temperatures of 100 C and 200 C.

  17. Personality Type Analysis of Air Force Institute of Technology School of Systems and Logistics Graduate Degree 85S Class Using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    presentation of the resulting sixteen types is: 13 A ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ In-depth...0.14), discounting the 0 value for the non-represented INFJ category, was for the INFP type. For six of the selection ratios (ISFJ, INTJ, ISFP, ESFP...ratios significant at the .001 level were ISTJ, INFP , ESTP, ENFP and ESTJ. 49 +.. i.++ +i- . i .- -? -’i .+. - -+’ i .+.+.-’. • .i

  18. Study of the Tropospheric Aerosol Structure Under Changing of the Air Mass Type from Lidar Observations in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, S. V.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. É.

    2016-04-01

    The aerosol optical characteristics in the main tropospheric layers are investigated based on joint interpretation of data of multi-frequency lidar sensing (110 sessions) and results of modeling of back air mass trajectories. Methodical problems for separating layers with different scattering properties and estimating their vertical boundaries are considered. Three optical criteria are simultaneously used to distinguish aerosol layers from cloud formations, including the gradient of the backscattering coefficient, optical depth, and the depolarization ratio. High values of the lidar ratio (66 sr) and of the Angstrom exponent (1.62) in the shortwavelength spectral range are observed in the boundary layer for Arctic transport. At the same time, low values of these optical parameters are characteristic for Asian transport: the lidar ratio is 54 sr and the Angstrom exponent is 1.1, which is explained by different relative contributions of the coarse and fine aerosol fractions to the air mass.

  19. Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in polyurethane foam-type passive air samplers upon O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Liu, Yongchun; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks upon O3 exposure was studied in a flow tube. A wide range of PACs was evaluated by spiking PUF disks with PACs and exposing to O3 at concentrations that were equivalent to two months exposure, a typical deployment period for these passive air samplers. Ambient concentrations of O3 (∼50 ppb) at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH) were applied. At 0% RH, 23 of 68 PACs yielded more than 50% loss after exposure. The mean percent loss was 30% with perylene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene the most reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, respectively. At 50% RH, 77% of the studied PACs was stable upon O3 exposure (PACexposed/PACunexposed > 0.7). The mean percent loss was 17% and only 7 of 68 PACs yielded greater than 50% loss. In general, the reactivity of most of the PACs decreased at higher RH, except for the reactive PAHs (acenaphthylene, 2,3-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, dibenzothiophene, and 2-methyldibenzothiophene) which demonstrated lower RH dependence. The experimental conditions in this study represent a worst case scenario for the stability of PACs sorbed to PUF. In reality, the sampling of PACs in ambient air represents an 'aged' component of PACs where the most reactive species have already partially been removed. Also, PACs in ambient air will be associated with the particle phase to varying extents that will help to enhance their stability. Therefore, under regular operating conditions, over a 2-month exposure, we expect a minimal error in the measurement of total concentration of PACs in air using the PUF disk passive sampler.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  1. A catalog of the types of Staphylinidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (MACN).

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Axel O; Chani-Posse, Mariana; Guala, Mariel E; Newton, Alfred F

    2017-01-22

    The type specimens (all current categories) of Staphylinidae deposited in this Museum are listed; names are recorded, most of them represented by name-bearing types (primary types). The specific and subspecific names are alphabetically ordered in a single list, followed by the generic names (and subgeneric ones, if they were stated) spelled as they were published; later combinations and/ or current binomina are mentioned insofar these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 2. Specimens labeled as types of names not found in the literature and probably never published, or published as nomina nuda; and 3. Specimens labeled as types, but not originally designated as such. An appendix provides a systematically arranged list of all names discussed, with indication of where they are discussed in the text.

  2. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from... specified in the table ``apply to ammonium nitrate that passes the insensitivity test prescribed in...

  3. A Parametric Approach to Shape Field-Relevant Blast Wave Profiles in Compressed-Gas-Driven Shock Tube

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1–3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68–1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is

  4. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.

    2016-12-01

    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6 , the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  5. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  6. Backstepping sliding mode tracking control of a vane-type air motor X-Y table motion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren; Shen, Yu-Ta

    2011-04-01

    Air motors are increasingly being used in pneumatic related industries because of their advantages of low operating cost and low maintenance. The DSP controller and the backstepping sliding mode control method were utilized in this study to control an X-Y pneumatic table for tracking trajectory. Due to the effects of the compressibility of air, friction between the motor and ball screw table and the dead-zone effect caused by the proportional valve, the system will yield different responses even with the same inlet pressure and will chatter at low speed. Hence under certain conditions, this method of backstepping sliding mode control can be applied to achieve better results than with the PID controller, such as for tracking circle error and tracking error of the two axes. According to the results, a steady-state error of 0.5 μm can be achieved. The proposed method of backstepping sliding mode control can accomplish accurate tracking circle trajectory performance, offering an improvement in the tracking error of more than 50% over that of the PID controller.

  7. Design for H type co-planar precision stage based on closed air bearing guideway with vacuum attraction force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Shi, Zhaoyao; Lin, Jiachun; Zhang, Hua

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of traditional two-dimensional precision stage is limited not only by the accuracy of each guideway but also by the configuration of the stage. It is not easy to calculate and compensate the total accuracy of the stage due to the complicated influence caused by the different position of the slides. An air bearing guideways with vacuum attraction forces has been designed with closed slide structure to enhance the stiffness and avoid the deformation caused by the weight of slide and workpieces. An H style two-dimension ultra-precision stage with co-planar structure has been developed based on the air bearing guideways to avoid the multi-influence by the axes. Driven by linear motors, the position of the workpiece is encoded by length scales with resolution of 50nm and thermal expansion of 0.6 μm/m/°C (0 °C to 30 °C). The travel span of the stage is 320x320mm, during which each axis has a positioning accuracy of +/-1μm, a repeatability of +/-0.3μm and a straightness of +/-0.5μm. The stage can be applied in precision manufacturing and measurement.

  8. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  9. Evaluation of blast furnace slag as basal media for eelgrass bed.

    PubMed

    Hizon-Fradejas, Amelia B; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2009-07-30

    Two types of blast furnace slag (BFS), granulated (GS) and air-cooled slag (ACS), were evaluated as basal media for eelgrass bed. Evaluation was done by comparing BFS samples with natural eelgrass sediment (NES) in terms of some physico-chemical characteristics and then, investigating growth of eelgrass both in BFS and NES. In terms of particle size, both BFS samples were within the range acceptable for growing eelgrass. However, compared with NES, low silt-clay content for ACS and lack of organic matter content for both BFS samples were found. Growth experiment showed that eelgrass can grow in both types of BFS, although growth rates in BFS samples shown by leaf elongation were slower than that in NES. The possible reasons for stunted growth in BFS were assumed to be lack of organic matter and release of some possible toxins from BFS. Reduction of sulfide content of BFS samples did not result to enhanced growth; though sulfide release was eliminated, release of Zn was greater than before treatment and concentration of that reached to alarming amounts.

  10. Leukemic blast cells and controversies in models of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanovskaya, T S

    2015-03-01

    Classical and up-to-date models of hematopoietic lineage determination are briefly reviewed with the focus on myeloid-based models challenging the existence of the common progenitor for T cells, B cells and NK cells. The analysis of immunophenotype of leukemic blast cells seems to be a promising approach for interpreting some controversies in the schemes of normal hematopoiesis. The literature data as well as our own findings in the patients with various types of acute leukemias are in favor of the concept postulating that common myeloid-lymphoid progenitors giving rise to T and B cell branches retain the myeloid potential. The similarity of some immunophenotypic features of blast cells in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia is consistent with monocyte origin postulated in the studies of normal hematopoiesis. Study of acute leukemias may be the challenging area of research allowing for new insight into the origin of hematopoietic cell lineages.

  11. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  12. [Use of laser flow-type fluorescence aerosol particle counter to evaluate the concentration of microbes in the surface air under high dust content].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Iu T; Vorob'ev, S A; Khramov, E N; Vorob'eva, E A; Kuznetsov, A P; Kiselev, O S

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of a laser flow-type fluorescence aerosol particle counter to evaluate the concentrations of microbes in the surface air under high dust content. Various circuits of flow-type optic aerosol recorders are analyzed. Flow spectral luminescence analysis of some particles flow while exciting the fourth harmonics of a pulse laser on yttrium-aluminium garnet with neodymium by ultraviolet radiation is shown to be the most optimum method for indication of individual aerosol particles. Experiments were conducted on the authors' model of a pilot plant based on this method. The model of a laser flow-type optic analyzer was developed for experimental studies that give a clear display of biological aerosols in complex aerosols. The laser flow-type analyzer-based unit developed may provide a fluorescence signal of aerosol particles in the flow of a sample and that light diffusion signal from them at an exciting light wavelength of 266 nm. Experiments with BVC aerosols and soil dust particles were conducted in different regions of Russia. They showed it possible to detect and to rapidly calculate soil microorganisms by laser flow-type fluorescence assay of individual particles when excited by ultraviolet radiation.

  13. An Experimental Study of Unconfined Hydrogen/Oxygen and Hydrogen/Air Explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin; Skinner, Troy; Blackwood, James; Hays, Michael; Bangham, Mike; Jackson, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Development tests are being conducted to characterize unconfined Hydrogen/air and Hydrogen/Oxygen blast characteristics. Most of the existing experiments for these types of explosions address contained explosions, like shock tubes. Therefore, the Hydrogen Unconfined Combustion Test Apparatus (HUCTA) has been developed as a gaseous combustion test device for determining the relationship between overpressure, impulse, and flame speed at various mixture ratios for unconfined reactions of hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/air. The system consists of a central platform plumbed to inject and mix component gasses into an attached translucent bag or balloon while monitoring hydrogen concentration. All tests are ignited with a spark with plans to introduce higher energy ignition sources in the future. Surrounding the platform are 9 blast pressure "Pencil" probes. Two high-speed cameras are used to observe flame speed within the combustion zone. The entire system is raised approx. 6 feet off the ground to remove any ground reflection from the measurements. As of this writing greater than 175 tests have been performed and include Design of Experiments test sets. Many of these early tests have used bags or balloons between approx. 340L and approx. 1850L to quantify the effect of gaseous mixture ratio on the properties of interest. All data acquisition is synchronized between the high-speed cameras, the probes, and the ignition system to observe flame and shock propagation. Successful attempts have been made to couple the pressure profile with the progress of the flame front within the combustion zone by placing a probe within the bag. Overpressure and impulse data obtained from these tests are used to anchor engineering analysis tools, CFD models and in the development of blast and fragment acceleration models.

  14. Numerical Simulation for Blast Analysis of Insulating Glass in a Curtain Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rong-bing; Jin, Xian-long

    2010-04-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation method for blast response calculation of insulating glass in a curtain wall based on multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation and high-performance computer. The whole analytical model consists of explosion, air, curtain wall system, and ground. In particular, detailed components including insulating glass panels, aluminum column, silicone sealant, and other parts in the curtain wall are set up in terms of actual size and actual assembly. This model takes account of the coupling between blast and structure, nonlinear material behavior, brittle failure of glass material, and non-reflecting boundary definition. Final calculation has been performed on the Dawning 4000A supercomputer using the finite-element code LS-DYNA 971 MPP. The propagation of shock wave in air and blast-structure interaction is quite well estimated by numerical calculation. The damage regions of outer and inner glass are reproduced in the numerical simulations, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. The result provides a global understanding of insulating glass panels under blast loading in the curtain wall system. It may be generated to supplement experimental studies for developing appropriate design guidelines for curtain wall systems as well.

  15. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Grillová, Linda; Mikalová, Lenka; Casco, Ricardo; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Pando, María A; Šmajs, David

    2017-01-01

    A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced CDC-typing (ECDCT). By SBMT, 10 different Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) genotypes were found, of which six were related to the TPA SS14 strain, and four to the TPA Nichols strain. The 23S rRNA gene was amplified in samples isolated from 42 patients, and in six of them (14.3%), either the A2058G (four patients, 9.5%) or the A2059G (two patients, 4.8%) mutations were found. In addition to Taiwan, Madagascar and Peru, Argentina is another country where the prevalence of Nichols-like isolates (26.8%) is greater than 10%.

  16. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  17. [Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2012-06-01

    In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm.

  18. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga; Schaefer, Michele L; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A; Merkle, Andrew C; Fricke, Stanley T; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor.

  19. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michele L.; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Fricke, Stanley T.; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor. PMID

  20. ScalaBLAST 2.0: Rapid and robust BLAST calculations on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2013-03-15

    BLAST remains one of the most widely used tools in computational biology. The rate at which new sequence data is available continues to grow exponentially, driving the emergence of new fields of biological research. At the same time multicore systems and conventional clusters are more accessible. ScalaBLAST has been designed to run on conventional multiprocessor systems with an eye to extreme parallelism, enabling parallel BLAST calculations using over 16,000 processing cores with a portable, robust, fault-resilient design. ScalaBLAST 2.0 source code can be freely downloaded from http://omics.pnl.gov/software/ScalaBLAST.php.

  1. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  2. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  3. Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sands after Blast Densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Posada, Carlos Alberto

    The effect of earthquakes on infrastructure facilities is an important topic of interest in geotechnical research. A key design issue for such facilities is whether or not liquefaction will occur during an earthquake. The consequences of this type of ground failure are usually severe, resulting in severe damage to a facility and in some cases the loss of human life. One approach to minimize the effect of liquefaction is to improve the ground condition by controlled blasting. The main limitations of the blast densification technique are that the design is mostly empirical and verification studies of densification have resulted in contradictory results in some case studies. In such cases, even though the ground surface settles almost immediately after blasting, common verification tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), and shear wave velocity test (Vs) suggest that the soil mass has not been improved at all. This raises concerns regarding the future performance of the soil and casts doubts on whether or not the improved deposit is still susceptible to liquefaction. In this work, a blast densification program was implemented at the Oakridge Landfill located in Dorchester County, SC, to gain information regarding the condition of a loose sand deposit during and after each blast event. In addition, an extensive laboratory testing program was conducted on reconstituted sand specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior of saturated and gassy, medium dense sands during monotonic and cyclic loading. The results from the field and laboratory program indicate that gas released during blasting can remain trapped in the soil mass for several years, and this gas greatly affects the mechanical behavior of the sand. Gas greatly increases the liquefaction resistance of the soil. If the gas remains in the sand over the life of a project, then it will maintain this increased resistance to liquefaction, whether or not the penetration

  4. Spatiotemporal variations of air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, and VOCs) with land-use types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Kim, D.; Stockwell, W. R.; Yang, J.-H.; Shin, H.-W.; Lee, M.-I.; Song, C.-K.; Lee, S.-D.

    2015-09-01

    The spatiotemporal variations of surface air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) with four land-use types, residence (R), commerce (C), industry (I) and greenbelt (G), have been investigated at 283 stations in South Korea during 2002-2013, using routinely observed data. The volatile organic compound (VOC) data at nine photochemical pollutant monitoring stations available since 2007 were utilized in order to examine their effect on the ozone chemistry. The land-use types, set by the Korean government, were generally consistent with the satellite-derived land covers and with the previous result showing anti-correlation between O3 and NO2 in diverse urban areas. The relationship between the two pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) residence land-use areas was substantially different from that outside of the SMA, probably due to the local differences in vehicle emissions. The highest concentrations of air pollutants in the diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles were found in industry for SO2 and PMPM10, in commerce for NO2 and CO, and in greenbelt for O3. The concentrations of air pollutants, except for O3, were generally higher in big cities during weekdays, while O3 showed its peak in suburban areas or small cities during weekends. The weekly cycle and trends of O3 were significantly out of phase with those of NO2, particularly in the residential and commercial areas, suggesting that vehicle emission was a major source in those areas. The ratios of VOCs to NO2 for each of the land-use types were in the order of I (10.2) > C (8.7) > G (3.9) > R (3.6), suggesting that most areas in South Korea were likely to be VOC-limited for ozone chemistry. The pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and PMPM10 except for O3 have decreased, most likely due to the effective government control. The total oxidant values (OX = O3 + NO2) with the land-use types were analyzed for the local and regional (or background) contributions of O3, respectively, and the order of OX (ppb) was C (57

  5. Spatiotemporal variations of air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, and VOCs) with land-use types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Kim, D.; Stockwell, W. R.; Yang, J.-H.; Shin, H.-W.; Lee, M.-I.; Song, C.-K.; Lee, S.-D.

    2015-06-01

    The spatiotemporal variations of surface air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) with four land-use types: residence (R), commerce (C), industry (I) and greenbelt (G) have been investigated at 283 stations in South Korea during 2002-2013, using routinely observed data. The VOCs data at 9 photochemical pollutant monitoring stations available since 2007 were utilized in order to examine their effect on the ozone chemistry. The land-use types, set by the Korean government, were generally consistent with the satellite-derived land covers and with the previous result showing anti-correlation between O3 and NO2 in diverse urban areas. The relationship between the two pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) residence land-use areas was substantially different from that outside of the SMA, probably due to the local differences in vehicle emissions. The highest concentrations of air pollutants in the diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles were found in industry for SO2 and PM10, in commerce for NO2 and CO, and in greenbelt for O3, respectively. The concentrations of air pollutants, except for O3, were generally higher in big cities during weekdays while O3 showed its peak in suburban areas or small cities during weekends. The weekly cycle and trends of O3 were significantly out of phase with those of NO2, particularly in the residential and commercial areas, suggesting that vehicle emission was a major source in those areas. The ratios of VOCs to NO2 for each of the land-use types were in the order of I (10.2) > C (8.7) > G (3.9) > R (3.6), suggesting that most areas in South Korea were likely to be VOCs-limited for ozone chemistry. The pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10) except for O3 have decreased most likely due to the effective government control. The total oxidant values (OX = O3 + NO2) with the land-use types were analyzed for the local and regional (or background) contributions of O3, respectively, and the order of OX (ppb) was C (57.4) > R (53.6) > I (50

  6. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initiating systems are brought to the blast site, the blast site shall be attended; barricaded and posted... only activities permitted within the blast site shall be those activities directly related to the... be conducted in a manner designed to facilitate a continuous process, with the blast fired as soon...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  18. Psychological Type and Analysis of Preferred Negotiation Strategies and Tactics of United States Air Force Contract Negotiators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    progressively to the discovery of new facts and empirical relationships (18:203-205). Darwin is an example of the normal extraverted thinking type (18:240). 123...Publishing Co., 1981. 12. French, J. R. P. and Bertram H. Raven. "The Bases of Social Power," Studies in Social Power, edited by D. Cartwright . Ann

  19. Blast Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Components Retrofitted with FRP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    polymeric resin matrix . The fibers provide strength and stiffness to the composite, while the resin matrix provides stress transfer between fibers...unclassified 2 The most widely used type of polymer matrix for applications in building structures is epoxy resins. Other types of polymer matrix ...to the polymer matrix . All the fiber types in Table 1 can be used for blast design and the choice of fiber type is often an economic one. Table

  20. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  1. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna P; Shah, Alok S; Aperi, Brandy V; Kurpad, Shekar N; Stemper, Brian D; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h) following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI) indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1), demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in OHCs at 2 h

  2. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anna P.; Shah, Alok S.; Aperi, Brandy V.; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Stemper, Brian D.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h) following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI) indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1), demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in OHCs at 2 h

  3. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues.

  4. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  5. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium...

  6. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium...

  7. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium...

  8. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium...

  9. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Not over Minimum separation distance of acceptor from donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium...

  10. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  11. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  12. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  13. Studies on polyphenol content, activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase during air-curing in three tobacco types.

    PubMed

    Sheen, S J; Calvert, J

    1969-02-01

    The change in polyphenol content in the primed leaves of burley, flue-cured, and Turkish tobaccos during air-curing was related to the activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The quantity of chlorogenic acid was rapidly reduced during the first week of curing. The decrease in rutin content during curing was less significant, especially when the concentration of chlorogenic acid was high in leaf tissues. This result was further confirmed by in vitro assays with partially purified tobacco polyphenol oxidase.The polyphenol oxidase activity did not differ at any stage of curing in the 3 tobaccos. When the activity was measured by the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine it rose rapidly during the first day of curing and then decreased sharply so that in the fully cured leaf only 15% activity remained. The increase in activity was not observed when chlorogenic acid was used as the substrate. A similar level of peroxidase activity was found in the 3 tobaccos before curing. Peroxidase activities increased rapidly during the first 24 hr of curing, declined thereafter, and remained highest in the flue-cured tobacco, less in the Turkish line, and least in the burley at the end of curing process.By polyacrylamide gel block electrophoresis, 10 peroxidase isozyme bands, 2 cationic and 8 anionic, appeared identical in all 3 tobaccos. When catechol replaced benzidine-2 HCl as the electron donor, 1 cationic and 2 anionic peroxidase isozymes did not form. Of interest is that the same 10 peroxidase isozyme bands also exhibited polyphenol oxidase activities when treated with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine or chlorogenic acid. Results suggest that in the crude tobacco leaf extract the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase may associate as protein complexes, and peroxidase isozymes may differ in electron-donor requirements. Isozyme patterns for both oxidases at various curing intervals differed only quantitatively.

  14. The distribution of chlorpyrifos following a crack and crevice type application in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, D. M.; Mason, M. A.

    A study was conducted in the US EPA Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Research House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, den and master bedroom over 21 days. Airborne concentrations were collected using both polyurethane foam (PUF) and the OSHA versatile sampler composed of XAD and PUF media located in tandem. Measured airborne concentrations were similar for the two samplers and were higher in the three rooms following the application. The highest measured concentrations were reached during the initial 24-h following application; concentrations subsequently declined over the 21-day study period to levels slightly above background. Spatial and temporal distributions onto surfaces were measured using 10-cm 2 rayon deposition coupons located on the floor. Sections were cut from existing carpet to determine the total extractable residues. Chlorpyrifos was measured from all matrixes in the kitchen, den and bedroom and the data shows the transport of airborne residues from the point of application to remote locations in the house. The findings are compared and discussed relative to another study conducted in which total release aerosols containing chlorpyrifos were activated in the IAQ research house and the resulting distributions evaluated. For both studies dose estimates were constructed for the exposure pathways using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Estimation Model for pesticides. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has been mandated to examine children's exposure to environmental pollutants such as pesticides. This research specifically reduces uncertainties associated with estimating children's potential exposures to residentially applied pesticides and provides inputs to further evaluate and validate residential exposure models which might be used to reduce exposures and perform risk

  15. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  16. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  17. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... his approval. (b) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (c) Only water-resistant blasting... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under...

  19. Power augmentation in a Savonius-type wind-turbine by using a single air-deflecting vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, S.; Sivasegaram, S.

    1982-07-01

    This paper deals with the increase of power output from a vertical-axis wind-turbine of the Savonius-type by using a single deflector vane of simple geometry. Vanes of plane and circular arc sections were used in the study. The respective influences of vane arc angle, vane size and angle of setting of the vane relative to the rotor on the power output were studied and so was the sensitivity of power output to wind direction. Power augmentation by over 50% is seen possible with a single vane of modest size. Means of further power augmentation and achievement of direction-independent operation are discussed.

  20. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  1. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  2. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  3. The interplay between surface micro-topography and -mechanics of type I collagen fibrils in air and aqueous media: An atomic force microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Bar, G.; Cantow, H.-J.

    2001-09-01

    Calf skin type I collagen fibrils were regenerated from acidic solution and imaged with contact mode atomic force microscopy in air, water, and buffer solution. When imaged in air at a contact force of 20-150 nN, collagen fibrils exhibited a distinct transverse banding pattern with a period of 65 nm, consisting of high ridges and shallow grooves. The force dependence of the images suggests that such banding pattern is attributed to the transverse contraction of the fibril upon dehydration during sample preparation, which reflects the tangential mass density across the fibril. Imaging in water and phosphate buffer solution at a contact force of 15-80 nN revealed hydrated collagen fibrils with smooth surfaces. The rigidity of the collagen fibrils decreased considerably upon hydration. Scanning the cantilever tip in an aqueous medium at a contact force of 90-280 nN enabled us to probe subunit arrangement in the bulk region of the collagen fibril. The results indicate that the molecular assembly in the hydrated fibril is akin to that in the intact form. The image resolution was improved by stabilizing the collagen molecules through crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, which served to resolve microfibril-like structure on the fibril surface.

  4. Mining Data, What a Blast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T. L.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic network data processing involves a number of critical decisions which are a balance of available funding and manpower vs the amount and extent of data being processed. In an ideal world, any event detected by a given network would have associated arrivals and usually an associated origin. In this world of decreasing telecommunications costs, that has resulted in an ever increasing number of sensors and stations along with accessibility to ever expanding real-time data flow, this complete human data review is no longer a feasible reality with the existing personnel support. Decisions on catalogue inclusiveness are being made based on expediency and budget constraints rather than on a scientific or technical basis. One of the critical time sinks for an analyst is the location and discrimination of the large number of daily man-made blasts, whether they be from road construction, quarries, or mines. Given that mines exist in a given location it is possible to first, automatically assign event locations to blast sites in real-time, and second, to provide quick mine site associations on the post-real-time processing level. This reduces the analyst's job from a complete event location to simply verifying and correcting automatic detections. A study has been carried out using a grid of mine locations and running an event associator with automatic detections over this grid. Mine blasts are automatically located at the grid mine sites. This has been particularly successful with large blasts outside the network which were previously creating poor locations and necessitated analyst involvement to ensure that these events were not a seismic event within or near the boundaries of the network.

  5. Low-cycle fatigue of Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy alloy X in hydrogen gas and in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.; Buchheit, R. D.; Roach, D. B.; Porfilio, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the low-cycle fatigue resistance of two alloys, Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X, that were under consideration for use in nuclear-powered rocket vehicles. Constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted under compressive strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001/sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 %, in both laboratory-air and low-pressure hydrogen-gas environments at temperatures from 538 to 871 C. Specimens were obtained from three heats of Type 347 stainless steel bar and two heats of Hastelloy Alloy X. The tensile properties of each heat were determined at 21, 538, 649, and 760 C. The continuous cycling fatigue resistance was determined for each heat at temperatures of 538, 760, and 871 C. The Type 347 stainless steel exhibited equal or superior fatigue resistance to the Hastelloy Alloy X at all conditions of this study.

  6. CdSe:In-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings with n-type conductivity produced by air annealing of CdSe-In thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, V.M.; George, P.J.; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Conversion of chemically deposited intrinsic CdSe thin films to n-type coatings by a postdeposition process is described. A Cd:Se-In thin film consisting of a CdSe thin film {approximately}0.15 {micro}m thick and a thermally evaporated indium film {approximately} 0.02 {micro}m thick was air annealed at 325 C for 1 h. The resulting thin film coating of CdSe:In (0.15 {micro}m)-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.03 {micro}m) exhibits a sheet resistance of 790 {Omega}/{open_square} and an n-type conductivity of {approximately} 400 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} for the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} top layer. Etching of the film with 1 M HCl for 6 h removes the superficial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the coating, and the underlying CdSe with indium doping shows a sheet resistance of 15 k{Omega}/{open_square} which corresponds to electrical conductivity (n-type) of {approximately}0.4 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. The composition of the film and its variation along the depth are established through analyses of X-ray diffraction pattern and x-ray fluorescence spectra as well as the photocurrent response of the annealed films recorded before and after chemical etching.

  7. Concordant mast cell and basophil production by individual hematopoietic blast colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P; Baldwin, Tracey M; Di Rago, Ladina; Mifsud, Sandra

    2013-05-28

    Previous studies have shown that mouse bone marrow cells can produce mast cells when stimulated in vitro by stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3). Experiments to define the marrow cells able to generate mast cells showed that the most active subpopulations were the Kit(+) Sca1(-) progenitor cell fraction and the more ancestral Kit(+) Sca1(+) blast colony-forming cell fraction. In clonal cultures, up to 64% of blast colony-forming cells were able to generate mast cells when stimulated by SCF and IL-3, and, of these, the most active were those in the CD34(-) Flt3R(-) long-term repopulating cell fraction. Basophils, identified by the monoclonal antibody mMCP-8 to mouse mast cell serine protease-8, were also produced by 50% of blast colony-forming cells with a strong concordance in the production of both cell types by individual blast colony-forming cells. Enriched populations of marrow-derived basophils were shown to generate variable numbers of mast cells after a further incubation with SCF and IL-3. The data extend the repertoire of lineage-committed cells able to be produced by multipotential hematopoietic blast colony-forming cells and show that basophils and mast cells can have common ancestral cells and that basophils can probably generate mast cells at least under defined in vitro conditions.

  8. Challenging Some Contemporary Views of Coronal Mass Ejections. I. The Case for Blast Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, T. A.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2016-06-01

    Since the closure of the “solar flare myth” debate in the mid-1990s, a specific narrative of the nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been widely accepted by the solar physics community. This narrative describes structured magnetic flux ropes at the CME core that drive the surrounding field plasma away from the Sun. This narrative replaced the “traditional” view that CMEs were blast waves driven by solar flares. While the flux rope CME narrative is supported by a vast quantity of measurements made over five decades, it does not adequately describe every observation of what have been termed CME-related phenomena. In this paper we present evidence that some large-scale coronal eruptions, particularly those associated with EIT waves, exhibit characteristics that are more consistent with a blast wave originating from a localized region (such as a flare site) rather than a large-scale structure driven by an intrinsic flux rope. We present detailed examples of CMEs that are suspected blast waves and flux ropes, and show that of our small sample of 22 EIT-wave-related CMEs, 91% involve a blast wave as at least part of the eruption, and 50% are probably blast waves exclusively. We conclude with a description of possible signatures to look for in determining the difference between the two types of CMEs and with a discussion on modeling efforts to explore this possibility.

  9. Pathophysiology of the inner ear after blast injury caused by laser-induced shock wave

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Katsuki; Mizutari, Kunio; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The ear is the organ that is most sensitive to blast overpressure, and ear damage is most frequently seen after blast exposure. Blast overpressure to the ear results in sensorineural hearing loss, which is untreatable and is often associated with a decline in the quality of life. In this study, we used a rat model to demonstrate the pathophysiological and structural changes in the inner ear that replicate pure sensorineural hearing loss associated with blast injury using laser-induced shock wave (LISW) without any conductive hearing loss. Our results indicate that threshold elevation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) after blast exposure was primarily caused by outer hair cell dysfunction induced by stereociliary bundle disruption. The bundle disruption pattern was unique; disturbed stereocilia were mostly observed in the outermost row, whereas those in the inner and middle rows stereocilia remained intact. In addition, the ABR examination showed a reduction in wave I amplitude without elevation of the threshold in the lower energy exposure group. This phenomenon was caused by loss of the synaptic ribbon. This type of hearing dysfunction has recently been described as hidden hearing loss caused by cochlear neuropathy, which is associated with tinnitus or hyperacusis. PMID:27531021

  10. Back yard blasting on the quiet

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-06-01

    When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

  11. The Effectiveness of Different Personal Protective Ensembles in Preventing Blast Injury to the Thorax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    approximate the blast strength of a PMN landmine , being among the largest and most proliferate of the blast type AP mines; the 115 gram charge size was...adopted to represent a range of smaller mines. The PMN contains 249 gram of TNT , which is of considerably less explosive strength than 250 gram of C4...However, 250 gram of C4 was selected by taking into account the difference in explosive yield between TNT and C4, and that a mine will typically

  12. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  13. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Stefanie; Breitner, Susanne; Neas, Lucas; Cascio, Wayne; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Hinderliter, Alan; Peters, Annette; Devlin, Robert B; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investigate short-term effects of temperature and ozone on endothelial function in individuals having diabetes. Moreover, we investigated interactive effects between air temperature and air pollution on markers of endothelial function. Between November 2004 and December 2005 flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NTGMD) and several blood markers representing endothelial function were measured using brachial artery ultrasound on four consecutive days in 22 individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA). Daily measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) were obtained from fixed monitoring sites. We used additive mixed-models adjusting for time trend, day of the week, relative humidity and barometric pressure to assess temperature and ozone associations with endothelial function. A 1 °C decrease in the 24-h temperature average was associated with a decrease in mean FMD on the same day (-2.2% (95%-confidence interval:[-4.7;0.3%])) and with a delay of one and four days. A temperature decrement also led to an immediate (-1.7%[-3.3;-0.04]) decrease in NTGMD. Moreover, we observed an immediate (-14.6%[-26.3;-2.9%]) and a one day delayed (-13.5%[-27.0; 0.04%]) decrease in FMD in association with a 0.01 ppm increase in the maximum 8-h moving average of ozone. Temperature effects on FMD strengthened when PM2.5 and ozone concentrations were high. The associations were similar during winter and summer. We detected an association between temperature decreases and ozone increases on endothelial dysfunction in individuals having diabetes. We conclude that endothelial dysfunction

  14. In-Vitro Approaches for Studying Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung Chia; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is currently divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. These phases of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct, and can be modeled in both in-vivo and in-vitro systems. The purpose of this review is to consider the mechanical phases of bTBI, how these phases are reproduced with in-vitro models, and to review findings from these models to assess how each phase of bTBI can be examined in more detail. Highlighted are some important gaps in the literature that may be addressed in the future to better identify the exact contributing mechanisms for bTBI. These in-vitro models, viewed in combination with in-vivo models and clinical studies, can be used to assess both the mechanisms and possible treatments for this type of trauma. PMID:19397424

  15. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  16. Polysaccharide films at an air/liquid and a liquid/silicon interface: effect of the polysaccharide and liquid type on their physical properties.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yasunori; McNamee, Cathy E

    2014-11-14

    We investigated the effect of the polysaccharide type, the subphase on which the Langmuir monolayers were prepared, and the liquid in which the properties of the transferred monolayers were measured on the physical properties of the polysaccharide films at an air/aqueous interface and at a silicon substrate, and the forces and friction of the polysaccharide transferred films when measured in solution against a silica probe. Chitosan was modified with a silane coupling agent to make chitosan derived compounds with a low and a medium molecular weight. Chitin and the chitosan-derived compounds were used to make Langmuir monolayers at air/water and air/pH 9 buffer interfaces. The monolayers were transferred to silicon substrates via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, and the chitosan-derived compounds subsequently chemically reacted with the silicon substrates. Atomic force microscope force and friction measurements were made in water and in the pH 9 buffer, where the water and the pH 9 buffer acted as a good and a bad solvent for the polysaccharides, respectively. The polysaccharide type affected the friction of the polysaccharide film, where the physically adsorbed chitin gave the lowest friction. The friction of L-chitosan was higher than that of M-chitosan in water, suggesting that the molecular weight of the polymer affects its lubricating ability. The forces and friction of the polysaccharide films changed when the subphase on which the Langmuir monolayers were formed was changed or when the liquid in which the properties of the films adsorbed at the silicon substrate were measured was changed. The friction increased significantly when the liquid was changed from water to the pH 9 buffer. This increase was explained by the reduced charge of the chitin and chitosan-derived materials due to the pH increase, the screening of the charges by the salts in the buffer, and the possible hardening of the monolayer caused by the adsorption of salts from the buffer.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well

  18. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components.

  19. Macrophages/microglia as 'sensors' of injury in the pineal gland of rats following a non-penetrative blast.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Singh, J; Lim, M K; Ng, B L; Ling, E A

    1997-04-01

    The pineal gland of adult rats was examined immunohistochemically and electron microscopically following exposure of the animals to a single blast equivalent to 110 kg TNT explosive. The most dramatic feature in rats killed at 7, 14 and 21 days after the blast was the upsurge of a large number of macrophages/microglia intensely immunostained with OX-42, OX-18, OX-6 and ED1 antibodies. These antibodies recognise the complement type three (CR3) receptors, major histocompatibility complex class I and class II (MHC I and MHC II) antigens and monocyte/macrophage antigens. Cell counts in OX-42 immunostained sections showed a two-fold increase at these intervals but returned to normal values at 28 days. The immunolabelled cells appeared extremely hypertrophic after the blast when compared with those in normal rats. In the latter and in rats killed at 28 days after the blast, immunoreactive cells were sparsely distributed. Ultrastructural study confirmed a wider occurrence of perivascular macrophages/microglia after the blast and the cells were laden with massive amounts of phagosomes resembling degenerating pinealocyte processes. It is concluded that the seemingly quiescent macrophages/microglia present normally in pineal gland were activated by the external blast force. The induced changes including the increase in cell numbers and endocytosis, however, were reversible in longer surviving animals.

  20. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.