Science.gov

Sample records for air cancer project

  1. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  2. Annual Report 2009 (Project Air Force)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    64 USAF Project AIR FORCE Steering Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 RAND Project AIR FORCE Management ...that is established by Congress and managed by OSD. The director of opera- tions develops a budget and monitors project spending to control costs...helpful as possible.” 30 RAND Project AIR FORCE Cross-Cultural Competence and Mission Success TSgt Sherry Burt dances and sings with people from the

  3. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  4. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot ProjectEPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with sensors

  5. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  6. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  7. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  8. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  9. Incidence of Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2012-0001 INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR CANCER IN U.S. AIR FORCE OFFICER AVIATORS: 1998-2008 Christopher Walker...Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...results of a research project looking at the association between U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators and the diagnosis of testicular cancer . The research

  10. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  11. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low cost, continuous and commercially-available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ~2 km area in Southeastern U.S. Co-location of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as whether multiple identical sensors reproduced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in sampling days could be used in a correction algorihm to im

  12. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  13. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  14. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  15. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  16. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  17. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  18. New Jersey: Clean Air Communities (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean Air Communities (CAC) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement to implement recommendations by the state’s Environmental Justice Task Force and the Air Toxics Pilot Project to reduce environmental risks.

  19. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  20. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  1. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Cancer.gov

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop the Global Cancer Project Map - a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning.

  2. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  3. Air Force Officer Evaluation System Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    supervisor-subordinate relationships, and most private sector organizations ti"-n supervisors to give such feedback. AIR FORCE CULTURE o There exists...Alternative OER designs should reflect and sustain the larger Air Force culture ; 0 Within the Air Force, the alternative OER designs should encourage change...given the Air Force history and culture favoring "firewalling*, there is substantial risk that this approach would meet considerable resistance to

  4. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  5. BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection Clear Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Communicating Instantaneous Air Quality Data: Pilot Project Feed Back

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is launching a pilot project to test a new tool for making instantaneous outdoor air quality data useful for the public. The new “sensor scale” is designed to be used with air quality sensors that provide data in short time increments – often as little

  7. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. The Royal Thai Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-03

    1 The Victory Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Waterpump and Firefly... Waterpump and Firefly Waterpump was the code name for the USAF special air warfare detach- ment in Udorn that trained Laotian, Air America, and Thai...T-28 tour in Vietnam. 93 To support Project Firefly, the RTAF agreed verbally to supplement the Waterpump program. As a result, several classes

  8. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51.115 Section 51.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.115...

  9. Massachusetts Cancer Control Evaluation Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    cancer mortality 30 to 40%. It is imperative, therefore, to create reliable systems to monitor the effectiveness of screening programs. Because...accurate measure of screening effectiveness are not available, we analyzed the proportion of cases with advanced disease at diagnosis within each geographic...area as a proxy measure of screening efficacy . A cluster of tracts with excess proportions of late stage diagnoses is evidence of poor screening

  10. Exploring cancer genomic data from the cancer genome atlas project

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Seog

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has compiled genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data from more than 10,000 samples derived from 33 types of cancer, aiming to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer development. Availability of these genome-wide information provides an unprecedented opportunity for uncovering new key regulators of signaling pathways or new roles of pre-existing members in pathways. To take advantage of the advancement, it will be necessary to learn systematic approaches that can help to uncover novel genes reflecting genetic alterations, prognosis, or response to treatments. This minireview describes the updated status of TCGA project and explains how to use TCGA data. PMID:27530686

  11. Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert A.; Hirata, Glenn T.

    The document presents the final report of the Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project, an effort to assess the impact and effectiveness of special education related services in Hawaii. Each of the four project objectives focused on accomplishment of one of the evaluation types specified in the Context-Input-Process-Product…

  12. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    PubMed

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  13. Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada Photovoltaic Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this Joint Applied Project was to analyze the feasibility for production of renewable energy on DoD installations and focus on... renewable energy initiatives undertaken at Nellis AFB, NV. This project examines the necessary criteria and preconditions for consideration of renewable ...analyzes the Nellis AFB initiative as a model because of its commitment in meeting DoD renewable energy goals while saving taxpayer dollars and

  14. Air Sensor Kit Performance Testing and Pollutant Mapping Supports Community Air Monitoring Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is collaborating on a research project with the South Coast Air Quality Management District in Diamond Bar, Calif. to gain an enhanced understanding of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations across the study area.

  15. 50TH Project Air Force, 1946 - 1996.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Baran’s work on the concept of "distributed communications"— now known as packet switching . Developed in the mid- 1960s in response to an Air Force...provided the natural com- 40 plement to the equally pathbreaking work under way at RAND on U.S. strategy for the nuclear era. They made possible...effects of arms control on nuclear power plants in California. Analysis for Negotiation Starting in the early 1960s with the Underground Test Ban

  16. Project Air Force Annual Report 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    U.S. advance toward Baghdad, such as mining roads, destroying bridges, breaching dams , and even setting oil fields afire. Iraqi forces were further...potential drawbacks of the proposed changes for the entire system. Thirtle is a graduate of the Air Force Academy and the Frederick S. Pardee RAND...Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School John D. Graham, Dean RAND Board of Trustees Ann McLaughlin Korologos (Chairman), Former Secretary of Labor Frank C

  17. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  18. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality projections in the UK until 2035

    PubMed Central

    Smittenaar, C R; Petersen, K A; Stewart, K; Moitt, N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer incidence and mortality projections are important for understanding the evolving landscape for cancer risk factors as well as anticipating future burden on the health service. Methods: We used an age–period–cohort model with natural cubic splines to estimate cancer cases and deaths from 2015 to 2035 based on 1979–2014 UK data. This was converted to rates using ONS population projections. Modified data sets were generated for breast and prostate cancers. Results: Cancer incidence rates are projected to decrease by 0.03% in males and increase by 0.11% in females yearly between 2015 and 2035; thyroid, liver, oral and kidney cancer are among the fastest accelerating cancers. 243 690 female and 270 261 male cancer cases are projected for 2035. Breast and prostate cancers are projected to be the most common cancers among females and males, respectively in 2035. Most cancers' mortality rate is decreasing; there are notable increases for liver, oral and anal cancer. For 2035, there are 95 961 female deaths projected and 116 585 male deaths projected. Conclusions: These findings stress the need to continue efforts to address cancer risk factors. Furthermore, the increased burden of the number of cancer cases and deaths as a result of the growing and ageing population should be taken into consideration by healthcare planners. PMID:27727232

  20. Exploring cancer genomic data from the cancer genome atlas project.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Seog

    2016-11-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has compiled genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data from more than 10,000 samples derived from 33 types of cancer, aiming to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer development. Availability of these genome-wide information provides an unprecedented opportunity for uncovering new key regulators of signaling pathways or new roles of pre-existing members in pathways. To take advantage of the advancement, it will be necessary to learn systematic approaches that can help to uncover novel genes reflecting genetic alterations, prognosis, or response to treatments. This minireview describes the updated status of TCGA project and explains how to use TCGA data. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 607-611].

  1. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-17

    facilities totaling approximately 17,840 square feet. Each of the new facilities in the consolidated education complex would consist of a masonry building...addition to the primary maintenance facility, the Air Force would install two pre-cast concrete buildings, totaling 500 square feet, for the storage of...2,336 Building 255 Additional Demolition Projects dormitory 41,634 Building 256 Additional Demolition Projects dormitory 30,562 TOTAL 100,949

  2. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  3. [Long-term health effects of air pollution: results of the European project ESCAPE].

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Galassi, Claudia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has been recently classified among the top ten risk factors for mortality worldwide. The evidence on the long-term effects of air pollutants is mounting, mostly from multi-centre American studies or longitudinal studies conducted in single European cohorts. Recently, the EU-funded project ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) involved more than 30 cohort studies with the aim of producing pooled estimates of the long-term health effects of ambient air pollution at European level. The project developed a standardized and flexible methodology to estimate chronic exposure to several air pollutants, applied such estimates to existing cohorts in Europe, and analyzed the exposure-response relationships with different health endpoints, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory diseases among children, cardio-respiratory diseases among adults, cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence. One of the most important results has been the detection of relevant health effects of particulate matter at concentrations below the current air quality limit values in Europe.

  4. Relighting demonstration project Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, L.L.; Purcell, C.W.; McKay, H.; Harris, L.

    1994-09-01

    Significant energy savings are available through relighting with modern, energy efficient systems. As a demonstration, a relighting project was recently completed at Robins Air Force Base, Warner-Robins, Georgia. The project was designed to overcome a reluctance to pursue large scale relighting of the entire facility due to prior unfavorable experiences and an unusually large non-office working environment. The project followed contemporary lighting design practices, with the added dimension of involving building occupants in the process. Involving building occupants promoted their acceptance of the project and provided needed critical feedback. Their involvement helped secure their assistance in resolving special design concerns involving radio frequency interference and glare. Although often cited as simple, relighting projects are commonly confronted with problems. This document describes problems, foreseen and unforeseen, encountered by this relighting demonstration, and their solutions.

  5. Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  6. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  7. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  8. Cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Fatema Z; Garabrant, David H; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-02-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality were summarized in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. The index subjects were Operation Ranch Hand veterans who sprayed 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin)-contaminated herbicides in Vietnam. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia during the same period but did not spray herbicides. We assessed cancer incidence and mortality using national rates and contrasted cancer risk in each of three Ranch Hand dioxin exposure categories relative to comparisons. The incidence of melanoma and prostate cancer was increased among white Ranch Hand veterans relative to national rates. Among veterans who spent at most 2 years in Southeast Asia, the risk of cancer at any site, of prostate cancer and of melanoma was increased in the highest dioxin exposure category. These results appear consistent with an association between cancer and dioxin exposure.

  9. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    MANTOOTH, D.S.

    2001-01-17

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization.

  10. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  12. Air pollution and lung cancer: diesel exhaust, coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, I.T.

    1984-03-01

    It is known, that cigarette smoking is by far the most important cause of lung cancer and that about a dozen occupational exposures are also established as causes of this disease. There has been continuing uncertainty about the role of general air pollution. During the past few years, this uncertainty has been compounded with anxiety that the increasing use of diesel-powered vehicles might lead to a deterioration in air quality and, with it, an increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current role of air pollution as a factor in lung cancer and specifically the contribution of diesel exhaust emissions to the incidence of that disease.

  13. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  14. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  15. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City`s air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  16. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  17. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engagement with community members. EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is a prototype technology designed to add value to a community environment – VGP is a park bench equipped with air and meteorological instruments that measure ozone, fine particles, wind, temperature, and humidity at a one-minute time resolution, with the open-source Arduino microprocessor operating as the system controller. The data are streamed wirelessly to a database, passed through automatic diagnostic quality checks, and then made publically available on an engaging website. The station was designed to minimize power use; it consumes an estimated 15W and operates entirely on solar power, is engineered to run for several days with minimal solar radiation, and is capable of automatically shutting down components of the system to conserve power and restarting when power availability increases. Situated outside a public library in Durham, North Carolina, VGP has also been a gathering location for air quality experts to engage with community members. During the time span of June, 2013 through January, 2014, the station collected about 3500 hours of ozone and PM2.5 data, with over 90% up-time operating only on solar po

  18. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CAIRSENSE Project presentation was given at the 108th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Associate in June 2015. The presentation provides an overview of the CAIRSENSE Project and general info about the sensors used in the CAIRSENSE Project.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Air Force Research Laboratory Security Fence Project, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-26

    flanks of the hills are blanketed by Quaternary- aged alluvial fans consisting of water-laid sand and gravel deposits. The valley floor is composed...bedded clay and sand, interfingered with the encroaching alluvial fan deposits. Playa margins have shoreline sand deposits from the wetter middle and...AFRL and are detailed as follows (United States Air Force 2008a):  Alluvial fans in the AFRL and proposed fence project area primarily consist of

  20. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  1. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  2. Interventions addressing health inequalities in European regions: the AIR project.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Barsanti, Sara; Bourgueil, Yann; Daponte, Antonio; Piznal, Ewelina; Ménival, Solange

    2015-10-26

    Disparities in health between social groups have been documented all over Europe. We summarize the methods and results of the Addressing Inequalities in Regions (AIR) project, which identified illustrative interventions and policies developed in European regions to reduce inequalities at the primary health care level. The first phase was a systematic review of the published literature. The second phase was a survey of European regions, collecting information on policies aiming at reducing health inequalities through primary health care and identifying regional, innovative and evaluated interventions. The third phase assessed interventions through methods defined by a formal consensus, and selected illustrative practices considered good practices for several of nine evaluation criteria. The review included 98 evaluations of interventions and 10 reviews; 80% of interventions were from North-America. Three main pathways to reduce health inequalities were identified: providing health promotion, improving financial access to care and modifying care provision. The first survey identified 90 interventions. Most national strategies included health inequalities issues. Education was the most frequently identified targeted determinant. Most interventions were health promotion general or targeted at specific health determinants, conditions or groups. The second survey assessed 46 interventions. Many involved the population in planning, implementation and evaluation. We also identified the multidisciplinary of interventions, and some who had an impact on empowerment of the targeted population. The AIR project documented that policies and actions can be implemented at the regional level through primary care providers. Policies and interventions are seldom evaluated.

  3. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  4. International network of cancer genome projects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumors from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of over 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically-relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies. PMID:20393554

  5. International network of cancer genome projects.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Thomas J; Anderson, Warwick; Artez, Axel; Barker, Anna D; Bell, Cindy; Bernabé, Rosa R; Bhan, M K; Calvo, Fabien; Eerola, Iiro; Gerhard, Daniela S; Guttmacher, Alan; Guyer, Mark; Hemsley, Fiona M; Jennings, Jennifer L; Kerr, David; Klatt, Peter; Kolar, Patrik; Kusada, Jun; Lane, David P; Laplace, Frank; Youyong, Lu; Nettekoven, Gerd; Ozenberger, Brad; Peterson, Jane; Rao, T S; Remacle, Jacques; Schafer, Alan J; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Stratton, Michael R; Vockley, Joseph G; Watanabe, Koichi; Yang, Huanming; Yuen, Matthew M F; Knoppers, Bartha M; Bobrow, Martin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dressler, Lynn G; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Joly, Yann; Kato, Kazuto; Kennedy, Karen L; Nicolás, Pilar; Parker, Michael J; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M; Shaw, Kenna M; Wallace, Susan; Wiesner, Georgia L; Zeps, Nikolajs; Lichter, Peter; Biankin, Andrew V; Chabannon, Christian; Chin, Lynda; Clément, Bruno; de Alava, Enrique; Degos, Françoise; Ferguson, Martin L; Geary, Peter; Hayes, D Neil; Hudson, Thomas J; Johns, Amber L; Kasprzyk, Arek; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Penny, Robert; Piris, Miguel A; Sarin, Rajiv; Scarpa, Aldo; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; van de Vijver, Marc; Futreal, P Andrew; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Bayés, Mónica; Botwell, David D L; Campbell, Peter J; Estivill, Xavier; Gerhard, Daniela S; Grimmond, Sean M; Gut, Ivo; Hirst, Martin; López-Otín, Carlos; Majumder, Partha; Marra, Marco; McPherson, John D; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Ning, Zemin; Puente, Xose S; Ruan, Yijun; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Stratton, Michael R; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Swerdlow, Harold; Velculescu, Victor E; Wilson, Richard K; Xue, Hong H; Yang, Liu; Spellman, Paul T; Bader, Gary D; Boutros, Paul C; Campbell, Peter J; Flicek, Paul; Getz, Gad; Guigó, Roderic; Guo, Guangwu; Haussler, David; Heath, Simon; Hubbard, Tim J; Jiang, Tao; Jones, Steven M; Li, Qibin; López-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, Ruibang; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Ouellette, B F Francis; Pearson, John V; Puente, Xose S; Quesada, Victor; Raphael, Benjamin J; Sander, Chris; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Speed, Terence P; Stein, Lincoln D; Stuart, Joshua M; Teague, Jon W; Totoki, Yasushi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Valencia, Alfonso; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Honglong; Zhao, Shancen; Zhou, Guangyu; Stein, Lincoln D; Guigó, Roderic; Hubbard, Tim J; Joly, Yann; Jones, Steven M; Kasprzyk, Arek; Lathrop, Mark; López-Bigas, Nuria; Ouellette, B F Francis; Spellman, Paul T; Teague, Jon W; Thomas, Gilles; Valencia, Alfonso; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kennedy, Karen L; Axton, Myles; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Futreal, P Andrew; Gerhard, Daniela S; Gunter, Chris; Guyer, Mark; Hudson, Thomas J; McPherson, John D; Miller, Linda J; Ozenberger, Brad; Shaw, Kenna M; Kasprzyk, Arek; Stein, Lincoln D; Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed A; Wang, Jianxin; Yung, Christina K; Cros, Anthony; Cross, Anthony; Liang, Yong; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Guberman, Jonathan; Hsu, Jack; Bobrow, Martin; Chalmers, Don R C; Hasel, Karl W; Joly, Yann; Kaan, Terry S H; Kennedy, Karen L; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lowrance, William W; Masui, Tohru; Nicolás, Pilar; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vergely, Catherine; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V; Bowtell, David D L; Cloonan, Nicole; deFazio, Anna; Eshleman, James R; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Gardiner, Brooke B; Gardiner, Brooke A; Kench, James G; Scarpa, Aldo; Sutherland, Robert L; Tempero, Margaret A; Waddell, Nicola J; Wilson, Peter J; McPherson, John D; Gallinger, Steve; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A; Thayer, Sarah; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Shazand, Kamran; Beck, Timothy; Sam, Michelle; Timms, Lee; Ballin, Vanessa; Lu, Youyong; Ji, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiuqing; Chen, Feng; Hu, Xueda; Zhou, Guangyu; Yang, Qi; Tian, Geng; Zhang, Lianhai; Xing, Xiaofang; Li, Xianghong; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan; Yu, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Lathrop, Mark; Tost, Jörg; Brennan, Paul; Holcatova, Ivana; Zaridze, David; Brazma, Alvis; Egevard, Lars; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Banks, Rosamonde Elizabeth; Uhlén, Mathias; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Viksna, Juris; Ponten, Fredrik; Skryabin, Konstantin; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Birney, Ewan; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Foekens, John A; Martin, Sancha; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sotiriou, Christos; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Thoms, Giles; van de Vijver, Marc; van't Veer, Laura; Calvo, Fabien; Birnbaum, Daniel; Blanche, Hélène; Boucher, Pascal; Boyault, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Gut, Ivo; Masson-Jacquemier, Jocelyne D; Lathrop, Mark; Pauporté, Iris; Pivot, Xavier; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tabone, Eric; Theillet, Charles; Thomas, Gilles; Tost, Jörg; Treilleux, Isabelle; Calvo, Fabien; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Clément, Bruno; Decaens, Thomas; Degos, Françoise; Franco, Dominique; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Heath, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Samuel, Didier; Thomas, Gilles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Lichter, Peter; Eils, Roland; Brors, Benedikt; Korbel, Jan O; Korshunov, Andrey; Landgraf, Pablo; Lehrach, Hans; Pfister, Stefan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Reifenberger, Guido; Taylor, Michael D; von Kalle, Christof; Majumder, Partha P; Sarin, Rajiv; Rao, T S; Bhan, M K; Scarpa, Aldo; Pederzoli, Paolo; Lawlor, Rita A; Delledonne, Massimo; Bardelli, Alberto; Biankin, Andrew V; Grimmond, Sean M; Gress, Thomas; Klimstra, David; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kusada, Jun; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Miyano, Satoru; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuto; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Campo, Elias; López-Otín, Carlos; Estivill, Xavier; Guigó, Roderic; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A; Montserrat, Emili; González-Díaz, Marcos; Puente, Xose S; Jares, Pedro; Valencia, Alfonso; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Himmelbaue, Heinz; Quesada, Victor; Bea, Silvia; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Campbell, Peter J; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Richardson, Andrea L; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; van de Vijver, Marc; Thomas, Gilles; Masson-Jacquemier, Jocelyne D; Aparicio, Samuel; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Foekens, John A; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van't Veer, Laura; Easton, Douglas F; Spellman, Paul T; Martin, Sancha; Barker, Anna D; Chin, Lynda; Collins, Francis S; Compton, Carolyn C; Ferguson, Martin L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Getz, Gad; Gunter, Chris; Guttmacher, Alan; Guyer, Mark; Hayes, D Neil; Lander, Eric S; Ozenberger, Brad; Penny, Robert; Peterson, Jane; Sander, Chris; Shaw, Kenna M; Speed, Terence P; Spellman, Paul T; Vockley, Joseph G; Wheeler, David A; Wilson, Richard K; Hudson, Thomas J; Chin, Lynda; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lander, Eric S; Lichter, Peter; Stein, Lincoln D; Stratton, Michael R; Anderson, Warwick; Barker, Anna D; Bell, Cindy; Bobrow, Martin; Burke, Wylie; Collins, Francis S; Compton, Carolyn C; DePinho, Ronald A; Easton, Douglas F; Futreal, P Andrew; Gerhard, Daniela S; Green, Anthony R; Guyer, Mark; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hubbard, Tim J; Kallioniemi, Olli P; Kennedy, Karen L; Ley, Timothy J; Liu, Edison T; Lu, Youyong; Majumder, Partha; Marra, Marco; Ozenberger, Brad; Peterson, Jane; Schafer, Alan J; Spellman, Paul T; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Wainwright, Brandon J; Wilson, Richard K; Yang, Huanming

    2010-04-15

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.

  6. Urban air pollution and lung cancer in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, F; Gustavsson, P; Järup, L; Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Jakobsson, R; Pershagen, G

    2000-09-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40-75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950-1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primarily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (>85%) resulted in 1,042 cases and 2,364 controls. We created retrospective emission databases for NOx/NO2 and SO2 as indicators of air pollution from road traffic and heating, respectively. We estimated local annual source-specific air pollution levels using validated dispersion models and we linked these levels to residential addresses using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Average traffic-related NO2 exposure over 30 years was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6) for the top decile of exposure, adjusted for tobacco smoking, socioeconomic status, residential radon, and occupational exposures. The data suggested a considerable latency period; the RR for the top decile of average traffic-related NO2 exposure 20 years previously was 1.4 (1.0-2.0). Little association was observed for SO2. Occupational exposure to asbestos, diesel exhaust, and other combustion products also increased the risk of lung cancer. Our results indicate that urban air pollution increases lung cancer risk and that vehicle emissions may be particularly important.

  7. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  8. Projection Moire Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat s wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  9. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  10. [Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-cancer Analysis Project].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Cancer can exhibit different forms depending on the site of origin, cell types, the different forms of genetic mutations which also affect cancer therapeutic effect. Although many genes have been demonstrated to change a direct result of the change in phenotype, however, many cancers lineage complex molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network analyzed a large human tumors, in order to find the molecular changes in DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic level, The results contain a wealth of data provides us with an opportunity for common, personality and new ideas throughout the cancer lineages form a whole description. Pan-cancer genome program first compares the 12 kinds of cancer types. Analysis of different tumor molecular changes and their functions, will tell us how effective treatment method is applied to a similar phenotype of the tumor.

  11. Lung cancer and ambient air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae, A.; Pukkala, E.; Hakulinen, T.

    1993-12-31

    In a record linkage study between the population register of the City of Helsinki and the Finnish Cancer Registry, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of lung cancer for 33 subareas of Helsinki were estimated in order to determine the regional differences and the extent to which these were the effects of socioeconomic factors and air pollution. In addition, the SIRs for people living along main streets were calculated. In 1975-86, 2,439 cases of lung cancer among males and 765 among females were diagnosed in a population of 0.5 million inhabitants. In the subareas, the SIR for males varied from 0.56 to 1.56 and for females from 0.29 to 3.17. A strong inverse association, most likely due to smoking, was observed between lung cancer and average educational level. The levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in the air of various parts of the city were assessed from mathematical models. After adjustment for age, sex, and level of education, the lung cancer risk increased slightly, but nonsignificantly, with increasing SO{sub 2} concentration, being 1.3% higher in the subareas with the highest SO{sub 2} concentrations as compared with the subareas with the lowest concentrations. There was no consistent relation between the concentration of NO{sub 2} and the incidence of lung cancer. The SIR for people living along main streets was slightly lower than for the whole city, varying from 0.39 to 1.31 for males and from 0.24 to 1.51 for females. This variation was likewise mainly attributable to average educational level, but the multiple regression model also revealed slightly, although nonsignificantly, higher SIRs along the streets with denser road traffic. 51 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  13. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John N; Collisson, Eric A; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Ozenberger, Brad A; Ellrott, Kyle; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sander, Chris; Stuart, Joshua M

    2013-10-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile.

  14. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  15. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  16. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  17. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  18. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  19. Satellite-based monitoring of air quality within QUITSAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nicolantonio, W.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing of both trace gas constituents and Particulate Matter (PM) can be profitably exploited in Air Quality (AQ) assessment. The actual potential role of satellite observations is here highlighted combined with regional meteorological and Chemical Transport Models (CTM) in the context of air quality monitoring as experienced in QUITSAT Project over Northern Italy (from 43:09 to 46:39 N, from 6:19 to 14:23 E). QUITSAT (2006-2009) is a pilot project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the framework of its institutional priorities for the Natural and Technological disaster management programme. AQ monitoring is in general based on local ground measurements. In recent years, this issue has been inserted in a more extended frame, in which CTM have joined ground-based data and satellite observations to provide a better characterization of AQ monitoring, forecasting and planning on a regional scale. In particular, two satellite-based products arisen from analysis methodologies developed in QUITSAT and relative to significant pollutants as PM2.5 and NO2 are presented within this work. The MODIS sensors capability (Terra and Aqua/NASA platforms) to retrieve Aerosol Optical Properties (AOP) has been used in a semi-empirical approach to estimate PM2.5 content at the ground. At first, PM2.5 concentration sampled in several sites over Northern Italy are employed in order to infer AOP to PM conversion parameters. A spatial-temporal coincidence procedure has been performed amongst EO and non-EO data. To take into account the aerosol columnar dispersion and the AOP dependence on the relative humidity (RH) meteorological fields (Planetary Boundary Layer and RH) simulated by MM5 are considered. MODIS aerosol level 2 products (MOD04 and MYD04 collection 5, 10x10 km2 spatial resolution) and PM2.5 samplings performed by Regional Environmental Agencies (ARPA Emilia Romagna and ARPA Lombardia) and carried out over further 6 measurements sites (located in Milano

  20. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    CGAP generated a wide range of genomics data on cancerous cells that are accessible through easy-to-use online tools. Researchers, educators, and students can find "in silico" answers to biological questions through the CGAP website. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov to learn how to navigate the website.

  1. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  2. Clustering cancer gene expression data by projective clustering ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianxue; Yu, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data analysis has paramount implications for gene treatments, cancer diagnosis and other domains. Clustering is an important and promising tool to analyze gene expression data. Gene expression data is often characterized by a large amount of genes but with limited samples, thus various projective clustering techniques and ensemble techniques have been suggested to combat with these challenges. However, it is rather challenging to synergy these two kinds of techniques together to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem and to boost the performance of gene expression data clustering. In this paper, we employ a projective clustering ensemble (PCE) to integrate the advantages of projective clustering and ensemble clustering, and to avoid the dilemma of combining multiple projective clusterings. Our experimental results on publicly available cancer gene expression data show PCE can improve the quality of clustering gene expression data by at least 4.5% (on average) than other related techniques, including dimensionality reduction based single clustering and ensemble approaches. The empirical study demonstrates that, to further boost the performance of clustering cancer gene expression data, it is necessary and promising to synergy projective clustering with ensemble clustering. PCE can serve as an effective alternative technique for clustering gene expression data. PMID:28234920

  3. CitySpace Air Sensor Network Project Conducted to Test New Monitoring Capabilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CitySpace project is a new research effort by EPA to field test new, lower-cost air pollution sensors in a mid-sized city to understand how this emerging technology can add valuable information on air pollution patterns in neighboorhoods.

  4. Beneficial outcomes of the air curtain project in Ghana, August 14-27, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of questions existed about the feasibility of using the air curtain system in West Africa and after the project was completed many of the questions had been answered. Air curtains can be securely mounted on the truck mounted stairs used for passenger planning and deplaning. The Accra Airpor...

  5. Eiatne and Flyklim, Two Projects Concerning Environmental Impacts From Air Transportation Over North Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, A.; Moldanová, J.; Bergström, R.; Langner, J.; Wyser, K.; Lindskog, A.

    Structure and methodology of two projects concerned with regional impact of air traf- fic on the atmosphere is presented. The EIATNE project aims to develop methods and decision support for environmental adaptation of air traffic and air traffic control in en- vironmentally sensitive regions. The FLYKLIM project is closely related to EIATNE, its objective is to study the effect of air traffic on the regional climate in Northern Europe and in particular its effect on high-altitude clouds. The environmental impacts from air traffic within a geographical area are evaluated through interdisciplinary co- operation. Aircraft emissions have been extracted from a four-dimensional analysis based on model calculations of the collected air traffic over Sweden during a limited duration. The project aims to combine model simulations of aircraft performance with model simulations of the dispersion of exhausts and their reactions in the atmosphere, both at cruise altitudes and around airports, in order to evaluate the environmental im- pacts. The project involves use of results from previous research projects, which will be integrated for a qualified analysis of the large-scale environmental effects.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  7. Analysis of Air Force Wartime Contracted Construction Project Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    peacetime factors as a baseline, project factors, health and safety compliance, quality of work, technical performance, work productivity, and...significant difference in overall project quality . In conclusion, cost monitoring from the owner and scrutiny of project management is critical to the...sponsor’s need for the research, and finishes with a brief description of the scope and methodology for the paper . 2 The AFCEC program, though

  8. High Resolution Projection of Future Air Quality in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Lamarque, J. F.; Walters, S.; Naja, M. K.; Ghude, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    About one seventh of the world's population living in South Asia faces the risk of severe air pollution due to high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to present day air pollution in South Asia is sufficient enough to reduce the lifespan of about 660 million people by about 3 years, destroy food that can feed about 94 million poor people and cause economic loss of several billion dollars. This problem may worsen in the future as anthropogenic emissions are expected to increase due to rapid economic growth in South Asia, and climate change is expected to lead to atmospheric conditions conducive for the production and accumulation of air pollutants. In order to predict how air quality will change in South Asia in future (2050), we are conducting high resolution air quality simulations for the present day (2005-2014) and future (2046-2055) time periods using the Nested Regional Climate Model coupled with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). The model domain covers entire South Asia at a horizontal grid spacing of 60 km with a nested domain over the densely populated and polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region at a horizontal grid spacing of 12 km. The model results are being evaluated with available in situ and satellite based observations and the evaluation results show that NRCM-Chem model is able to capture several important features of the observed spatial and temporal distribution of key meteorological parameters and air pollutants. Initial model results show that annual average surface ozone and PM2.5 concentrations may increase by up to 15 ppbv and 25 μg m-3, respectively with highest increase in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

  9. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  10. Employment Projections and Program Priorities. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dan; Collier, Kitty

    This study compared occupational projections for Alabama with graduation rates in corresponding academic programs to provide a context for state and institutional policy decisions on new program initiatives and to comply with recent program viability legislation. The study examined number of degrees conferred, employment projections, and…

  11. Development of a laboratory information system for cancer collaboration projects.

    PubMed

    Quo, C F; Wu, B; Wang, M D

    2005-01-01

    Technological advances increase the rate and quality of biomedical data collection. To exploit these advances to the fullest, laboratory information management systems (LIMS) have been developed to integrate laboratory equipment with software controls so as to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. Ultimately, researchers and clinicians must collaborate closely to achieve a comprehensive interpretation of heterogeneous biomedical data, especially with respect to clinical diagnosis and treatment. We present eOncoLIMS, a modular data and process management system designed to provide the infrastructure and environment for a collaborative cancer research project. This system can be further extended to other collaboration projects to achieve a complete solution to research and clinical problems.

  12. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  13. Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  14. Comparison of large scale renewable energy projects for the United States air force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Jeffrey S.

    This thesis focused on the performance of large-scale renewable energy projects for the United States Air Force. As global energy demands continue to rise, the need to find ways to save energy and produce alternative sources of energy will increase. The Federal Government has begun to address the challenge of energy production and energy security in recent years. In order to increase both the energy production and energy security for the Air Force, there is a trend to increase the amount of renewable energy produced on military installations. The goal of this research was to compare the estimated and actual performance of these large-scale on-site renewable energy projects at Air Force installations. The variables considered for this research were the execution methods and the renewable energy sources. The performance of each project was evaluated against factors identified in previous sustainable construction studies. The study found that actual performance of third party owned and operated projects differed from the expected performance by less than the Air Force owned and operated projects, and that performance of renewable energy projects differed from the expected performance by less than high performance buildings from previous studies. The study also found factors that contributed to the gap between the expected and actual performance including optimistic modeling, unusual weather, operational issues and higher than expected maintenance of the projects. The results of this research were an initial step in understanding the actual performance of large-scale renewable energy projects.

  15. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from galactic cosmic rays greatly limit space mission lengths and potential risk mitigation evaluations. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death and protects against uncertainties using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. Revisions to this model for lifetime cancer risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described here. We review models of space environments and transport code predictions of organ exposures, and characterize uncertainties in these descriptions. We summarize recent analysis of low linear energy transfer radio-epidemiology data, including revision to Japanese A-bomb survivor dosimetry, longer follow-up of exposed cohorts, and reassessments of dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors. We compare these projections and uncertainties with earlier estimates. Current understanding of radiation quality effects and recent data on factors of relative biological effectiveness and particle track structure are reviewed. Recent radiobiology experiment results provide new information on solid cancer and leukemia risks from heavy ions. We also consider deviations from the paradigm of linearity at low doses of heavy ions motivated by non-targeted effects models. New findings and knowledge are used to revise the NASA risk projection model for space radiation cancer risks.

  17. Biological air contamination in elderly care centers: geria project.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Lívia; Mendes, Ana; Pereira, Cristiana; Neves, Paula; Mendes, Diana; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) affects health particularly in susceptible individuals such as the elderly. It has been estimated that the older population spends approximately 19-20 h/d indoors, and the majority of the elderly spend all of their time indoors in elderly care centers (ECC). Older individuals may be particularly at risk of exposure to detrimental effects from pollutants, even at low concentrations, due to common and multiple underlying chronic diseases that increase susceptibility. This study, aimed to assess the impact of indoor biological agents in 22 ECC located in Porto, was conducted during summer and winter from November 2011 to August 2013 at a total of 141 areas within dining rooms, drawing rooms, medical offices, and bedrooms (including the bedridden). Air sampling was carried out with a microbiological air sampler (Merck MAS-100) and using tryptic soy agar for bacteria and malt extract agar for fungi. The results obtained were compared with the recently revised Portuguese standards. In winter, mean fungi concentration exceeded reference values, while bacteria concentrations were within the new standards in both seasons. The main fungi species found indoors were Cladosporium (73%) in summer and Penicillium (67%) in winter. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus, known potential pathogenic/toxigenic species, were also identified. Although the overall rate and mean values of bacteria and fungi found in ECC indoor air met Portuguese legislation, some concern is raised by the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Simple measures, like opening windows and doors to promote air exchange and renewal, may improve effectiveness in enhancing IAQ.

  18. Pacific Air Forces Power Projection: Sustaining Peace, Prosperity, and Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    these Airmen play a part in providing all three, just as all Airmen do. -Global Vigilance, Global Reach, Global Power for America MacArthur’s campaign...Command, Air University, or other ~encies or departments of the us government. This article may be reproduced in whole or in part without permission. If...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE FEB 2015 2 . REPORT

  19. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    environmental impact statement (E ) is n warranted. DATE This page is intentionally blank. Final Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure...AFB viii This page is intentionally blank. Purpose and Need EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 1-1 Shaw AFB Infrastructure EA Chapter 1.0... intentionally blank. Description of the Proposed Action and Alternatives EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 2-1 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED

  20. Recovery Act Hospital Alteration Project at Naval Air Station Jacksonville

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-07

    QMAD Quantitative Methods and Analysis Division RLF Rogers Lovelock & Fritz, Incorporated SE Southeast SF Square Feet SOW Statement of Work TMA TRICARE...Finally, the contractor, Rogers Lovelock & Fritz, Incorporated, reported the recipient information required by the Recovery Act. What We Recommend...contractor, Rogers Lovelock & Fritz, Incorporated (RLF), reported the recipient information required by the Recovery Act. Planning: Initially, Project

  1. Estimating Performance Time for Air Force Military Construction Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Arditi et al, (1985) NEDO, (1988) Mansfield et al, (1994) Naoum, (1991) Assaf et al, (1995) Chan and Kumaraswam y, (1997) Kaming et al, (1997...00 0, 00 0 Project Cost D ur at io n (d ay s) Regression Line Data Upper/Lower Quartiles 212 Bibliography Arditi ,D., G.T. Akan, and S. Gurdamer

  2. Narrowing the spread in CMIP5 model projections of air-sea CO2 fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci

    2016-01-01

    Large spread appears in the projection of air-sea CO2 fluxes using the latest simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Here, two methods are applied to narrow this spread in 13 CMIP5 models. One method involves model selection based on the ability of models to reproduce the observed air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1980 to 2005. The other method involves constrained estimation based on the strong relationship between the historical and future air-sea CO2 fluxes. The estimated spread of the projected air-sea CO2 fluxes is effectively reduced by using these two approaches. These two approaches also show great agreement in the global ocean and three regional oceans of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, including the average state and evolution characteristics. Based on the projections of the two approaches, the global ocean carbon uptake will increase in the first half of the 21st century then remain relatively stable and is projected to be 3.68–4.57 PgC/yr at the end of 21st century. The projections indicate that the increase in the CO2 uptake by the oceans will cease at the year of approximately 2070. PMID:27892473

  3. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Liu, Qun; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO(2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation.

  4. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Liu, Qun; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation. PMID:24636232

  5. Ambient Air for Offshore Liquified Natural Gas Broadwater Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. A projective surgical navigation system for cancer resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Qi; Shao, Pengfei; Wang, Dong; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Zeshu; Wang, Xinrui; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique can provide precise and real-time information about tumor location during a cancer resection surgery. However, many intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are based on wearable devices or stand-alone displays, leading to distraction of the surgeons and suboptimal outcome. To overcome these limitations, we design a projective fluorescence imaging system for surgical navigation. The system consists of a LED excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, a mini projector and a CMOS camera. A software program is written by C++ to call OpenCV functions for calibrating and correcting fluorescence images captured by the CCD camera upon excitation illumination of the LED source. The images are projected back to the surgical field by the mini projector. Imaging performance of this projective navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex-vivo chicken tissue model. In all the experiments, the projected images by the projector match well with the locations of fluorescence emission. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed projective navigation system can be a powerful tool for pre-operative surgical planning, intraoperative surgical guidance, and postoperative assessment of surgical outcome. We have integrated the optoelectronic elements into a compact and miniaturized system in preparation for further clinical validation.

  7. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  8. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  9. Projections of cancer risks attributable to future exposure to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Mauskopf, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    To assess the maximum possible impact of further government regulation of asbestos exposure, projections were made of the use of asbestos in nine product categories for the years 1985-2000. A life table risk assessment model was then developed to estimate the excess cases of cancer and lost person-years of life likely to occur among those occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed to the nine asbestos product categories manufactured in 1985-2000. These estimates were made under the assumption that government regulation remains at its 1985 level. Use of asbestos in the nine product categories was predicted to decline in all cases except for friction products. The risk assessment results show that, although the cancer risks from future exposure to asbestos are significantly less than those from past exposures, in the absence of more stringent regulations, a health risk remains.

  10. Lung cancer and air pollution: a 27 year follow up of 16 209 Norwegian men

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P; Haheim, L; Oftedal, B; Gram, F; Holme, I; Hjermann, I; Leren, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: The well documented urban/rural difference in lung cancer incidence and the detection of known carcinogens in the atmosphere have produced the hypothesis that long term air pollution may have an effect on lung cancer. The association between incidence of lung cancer and long term air pollution exposure was investigated in a cohort of Oslo men followed from 1972/73 to 1998. Methods: Data from a follow up study on cardiovascular risk factors among 16 209 40 to 49 year old Oslo men in 1972/73 were linked to data from the Norwegian cancer register, the Norwegian death register, and estimates of average yearly air pollution levels at the participants' home address in 1974 to 1998. Survival analyses, including Cox proportional hazards regression, were used to estimate associations between exposure and the incidence of lung cancer. Results: During the follow up period, 418 men developed lung cancer. Controlling for age, smoking habits, and length of education, the adjusted risk ratio for developing lung cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.15) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in average home address nitrogen oxide (NOx) exposure between 1974 and 1978. Corresponding figures for a 10 µg/m3 increase in sulphur dioxide (SO2) were 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08). Conclusions: Urban air pollution may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. PMID:14645978

  11. Overview of the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as air-space consolidation on chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Haruta, Yoshinori; Yokoyama, Akihito; Nakashima, Taku; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman suffered from hepatic and bone metastases of breast cancer. Two months after starting combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab and docetaxel, air-space consolidation was observed in the right lower lung lobe on a chest computed tomography (CT) and a high serum KL-6 level was detected. Drug-induced pneumonitis with organizing pneumonia type was suspected, however, a transbronchial lung biopsy and cytological examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provided evidence of metastatic breast cancer. While the lung is a frequently affected site from metastasis of breast cancer, we report a rare case presenting as air-space consolidation on a chest CT.

  14. Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  15. Air pollution and DNA methylation alterations in lung cancer: A systematic and comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Lan; He, Shui-Wang; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Duan, He-Xian; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yun-Chao; Li, Gao-Feng; Wang, Ping; Ma, Li-Ju; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to down-regulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer. PMID:27901495

  16. Identifying Etiologically Distinct Sub-Types of Cancer: A Demonstration Project Involving Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Colin B; Orlow, Irene; Zabor, Emily C; Arora, Arshi; Sharma, Ajay; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly detailed molecular portraits of tumor specimens, much attention has been directed toward identifying clinically distinct subtypes of cancer. Subtyping of tumors can also be accomplished with the goal of identifying distinct etiologies. We demonstrate the use of new methodologies to identify genes that distinguish etiologically heterogeneous subtypes of breast cancer using data from the case–control Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Tumor specimens were evaluated using a breast cancer expression panel of 196 genes. Using a statistical measure that distinguishes the degree of etiologic heterogeneity in tumor subtypes, each gene is ranked on the basis of its ability to distinguish etiologically distinct subtypes. This is accomplished independently using case–control comparisons and by examining the concordance odds ratios in double primaries. The estrogen receptor gene, and others in this pathway with expression levels that correlated strongly with estrogen receptor levels, demonstrate high degrees of etiologic heterogeneity in both methods. Our results are consistent with a growing literature that confirms the distinct etiologies of breast cancers classified on the basis of estrogen receptor expression levels. This proof-of-principle project demonstrates the viability of new strategies to identify genomic features that distinguish subtypes of cancer from an etiologic perspective. PMID:25974664

  17. The Conversations About Cancer (CAC) project: assessing feasibility and audience impacts from viewing The Cancer Play.

    PubMed

    Beach, Wayne A; Buller, Mary K; Dozier, David M; Buller, David B; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award-winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre- and postperformance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on five factor-analyzed indices/indicators-two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator-and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus-group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded effort to

  18. Notification: Project Notification Amendment, Evaluation of EPA's Oversight of Clean Air Act Title V Emissions Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY12-0009, February 14, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Inspector General plans to begin the fieldwork phase of an evaluation of EPA’s Oversight of Clean Air Act Title V Emissions Fees.

  19. Effect of air pollution on lung cancer: A poisson regression model based on vital statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, Toshiro

    1994-11-01

    This article describes a Poisson regression model for time trends of mortality to detect the long-term effects of common levels of air pollution on lung cancer, in which the adjustment for cigarette smoking is not always necessary. The main hypothesis to be tested in the model is that if the long-term and common-level air pollution had an effect on lung cancer, the death rate from lung cancer could be expected to increase gradually at a higher rate in the region with relatively high levels of air pollution than in the region with low levels, and that this trend would not be expected for other control diseases in which cigarette smoking is a risk factor. Using this approach, we analyzed the trend of mortality in females aged 40 to 79, from lung cancer and two control diseases, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, based on vital statistics in 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area for 1972 to 1988. Ward-specific mean levels per day of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} from 1974 through 1976 estimated by Makino (1978) were used as the ward-specific exposure measure of air pollution. No data on tobacco consumption in each ward is available. Our analysis supported the existence of long-term effects of air pollution on lung cancer. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Roland Maze Project school-based extensive air shower network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, J.; Jȩdrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzyński, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Łódź. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented.

  1. Smoking, air pollution, and the high rates of lung cancer in Shenyang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.Y.; Blot, W.J.; Xiao, H.P.; Wu, A.; Feng, Y.P.; Stone, B.J.; Sun, J.; Ershow, A.G.; Henderson, B.E.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. )

    1989-12-06

    A case-control study involving interviews with 1,249 patients with lung cancer and 1,345 population-based controls was conducted in Shenyang, an industrial city in northeastern China, where mortality rates are high among men and women. Cigarette smoking was found to be the principal cause of lung cancer in this population, accounting for 55% of the lung cancers in males and 37% in females. The attributable risk percentage among females is high compared to elsewhere in China, largely because of a higher prevalence of smoking among women. After adjustment for smoking, there were also significant increases in lung cancer risk associated with several measures of exposure to air pollutants. Risks were twice as high among those who reported smoky outdoor environments, and increased in proportion to years of sleeping on beds heated by coal-burning stoves (kang), and to an overall index of indoor air pollution. Threefold increases in lung cancer risk were found among men who worked in the nonferrous smelting industry, where heavy exposures to inorganic arsenic have been reported. The associations with both smoking and indoor air pollution were stronger for squamous cell and small cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. Risks due to smoking or air pollution were not greatly altered by adjustment for consumption of fresh vegetables or sources of beta carotene or retinol, prior chronic lung diseases, or education level. The findings suggest that smoking and environmental pollution combine to account for the elevated rates of lung cancer mortality in Shenyang.

  2. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment, Steam Decentralization Project, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America . Berkeley and Los 7 Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 94. 8 Texas Parks and Wildlife. 2000...Texas horned lizard (EA Figure 4-1 , pg 4-9). Prior to any ground-disturbing activities, the Tinker Natural Resources Program Manager and contractor...shall perform a search of the project site to clear the area of any Texas horned lizards . During and after demolition and construction activities

  3. Implementation of individualized medicine for cancer patients by multiomics-based analyses—the Project HOPE—.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Urakami, Kenichi; Ohshima, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Tohru; Akiyama, Yasuto; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Takashi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Tamai, Sunao; Kusuhara, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) for cancer medicine aims to evaluate biological characteristics of each cancer tissue as well as diathesis of each patient in around 1,000 consecutive cases per year, who receive operations at the Shizuoka Cancer Center. Cancer tissues are investigated by whole-exome sequencing for 18,835 genes, focusing on 12,776 in-house cancer hotspots from 483 cancer-associated genes. To confirm cancer-specific genetic changes, we analyzed blood cells to collate with data of cancer tissues, and we reevaluate cancer tissues by comprehensive cancer panel for 409 genes. In order to investigate diathesis of the patients, we evaluate 43,015 hotspots associated with non-cancerous diseases. In terms of gene expression profiling, we analyze cancer-specific alterations for 29,833 genes using tumor and adjacent normal tissues. If and when necessary, we investigate tumor and normal tissues by proteomics and metabolomics. The model experiments using glioblastoma cell lines demonstrated that the method is appropriate for clinical application. The Project HOPE makes it possible to implement individualized medicine and to practice preventive and presymptomatic medicine for cancer patients. Furthermore, the project can create important seeds for research and development in cancer medicine.

  4. A Project for synchrotron with electron cooling for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, V. A.; Kiselev, V. A.; Levichev, E. B.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Reva, V. B.; Sinyatkin, S.

    2012-07-01

    A project for a new generation of proton and ion accelerator facilities for cancer therapy has been developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). This facility includes an electrostatic injector, a booster with a 10-Hz repetition rate, and a main synchrotron with electron cooling and beam transport lines for delivering the beam to treatment rooms. The application of electron cooling makes it possible to increase the beam intensity and reduce the apertures of both the synchrotron and the high-energy transport lines, as well as save construction costs and energy consumption as required by the accelerator complex. This paper describes the main features of the synchrotron and the requirements for its main systems and their parameters.

  5. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  6. Correlation of mutagenic assessment of Houston air particulate extracts in relation to lung cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D.; Connor, T.H.; MacDonald, E.J.; Trieff, N.M.; Legator, M.S.; MacKenzie, K.W. Jr.; Dobbins, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Air particulate extracts from a series of solvents were tested in the Ames mutagen detection system and were found to be mutagenic in varying degrees as a function of the particulate collection site in Houston, Texas. The mutagenicity level at seven sites was compared with age-adjusted mortality rates in the same areas. Significant correlation was found with the lung cancer mortality rates but not with mortality rates for other causes. These findings support the hypothesis of a contribution of urban air particulate to the lung cancer rates. Furthermore, these findings suggest that an index of the mutagenicity of air particulate is a more powerful measure of the human health hazard of air pollution than the traditional indices of particulate concentration.

  7. Do air quality targets really represent safe limits for lung cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Morawska, L; Giovinco, G; Querol, X

    2017-02-15

    In order to estimate the lung cancer risk associated to airborne particles, exposure and risk-assessment studies ordinarily use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter. Consequently, the corresponding air quality targets are based on this metrics, neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to their negligible mass. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of air quality targets in protecting Italian non-smoking people from lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation. A modified risk-assessment scheme was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both sub-micron (mainly UFPs) and super-micron particles. We found a very high lung cancer risk related to the actual target levels due to the contribution of UFPs, in particular from indoor microenvironments. Therefore, as possible actions to reduce the lung cancer risk, we have hypothesized and tested three different scenarios: a) a reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic chemicals condensed onto particles in agreement with the current EU air pollution policy; b) the use of local ventilation systems to mitigate the exposure to cooking-generated particles; c) the improvement of the overall indoor air quality by considering a mechanical ventilation system instead of the widespread natural ventilation in order to increase the air exchange rates. Even with the simultaneous application of specific actions, performed with the best technologies available, the corresponding estimated lifetime lung cancer risk (ELCR) values for the Italian population for the entire life were equal to 1.25×10(-4) and 1.23×10(-4) for males and females, respectively, well higher with respect to the maximum tolerable lifetime cancer risk, 1×10(-5).

  8. Project AIR FORCE Assessment of Operation Desert Shield. The Buildup of Combat Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    8217 , I~I, ’H I’ I 94 21 DTzc QUAWL 1nfwamD I :1 The research reported here was sponsored by the United States Air Force A %4Qte.- 4 dT under Contract...Defen. .. ISBN: 0-8330-1521-4 RAND is a nonprofit institution that seeks to improve pnhhc policy thiough research and analysis. RAND’s publications do...release; distribution unlimifted iii Preface This monograph is a declassified version of an earlier Project AIR FORCE report, R-4147-AF, desc ibing the

  9. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  10. The effects of air pollutants on the mortality rate of lung cancer and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Keshtgar, Laila; Javaheri, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshan, Zahra; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Zuccarello, Pietro; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-03-24

    World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization. Finally, data related to number of deaths due to lung and blood cancers (leukemia) were gathered from Shiraz University Hospital. Relationship between variations of pollutant concentrations and cancers in lung and blood was investigated using statistical software R and MiniTab to perform time series analysis. Results of the present study revealed that the mortality rate of leukemia had a direct significant correlation with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air (P<0.05). Therefore, special attention should be paid to sources of these pollutants and we need better management to decrease air pollutant concentrations through, e.g., using clean energy respect to fossil fuels, better management of urban traffic planning, and the improvement of public transport service and car sharing.

  11. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation: social characteristics and late effects of cancer among participants in the FOCARE research project.

    PubMed

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane; Larsen, Lone Ross; Kuhn, Katrin Gaardbo; Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Carlsen, Kathrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, the number of cancer survivors is increasing, owing to improvements in cancer therapy, resulting in an increased need to address the physical and mental sequelae of cancer. This paper introduces a Danish psychosocial cancer intervention and presents the baseline characteristics of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated systematically. The study is based on data from a self-administered baseline questionnaire filled in by 2 174 cancer survivors who registered for a 1-week, publicly paid rehabilitation retreat and were invited to participate in the FOCARE study in the period 25 November 2002 to 31 December 2005. The response rate at baseline was 86% (n = 1876). Most participants were younger women with breast cancer. They were generally well educated and working. The cancer survivors reported having comprehensive social networks and being physically active. Several cancer-related symptoms were reported by women with cancers at selected sites, of which fatigue was the most prevalent. More than half reported good-to-excellent self-rated health, while fair-to-poor health was reported by 40%, most of whom were survivors of lung (56%) and haematological (48%) cancers. The results indicate that Danish cancer survivors experience considerably reduced physical health, possibly as late physical effects of treatment. The problems reported by the cancer survivors suggest that cancer rehabilitation should include these aspects of living after cancer and take account of differences among cancer survivors with regard to cancer site, sex, age, family, working status and social position. These challenges might be addressed optimally in multi-dimensional rehabilitation programmes.

  12. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  13. Air pollution and lung cancer in Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.P.; Xu, Z.Y.

    1985-12-01

    A correlation study linking age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates with indices of air pollution was conducted as a first step in the investigation of the high rate of lung cancer in Liaoning Province. Mortality rates for this cancer during 1976-78 for males and females were elevated in the large industrial cities with metallurgical processing and machinery manufacturing industries, after smoking was taken into account. However, there was little correlation between measures of total suspended particulates and lung cancer rates across the 10 major cities of the Province. Neighborhood air pollution indices correlated significantly with local commune mortality rates within the largest city, and lung cancer rates were higher near certain point sources of industrial pollution (including a copper-zinc smelter). These findings indicate that the atmospheric pollution in this northern Chinese province may contribute to lung cancer risk and that further analytic epidemiologic study in this high-risk area is warranted for evaluation of the role of outdoor and indoor air pollutants.

  14. Inconsistencies in findings from the early lung cancer action project studies of lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bach, Peter B

    2011-07-06

    Long-standing guidelines against screening high-risk individuals for lung cancer may change following the publication of the randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which shows a benefit of computed tomography compared with chest x-ray screening. Guideline panels will likely also seek additional information from nonrandomized studies of computed tomography screening, such as the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP). However, for the ELCAP findings to be incorporated into new guidelines, some inconsistencies in the published data should first be resolved. Specifically, some of the reports from ELCAP appear to contradict others in terms of important endpoints, and several findings from ELCAP appear to be statistically improbable or outliers when compared with analyses and studies by other research groups. Clarification of both internal and external inconsistencies is a prerequisite for evaluation of the body of work published by ELCAP investigators.

  15. The Conversations about Cancer (CAC) Project: Assessing Feasibility and Audience Impacts from Viewing The Cancer Play*

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Wayne A.; Buller, Mary K.; Dozier, David M.; Buller, David B.; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre-and post-performance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on 5 factor analyzed indices/indicators – two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator – and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  17. Cotton gin trash incinerator-air heat project. Consultant report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The California Energy Commission has funded the final phase of a four year project resulting in development of a successful system for burning cotton gin trash as a fuel providing the heat for ginning. The incinerator - air heater system installed in Corcoran, California operates continuously throughout the ginning season. Trash feeding and burning rate is automatically controlled from the combustion temperature, hot air temperature is controlled by the drying needs, and ashes are automatically removed from the system and pneumatically conveyed to the disposal site. The system complies with state and county air pollution codes by means of baghouse collectors. Savings in fossil fuel and trash disposal costs have demonstrated the equipment system is feasible for a four year payback at large, well utilized gins.

  18. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory - that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings.

  19. Back-Up Generator Facility and Associated Project Environmental Assessment Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    or operate energy security or conservation projects at the base. Waterpump motors would not be replaced and/or upgraded. In addition, existing sub...install three upgraded/replacement water-pump motors in the base?s existing potable water distribution plant. Under this program, Dyess AFB could pay less... motor replacements would enhance efficiency and conservation. Under the no-action alternative, the Air Force would not authorize Siemens to construct

  20. A Multi-Attribute Evaluation Model for Air Force Engineering Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    of Defense (DOD) are examining ways to utilize multiattribute decision models in the project and source selection processes. Results of some of these... multiattribute decision techniques have been examined by others in DOD to see how they may be utilized in various stages of the procurement process. The... Utility Theory (MAUT) and the AHP to determine how they could be applied to source selection in an Air Force system program office. 18 Additionally

  1. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. The VNAF Air Divisions Reports on Improvement and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-11-23

    REQUIRED Prepared by: NTRELEASABLE TO Major David H. Roe Captain Dennis K. YeeTh nor n ed inn Captain Paul D. Knoke dis ; dto frein nation il Captain Drue...the employment of USAF airpower to meet a multitude of requirements. The varied applications of airpower have involved the full spectrum of USAF...Project CHECO, an acronym for Contemporary Historical Examination ofI Current Operations, was established to meet this Air Staff requirement. Managed

  2. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  3. 3-D simulation of urban warming in Tokyo and proposal of air-cooled city project

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Yamada, Noboru

    1999-07-01

    Recent computer projection of the urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area around the year 2030 showed the authors that the urban temperature near Otemachi, heart of Tokyo, will exceed 43{+-}2 degree Celsius (110 degree Fahrenheit) at 6 p.m. in the summer. In the present paper, modeling and 3-D simulation results of urban warming in the Tokyo metropolitan area were presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions was discussed by using a newly developed 3-D simulation code. Finally, the authors proposed a new concept; cool-air ventilated city project, which alleviates the urban warming, air pollution, and urban discomfort. In this project, the urban outdoor and indoor spaces are ventilated by clean cooled-air, which is produced in the rural or mountainous regions located far away from the urban area. Water of a huge reservoir is cooled below 4 degree Celsius in winter by utilizing sky radiation cooling and will be kept until the summer for indoor and outdoor space cooling. In this study, the feasibility of this system was discussed.

  4. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project in Nebraska -- a education and research project to study extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP) is a statewide education and research experiment involving Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates in the study of extensive cosmic-ray air showers. A network of high school teams construct, install, and operate school-based detectors in coordination with University of Nebraska physics professors and graduate students. The detector system at each school is an array of scintillation counters recycled from the Chicago Air Shower Array in weather-proof enclosures on the school roof, with a GPS receiver providing a time stamp for cosmic-ray events. The detectors are connected to triggering electronics and a data-acquisition PC inside the building. Students share data via the Internet to search for time coincidences with other sites. CROP has enlisted 26 schools in its first 5 years of operation with the aim of expanding to the 314 high schools in the state over the next several years. Recent successes and prelinimary data on air shower searches will be presented. The outlook for statewise expansion will be discussed.

  5. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  6. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood Iii, H Dean; Downward, George S; Chapman, Robert S; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.

  7. Assessment of Sociodemographic and Geographic Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson’s chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  8. Effect of air travel on lymphedema risk in women with history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kilbreath, Sharon L; Ward, Leigh C; Lane, Kirstin; McNeely, Margaret; Dylke, Elizabeth S; Refshauge, Kathryn M; McKenzie, Don; Lee, Mi-Joung; Peddle, Carolyn; Battersby, Katie J

    2010-04-01

    To assess the impact of air travel on swelling of the 'at risk' arm of women treated for breast cancer. Women treated for breast cancer from Canada (n = 60) and from within Australia (n = 12) attending a dragon boat regatta in Queensland, Australia participated. Women were measured within 2 weeks prior to their flight, on arrival in Queensland and, for 40 women travelling from Canada, measured again 6 weeks following return to Canada. Changes to extracellular fluid were measured using a single-frequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Each arm was measured separately using a standardized protocol to obtain the inter-limb impedance ratio. An increase in the ratio indicates accumulated fluid. Information regarding medical management of participants' breast cancer, use of compression garment and history of exercise were also obtained. For most women (95%), air travel did not adversely affect the impedance ratio. The BIA ratio of long-haul travellers was 1.007 +/- 0.065 prior to the flight and 1.006 +/- 0.087 following the flight. The ratio of short-haul travellers was 0.994 +/- 0.033 and following the flight was 1.001 +/- 0.038. Air travel did not cause significant change in BIA ratio in the 'at-risk' arm for the majority of breast cancer survivors who participated in dragon boat racing. Further research is required to determine whether these findings are generalizable to the population of women who have been treated for breast cancer.

  9. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C.; Heck, Julia E.; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression–based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  11. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  12. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  13. Estimates and Projections of Value of Life Lost From Cancer Deaths in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Brown, Martin L.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Value-of-life methods are increasingly used in policy analyses of the economic burden of disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate and project the value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States. Methods We estimated and projected US age-specific mortality rates for all cancers and for 16 types of cancer in men and 18 cancers in women in the years 2000–2020 and applied them to US population projections to estimate the number of deaths in each year. Cohort life tables were used to calculate the remaining life expectancy in the absence of cancer deaths—the person-years of life lost (PYLL). We used a willingness-to-pay approach in which the value of life lost due to cancer death was calculated by multiplying PYLL by an estimate of the value of 1 year of life ($150 000). We performed sensitivity analyses for female breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers using varying assumptions about future cancer mortality rates through the year 2020. Results The value of life lost from all cancer deaths in the year 2000 was $960.6 billion; lung cancer alone represented more than 25% of this value. Projections for the year 2020 with current cancer mortality rates showed a 53% increase in the total value of life lost ($1472.5 billion). Projected annual decreases of cancer mortality rates of 2% reduced the expected value of life lost in the year 2020 from $121.0 billion to $80.7 billion for breast cancer, $140.1 billion to $93.5 billion for colorectal cancer, from $433.4 billion to $289.4 billion for lung cancer, and from $58.4 billion to $39.0 billion for prostate cancer. Conclusions Estimated value of life lost due to cancer deaths in the United States is substantial and expected to increase dramatically, even if mortality rates remain constant, because of expected population changes. These estimates and projections may help target investments in cancer control strategies to tumor sites that are likely to result in the greatest burden of

  14. Application Documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of application documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  16. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  17. Dosimetric impact of an air passage on intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nishioka, Shie; Aikawa, Ako; Kato, Toru; Abe, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Inaba, Koji; Murakami, Naoya; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The brachytherapy dose calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPSs) have conventionally been performed assuming homogeneous water. Using measurements and a Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the dosimetric impact of an air passage on brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. To obtain the geometrical characteristics of an air passage, we analyzed the anatomical information from CT images of patients who underwent intraluminal brachytherapy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source (MicroSelectron V2r®, Nucletron). Using an ionization chamber, we developed a measurement system capable of measuring the peripheral dose with or without an air cavity surrounding the catheter. Air cavities of five different radii (0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 and 1.5 cm) were modeled by cylindrical tubes surrounding the catheter. A Monte Carlo code (GEANT4) was also used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the air cavity. Compared with dose calculations in homogeneous water, the measurements and GEANT4 indicated a maximum overdose of 5–8% near the surface of the air cavity (with the maximum radius of 1.5 cm). Conversely, they indicated a minimum overdose of ~1% in the region 3–5 cm from the cavity surface for the smallest radius of 0.3 cm. The dosimetric impact depended on the size and the distance of the air passage, as well as the length of the treatment region. Based on dose calculations in water, the TPS for intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer had an unexpected overdose of 3–5% for a mean radius of 0.75 cm. This study indicates the need for improvement in dose calculation accuracy with respect to intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. PMID:27605630

  18. MTHFR Gene Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mildred C.; Yu, Pojui; Shiao, S. Pamela K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is one of the most investigated genes associated with breast cancer for its role in epigenetic pathways. Objectives The objectives of this metaprediction study were to examine the polymorphism-mutation risk subtypes of MTHFR and air pollution as contributing factors for breast cancer. Methods For triangulation purposes in metapredictive analyses, we used a recursive partition tree, nonlinear association curve fit, and heat maps for data visualization, in addition to the conventional comparison procedure and pooled analyses. Results We included 36,683 breast cancer cases and 40,689 controls across 82 studies for MTHFR 677 and 23,252 cases and 27,094 controls across 50 studies for MTHFR 1298. MTHFR 677 TT was a risk genotype for breast cancer (p = .0004) and in the East Asian subgroup (p = .005). On global maps, the most polymorphism-mutations on MTHFR 677 TT were found in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas, whereas the most mutations on MTHFR 1298 CC were located in Europe and the Middle East for the control group. The geographic information system maps further revealed that MTHFR 677 TT mutations yielded a higher risk of breast cancer for Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, Morocco, and the Americas and that MTHFR 1298 CC mutations yielded a higher risk in Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, and South America. Metapredictive analysis revealed that air pollution level was significantly associated with MTHFR 677 TT polymorphism-mutation genotype. Discussion We present the most comprehensive analyses to date of MTHFR polymorphism-mutations and breast cancer risk. Future nursing studies are needed to investigate the health impact on breast cancer of epigenetics and air pollution across populations. PMID:28114181

  19. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans.

  20. American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

  1. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY OF TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION FINDINGS IN A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER XXI PROGRAM PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1996 to 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a U.S.-Mexico Border X...

  2. The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects: Power Projection through Cyberspace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Air & Space Power Journal The Joint Force Air Component Commander and the Integration of Offensive Cyberspace Effects Power Projection through...and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Cyberspace can provide great opportunities to assist the joint force air compo-nent commander (JFACC...integration of offensive cyberspace operations is best understood by examining forces presented in the cyberspace domain as a peer component to the

  3. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-06-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure-genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  4. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hoan, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Churl Ho; Moon, Eunpyo; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  5. Acid air and lung cancer: the numbers add up in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Findings of a seven-year study show a significant correlation between high incidences of lung cancer along the southeastern Atlantic coast and high concentrations of sulfuric acid particles suspended in air. The study suggests that smokers living along the Georgia and North Florida coasts may increase their chances of contracting lung cancer by breathing air that is acidic. There is evidence that mist-like sulfuric acid aerosol, blown into Florida from major industrial centers scattered along the eastern seaboard, may be a thousand times more acidic than very acid rain. Because the liquid or solid particles in the aerosols are so small, they are capable of going deeper into the human respiratory tract than ordinary dust particles. The combined effect of breathing such highly acidic aerosol particles and smoking cigarettes may make the lungs more vulnerable to cancer. Florida industries are rapidly following a national trend toward switching from oil to coal as a primary fuel and utility companies plan to build about 10 new coal-fired power plants within the next decade. Threatening to aggravate this situation is a federal effort to ease clean-air standards to give U.S. industry an economic break. The rise in sulfur dioxide emissions in Florida may already be enough to ovecome the diluting effect normally associated with cleaner marine air. (JMT)

  6. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale. PMID:26288819

  7. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  8. The Atlanta Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Air Quality Modeling Project: How High-Resoution Remote Sensing Data Can Improve Air Quality Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William L.; Khan, Maudood N.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlanta Urban Heat Island and Air Quality Project had its genesis in Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air quality) that began in 1996. Project ATLANTA examined how high-spatial resolution thermal remote sensing data could be used to derive better measurements of the Urban Heat Island effect over Atlanta. We have explored how these thermal remote sensing, as well as other imaged datasets, can be used to better characterize the urban landscape for improved air quality modeling over the Atlanta area. For the air quality modeling project, the National Land Cover Dataset and the local scale Landpro99 dataset at 30m spatial resolutions have been used to derive land use/land cover characteristics for input into the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model that is one of the foundations for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to assess how these data can improve output from CMAQ. Additionally, land use changes to 2030 have been predicted using a Spatial Growth Model (SGM). SGM simulates growth around a region using population, employment and travel demand forecasts. Air quality modeling simulations were conducted using both current and future land cover. Meteorological modeling simulations indicate a 0.5 C increase in daily maximum air temperatures by 2030. Air quality modeling simulations show substantial differences in relative contributions of individual atmospheric pollutant constituents as a result of land cover change. Enhanced boundary layer mixing over the city tends to offset the increase in ozone concentration expected due to higher surface temperatures as a result of urbanization.

  9. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer. Objective We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer. Methods We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit. Results For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (> 10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95–1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly. Conclusions This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence. PMID:21227886

  10. Residential Exposure to Estrogen Disrupting Hazardous Air Pollutants and Breast Cancer Risk: the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruiling; Nelson, David; Hurley, Susan; Hertz, Andrew; Reynolds, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies show increased breast cancer risk from exposure to xenoestrogens, but few have explored exposures via ambient air, which could impact large populations. Objectives This study explored the association between breast cancer risk and residential exposures to ambient estrogen disruptors among participants in a large cohort study, the California Teachers Study. Methods Participants consisted of 112,379 women free of breast cancer and living at a California address in 1995/1996. Eleven hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the U.S. EPA 2002 list were identified as estrogen disruptors based on published endocrine disrupting chemical lists and literature review. Census-tract estrogen disruptor concentrations modeled by the U.S. EPA in 2002 were assigned to participants’ baseline addresses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios associated with exposure to each estrogen disruptor and a summary measure of nine estrogenic HAPs among all participants and selected subgroups, adjusting for age, race/birthplace, socioeconomic status, and known breast cancer risk factors. Results 5,361 invasive breast cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2010. No associations were found between residential exposure to ambient estrogen disruptors and overall breast cancer risk or hormone-responsive-positive breast cancer risk, nor among targeted subgroups of participants (pre/peri-menopausal women, post-menopausal women, never smokers, non-movers, and never-smoking non-movers). However, elevated risks for hormone-responsive-negative tumors were observed for higher exposure to cadmium compounds and possibly inorganic arsenic among never-smoking non-movers. Conclusion Long-term low-dose exposure to ambient cadmium compounds or possibly inorganic arsenic may be a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:25760782

  11. Indoor air quality large building characterization project planning. Report for September 1992--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Kulp, R.N.; Pyle, B.; Williamson, A.; McDonough, S.

    1998-08-01

    Three buildings were characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS) for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon carbon dioxide, particle concentrations, temperature, humidity, pressure differentials, ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations, and outdoor air (OA) intake flow rates were collected. The OA intake was adjusted when possible, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data were collected. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO{sub 2} generation/decay rates, and IAQ levels were established for baseline and OA-adjusted conditions.

  12. The US Air Force Academy solar energy research project summary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, K. A.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the solar energy research which was conducted by the U.S. Air Force Academy from April 1975 to January 1980. This research consisted of investigations on a retrofit space heating system which was installed on a typical Military Family Housing (MFH) unit. This summary uses a lessons learned and designer tips approach in its discussion of the solar system's operation. This discussion is organized around the many areas of solar technology which were investigated during the course of this project. Those major areas were energy conservation effects, solar collectors, thermal storage, control systems, Thermography studies, performance comparison to a design model, and homeowner and maintenance manual development. A thermal performance summary of the solar system is also presented. The report concludes with numerous recommendations regarding policy initiatives which the Air Force should take to foster conversion to solar technology.

  13. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  14. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  15. ESP 2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year emissions can then translated into an emissions inventory and applied in climate and air quality mod...

  16. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  17. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.

    PubMed

    Abnet, Christian C; Chen, Yu; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Le Marchand, Loïc; McCullough, Marjorie L; Shikany, James M; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Kai; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Arslan, Alan A; Campbell, David S; Campbell, Peter T; Hayes, Richard B; Horst, Ronald L; Kolonel, Laurence N; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Purdue, Mark P; Snyder, Kirk; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2010-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers of the stomach and esophagus have high incidence and mortality worldwide, but they are uncommon in Western countries. Little information exists on the association between vitamin D and risk of upper GI cancers. This study examined the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and upper GI cancer risk in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured from 1,065 upper GI cancer cases and 1,066 age-, sex-, race-, and season-of blood draw-matched controls from 8 prospective cohort studies. In multivariate-adjusted models, circulating 25(OH)D concentration was not significantly associated with upper GI cancer risk. Subgroup analysis by race showed that among Asians, but not Caucasians, lower concentrations of 25(OH)D (<25 nmol/L) were associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of upper GI cancer (reference: 50-<75 nmol/L) (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91; P trend = 0.003). Never smokers with concentrations of <25 nmol/L showed a lower risk of upper GI cancers (odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.96). Subgroup analyses by alcohol consumption produced opposing trends. Results do not support the hypothesis that interventions aimed at increasing vitamin D status would lead to a lower risk of these highly fatal cancers.

  18. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections for Exploration Missions: Uncertainty Reduction and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Badhwar, Gautam; Saganti, Premkumar; Schimmerling, Walter; Wilson, John; Peterson, Leif; Dicello, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss expected lifetime excess cancer risks for astronauts returning from exploration class missions. For the first time we make a quantitative assessment of uncertainties in cancer risk projections for space radiation exposures. Late effects from the high charge and energy (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays including cancer and the poorly understood risks to the central nervous system constitute the major risks. Methods used to project risk in low Earth orbit are seen as highly uncertain for projecting risks on exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating HZE ion risks. Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions represents the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify risk projection overall uncertainty. Cancer risk analysis is applied to several exploration mission scenarios. At solar minimum, the number of days in space where career risk of less than the limiting 3% excess cancer mortality can be assured at a 95% confidence level is found to be only of the order of 100 days.

  19. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-20

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. "Christmas Balls": a Christmas carol by the adolescent cancer patients of the Milan Youth Project.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Signoroni, Stefano; Silva, Matteo; Gaggiotti, Paola; Veneroni, Laura; Magni, Chiara; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Capelletti, Mirko; Lapidari, Pietro; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Massimino, Maura

    2016-12-19

    The Youth Project is a program developed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents and young adults with cancer. Among its various goals, the Youth Project organizes structured creative activities with the support of professionals, with the objective of offering young people a new way to express their hopes and fears. This article describes a project centered around music: patients created a Christmas carol with the help of musicians and authors. The adolescents explained with their own words the meaning of the lyrics, telling the story of a Christmas spent in a cancer hospital ward.

  1. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

  2. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  3. European research projects for metrology in Brachytherapy and External Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike; Toni, Maria Pia

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), two projects were launched with the central objective of providing reliable measuring techniques for the methods of modern cancer therapy using ionizing radiation—such as brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and hadron therapy—and using high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. The two three-year projects are ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ (Brachytherapy) and ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’ (EBCT). For these modern treatment methods there is an urgent requirement for establishing a sound metrological basis with regard to the radiation dose delivered and its spatial distribution. This paper gives a brief overview about the two projects' work, their goals and findings. The details of the projects' work and their outcomes are presented within these conference proceedings or in the cited publications.

  4. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  5. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  6. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME AIR POLLUTION MONITORING AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY: THE AIRBEAT PROJECT OF ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Roxbury Air Monitoring (AirBeat) Project. The purpose of AirBeat is to make real-time air quality monitoring information (for ozone, black carbon, and fine particulates) available to the Boston MA community of Roxbur...

  7. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. Methods In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case–control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case–control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design–specific (case–control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). Conclusions Consistent findings across case–control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for

  8. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China.

    PubMed

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area, although it is unclear how the quartz in coal relates to household air pollution. Samples of ash and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 163 households and analysed for quartz content by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Additionally, air samples from 12 further households, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate particle structure and silica content. The majority (89%) of household air samples had undetectable quartz levels (<0.2 μg/m(3)) with no clear differences by fuel-type. SEM analyses indicated that there were higher amounts of silica in the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (0.27 μg/m(3) vs. 0.03 μg/m(3)). We also identified fibre-like particles in a higher concentration within the smoke of smoky coal than smokeless coal (5800 fibres/m(3) vs. 550 fibres/m(3)). Ash analysis suggested that the bulk of the quartz in smoky coal went on to form part of the ash. These findings indicate that the quartz within smoky coal does not become adequately airborne during the combustion process to cause significant lung cancer risk, instead going on to form part of the ash. The identification of fibre-like particles in air samples is an interesting finding, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear.

  9. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3′ untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26395400

  10. Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, A.; Granier, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Jakobs, H.; Maurizi, A.; Nyiri, A.; Rao, S.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; D'Angiola, A.; Gauss, M.; Heyes, C.; Klimont, Z.; Meleux, F.; Memmesheimer, M.; Mieville, A.; Rouïl, L.; Russo, F.; Schucht, S.; Simpson, D.; Stordal, F.; Tampieri, F.; Vrac, M.

    2012-11-01

    In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models. A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the modelled projection. Last, the modelling experiment is related to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented. The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop down to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35) will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximum O3 is higher than 120 μg m-3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%. We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios) are the main factors leading to the improvement, but an additional cobenefit of at least 40% (depending on the indicator) is brought about by the climate policy.

  11. Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, A.; Granier, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Jakobs, H.; Maurizi, A.; Nyiri, A.; Rao, S.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; D'Angiola, A.; Gauss, M.; Heyes, C.; Klimont, Z.; Meleux, F.; Memmesheimer, M.; Mieville, A.; Rouïl, L.; Russo, F.; Schucht, S.; Simpson, D.; Stordal, F.; Tampieri, F.; Vrac, M.

    2012-06-01

    In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models. A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the model projection. Last, the modelling experiment is linked to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented. The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35) will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximumO3 is higher than 120 μg m-3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%. We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios) are the main factors leading to the improvement, but an additional cobenefit of at least 40% (depending on the indicator) is brought about by the climate policy.

  12. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.

  13. Simulation and projection of summer surface air temperature over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface air temperature changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The air temperature indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum temperature), t2m (daily average temperature) and tmn (daily minimum temperature), and extreme high-temperature events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface air temperature and extreme high-temperature events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface air temperature were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface air temperature over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three temperature indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-temperature events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface air temperature; Extreme high-temperature events; Regional climate model; Climate change

  14. American Water Heater Company: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Water Heater Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, American Water Heater Company implemented a system-level improvement project on the compressed air system that serves its manufacturing plant in Johnson City, Tennessee. The plant now operates with less compressor capacity, which has reduced its energy consumption and maintenance needs. The project's total cost was $228,000. The annual compressed air energy savings (2,345,000 kWh) and maintenance savings total $160,000, yielding a simple payback of 17 months. Furthermore, the system now supports the plant's production processes more effectively, which has improved product quality and increased production.

  15. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  16. Invited commentary: epidemiologic studies of the impact of air pollution on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jaime E

    2014-02-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Villeneuve et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(4):443-451) present epidemiologic evidence supporting the literature on the adverse effects of air pollution on risk of lung cancer. They found that ambient exposure to volatile organic compounds, especially when measured at longer time scales, was associated with increased odds of lung cancer in citizens of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Specifically, in fully adjusted models, they observed that an interquartile-range increase in benzene concentration was associated with an odds ratio of 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 2.01) using exposure at the time of interview. The odds ratio increased to 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68) when time-weighted exposure at all previous addresses was considered. They obtained similar results for exposure to nitrogen dioxide. These findings add weight to the substantial (and rapidly growing) body of literature on the relation of air pollution with lung cancer risk, as well as illustrate important aspects of the effects of different exposure assessment choices and potential sources of key interest.

  17. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J.

    2016-02-01

    assessment of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity and for determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides. Annual average gross alpha values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are in the same range as the highest two values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Annual average gross beta values at the Project 57 monitoring stations are slightly higher than the lowest value reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the NTTR. Gamma spectroscopy analyses on samples collected from the Project 57 stations identified only naturally occurring radionuclides. No manmade radionuclides were detected. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) indicated that the average annual radioactivity dose at the monitoring stations is higher than the dose determined at surrounding CEMP stations but approximately half of the estimated national average dose received by the general public as a result of exposure to natural sources. The TLDs at the Project 57 monitoring stations are exposed to both natural sources (terrestrial and cosmic) and radioactive releases from the Project 57 contamination area. These comparisons show that the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy levels at the Project 57 monitoring stations are similar to levels observed at the CEMP stations but that the average annual dose rate is higher than at the CEMP stations. Winds in excess of approximately 15 mph begin to generate dust movement by saltation (migration of sand at the ground surface) or direct suspension in the air. Saltated sand, PM10 (inhalable) dust, and PM2.5 (fine particulate dust) exhibit an approximately exponential increase with increasing wind speed. The greatest concentrations of dust occur for winds exceeding 20 mph. During the reporting period, winds in excess of 20 mph occurred approximately 1.6 percent of the time. Preliminary assessment of individual wind events suggests that dust generation is highly variable likely because of the influence of other meteorological and

  18. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Triple Negative Breast Cancer Team Project — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), comprise 15-20% of breast cancers, and are associated with later stage at diagnosis, increased mortality, and occur more frequently in younger women where mammographic screening is less reliable. TNBCs are more likely to be diagnosed by physical exam than by mammographic screening. There is an unmet clinical need for biomarkers for the early detection of TNBC. Here, we are proposing the development of a plasma-based biomarker panel for the routine screening of women over the age of 40 for TNBC that can be used to identify women for further imaging.

  20. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population.

  1. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  2. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  3. Analysis of the American Cancer Society's Generation Fit Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Goodwin, Steve; Ellenberg, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the American Cancer Society's (ACS's) media based peer education program, Message Magic: Selling Healthy Eating and Physical Activity, on participant self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors and advocacy skill development. High school students participating in the program were required to work as a…

  4. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  5. A new cancer genome anatomy project web resource for the community.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Grouse, L; Buetow, K; Strausberg, R L

    2001-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is developing publicly accessible information, technology, and material resources that provide a platform for the interface of cancer research and genomics. CGAP's efforts have focused toward (1) building and annotating catalogues of genes expressed during cancer development, (2) identifying polymorphisms in those genes, and (3) developing resources for the molecular characterization of cancer-related chromosomal aberrations. To date, CGAP has produced more than 1,000,000 expressed sequence tags, approximately 3,300,000 serial analysis of gene expression tags, and identified more than 10,000 human gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To enhance access to these datasets by the research community, a new Cancer Genome Project web site (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/) is being introduced. The web site includes genomic data for humans and mice, including transcript sequence, gene expression patterns, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, clone resources, and cytogenetic information. Descriptions of the methods and reagents used in deriving the CGAP datasets are also provided. An extensive suite of informatics tools facilitates queries and analysis of the CGAP data by the community. One of the newest features of the CGAP web site is an electronic version of the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer.

  6. Heart Disease and Cancer Deaths — Trends and Projections in the United States, 1969–2020

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert N.; Coleman King, Sallyann M.; Soman, Ashwini; Thompson, Trevor D.; Hong, Yuling; Moller, Bjorn; Leadbetter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart disease and cancer are the first and second leading causes of death in the United States. Age-standardized death rates (risk) have declined since the 1960s for heart disease and for cancer since the 1990s, whereas the overall number of heart disease deaths declined and cancer deaths increased. We analyzed mortality data to evaluate and project the effect of risk reduction, population growth, and aging on the number of heart disease and cancer deaths to the year 2020. Methods We used mortality data, population estimates, and population projections to estimate and predict heart disease and cancer deaths from 1969 through 2020 and to apportion changes in deaths resulting from population risk, growth, and aging. Results We predicted that from 1969 through 2020, the number of heart disease deaths would decrease 21.3% among men (–73.9% risk, 17.9% growth, 34.7% aging) and 13.4% among women (–73.3% risk, 17.1% growth, 42.8% aging) while the number of cancer deaths would increase 91.1% among men (–33.5% risk, 45.6% growth, 79.0% aging) and 101.1% among women (–23.8% risk, 48.8% growth, 76.0% aging). We predicted that cancer would become the leading cause of death around 2016, although sex-specific crossover years varied. Conclusion Risk of death declined more steeply for heart disease than cancer, offset the increase in heart disease deaths, and partially offset the increase in cancer deaths resulting from demographic changes over the past 4 decades. If current trends continue, cancer will become the leading cause of death by 2020. PMID:27854420

  7. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  8. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  9. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  10. Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from US and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast cancer (1990–2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months post-diagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95%CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference=lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93–1.25), 1.01 (0.87–1.18), and 1.10 (0.95–1.28) for recurrence (Ptrend=0.34) and 1.01 (0.88–1.15), 0.97 (0.84–1.11), and 0.99 (0.86–1.13) for total mortality (Ptrend=0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by ER status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between post-diagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  11. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  12. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  13. Lung cancer mortality trends in Chile and six-year projections using Bayesian dynamic linear models.

    PubMed

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Moraga, Tomás; Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to analyze lung cancer mortality trends in Chile from 1990 to 2009, and to project the rates six years forward. Lung cancer mortality data were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health. To obtain mortality rates, population projections were used, based on the 2002 National Census. Rates were adjusted using the world standard population as reference. Bayesian dynamic linear models were fitted to estimate trends from 1990 to 2009 and to obtain projections for 2010-2015. During the period under study, there was a 19.9% reduction in the lung cancer mortality rate in men. In women, there was increase of 28.4%. The second-order model showed a better fit for men, and the first-order model a better fit for women. Between 2010 and 2015 the downward trend continued in men, while a trend to stabilization was projected for lung cancer mortality in women in Chile. This analytical approach could be useful implement surveillance systems for chronic non-communicable disease and to evaluate preventive strategies.

  14. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  15. [Adolescents with cancer: the "Youth Project" at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Veneroni, Laura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Spreafico, Filippo; Terenziani, Monica; Massimino, Maura; Luksch, Roberto; Casanova, Michela; Meazza, Cristina; Polastri, Daniela; Gandola, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer are a particular group of patients who are less likely to gain access to optimal cancer services at comprehensive cancer Centers: many studies suggest adolescents fare less well than children with the same disease. The paper describes the key issues of the "Youth Project" of the Pediatric Oncology Unit IRCCS Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents (over 15 years old) and young adults (up to 25 years old) with solid tumors. This project is a possible clinical and organizational model to address the unique needs of patients in this age group and for bridge the gap in access to care and in recruitment in clinical trials, in clinical and psycho-social management and in curves of healing. The paper also describes the activity of the Adolescent Commission established by the Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AIEOP).

  16. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  17. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  18. PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS

    PubMed Central

    Land, Charles E.; Bouville, Andre; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946–1958 at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external radioactive components of fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses on cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948–1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years (1959–1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% and 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28%–69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2%–22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2% (0.5%–5%) and 1% (0.2%–2%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and between 1% and 55% for all cancers combined. The

  19. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  20. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  1. Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Carl-Elis; Gerde, Per; Hanberg, Annika; Jernström, Bengt; Johansson, Christer; Kyrklund, Titus; Rannug, Agneta; Törnqvist, Margareta; Victorin, Katarina; Westerholm, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion. Domestic wood burning and road traffic are the major sources of PAHs in Sweden. In Stockholm, the sum of 14 different PAHs is 100-200 ng/m(3) at the street-level site, the most abundant being phenanthrene. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) varies between 1 and 2 ng/m(3). Exposure to PAH-containing substances increases the risk of cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of PAHs is associated with the complexity of the molecule, i.e., increasing number of benzenoid rings, and with metabolic activation to reactive diol epoxide intermediates and their subsequent covalent binding to critical targets in DNA. B[a]P is the main indicator of carcinogenic PAHs. Fluoranthene is an important volatile PAH because it occurs at high concentrations in ambient air and because it is an experimental carcinogen in certain test systems. Thus, fluoranthene is suggested as a complementary indicator to B[a]P. The most carcinogenic PAH identified, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, is also suggested as an indicator, although it occurs at very low concentrations. Quantitative cancer risk estimates of PAHs as air pollutants are very uncertain because of the lack of useful, good-quality data. According to the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, the unit risk is 9 X 10(-5) per ng/m(3) of B[a]P as indicator of the total PAH content, namely, lifetime exposure to 0.1 ng/m(3) would theoretically lead to one extra cancer case in 100,000 exposed individuals. This concentration of 0.1 ng/m(3) of B[a]P is suggested as a health-based guideline. Because the carcinogenic potency of fluoranthene has been estimated to be approximately 20 times less than that of B[a]P, a tentative guideline value of 2 ng/m(3) is suggested for fluoranthene. Other significant PAHs are phenanthrene, methylated phenanthrenes/anthracenes and pyrene (high air concentrations), and large-molecule PAHs such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo

  2. A case-control study of air pollution and tobacco smoking in lung cancer among women in Athens

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulos, D.; Kalandidi, A.; Tomos, P.; Riboli, E. )

    1991-03-01

    A case-control study exploring the role of smoking and outdoor air pollution in the causation of lung cancer, by histologic type, in nonsmoking women, was undertaken in Athens between 1987 and 1989. One hundred one women with lung cancer and 89 comparison women with fractures or other orthopedic conditions, all permanent residents of Greater Athens, were included in the study. Smoking habits were ascertained through interviews, whereas lifetime exposure to air pollution was assessed by linking blindly lifelong residential and employment addresses of all subjects with objectively estimated or presumed air pollution levels. The age-adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer among current smokers compared with nonsmokers was 3.40 (1.75-6.61); it was 7.43 (2.88-19.13) among those smoking for more than 30 years and 7.46 (2.40-23.17) among those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. The age-adjusted relative risk was 1.70 (0.75-3.89) for adenocarcinoma and 6.45 (2.73-15.25) for other histologic types of lung cancer; statistically significant dose-response trends were evident for both histologic groups. Air pollution levels were associated with increased risk for lung cancer but the relative risk was small and statistically not significant. However, when both air pollution and duration (or quantity) of tobacco smoking, as well as their interaction, were introduced in a multiple logistic regression model, the interaction term was significant at the suggestive level of 0.10. Whereas there is no effect of air pollution among nonsmokers, the relative risk contrasting extreme quartiles of air pollution among smokers of 30 years duration was 2.23. The interaction was almost exclusively accounted for by the nonadenocarcinoma lung tumors.

  3. Calculation of the number of cancer deaths prevented by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.L.; Pomatto, C.B. ); Cornish, R.E. . Albuquerque Operations Office)

    1999-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project has completed remedial action at 22 uranium mill tailings sites and about 5,000 properties (vicinity properties) where tailings were used in construction, at a total cost of $1.45 billion. This paper uses existing data from Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessments, and vicinity property calculations, to determine the total number of cancer deaths averted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The cost-effectiveness of remediating each site, the vicinity properties, and the entire project is calculated. The cost per cancer death averted was four orders of magnitude higher at the least cost-effective site than at the most cost-effective site.

  4. Calculation of the number of cancer deaths prevented by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.

    PubMed

    Miller, M L; Cornish, R E; Pomatto, C B

    1999-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project has completed remedial action at 22 uranium mill tailings sites and about 5,000 properties ("vicinity properties") where tailings were used in construction, at a total cost of $1.45 billion. This paper uses existing data from Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessments, and vicinity property calculations, to determine the total number of cancer deaths averted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The cost-effectiveness of remediating each site, the vicinity properties, and the entire project is calculated. The cost per cancer death averted was four orders of magnitude higher at the least cost-effective site than at the most cost-effective site.

  5. Re-evaluation of the WHO (2010) formaldehyde indoor air quality guideline for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Larsen, Søren Thor; Wolkoff, Peder

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) established an indoor air quality guideline for short- and long-term exposures to formaldehyde (FA) of 0.1 mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm) for all 30-min periods at lifelong exposure. This guideline was supported by studies from 2010 to 2013. Since 2013, new key studies have been published and key cancer cohorts have been updated, which we have evaluated and compared with the WHO guideline. FA is genotoxic, causing DNA adduct formation, and has a clastogenic effect; exposure-response relationships were nonlinear. Relevant genetic polymorphisms were not identified. Normal indoor air FA concentrations do not pass beyond the respiratory epithelium, and therefore FA's direct effects are limited to portal-of-entry effects. However, systemic effects have been observed in rats and mice, which may be due to secondary effects as airway inflammation and (sensory) irritation of eyes and the upper airways, which inter alia decreases respiratory ventilation. Both secondary effects are prevented at the guideline level. Nasopharyngeal cancer and leukaemia were observed inconsistently among studies; new updates of the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) cohort confirmed that the relative risk was not increased with mean FA exposures below 1 ppm and peak exposures below 4 ppm. Hodgkin's lymphoma, not observed in the other studies reviewed and not considered FA dependent, was increased in the NCI cohort at a mean concentration ≥0.6 mg/m(3) and at peak exposures ≥2.5 mg/m(3); both levels are above the WHO guideline. Overall, the credibility of the WHO guideline has not been challenged by new studies.

  6. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    , we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic-related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise. Citation Mordukhovich I, Beyea J, Herring AH, Hatch M, Stellman SD, Teitelbaum SL, Richardson DB, Millikan RC, Engel LS, Shantakumar S, Steck SE, Neugut AI, Rossner P Jr., Santella RM, Gammon MD. 2016. Vehicular traffic–related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP). Environ Health Perspect 124:30–38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307736 PMID:26008800

  7. ColonCancerCheck Primary Care Invitation Pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Tinmouth, Jill; Ritvo, Paul; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Patel, Jigisha; Guglietti, Crissa; Levitt, Cheryl A.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Rabeneck, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the perceptions of those who received invitations to the ColonCancerCheck Primary Care Invitation Pilot (the Pilot) about the mailed invitation, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in general, and their specific screening experiences. Design Qualitative study with 6 focus group sessions, each 1.5 hours in length. Setting Hamilton, Ont; Ottawa, Ont; and Thunder Bay, Ont. Participants Screening-eligible adults, aged 50 years and older, who received a Pilot invitation for CRC screening. Methods The focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator and were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed using grounded-theory techniques facilitated by the use of electronic software. Main findings Key themes related to the invitation letter, the role of the family physician, direct mailing of the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kit, and alternate CRC screening promotion strategies were identified. Specifically, participants suggested the letter content should use stronger, more powerful language to capture the reader’s attention. The importance of the family physician was endorsed, although participants favoured clarification of the physician and program roles in the actual mailed invitation. Participants expressed support for directly mailing FOBT kits to individuals, particularly those with successful previous test completion, and for communication of both negative and positive screening results. Conclusion This study yielded a number of important findings including strategies to optimize letter content, support for directly mailed FOBT kits, and strategies to report results that might be highly relevant to other health programs where population-based CRC screening is being considered. PMID:24336559

  8. Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.

    2008-03-01

    This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four short-lived air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of short-lived air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in short-lived air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in short-lived species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from short-lived species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.

  9. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  10. Cervical cancer prevention project for inner city black and Latina women.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, A; Kahan, V; Bordeu, M

    1993-01-01

    Early detection, appropriate intervention, and adequate followup treatment make cervical cancer one of the most preventable of all diseases. The authors propose a project designed to increase knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention and ultimately to decrease morbidity and mortality rates for cervical cancer in black and Latino inner-city communities of Boston. During a 3-year project the authors hope to reach about 500 high-risk women who currently do not have access to health care services. The interventions would be based in the Boston, MA, community areas of Roxbury and Jamaica Plain, specifically in those neighborhoods served by a designated community health center. High rates of cervical cancer are found in inner-city communities, where black and Latina women usually are overrepresented. About 80 percent of the women served by the designated community health center are either black or Latina. The proposed intervention has three objectives: (a) to increase the use of health services by so-called hard-to-reach women in those communities; (b) to reduce the numbers of women who, after learning of their abnormal Papanicolaou test results, do not return for followup; and (c) to increase sensitivities toward the problem and to encourage participation in such a project among health care providers at the community health center. PMID:8464972

  11. Swallowable capsule with air channel for improved image-guided cancer detection in the esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Lung, Jonathan K. C.; Babchanik, Alexander P.; Lee, Cameron M.; Johnston, Richard S.; Dominitz, Jason A.

    2009-02-01

    A new type of endoscope has been developed and tested in the human esophagus, a tethered-capsule endoscope (TCE) that requires no sedation for oral ingestion and esophageal inspection. The TCE uses scanned red, green, and blue laser light to image the upper digestive tract using a swallowable capsule of 6.4mm in diameter and 18mm in length on a 1.4mm diameter tether. The TCE has been modified for image-guided interventions in the lower esophagus, specifically for more effective detection and measurement of the extent of Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal cancer. Three modifications have been tested in vivo: (1) weighting the capsule so it is negatively buoyant in water, (2) increasing the frame rate of 500-line images to 30 Hz (video rate), and (3) adding a 1.0mm inner diameter working channel alongside the tether for distending the lower esophagus with air pressure during endoscopy. All three modifications proved effective for more clearly visualizing the lower esophagus in the first few human subjects. The air channel was especially useful because it did not change tolerability in the first subject for unsedated endoscopy and the air easily removed bubbles obscuring tissue from the field of view. The air provided a non-invasive intervention by stimulating the mechanosensor of the lower esophageal sphincter at the precise time that the TCE was positioned for most informative imaging. All three TCE modifications proved successful for improved visualization of esophageal pathology, such as suspected Barrett's esophagus, without the use of sedation.

  12. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  13. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  14. Cancer Portal Project: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Cancer Care Among Hispanic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Ramirez, Julia; Nierodzick, Mary Lynn; McNish, Thelma; Lobach, Iryna; Leng, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the impact of a multilingual, multidisciplinary team targeting social and economic determinants of cancer treatment adherence among at-risk Hispanic immigrants. Methods: Patients were recruited at 10 hospital-based cancer clinics in New York City between December 2008 and November 2009. This is a nested cohort study of Hispanic patients and their sociodemographic characteristics, areas of needed assistance, and reported impact of meeting service needs on keeping appointments. At the core of the intervention is the trained, bilingual Portal Access Facilitator, who assesses needs and synchronizes an individualized set of transdisciplinary services for each patient. Results: A total of 328 Hispanic patients participated in the study. Of these, 89% preferred to speak Spanish in the health care setting, and 17% had no health insurance. The most common cancer diagnosis among participants was breast cancer (35%) followed by GI (17%) and gynecologic (16%) cancers. Patients most commonly requested financial support (59%), food support (37%), transportation assistance (21%), social work services (14%), psychosocial support (6%), help with health insurance issues (5%), and legal services (5%). In a follow-up assessment of high-need patients in urgent need of financial support, 86% reported that portal services helped them attend cancer care and treatment appointments, and 72% reported that portal services decreased worry about their care. Conclusion: Most patients reported that financial, social, and logistical support would help them attend their appointments for cancer care and treatment. Further multidisciplinary interventions should be implemented and evaluated to address social and economic determinants in cancer care for this population. PMID:21532808

  15. Your next clinical cancer research project: preparation in a multidisciplinary environment is key

    PubMed Central

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Bosco, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    For clinical cancer research to have an impact, careful planning in a multidisciplinary translational setting is required. Once your multidisciplinary research team is established, the first step is to define an answerable research question, followed by planning the study design and identifying the study population—allowing for appropriate statistical analyses of high-quality data, whether patient or lab-based. Finally, interpretation of the results also requires multidisciplinary discussions and academic writing in a clear and concise way. This editorial is designed to give you some helpful tips and structure when planning your next clinical cancer research project. PMID:28386300

  16. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  17. Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Reductions from Forest Fuel Treatment Projects in Placer County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saah, D. S.; Moritz, M.; Ganz, D. J.; Stine, P. A.; Moody, T.

    2010-12-01

    Years of successful fire suppression activities have left forests unnaturally dense, overstocked, and with high hazardous fuel loads. Wildfires, particularly those of high severity, may dramatically reduce carbon stocks and convert forested lands from carbon sinks to decades-long carbon sources . Forest resource managers are currently pursuing fuels reduction and mitigation strategies to reduce wildfire risk and maintain carbon stocks. These projects include selective thinning and removal of trees and brush to return forest ecosystems to more natural stocking levels, resulting in a more fire-resilient forest that in theory would retain higher carry capacity for standing above ground carbon. Resource managers are exploring the possibility of supporting these local forest management projects by offering greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets to project developers that require GHG emissions mitigation. Using robust field data, this research project modeled three types of carbon benefits that could be realized from forest management: 1. Fuels treatments in the study area were shown to reduce the GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions from wildfires by decreasing the probability, extent, and severity of fires and the corresponding loss in forest carbon stocks; 2. Biomass utilization from fuel treatment was shown to reduce GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions over the duration of the fuels treatment project compared to fossil fuel energy. 3. Management and thinning of forests in order to stimulate growth, resulting in more rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon and approaching a carbon carrying capacity stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes.

  18. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  19. Biological Marker Analysis as Part of the CIBERES-RTIC Cancer-SEPAR Strategic Project on Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard; Montuenga, Luis M; Sánchez de Cos, Julio; Villena, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the Clinical and Molecular Staging of Stage I-IIp Lung Cancer Project is to identify molecular variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TMN classification in stage I/IIp non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical data and lung tissue, tumor and blood samples will be collected from 3 patient cohorts created for this purpose. The prognostic protein signature will be validated from these samples, and micro-RNA, ALK, Ros1, Pdl-1, and TKT, TKTL1 y G6PD expression will be analyzed. Tissue inflammatory markers and stromal cell markers will also be analyzed. Methylation of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in the tissue samples will be determined, and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood will also be analyzed. Variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TNM in NSCLC by molecular staging may be identified from this extensive analytical panel.

  20. Mammoth Lakes Route 203 transportation project: a case study in air-quality modeling and mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.; Nokes, W.; Cramer, R.

    1985-06-01

    An evaluation is made of the effects on carbon monoxide concentrations of transportation improvements incorporated in the Route 203 highway project. This includes a comparison of preconstruction and postconstruction field-sampling studies. The performance of the CALINE4 air-quality model is evaluated for use in complex terrain. The report describes the problems encountered in applying the model to mountainous locations, the tracer-release study used for assessing model performance, and the model-verification analysis.

  1. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  2. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  3. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-12

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  4. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  5. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk

  6. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Advanced Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) Project at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    404 of the CWA established a program to regulate the discharge of dredged and fill material into waters of the United States , including wetlands...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Air Force ,Eglin Air Force Base...Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1500-1508 and the United States Air Force Environmental Impact Analysis Process as effectuated by 32 CFR Part 989

  8. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Rădoi, V; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania. Since 2013, an increased trend of endometrial cancer occurrence has been registered in urban areas as compared with rural ones. Unfortunately, most of the cancer cases are diagnosed too late, in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting into diminished lifetime expectancy. The first part of the article concentrated on issues such as: the description of the study, results, and discussions regarding the study, definitions and terms, risk factors specific for endometrial carcinomas, presentation of the activities of the Program, etc. Objective: Drafting a national program that will serve as an early diagnosis method of endometrial cancer. This second part of the study continues with the presentation of the activities of the Program, analyzes the human resources and materials needed to implement the Program, presents the strategies and the indicators specific for the implementation of the project. Methods and Results: A standardization of the diagnostic steps was proposed and the focus was on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: The first steps were approached in the first part of the study and the second part of the study investigated the proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test

  9. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  10. A Bibliography of Selected Publications: Project Air Force, 5th Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and USAFE Policy. B. W. October 1982. Don, D.E. Lewis, R. M. Paulson, W. H. Ware. May 1988. N-1850/2-AF. Tactical Air. Challenges for the Future: Air...Briefing (U). Naslund. September 1983. N. W. Crawford, R. L. Blachly, R. E. Huschke, W. H. R-2900-AF. Tactical Air. Challenges for the Future-A...Wise. December 1977. October 1983. R-2226-AF. The Declsionmaker’s Workbook for Estimating I N-1850/3-AF. Tactical Air. Challenges for the Future

  11. Investigation of the emissions and profiles of a wide range of VOCs during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rachel; Lidster, Richard; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Lee, James; Hopkins, James; Whalley, Lisa; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    The majority of the World's population live in polluted urbanized areas. Poor air quality is shortening life expectancy of people in the UK by an average 7-8 months and costs society around £20 billion per year.[1] Despite this, our understanding of atmospheric processing in urban environments and its effect on air quality is incomplete. Air quality models are used to predict how air quality changes given different concentrations of pollution precursors, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The urban environment of megacities pose a unique challenge for air quality measurements and modelling, due to high population densities, pollution levels and complex infrastructure. For over 60 years the air quality in London has been monitored, however the existing measurements are limited to a small group of compounds. In order to fully understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in London, more intensive and comprehensive measurements should be made. The Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project was conducted to investigate the air quality, in particular the boundary layer pollution, of London. A relatively new technique, comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) [2] was combined with a well-established dual channel GC (DC-GC) [3] system to provide a more comprehensive measurement of VOCs. A total of 78 individual VOCs (36 aliphatics, 19 monoaromatics, 21 oxygenated and 2 halogenated) and 10 groups of VOCs (8 aliphatic, 1 monoaromatic and 1 monoterpene) from C1-C13+ were quantified. Seasonal and diurnal profiles of these VOCs have been found which show the influence of emission source and chemical processing. Including these extra VOCs should enhance the prediction capability of air quality models thus informing policy makers on how to potentially improve air quality in megacities. References 1. House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, Air Quality: A follow-up report, Ninth Report of session 2012-12. 2. Lidster, R.T., J.F. Hamilton

  12. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials. PMID:27570834

  13. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials.

  14. Pleasant Prairie Power Plant air quality control upgrade project, Pleasant Praire, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhart, S.; Pennline, D.; Brodsky, I.; Bichler, D.

    2007-10-15

    We Energies recently completed a multiyear project at its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant to add a selective catalytic reduction system to one of its two units and a scrubber to both. These projects are described. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Projecting Changes in Climate & Air Quality for the Southeastern U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent improvements in air quality in the United States have been due to significant reductions in emissions of precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM), and these downward emissions trends are expected to continue in the next few decades. To ensure that planned air quali...

  16. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  17. Air and Life. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 223. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    The purpose of these activities is to offer the secondary school student an opportunity to review what he/she has learned about air by moving quickly through a series of "Do-it-yourself" experiments. Emphasis is placed on the study of the composition of air and relating this information to life in aquatic and marine environments.…

  18. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  19. Enrollment Projections: Combining Statistics and Gut Feelings. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Julie; Stroupe, Jane

    Personnel at the College of Lake County (CLC) developed a projections model for student enrollment that satisfies the need for information for budget projections and for planning purposes. CLC is a medium-sized suburban community college located north of Chicago. The Enrollment Management Team was asked to create a process to project enrollments…

  20. Optical detection of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chuang, Chin-Ho; Chen, Yu-Bin; Chang, Shu-Jing; Ke, Tung-Ting; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of all cancer-related deaths in humans. As a result, reliable techniques for detecting metastatic cells are urgently required. Although various techniques have been proposed for metastasis detection, they are generally capable of detecting metastatic cells only once migration has already occurred. Accordingly, the present study proposes an optical method for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system (SLPP). The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using five pairs of cancer cell lines and two pairs of non-cancer cell lines treated by IPTG induction in order to mimic normal cells with an overexpression of oncogene. The results show that for all of the considered cell lines, the SLPP speckle contrast of the high-metastatic cells is significantly higher than that of the low-metastatic cells. As a result, the speckle contrast measurement provides a reliable means of distinguishing quantitatively between low- and high-metastatic cells of the same origin. Compared to existing metastasis detection methods, the proposed SLPP approach has many advantages, including a higher throughput, a lower cost, a larger sample size and a more reliable diagnostic performance. As a result, it provides a highly promising solution for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells in vitro.

  1. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  2. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; James, Wesley; Kedia, Satish

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from the 2000 United States Census. The association was examined using multivariable geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The risk difference between African American and White concentrated areas was defined as the absolute disparity, and the percent difference as the relative disparity. GWR analyses show that cancer risks increase with respect to increasing percent of African Americans at the census tract level. Individuals in African American concentrated tracts bear 6% more cancer risk burden than in White concentrated tracts. The distribution of major roads causes the largest absolute disparity and the distribution of industrial facilities causes the largest relative disparity. Effective strategies for reduction in environmental disparity should especially target sources of large absolute disparities. PMID:25089776

  3. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  4. Public Hearing & Comment Period Document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  5. Final Permit Documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of finla permit documents for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  6. A Review of Cancer in Missileers at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer, radiation and skin cancer, cervical cancer and sexual behavior), others, especially those related to occupational exposures are more evasive. I...34* Hodgkin’s lymphoma (2 cases) "* Cervical cancer (I case) "* Thyroid cancer (3 cases) 2 Two other not listed here had "numerous" and "immune

  7. A combined analysis of the short-term effects of photochemical air pollutants on mortality within the EMECAM project.

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Marc; Ballester, Ferran; Barceló, Maria Antònia; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Bellido, Juan; Tenías, José María; Ocaña, Ricardo; Figueiras, Adolfo; Arribas, Federico; Aragonés, Nuria; Tobías, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluís; Cañada, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, some epidemiologic studies have attributed adverse effects of air pollutants on health not only to particles and sulfur dioxide but also to photochemical air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). The effects are usually small, leading to some inconsistencies in the results of the studies. Furthermore, the different methodologic approaches of the studies used has made it difficult to derive generic conclusions. We provide here a quantitative summary of the short-term effects of photochemical air pollutants on mortality in seven Spanish cities involved in the EMECAM project, using generalized additive models from analyses of single and multiple pollutants. Nitrogen dioxide and ozone data were provided by seven EMECAM cities (Barcelona, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Oviedo, Seville, and Valencia). Mortality indicators included daily total mortality from all causes excluding external causes, daily cardiovascular mortality, and daily respiratory mortality. Individual estimates, obtained from city-specific generalized additive Poisson autoregressive models, were combined by means of fixed effects models and, if significant heterogeneity among local estimates was found, also by random effects models. Significant positive associations were found between daily mortality (all causes and cardiovascular) and NO(2), once the rest of air pollutants were taken into account. A 10 microg/m(3) increase in the 24-hr average 1-day NO(2)level was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths of 0.43% [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.003-0.86%] for all causes excluding external. In the case of significant relationships, relative risks for cause-specific mortality were nearly twice as much as that for total mortality for all the photochemical pollutants. Ozone was independently related only to cardiovascular daily mortality. No independent statistically significant relationship between photochemical air pollutants and respiratory mortality was found. The

  8. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  9. Colorado: Groundwork Denver / Healthy Air for Northeast Denver (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Groundwork Denver, Inc., on behalf of the Healthy Air for Northeast Denver (HAND) Partnership, is the recipient of Level II CARE funding. HAND is a collaborative partnership borne out of the Northeast Denver Environmental Initiative.

  10. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Air War In Northern Laos, 1 April - 30 November 1971

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-22

    11 Waterpump 11 mechanics from Det 1, 56 SOW, while major maintenance was 92 performed by Air America at Udorn RTAFB. Although small in number, the...also involved in support for Laos in a number of other ways. The Waterpump /MAP program has already been mentioned (page 48). Medevac and air rescue...targets within 200 meters of a motorable road, they had adopted the simple expedient of stacking supplies in the open just beyond this limit. The

  11. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Air Defense in Southeast Asia 1945 - 1971

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-17

    13th AF Second Advanced Echelon (Det 7, 2 ADVON) 2 / was organized at TSN Airport , with Brigadier General Rollen H. Anthis, Deputy 3 Commander 13th Air...enroute flight requirements of tactical aircraft deployed to Don Muang Airport , Thai land. I 4. Conducting air defense training. 5. Assisting in the...deactivated.- Another radar equipped FACP was to have a short existence at Duong Dong Airport on Phu Quoc Island covering southern Cambodia, the Gulf of

  12. Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy: spatial analysis of risk as a function of distance from sources.

    PubMed Central

    Biggeri, A; Barbone, F; Lagazio, C; Bovenzi, M; Stanta, G

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between four sources of environmental pollution (shipyard, iron foundry, incinerator, and city center) and lung cancer risk, we conducted a case-control study of decreased men in Trieste, Italy. We identified 755 cases of lung cancer and 755 controls through the local autopsy registry. Information on smoking habits, occupational history, and place of residence were obtained from the subject's next of kin. The case-control design was used to properly account for subject-specific confounders, which represent a major problem in geographical analysis. Spatial models were used to evaluate the effect of sources of pollution on lung cancer after adjustment for age, smoking habits, likelihood of exposure to occupational carcinogens, and levels of air particulate. The models are based on distance from the sources and enable estimation of the risk gradient and directional effects separately for each source. The risk of lung cancer was highly related to the city center (p = 0.0243), with an excess relative risk at zero distance of 2.2 and a smooth decrease moving away from the source (-0.015), and related to the incinerator (p = 0.0098), with an excess relative risk of 6.7 in the source and a very steep decrease (-0.176). These results are consistent with findings of previous analyses and provide further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor of lung cancer. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3 PMID:8841761

  13. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvement Projects, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    projects with unknown timelines and projects that were being constructed after 2010. • The building footprint assumes a one-story structure , which...7 Architectural/ Structural ...Buckley AFB and assumed control of the installation. The Wing supports the USAF mission by providing space-based missile warning data, space

  15. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  16. The use of research‐based theatre in a project related to metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross; Sinding, Chris; Ivonoffski, Vrenia; Fitch, Margaret; Hampson, Ann; Greenberg, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Research‐based theatre represents an innovative approach to disseminating the results of qualitative studies. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the importance of research‐based theatre and also review previous work that has been done in the area. We then describe our experience in transforming research data into a dramatic production, Handle with Care? This production was based on two studies – one with women with metastatic breast cancer, and the other with medical oncologists treating breast cancer patients. Results from ongoing assessment of the project are reported. We discuss some of the factors related to the success of Handle with Care? and reflect on what has been learned about the process of developing dramatic pieces related to serious illness. PMID:11281920

  17. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  18. Is there any association between imidapril hydrochloride stability profile under dry air conditions and cancer initiation?

    PubMed

    Regulska, Katarzyna; Murias, Marek; Stanisz, Beata; Regulski, Miłosz

    2013-11-18

    Stability study for imidapril hydrochloride (IMD) was performed under stress conditions of increased temperature (T=373 K) and decreased relative air humidity (RH=0%) in order to obtain and identify its degradation product. The degradation sample stored for 15 days under the above environmental conditions was analyzed by LC-MS technique and it was found that the only degradation impurity formed in the course of the investigated drug degradation was IMD diketopiperazine derivative (DKP) which was produced by dehydration and intramolecular cyclization. The kinetics of its formation was analyzed by a revalidated RP-HPLC method and the kinetic model of this reaction was established. It was concluded that the DKP formation follows Prout-Tompkins kinetics with the rate constant k±Δk=2.034±0.157×10(-6) [s(-1)]. The obtained degradation impurity was further assessed with respect to its mutagenic potential using commercial Ames MPF 98/100 microplate format mutagenicity assay kit equipped with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Both strains were exposed to six concentrations (in a range of 0.16-5.0mg/mL) of DKP in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system. No mutagenic effect was observed confirming that the presence of DKP in IMD final dosage form has no impact on cancer initiation.

  19. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  20. Complex mixtures of air pollutants: characterizing the cancer risk of polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Lewtas, J

    1993-01-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic organic matter (POM) are used to illustrate the scientific problems and issues associated with characterizing the comparative risk of related complex mixtures. The complexity of mixtures in which the active components are not well characterized present special challenges, which include identifying the critical components of mixtures, their sources, and the appropriate biomarker(s) of exposure and dose; developing the appropriate experimental models for dose-response assessment; species extrapolation; and developing a scientific basis for predicting from one mixture to another. Strategies for addressing these issues include bioassay-directed chemical characterization of bioactive components of complex mixtures, apportionment methods to determine the source of biological activity and risk, DNA adduct methods to determine tissue exposure and target dose of mixtures, and comparative approaches to determining the relative similarity, potency, and risk of complex mixtures. Epidemiological data are available for humans exposed to POM from coke ovens, coal roofing tar, coal smoke, aluminum smelters, and cigarette smoke. These emissions are characterized and compared to POM from automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline), woodstove emissions, residential oil furnace emissions, and ambient air particles. The tumor potency and estimated cancer risks for these POM mixtures ranges over nearly three orders of magnitude. PMID:8354169

  1. Extended duration orbiter medical project Microbial Air Sampler (STS-50/USML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

    1994-01-01

    The Microbial Air Sampler was used on mission days 1, 7, and 13 in the Spacelab during STS-50/USML-1. Microbial air samples were collected using two types of media strips containing agar (Rose Bengal for yeast and molds, TSA for bacteria). The bacterial level found on day 1 was lower than experienced on previous Spacelab missions. A high level of fungi was present on day 1, however subsequent samples on days 7 and 13 did not indicate fungal growth. Bacterial growth was also minimized in this microgravity environment as the mission progressed. No pathogenic microorganisms were isolated, and the health risk from airborne microbes was minimal throughout the mission.

  2. Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines

  3. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  4. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  5. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  6. ...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used…

  7. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  8. VESL for Heating and Air Conditioning: A Competency-based Curriculum Guide. Project OSCAER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Valadez, Jeanne, Ed.; Pankratz, David, Ed.

    This guide is intended for vocational educators developing the vocational English as a second language (VESL) component of a course in heating and air conditioning. The introductory section examines assumptions about second language learning and instruction and VESL classes, local adaptations of the curriculum, and sample VESL lessons. The chapter…

  9. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Vietnamization of the Air War, 1970 - 1971

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-08

    airpower to meet a multitude of requirements. The varied applications of airpower have -- involved the full spectrum of USAF aerospace vehicles, support...acronym for Contemporary Historical Examination of Current Operations, was established to meet this Air Staff requirement. Managed by Hq PACAF, with...safeguarded, and accounted for in accordance with applicable security directives. SPECIAL HANDLING REQUIRED, NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS . The

  10. NSAID Use and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chan, Andrew T; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Chen, Jie; Chong, Dawn Q; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry I; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Hou, Lifang; Jacobs, Eric J; King, Lindsay Y; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; Palmer, Julie R; Purdue, Mark P; Rosenberg, Lynn; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Sigurdson, Alice J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Campbell, Peter T; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the two most common types of liver cancer. A number of prior experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen, may potentially protect against liver cancer. However, no observational study has examined the association between aspirin duration and dose or other over-the-counter non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and liver cancer incidence. Furthermore, the association between NSAID use and risk of ICC is unclear. As part of the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, we harmonized data on 1,084,133 individuals (HCC = 679, ICC = 225) from 10 U.S.-based prospective cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Current aspirin use, versus nonuse, was inversely associated with HCC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81), which persisted when restricted to individuals not using non-aspirin NSAIDs and in a 5- and 10-year lag analysis. The association between aspirin use and HCC risk was stronger for users who reported daily use, longer duration use, and lower dosage. Ibuprofen use was not associated with HCC risk. Aspirin use was associated with a reduced ICC risk in men (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98) but not women (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.89-2.01; P(interaction) = 0.01). The observed inverse association between aspirin use and liver cancer in our study, together with previous data, suggests the merit of future intervention studies of aspirin and other agents that affect chronic inflammatory pathways for HCC and possibly ICC.

  11. NSAID use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Jessica L.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Chan, Andrew T.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Buring, Julie E.; Chen, Jie; Chong, Dawn Q.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Hou, Lifang; Jacobs, Eric J.; King, Lindsay Y.; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Campbell, Peter T.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the two most common types of liver cancer. A number of prior experimental studies have suggested that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen, may potentially protect against liver cancer. However, no observational study has examined the association between aspirin duration and dose or other over-the-counter non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and liver cancer incidence. Furthermore, the association between NSAID use and risk of ICC is unclear. As part of the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, we harmonized data on 1,084,133 individuals (HCC=679, ICC=225) from ten US-based prospective cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Current aspirin use, versus nonuse, was inversely associated with HCC (HR=0.68, 95% CI=0.57-0.81), which persisted when restricted to individuals not using non-aspirin NSAIDs and in a 5 and 10-year lag analysis. The association between aspirin use and HCC risk was stronger for users who reported daily use, longer duration use, and lower dosage. Ibuprofen use was not associated with HCC risk. Aspirin use was associated with a reduced ICC risk in men (HR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.98) but not women (HR=1.34, 95% CI=0.89-2.01, pinteraction=0.01). The observed inverse association between aspirin use and liver cancer in our study, together with previous data, suggest the merit of future intervention studies of aspirin and other agents that affect chronic inflammatory pathways for HCC and possibly ICC. PMID:26391917

  12. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal: trends, projections and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Pina, Francisco; Castro, Clara; Ferro, Ana; Bento, Maria J; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    There is a large geographical variability in prostate cancer incidence and mortality trends, mostly because of heterogeneity in control efforts across regions. We aimed to describe the time trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal, overall and by region, and to estimate the number of incident cases and deaths in 2020. The number of cases and incidence rates in 1998-2009 were collected from the Regional Cancer Registries. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2013) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1991-2013 by region). JoinPoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Incidence and mortality predictions for 2020 were performed using Poisson regression models and population projections provided by Statistics Portugal. In Portugal, prostate cancer incidence has been increasing since 1998 (1.8%/year), with the exception of the North Region, with a decrease since 2006 (-3.2%/year). An overall mortality decline has been observed since 1997 (-2.2%/year), although there were two patterns of mortality variation at the regional level: one with an inflection point or significant variation in the rates and the other without significant variation. If these trends are maintained, ∼8600 incident cases and 1700 deaths may be expected to occur in Portugal in 2020. Despite the overall increasing incidence and decreasing mortality, there is a large heterogeneity across regions. Future studies should address regional differences in the trends of prostate specific antigen screening and in the effective management of prostate cancer.

  13. Prostate cancer health and cultural beliefs of black men: The Florida Prostate Cancer Disparity Project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since behavioral factors are significant determinants of population health, addressing prostate cancer (CaP)-related health beliefs and cultural beliefs are key weapons to fight this deadly disease. This study investigated the health beliefs and cultural beliefs of black men relative to CaP, and the key socio-demographic correlates of these beliefs. Methods The study design was a cross-sectional survey of 2,864 Florida black men, age 40 to 70, on their perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, attitude, outcomes beliefs, perceived behavioral control, CaP fatalism, religiosity, temporal orientation, and acculturation relative to CaP screening and prevention. Results The men reported favorable attitude and positive outcome beliefs, but moderate perceived behavioral control, CaP susceptibility and CaP severity. They also had low level of acculturation, did not hold fatalistic beliefs about CaP, had high religious coping skills and had high future time perspective. Several demographic variables were found to be associated with health beliefs and cultural beliefs. Discussion Our study provides rich data with regard to the health and cultural beliefs that might serve to inform the development of CaP control initiative for US-born and foreign-born black men. PMID:21992652

  14. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  15. CPC air-blown integrated gasification combined cycle project. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The overall project cost and schedule. The combustion turbine commercial operation date is scheduled for 7/1/95 with the combined cycle commercial operation date of 7/1/96. A two year demonstration period will commence after IGCC commercial operation. Details of costs on a total project and DOE Envelope basis along with detailed schedule components were covered. Major cost variances to date were discussed. The major variances this year relate to contracts which were anticipated to be finalized mid 1992 but which are not executed. These include GEESI, the ASU and key vessels. Some of these contracts are almost in place and others are scheduled for the first quarter 1993. Numerous project specifications, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams and other drawings have been reviewed and approved as part of the preliminary engineering process.

  16. Operation JANGLE. Project 1(9)a. Ground Acceleration, Ground and Air Pressures for Underground Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-04-01

    Salmon 0, April .1952 -0o So 0 * per telecon w/Betty Fox ( DNA Tech Libr, Chief), the classified references contained herein may remain. 6-Z I- 7...73 693 Earth Pr.essure . 77 6.4 Damage Criteria - Surface Stracture .... 78 6.5 D-miage Criteria - Underground Targets ... 8...ground pressures, and air pressures produced by a buried shallow) nuclear explosive. AU2 of these physical quantities are functions of at least two

  17. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  18. Environmental Assessment United States Air Force Academy Falcon Mews Project No. 05-0205

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-18

    limited natural habitat discourages native animals use. The greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki stomias) and the Preble’s Meadow Jumping...greenback cutthroat trout does not occur in Goat Camp Creek. The US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Academy have signed a conservation agreement to...Alternative ......... 21 Ill 1.0 Introduction The U.S. Air Force Academy (Academy) is located 6 miles north of Colorado Springs and 60 miles south of

  19. Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction Projects at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops , and is also available for these uses. The soil qualities, growing season, and moisture...supply are needed for a well-managed soil to produce a sustained high yield of crops in an economic manner. The land could be cropland, pasture...installation remains in compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to asbestos. In 1993, the Air National Guard Readiness

  20. Effective Dimension Reduction Using Sequential Projection Pursuit On Gene Expression Data for Cancer Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Havre, Susan L.

    2004-06-23

    Motiviation: Classification is a powerful tool for uncovering interesting phenomena, for example classes of cancer, in microarray data. Due to the small number of observations (n) in comparison to the number of variables (p), genes, classification on microarray data is challenging. Thus, multivariate dimension reduction techniques are commonly used as a precursor to classification of microarray data; typically this is principal component analysis (PCA) or singular value decomposition (SVD). Since PCA and SVD are concerned with explaining the variance-covariance structure of the data, they may not be the best choice when the between-cluster variance is smaller than the within-cluster variance. Recently an attractive alternative to PCA, sequential projection pursuit (SPP), has been introduced which is designed to elicit clustering tendencies in the data. Thus, in some cases SPP may be more appropriate when performing clustering or classification analysis. Results: We compare the performance of SPP to PCA on two cancer gene expression datasets related to leukemia and colon cancer. Using PCA and SPP to reduce the dimensionality of the data to m<

  1. Air-chemistry studies over the Gulf of Mexico: a bilateral scientific cooperative project between the United States of America and the United States of Mexico. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Parungo, F.; Miller, J.

    1988-02-01

    This report documents the scientific research of a bilateral cooperative project between the United States of America and The United States of America. In 1986 scientists from both nations joined a research cruise in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the air chemistry over the water that the two nations share. Emphases were placed on natural air quality, anthropogenic air pollution, acid rain, air-sea-land exchanges of gases and aerosols. The investigation included in-situ measurements and post-cruise laboratory analyses. Chemical, physical, meteorological, and oceanographic analyses were conducted to survey temporal and spatial variations of diverse parameters throughout the Gulf. The data sets were analyzed, interpreted, and intercorrelated. The results show that during the cruise (20 July-22 August), the large-scale air trajectories were easterly from the Caribbean Sea at all levels; however, the Gulf air measured was highly polluted in general.

  2. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  3. Use of free subcutaneous fat pad for reduction of intraoperative air leak in thoracoscopic pulmonary resection cases with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative alveolar air leaks occur in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following a pulmonary resection using thoracoscopic surgery. We showed the efficacy of covering damaged lung tissue with a subcutaneous fat pad for preventing postoperative air leak. Thoracoscopic surgery was performed for NSCLC patients with three incisions along with a 3-4 cm anterior utility incision. When an air leak originated from deep within the pulmonary parenchyma or was large, a subcutaneous fat pad ∼2 × 2 cm in size was harvested from the utility incision and placed on the damaged lung tissue with fibrin glue and 2-3 mattress sutures. Subcutaneous fat pads were used for 50 patients with NSCLC during thoracoscopic surgery procedures. There were no intraoperative complications in any of the patients. A prolonged air leak (>7 days) was noted in 3 (6%) of the 50 patients. Air leak was diminished at 1.5 ± 2.6 postoperative days and the chest tubes removed at 3.2 ± 2.8 postoperative days. Reinforcement of damaged lung tissues by use of subcutaneous free fat pads is a safe and intriguing procedure in NSCLC patients who underwent a pulmonary resection in thoracoscopic surgery.

  4. Research and Development Project Selection Methods at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    680). Aaker and Tyebee. 1978. The authors constructed a model that dealt with the selection of interdependent R&D projects. The model covers three...Response Linear Programming 1 Goal Programing 5 Multiple Objective 4 Chance Constrained Prog 0 Other 11 63 Bibliography 1. Aaker , David A. and Tyzoon T

  5. Using Spreadsheet Modeling Techniques for Capital Project Review. AIR 1985 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynor, Robert K.

    The value of microcomputer modeling tools and spreadsheets to help college institutional researchers analyze proposed capital projects is discussed, along with strengths and weaknesses of different software packages. Capital budgeting is the analysis that supports decisions about the allocation and commitment of funds to long-term capital…

  6. Projective Measures of Interpersonal Relationships and Attitudes Toward the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    projective means for eliciting unconscious attitudes toward self , other persons, and institutions. Comparisons were made between the means for the two groups...attitudes about self , mother, father, crewmates, and wife than did the deenlistment group. Positive attitudes toward the wife seem to be the most crucial, confirming the results of other research by the investigator. (Author)

  7. Comparative Efficiencies in Projecting Faculty Rank Distribution. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Craig J.

    Comparative applications of simple and complex faculty flow models are examined to determine (1) their relative demands for data and calculations, (2) the divergence of their projections, especially when modelling a no-growth faculty, and (3) an estimate of the error incurred (i.e., the cost to analysis) when a simple model is used. The results…

  8. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR Professional File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Trucking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style (TRAILS) research project at St. Louis University, which is designed to incorporate information on learning style in ongoing enrollment research and improve campus retention, is described. Learning style and the Tinto Model of student attrition are discussed, along with the…

  9. Public education projects in skin cancer. Experience of the Canadian Dermatology Association.

    PubMed

    Rivers, J K; Gallagher, R P

    1995-01-15

    The mandate of the Canadian Dermatology Association's Sun Awareness Program is to increase awareness of the dangers of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays and to provide information on prevention and early detection of skin cancer. Major projects include an annual national press campaign, which reaches an increasing number of Canadians each year, and the production and distribution of educational materials. Each year during Sun Awareness Week, screening stations have been established across the country, staffed by volunteer dermatologists and members of the Canadian Cancer Society. In Vancouver between 1991 and 1993, 1767 people were screened for skin cancer. Results indicate that these events can attract people at risk for skin cancer, even though people older than age 65 are probably underrepresented as a group. Although popular with the public, these screenings are difficult to organize and are limited by human resources. These events continue in limited numbers, because they provide an excellent venue for the dissemination of educational material. Cooperation with federal agencies has been a major focus of the program. For the past 2 years, educational material on protecting newborns and children from the sun has been made available free to every new mother in Canada, while Environment Canada's Ultraviolet index program provides daily information on UV intensity along with public health messages. With the realization that health promotion requires a sustained change in behavior of an individual, we are now embarking on a national program to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Canadians concerning UV radiation. With this information, we hope to adapt our educational materials so that people will adopt and maintain healthy behavior choices while out in the sun.

  10. GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms, tobacco, air pollution, and lung cancer: a study in rural Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Pisani, P.; Srivatanakul, P.; Randerson-Moor, J.; Vipasrinimit, S.; Lalitwongsa, S.; Unpunyo, P.; Bashir, S.; Bishop, D.T.

    2006-04-15

    Incidence rates of lung cancer is high in Lampang Province in northern Thailand, particularly in women. This study was conducted to quantify the risk of lung cancer associated with exposures prevalent in the area and to investigate possible interactions with genetic susceptibility. The presence of several large open-cast coal mines from 1955 close to electricity-generating plants was a particular focus of concern. A point source air pollution exposure index was calculated for each village/ township reported in residential histories based on the linear distance from the Mae Moh Center (the area of the electricity-generating plants), the year-specific gaseous (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}) or total suspended particulate emissions from the Mae Moh Power Plant, and the percentage of wind from the center. Odds ratios for the disease associated with categorical variables were estimated within unconditional logistic regression. Extraction of genomic DNA and genotyping of variants in CYP1A1 and GSTM1 were conducted to assess the extent of modification of risk by these genes that are involved in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoking of local high tar unfiltered products is commonamongst women. None of the three polymorphisms examined increased the risk of lung cancer or modified the risk associated with smoking. 96% of male and 64% of female lung cancer incidence were explained by tobacco smoking. None of the potential sources of air pollution deriving from the combustion of coal and wood, or polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 gene or deletion of the GSTM1 had an effect on the risk of lung cancer, either together or separately.

  11. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use, chronic lung diseases and lung cancer in Harbin, Northeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Galeone, C.; Pelucchi, C.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Bosetti, C.; Hu, J.F.

    2008-10-15

    In some areas of China, indoor air pollution (IAP) originating principally from the combustion of solid fuels has a relevant role in lung cancer. Most previous studies focused on the female population and only a few on both the sexes. We analyzed the relationship between IAP from solid fuel use and selected chronic lung diseases and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Northeast China, an area with a very high base line risk of lung cancer for both the sexes. We used data from a case-control study conducted between 1987 and 1990, including 218 patients with incident, histologically confirmed lung cancer and 436 controls admitted to the same hospitals as cases. We calculated an index of IAP from solid fuel use exposure using data on heating type, cooking fuel used, and house measurements. Cases reported more frequently than controls on exposure to coal fuel for house heating and/or cooking, and the odds ratio (OR) for ever versus never exposed was 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.46). The ORs of lung cancer according to subsequent tertiles of IAP exposure index were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.14-2.89) and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.26-3.15) as compared with the lowest tertile. The ORs of lung cancer for participants with a history of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis were 3.79 (95% CI: 2.38-6.02) and 3.82 (95% CI: 1.97-7.41), respectively. This study gives further support and quantification of the positive association between IAP, history of selected nonmalignant lung diseases, and lung cancer risk for both the sexes.

  12. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and general admissions to public hospitals due to respiratory causes were considered. The statistical analysis was based on a time series procedure using linear regression modelling followed by a Poisson regression. Meterological variables, epidemics of influenza A and B, and strikes of medical staff were included in the models. The mean daily concentration of PM13 and daily 1 hour maximum of SO2 significantly affected daily mortality from respiratory causes. An increase in the concentration of PM13 of 100 micrograms/m3 above its 5th centile value increased the risk of respiratory death by 17%. PM13 and BS were also associated with hospital admissions due to all respiratory diseases (4.1% increased risk when the BS level exceeded its 5th centile value by 100 micrograms/m3). SO2 levels consistently influenced hospital admissions for all respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Asthma was also correlated with NO2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though the relative risk is weak in areas with low levels of pollution, ambient air pollution, and especially particulate matter and SO2, nonetheless require attention because of the number of people exposed and the existence of high risk groups. PMID:8758223

  13. The hidden economic burden of air pollution-related morbidity: evidence from the Aphekom project.

    PubMed

    Chanel, Olivier; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-12-01

    Public decision-makers commonly use health impact assessments (HIA) to quantify the impacts of various regulation policies. However, standard HIAs do not consider that chronic diseases (CDs) can be both caused and exacerbated by a common factor, and generally focus on exacerbations. As an illustration, exposure to near road traffic-related pollution (NRTP) may affect the onset of CDs, and general ambient or urban background air pollution (BP) may exacerbate these CDs. We propose a comprehensive HIA that explicitly accounts for both the acute effects and the long-term effects, making it possible to compute the overall burden of disease attributable to air pollution. A case study applies the two HIA methods to two CDs-asthma in children and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults over 65-for ten European cities, totaling 1.89 million 0-17-year-old children and 1.85 million adults aged 65 and over. We compare the current health effects with those that might, hypothetically, be obtained if exposure to NRTP was equally low for those living close to busy roads as it is for those living farther away, and if annual mean concentrations of both PM10 and NO2-taken as markers of general urban air pollution-were no higher than 20 μg/m(3). Returning an assessment of € 0.55 million (95 % CI 0-0.95), the HIA based on acute effects alone accounts for only about 6.2 % of the annual hospitalization burden computed with the comprehensive method [€ 8.81 million (95 % CI 3-14.4)], and for about 0.15 % of the overall economic burden of air pollution-related CDs [€ 370 million (95 % CI 106-592)]. Morbidity effects thus impact the health system more directly and strongly than previously believed. These findings may clarify the full extent of benefits from any public health or environmental policy involving CDs due to and exacerbated by a common factor.

  14. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Jet Forward Air Controllers in SEAsia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-10-15

    a var’lation of the 3 earlier HUNTER-KILLER operation--the SNARE DRUM mission, Unl-4.e the war in STEEL TIGER, the conflict in northern Laos was a...the use of ARC LIGHT B-52 ~ 323 I raids. SNARE DRUM , or min-ARC LIGH T st ’jKe! were substituted On these missions, a Laredo FAC led a force of s...pteen ’or moe) F-4s t, toie t ’get and 31, directed them against t After one ?O-.h p SNARE DRUM m, on, the Air I Attache at Ventiane reported. "The pr

  15. Air Permit Application for BHP Billiton Deepwater Port Project Offshore Venture, California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Equipment 4-9 4.5.1 Electrostatic Precipitators 4-9 4.5.2 Fabric Filters 4-9 4.5.2.1 Intermittent Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.2 Continuous...Suction or Pressure, Pulse-Jet Baghouse 4.5.2.3 Continuous Pressure, Mechanical Shaker Baghouse 4.5.2.4 Continuous Pressure, Reverse Air Raghouse 4.5.2.5...Conventional Shaker Baghouses with Woven Fabrics 2-106,107 2-9 Recommended Maximum Filtering Velocities and Fabric for Dust and Fume Collection in Reverse-Jet

  17. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  18. Lung cancer trend in England for the period of 2002 to 2011 and projections of future burden until 2020.

    PubMed

    Olajide, Olufemi O; Field, John K; Davies, Michael M P A; Marcus, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, therefore creating a huge public health concern. The aim of this study is to determine the change in age-standardised incidence rate trend of lung cancer in England between 2002 and 2011 and use these findings to anticipate the potential burden of the disease by gender in the year 2020. Lung cancer incidence data (ICD-10 code C33-34) from 2002 and 2011 and mid-year population estimates for the same period were obtained from Office of National Statistics. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated, by gender and region. Poisson regression analysis was used to describe the time incidence trend and projections were estimated up to year 2020. A total of 318, 417 lung cancer cases were identified. Incidence rates decreased in men by an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of -1.0% and increased in women by +1.9%. Projection analysis showed that by year 2020, provided the rates remain the same, English women will have the same lung cancer incidence rates as their male counterparts. This study demonstrated that there would be 5,848 excess lung cancer cases by 2020 with female population accounting for 85% (4,996) of the excess cases. Therefore, in addition to the development of high quality preventive intervention strategies, future public health also needs to prioritise targets at the implementation phase, in a manner that engage women living in regions that have demonstrated very high AAPC values.

  19. Environmental Assessment for East Housing Area Solar Energy Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    rounded pebbles of quartzite, igneous rocks and Monterey chert and shale (Dibblee 1950). 3.4.1 Soils Soils within VAFB are characterized by coastal...sand dunes and alluvium (i.e., sediment deposited by flowing water). VAFB is underlain predominately by marine sedimentary rocks (e.g., shales and... rocks underlying VAFB is the Franciscan Formation, which consists of a series of sedimentary and volcanic rocks (Dibblee 1950). The project site is

  20. Range Improvement Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-15

    testing produced the following results: Shovel test Depth Artifacts and ecofacts 1 40 1 frag. sun colored amethyst glass, 1 frag. brown glazed...materials were one white earthenware fragment, one brown earthenware fragment, one piece of clear glass and one sun colored amethyst glass shard. The...could not be identified or dated, other than the sun colored amethyst glass which is probably pre-1910. Evaluation of the Project’s Impact on Cultural

  1. Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvement Projects, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado. Volume 1 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Vulpes vulpes Red fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox Reithrodontomys megalotis Western harvest mouse Spermophilus tridecemlineatus Thirteen...prohibits the USAF from taking actions that jeopardize the continued existence of any species (or subspecies ) listed as a Threatened or Endangered...Status(3) Known To Exist at Project Sites Vulpes velox Swift fox G3/S3 SC Not known to exist on the installation. Zapus hudsonius preblei

  2. Project Management Software: Proper Selection for Use Within Air Force Systems Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    limited functionality (2:18). The worst case of this is where word-processing is done on one computer, databases maintained on a second, and electronic...of the additional burden of learning another software package, as well as the added expense. Additional Hardware Requirements. As in the previous case ...actual project breakdown that was used to accomplish this research study. As was the case in the previous stages, there are several areas that must be

  3. The Astronautics Laboratory of the Air Force Systems Command electric propulsion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sanks, T.M.; Andrews, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing projects at the Astronautics Laboratory (AL) of the USAF Systems Command are described. Particular attention is given to experiments with arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, ion engines, and the Electric Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE). ELITE involves the integration of high-power ammonia arcjets, low-power xenon ion thrusters, advanced photovoltaic solar arrays, and an autononomous flight control system. It is believed that electric propulsion will become a dominant element in the military and industrial use of space. 6 refs.

  4. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    PubMed

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents.

  5. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  6. Mortality and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution: ongoing analyses based on the American Cancer Society cohort.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Rainham, Daniel; Calle, Eugenia; Thurston, George; Thun, Michael

    This article provides an overview of previous analysis and reanalysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort, along with an indication of current ongoing analyses of the cohort with additional follow-up information through to 2000. Results of the first analysis conducted by Pope et al. (1995) showed that higher average sulfate levels were associated with increased mortality, particularly from cardiopulmonary disease. A reanalysis of the ACS cohort, undertaken by Krewski et al. (2000), found the original risk estimates for fine-particle and sulfate air pollution to be highly robust against alternative statistical techniques and spatial modeling approaches. A detailed investigation of covariate effects found a significant modifying effect of education with risk of mortality associated with fine particles declining with increasing educational attainment. Pope et al. (2002) subsequently reported results of a subsequent study using an additional 10 yr of follow-up of the ACS cohort. This updated analysis included gaseous copollutant and new fine-particle measurements, more comprehensive information on occupational exposures, dietary variables, and the most recent developments in statistical modeling integrating random effects and nonparametric spatial smoothing into the Cox proportional hazards model. Robust associations between ambient fine particulate air pollution and elevated risks of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality were clearly evident, providing the strongest evidence to date that long-term exposure to fine particles is an important health risk. Current ongoing analysis using the extended follow-up information will explore the role of ecologic, economic, and, demographic covariates in the particulate air pollution and mortality association. This analysis will also provide insight into the role of spatial autocorrelation at multiple geographic scales, and whether critical instances in time of exposure to fine particles influence the risk of mortality

  7. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  8. Development of Design Review Procedures for Army Air Pollution Abatement Projects. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    23 A.3.3 Process Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A...Reverse-Jet Equipment B-15 B-4 Air/Cloth Ratio Selection for Reverse-Pulse Equipment B-16,17 B-5 Methods of Temperature Conditioning B-22 C-i Mass...Characterization A-24 A.3.4 Gas Stream Properties A-27 A.3.4.1 Composition A.3.4.2 Temperature A.3.4.3 Pressure A.3.4.4 Viscosity A.3.4.5 Density A.3.4.6

  9. Using color intensity projections to visualize air flow in operating theaters with the goal of reducing infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, Keith S.; van Asperen, Niek; de Jong, Joost; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2013-03-01

    Infection following neurosurgery is all too common. One possible source of infection is the transportation of dust and other contaminates into the open wound by airflow within the operating theatre. While many modern operating theatres have a filtered, uniform and gentle flow of air cascading down over the operating table from a large area fan in the ceiling, many obstacles might introduce turbulence into the laminar flow including lights, equipment and personal. Schlieren imaging - which is sensitive to small disturbances in the laminar flow such as breathing and turbulence caused by air warmed by a hand at body temperature - was used to image the air flow due to activities in an operating theatre. Color intensity projections (CIPs) were employed to reduce the workload of analyzing the large amount of video data. CIPs - which has been applied to images in angiography, 4D CT, nuclear medicine and astronomy - summarizes the changes over many gray scale images in a single color image in a way which most interpreters find intuitive. CIPs uses the hue, saturation and brightness of the color image to encode the summary. Imaging in an operating theatre showed substantial disruptions to the airflow due to equipment such as the lighting. When these disruptions are combined with such minor factors as heat from the hand, reversal of the preferred airflow patterns can occur. These reversals of preferred airflow patterns have the potential to transport contaminates into the open wound. Further study is required to understand both the frequency of the reversed airflow patterns and the impact they may have on infection rates.

  10. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  11. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  12. Project 57 Air Monitoring Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2013 (October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; McCurdy, Greg; Mizell, Steve A

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is currently working to achieve regulatory closure of radionuclide-contaminated Soils sites under its auspices. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion Site is located in Emigrant Valley, Nevada, on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. Closure plans being developed for the CAUs both on and off of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) may include postclosure monitoring for the possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and postclosure monitoring program. The DOE has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil from the Project 57 site during ambient wind events. The assessment is intended to provide site-specific information on meteorological conditions that result in airborne soil particle redistribution, as well as determine which, if any, radiological contaminants may be entrained with the soil particles and estimate their concentrations.

  13. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment.

  14. Validation of Early Detection Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers (Team Project) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection of Ovarian Cancer (OC) is one of the key clinical problems in this disease. We propose a team EDRN project to address the issue of early detection of OC by performing a validation study on candidate protein markers already identified in previous EDRN research or in the literature (e.g. protein products of TCGA identified mutations specific to ovarian cancer). (See appendix for full listing) Biospecimen sources have been identified which include samples obtained at diagnosis and matched controls (Urban, Godwin, Marks, Skates), and longitudinal samples obtained prior to diagnosis (Urban, Skates, Godwin). Bioinformatic filters will be applied to rank the candidates (Diamandis). In order of ranking, candidate proteins for which high quality antibodies are available will be measured by development of ELISAs at JHU (Chan/Zhang) or through NAPPA at DFCI (Anderson/LaBaer), while for other candidates mass spectrometry based selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays will be developed at PNNL (Rodland). Three milestones are defined. The first two milestones are to assemble the necessary specimens and to develop the qualifying assay(s). The final milestone is to estimate the markers’ sensitivity one year prior to diagnosis at a given high specificity.

  15. Development of a website and biobank database for the Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project: a Multicenter Italian Experience.

    PubMed

    Leon, Antonette E; Fabricio, Aline S C; Benvegnù, Fabio; Michilin, Silvia; Secco, Annamaria; Spangaro, Omar; Meo, Sabrina; Gion, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project (RBLA03S4SP) funded by an Italian MIUR-FIRB grant (Italian Ministry of University and Research - Investment Funds for Basic Research) has led to the creation of a free-access dynamic website, available at the web address https://serviziweb.ulss12.ve.it/firbabo, and of a centralized database with password-restricted access. The project network is composed of 9 research units (RUs) and has been active since 2005. The aim of the FIRB project was the design, production and validation of optoelectronic and chemoelectronic biosensors for the simultaneous detection of a novel class of cancer biomarkers associated with immunoglobulins of the M class (IgM) for early diagnosis of cancer. Biomarker immune complexes (BM-ICs) were assessed on samples of clinical cases and matched controls for breast, colorectal, liver, ovarian and prostate malignancies. This article describes in detail the architecture of the project website, the central database application, and the biobank developed for the FIRB Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project. The article also illustrates many unique aspects that should be considered when developing a database within a multidisciplinary scenario. The main deliverables of the project were numerous, including the development of an online database which archived 1400 case report forms (700 cases and 700 matched controls) and more than 2700 experimental results relative to the BM-ICs assayed. The database also allowed for the traceability and retrieval of 21,000 aliquots archived in the centralized bank and stored as backup in the RUs, and for the development of a centralized biological bank in the coordinating unit with 6300 aliquots of serum. The constitution of the website and biobank database enabled optimal coordination of the RUs involved, highlighting the importance of sharing samples and scientific data in a multicenter setting for the achievement of the project goals.

  16. Support System of Health Professionals as Observed in the Project of Home Care For the Child With Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronseth, Evangeline; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Data acquired in personal interviews administered to physicians and nurses who participated in the first year of the Home Care for the Child with Cancer project provided descriptions of individual sources of social support. The results reveal a range of supportive mechanisms and networks within varied institutional contexts. (Author)

  17. Development and implementation of a science training course for breast cancer activists: Project LEAD (leadership, education and advocacy development)

    PubMed Central

    Dickersin, Kay; Braun, Lundy; Mead, Margaret; Millikan, Robert; Wu, Anna M.; Pietenpol, Jennifer; Troyan, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin; Visco, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement Project LEAD (leadership, education, and advocacy development), a science course for breast cancer activists. Population Students were breast cancer activists and other consumers, mainly affiliated with advocacy organizations in the United States of America. Setting Project LEAD is offered by the National Breast Cancer Coalition; the course takes place over 5 days and is offered 4 times a year, in various cities in the United States of America. Results The Project LEAD curriculum has developed over 5 years to include lectures, problem‐based study groups, case studies, interactive critical appraisal sessions, a seminar by an ‘expert’ scientist, role play, and homework components. A core faculty has been valuable for evaluating and revising the course and has proved necessary to provide consistent high quality teaching. Course evaluations indicated that students gained critical appraisal skills, enhanced their knowledge and developed confidence in selected areas of basic science and epidemiology. Conclusions Project LEAD comprises a unique curriculum for training breast cancer activists in science and critical appraisal. Course evaluations indicate that students gain confidence and skills from the course. PMID:11703495

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact for Porposed Replacement of Senior Officers Quarters Project, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-08

    AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFI Air Force Instruction AFM Air Force Manual AFRC Air Force Reserve Command AICUZ Air Installation...shallow unconfined zones, and again in the deeper Wellington shale . Groundwater occurs in two water-bearing units at McConnell AFB. The shallow...east side of the base, the Wellington formation, Permian, silty shale , is highly weathered at the surface to a depth of about 40 feet. The Wellington

  19. Air pollution and cardiovascular admissions association in Spain: results within the EMECAS project

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Rodríguez, P; Iñíguez, C; Saez, M; Daponte, A; Galán, I; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Bellido, J; Cirarda, F B; Cañada, A; Guillén, J J; Guillén‐Grima, F; López, E; Pérez‐Hoyos, S; Lertxundi, A; Toro, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular admissions in 14 Spanish cities Methods The period under study was from 1995 to 1999. Daily emergency admissions for all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and heart diseases (HD) were obtained from hospital records, and the corresponding daily levels of particulates, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone were recorded. The magnitude of association was estimated using Poisson generalised additive models controlling for confounding and overdispersion. For each cause, lagged effects, up to three days, of each pollutant were examined and combined estimates were obtained. For ozone the analyses were restricted to the warm period. One and two pollutant models were performed. Results Associations were more consistent in lag 0 (concurrent day) and 1 (lag 0–1), except in the case of ozone where there was a more delayed relation (lag 2–3). For combined estimates an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 levels in lag 0–1 was associated with an increase of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.5%) in the number of hospital admissions for CVD, and 1.6% (0.8 to 2.3%) for HD. For ozone the corresponding estimates for lag 2–3 were 0.7% (0.3 to 1.0) for CVD, and 0.7% (0.1 to 1.2) for HD. An increase of 1 mg/m3 in CO levels was associated with an increase of 2.1% (0.7 to 3.5%) in CVD admissions, and 4.2% (1.3 to 7.1%) in HD admissions. SO2 and NO2 estimates were more sensitive in two pollutant models Conclusions A short term association between increases in daily levels of air pollutants and the number of daily admissions for cardiovascular diseases, with specificity for heart diseases, has been described in Spanish cities. PMID:16537350

  20. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  1. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs. (TEM)

  2. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  3. Plasma proteomics, the Human Proteome Project, and cancer-associated alternative splice variant proteins.

    PubMed

    Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-05-01

    This article addresses three inter-related subjects: the development of the Human Plasma Proteome Peptide Atlas, the launch of the Human Proteome Project, and the emergence of alternative splice variant transcripts and proteins as important features of evolution and pathogenesis. The current Plasma Peptide Atlas provides evidence on which peptides have been detected for every protein confidently identified in plasma; there are links to their spectra and their estimated abundance, facilitating the planning of targeted proteomics for biomarker studies. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) combines a chromosome-centric C-HPP with a biology and disease-driven B/D-HPP, upon a foundation of mass spectrometry, antibody, and knowledgebase resource pillars. The HPP aims to identify the approximately 7000 "missing proteins" and to characterize all proteins and their many isoforms. Success will enable the larger research community to utilize newly-available peptides, spectra, informative MS transitions, and databases for targeted analyses of priority proteins for each organ and disease. Among the isoforms of proteins, splice variants have the special feature of greatly enlarging protein diversity without enlarging the genome; evidence is accumulating of striking differential expression of splice variants in cancers. In this era of RNA-sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, it is no longer sufficient to speak simply of increased or decreased expression of genes or proteins without carefully examining the splice variants in the protein mixture produced from each multi-exon gene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  4. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System, NextGen Systems Analysis, Integration and Evaluation Project. Version 1.0; Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quon, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    The key objectives of the NASA ASP are to: Improve mobility, capacity efficiency and access of the airspace system. Improve collaboration, predictability, and flexibility for the airspace users. Enable accurate modeling and simulation of air transportation systems. Accommodate operations of all classes of aircraft. Maintain system safety and environmental protection. In support of these program objectives, the major goal of the NextGen-SAIE Project is to enable the transition of key capacity and efficiency improvements to the NAS. Since many aspects of the NAS are unique to specific airport or airspace environments, demand on various parts of the NAS is not expected to increase equally as system demand grows. SAIE will provide systems level analysis of the NAS characteristics, constraints, and demands such that a suite of capacity-increasing concepts and technologies for system solutions are enabled and facilitated. The technical objectives in support of this goal are the following: Integration, evaluation, and transition of more mature concepts and technologies in an environment that faithfully emulates real-world complexities. Interoperability research and analysis of ASP technologies across ATM functions is performed to facilitate integration and take ASP concepts and technologies to higher Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Analyses are conducted on the program s concepts to identify the system benefits or impacts. System level analysis is conducted to increase understanding of the characteristics and constraints of airspace system and its domains.

  5. The IASLC lung cancer staging project: the new database to inform the eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rami-Porta, Ramón; Bolejack, Vanessa; Giroux, Dorothy J; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John; Asamura, Hisao; Goldstraw, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The analyses of the retrospective database of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), consisting of more than 81,000 evaluable patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, formed the basis of recommendations to the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer for the revision of the sixth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer. However, despite the large number of patients, not all descriptors could be validated. This prompted a new collection of retrospective and prospective data to overcome the limitations of the original retrospective database. The new IASLC database has information on 94,708 new patients diagnosed of lung cancer between 1999 and 2010. They originated from 35 sources in 16 countries, and 4,667 were submitted via the online electronic data capture system. Europe contributed 46,560 patients, Asia: 41,705, North America: 4,660, Australia: 1,593, and South America: 190. After exclusions, 77,156 (70,967 with nonsmall cell lung cancer and 6,189 with small cell lung cancer) remained for analysis. This database will be analyzed according to established objectives for the T, the N, and the M components to inform the eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer due to be published in 2016. The IASLC hopes for the continuing contribution of our partners around the world to improve the classification of anatomical extent of disease, but also to create prognostic groups in a parallel project of the IASLC Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee.

  6. Evaluating the Contribution of Natural Variability and Climate Model Response to Uncertainty in Projections of Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the effects of internal variability and model response in projections of climate impacts on U.S. ground-level ozone across the 21st century using integrated global system modeling and global atmospheric chemistry simulations. The impact of climate change on air polluti...

  7. Project 57 Air Monitoring Report: January 1 through December 31, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2017-01-01

    On April 24, 1957, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, now the Department of Energy [DOE]) conducted the Project 57 safety experiment in western Emigrant Valley north east of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) on lands withdrawn by the Department of Defense (DOD) for the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). The test was undertaken to develop (1) a means of estimating plutonium distribution resulting from a non-nuclear detonation; (2) biomedical evaluation techniques for use in plutonium-laden environments; (3) methods of surface decontamination; and (4) instruments and field procedures for prompt estimation of alpha contamination (Shreve, 1958). Although the test did not result in the fission of nuclear materials, it did disseminate plutonium across the land surface. Following the experiment, the AEC fenced the contaminated area and returned control of the surrounding land to the DOD. Various radiological surveys were performed in the area and in 2007, the DOE expanded the demarked Contamination Area by posting signs 200 to 400 feet (60 to 120 meters) outside of the original fence.

  8. The Association between Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence: Results from the AHSMOG-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Gharibvand, Lida; Shavlik, David; Ghamsary, Mark; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Soret, Samuel; Knutsen, Raymond; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a positive association between ambient fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and incidence and mortality of lung cancer (LC), but few studies have assessed the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and LC among never smokers. Objectives: We assessed the association between PM2.5 and risk of LC using the Adventist Health and Smog Study-2 (AHSMOG-2), a cohort of health conscious nonsmokers where 81% have never smoked. Methods: A total of 80,285 AHSMOG-2 participants were followed for an average of 7.5 years with respect to incident LC identified through linkage with U.S. state cancer registries. Estimates of ambient air pollution levels at participants’ residences were obtained for 2000 and 2001, the years immediately prior to the start of the study. Results: A total of 250 incident LC cases occurred during 598,927 person-years of follow-up. For each 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for LC incidence was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.84) in the two-pollutant multivariable model with ozone. Among those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors or who had lived 5 or more years at their enrollment address, the HR was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.22) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.04), respectively. Conclusion: Increased risk estimates of LC were observed for each 10-μg/m3 increment in ambient PM2.5 concentration. The estimate was higher among those with longer residence at enrollment address and those who spent > 1 hr/day outdoors. Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer incidence: results from the AHSMOG-2 study. Environ Health Perspect 125:378–384; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP124Citation: Gharibvand L, Shavlik D, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Soret S, Knutsen R, Knutsen SF. 2017. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and lung cancer

  9. Targeting of the Nuclear Receptor Coactivator Isoform Delta3Air in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Annabell Oh on a study in which siRNA directed at nucleotides 564-582 of AIBI to selectively reduce AIBI gene expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer...I mediates Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-Induced Phenotypic Changes in Human Breast Cancer Cells." Annabell Oh, Heinz Joachim List, Ronald Reiter...Receptor Coactivator AIB1 Mediates Insulin-like Growth Factor I-induced Phenotypic Changes in Human Breast Cancer Cells Annabell Oh,1 Heinz-Joachim List,1

  10. Cancer incidence and community exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants in Contra Costa County, California: A critical epidemiological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Otto Wong ); Bailey, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    The northern part of Contra Costa County, California is heavily industrialized with a number of petroleum refineries, chemical facilities and other small industrial plants. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the country to assess cancer risk in relation to estimated air pollution levels. In this paper, the air monitoring data, air pollution modeling and the epidemiologic studies are critically reviewed. The association between cancer risk and estimated emissions is critically evaluated. The role of occupational and lifestyle (such as cigarette smoking and diet) confounding exposures is also assessed. The importance of validating exposure data generated by air pollution models in epidemiologic studies is emphasized. Pollutants of major concern are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons.

  11. The Role of Community Education in Increasing Knowledge of Breast Health and Cancer: Findings from the Asian Breast Cancer Project in Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Berger, Samantha; Huang, Chien-Chi; Rubin, Carolyn L

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, cancer rates have significantly decreased in the USA, but breast cancer survival is lower in Asian American women, likely due to lower rates of screening behaviors in Asian Americans compared to other ethnicities, which could lead to later stage cancer diagnosis and increased mortality. This paper reports on the Asian Breast Cancer (ABC) Project, a three-phase peer-led community program designed to promote cancer prevention by improving breast cancer screening rates among Chinese and Vietnamese women in the Greater Boston area. The three phases of planning and coalition building, community health worker training, and the community workshop intervention are described. The workshop intervention was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-workshop questionnaires evaluating knowledge about breast cancer screening and prevention. Two hundred fifty-two women participated in the program across 14 workshops. Each participant completed questionnaires about demographics, access to health care, and a five-item self-administered questionnaire about breast cancer knowledge. Results showed that the majority of the women had received a clinical breast exam or mammogram in the past 12 months (69 and 59 %, respectively), and older women were more likely to get a mammogram (85 %) or clinical breast exams (74 %) compared to younger women. Eighty-one percent of women were interested in reminder systems. Baseline knowledge was high for three survey questions about mammograms and breast cancer risk (88-97 %). For questions with fewer correct answers at baseline, knowledge about the meaning of lumps in the breast significantly increased (69 to 80 % correct, p < 0.0001), as well as knowledge about frequency of clinical breast exam (48 to 67 % correct, p < 0.0001). This pilot project indicated a partial effectiveness of the community workshop in a population with high baseline knowledge. The education workshop increased knowledge about breast lumps and

  12. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site.

  13. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  14. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  15. Ground-based & satellite DOAS measurements integration for air quality evaluation/forecast management in the frame of QUITSAT Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, Ivan; Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Masieri, Samuele; Premuda, Margarita; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Palazzi, Elisa

    The observations of the Earth's atmosphere from space provide excellent opportunities for the exploration of the sophisticated physical-chemical processes on both global and regional scales. The major interest during the last three decades was focused mainly on the stratosphere and the ozone depletion. More recently the continuous improvements of satellite sensors have revealed new opportunities for larger applications of space observations, attracting scientific interest to the lower troposphere and air quality issues. The air quality depends strongly on the anthropogenic activity and therefore regional environmental agencies along with policy makers are in need of appropriate means for its continuous monitoring and control to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate actions. The goal of the pilot project QUITSAT, funded by the Italian Space Agency, is to develop algorithms and procedures for the evaluation and prediction of the air quality in Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna regions (Italy) by means of integrating satellite observations with ground-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements. This work presents dedicated Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2008. One of the DOAS instruments operate at Mt.Cimone station (2165m a.s.l) and the other two instruments conducted measurements in/near Bologna (90 m. a.s.l). Different observational geometry was adopted (zenith-sky, multi-axis and long-path) aimed to provide tropospheric NO2 columns and O3, SO2 and HCHO concentrations at ground level as an input data for QUITSAT procedures. Details of the instruments, the radiative transfer model used and the algorithms for retrieving and calculation of the target gases concentrations are presented. The obtained experimental results are correlated with the corresponding ones retrieved from SCIAMACHY /ENVISAT observations during the overpasses above the ground-based instruments. The analysis

  16. Contributing to Tumor Molecular Characterization Projects with a Global Impact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    My name is Nicholas Griner and I am the Scientific Program Manager for the Cancer Genome Characterization Initiative (CGCI) in the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG). Until recently, I spent most of my scientific career working in a cancer research laboratory. In my postdoctoral training, my research focused on identifying novel pathways that contribute to both prostate and breast cancers and studying proteins within these pathways that may be targeted with cancer drugs.

  17. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  18. [Early cancer detection in the oro-pharyngo-laryngeal area: analysis of a regional screening project (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steiner, W; Bierl, F; Köstler, R; Jaumann, M P; Panis, R

    1976-11-01

    During a six months lasting screening project 6866 persons were examined free of cost. Inspection of the mouth, endoscopy of the naso-hypopharynx and larynx with the Wolf-endoscope after v. Stuckrad, and palpation of the neck were included. Every sixth person required further diagnosis or treatment. Precanceroses were found in almost 3%, and up to now malignomas were found in 0.3% of the screened persons. Among these 14 cases of cancer were 9 carcinomas of the larynx. This comparatively high percentage of precanceroses and cancer favors the endoscopic screening of patients with organ-related symptoms and of high risk groups.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  20. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  1. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  2. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rice, LaShanta J.; Jiang, Chengsheng; Wilson, Sacoby M.; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Zhang, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level. PMID:24852759

  3. Recent findings from the Human Proteome Project: opening the mass spectrometry toolbox to advance cancer diagnosis, surveillance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cantor, David I; Nice, Edouard C; Baker, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    The Human Proteome Project stands to eclipse the Human Genome Project in terms of scope, content and interpretation. Its outputs, in conjunction with recent developments across the proteomics community, provide new tools for cancer research with the potential of providing clinically relevant insights into the disease. These collectively may guide the development of future diagnosis, surveillance and treatment strategies. Having established a robust organizational framework within the international community, the Human Proteome Organization and the proteomics community at large have made significant advances in biomarker discovery, detection, molecular imaging and in exploring tumor heterogeneity. Here, the authors discuss some developments in cancer proteomics and how they can be implemented to reduce the global burden of the disease.

  4. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  5. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  6. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M. )

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  7. FRESH AIR: an implementation research project funded through Horizon 2020 exploring the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic respiratory diseases in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes FRESH AIR, an implementation science project exploring how to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic lung diseases in contexts with limited healthcare resources. It consists of inter-related studies that take place in four countries that are part of the International Primary Care Respiratory Group’s (IPCRG) global network: Uganda, the Kyrgyz Republic, Vietnam and Greece. The project has been funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 research programme and runs from October 2015 until September 2018. PMID:27356621

  8. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks.

  9. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  10. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women.

  11. Air Force Project Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-22

    cylinder . FA9550-11-1-0235 final report The Johns Hopkins University Dr Nathan Scott 10 Fig. 11 Aric Rousso demonstrates the custom pump. Fig. 10...designing and implementing an inner liner for their otherwise strong multi- layer Kevlar™ bag system. They learned the hard way that the rubber inner

  12. Air Force Project Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-17

    cylinder . FA9550-11-1-0235 final report The Johns Hopkins University Dr Nathan Scott 10 Fig. 11 Aric Rousso demonstrates the custom pump. Fig. 10...designing and implementing an inner liner for their otherwise strong multi- layer Kevlar™ bag system. They learned the hard way that the rubber inner

  13. Late effects of air pollution with special reference to lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, L; Cederlöf, R

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Hygiene of the National Swedish Environment Protection Board and of the Karolinska Institute have prepared an extensive review on health effects of air pollution, to be used by the Swedish Parliamentary Committee on Energy and the Environment. This report forms the basis for one part of the review, that on late effects. Much of the work on the review, is the result of a team effort involving researchers from numerous organizations. PMID:348461

  14. Presentation of a Swedish study program concerning recruitment, selection and training of student air traffic controllers: The MRU project phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The Director of the ANS Department has set up an objective for the efficiency of screening and training procedures for air traffic controller students which implies that all students admitted 'shall be considered to have the qualification for - and be given the means of - completing the training'. As a consequence, a study project has been established. It is run by the ANS Department with members from the Swedish CAA, in close cooperation with Uppsala University.

  15. Air quality impact assessment of at-berth ship emissions: Case-study for the project of a new freight port.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Stefano; Sidi, Shelina

    2010-12-01

    This work is intended to assess the impact on local air quality due to atmospheric emissions from port area activities for a new port in project in the Mediterranean Sea. The sources of air pollutants in the harbour area are auxiliary engines used by ships at berth during loading/offloading operations. A fleet activity-based methodology is first applied to evaluate annual pollutant emissions (NO(X), SO(X), PM, CO and VOC) based on vessel traffic data, ships tonnage and in-port hotelling time for loading/offloading operations. The 3-dimensional Calpuff transport and dispersion model is then applied for the subsequent assessment of the ground level spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants for both long-term and short-term averaging times. Compliance with current air quality standards in the port area is finally evaluated and indications for port operation are provided. Some methodological aspects of the impact assessment procedure, namely those concerning the steps of emission scenario definitions and model simulations set-up at the project stage, are specifically addressed, suggesting a pragmatic approach for similar evaluations for small new ports in project.

  16. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  17. Environmental Assessment of Short-Term Construction Projects at the 150th Fighter Wing, New Mexico Air National Guard, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and equipment required to deploy to worldwide theaters. Flight training is accomplished at home station and various locations within and outside of...plan includes procedures for responding to hazardous material spills and severe weather (Ogden Undated). 3.2 AIR QUALITY 3.2.1 Definition of...Red elderberry (Sambucus microbotrys), creeping Mahonia (Berberis repens), currants (Ribes sp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), snowberries

  18. Assessment of potential cancer risk in children exposed to urban air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Settachan, Daam; Navasumrit, Panida; Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Autrup, Herman

    2007-02-05

    Urban air pollution resulting from traffic is a major problem in many cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Thailand. This pollution originates mainly from incomplete fossil fuel combustion, e.g. transportation, and the composition of which is very complex. Some of the compounds are carcinogenic in experimental animals and in man. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air pollution from motor vehicle emissions. In major cities in Asia, the levels of PAHs and benzene are relatively high compared with those in Europe or in the United States and thus people are exposed to higher levels. Biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects have been used to study the potential health effects of exposure to PAHs and benzene in air pollution in school children attending schools in inner-city Bangkok compared to those attending schools in rural areas. Bangkok school children are exposed to total PAHs at levels 3.5-fold higher than those in the rural area. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of PAH, was also significantly higher, while PAH-DNA adducts in lymphocytes were five-fold higher in Bangkok school children than rural school children. Benzene exposure in Bangkok school children was approximately two-fold higher than in rural school children. This is in agreement with the levels of biomarkers of internal benzene dose, i.e. blood benzene and urinary t,t-muconic acid. The potential health risks from exposure to genotoxic substances were assessed through DNA-damage levels and DNA repair capacity. DNA strand breaks were significantly higher, whereas DNA repair capacity was significantly reduced in Bangkok children. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of benzene and PAHs, but these polymorphisms had no significant effects on the biomarkers of PAH exposure. Our results indicate that children living

  19. [Comparative assessment of the cancer risk of the products of smoking and ambient air pollution].

    PubMed

    Litvichenko, O N; Chernichenko, N A; Kovalenko, T V; Zinchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Danger from aerogenic dose carcinogens entering the body with smoking products is shown to be essentially greater than that from aerogenic loading in industrial centers. The individual and population risks for smoking-induced cancer and the economic damage to the country, associated with the treatment of a large number of patients are given. To make a complete assessment of the carcinogenic risk of tobacco smoking, it is necessary to estimate all its carcinogenic constituents, their precursors, and possible transformation products at elevated temperatures.

  20. Project INSPIRE-HBCU Undergraduate Collaborative Summer Training Program to Inspire Students in Prostate Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    rate – Factors impacting these disparities – Cancer Education/Awareness /Interventions Health Literacy Community Health Fairs Faith-based...approaches that have been developed to address cancer health disparities. One approach considers increasing health literacy as a measure to lessen the...lead to a decreased mortality rate because the cancers would be caught earlier when they are less aggressive and more treatable. The health literacy approach

  1. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  2. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  3. Cancer Related Follow-up Care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Project Forward Study

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Joel; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R.; Hamilton, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who are at high risk for co-morbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS who are underrepresented in previous studies. Methods Risk and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 2000–2007 (54% Hispanic; mean age=19.9, SD=2.8; mean age at diagnosis=12.1, SD=3.0; mean years since diagnosis=7.8, SD=2.0). Self-report surveys assessed follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (e.g., depression) and protective [e.g., self-efficacy (SE)] factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with previous (in prior 2 years) and intent for future cancer-related follow-up care. Results Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the prior 2 years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance, White ethnicity (vs. Hispanic), younger age and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported intent for follow-up care in the next two years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Conclusions Hispanics and older CCS are more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and intent to seek care, recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. PMID:25345867

  4. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction Projects for the 140th Wing, Colorado Air National Guard at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    prairie dog habitat; utilizes prairie dog burrows for nesting (habitat loss, poisoning, canine distemper , plague) E T No Yes Black-tailed prairie dog...Public Library, Aurora, Colorado and the Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado for dissemination. The signing of this FONSI completes the Air...81 Industrial Utility systems, building maintenance facilities, and base support supply warehouses 352 Medical Medical centers, clinics , and hospitals

  5. No Sense in Dwelling on the Past?: The Fate of the US Air Force’s German Air Force Monograph Project, 1952-69

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Sylvester Jackson was a tremendous help. Prof. Carole Fink and all the members of her Winter-Spring 2009 European Diplomatic History seminar shaped my...received formal approval. On 3 October 1952, Col William Momyer of the air evaluation staff set the tone when he suggested that if obstacles arose to...Collection, AFHRA. 8. William W. Momyer to Angell, letter, Karlsruhe Collection, AFHRA. 9. Lt Gen Idwal Edwards to CSAF, memorandum, subject: proposal, Karl

  6. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  7. Assessing the air quality impact of nitrogen oxides and benzene from road traffic and domestic heating and the associated cancer risk in an urban area of Verona (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Marco; Redivo, Martina; Antonacci, Gianluca; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Zardi, Dino; Giovannini, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of emission and dispersion of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are performed in an urban area of Verona (Italy), characterized by street canyons and typical sources of urban pollutants. Two dominant source categories are considered: road traffic and, as an element of novelty, domestic heaters. Also, to assess the impact of urban air pollution on human health and, in particular, the cancer risk, simulations of emission and dispersion of benzene are carried out. Emissions from road traffic are estimated by the COPERT 4 algorithm, whilst NOx emission factors from domestic heaters are retrieved by means of criteria provided in the technical literature. Then maps of the annual mean concentrations of NOx and benzene are calculated using the AUSTAL2000 dispersion model, considering both scenarios representing the current situation, and scenarios simulating the introduction of environmental strategies for air pollution mitigation. The simulations highlight potentially critical situations of human exposure that may not be detected by the conventional network of air quality monitoring stations. The proposed methodology provides a support for air quality policies, such as planning targeted measurement campaigns, re-locating monitoring stations and adopting measures in favour of better air quality in urban planning. In particular, the estimation of the induced cancer risk is an important starting point to conduct zoning analyses and to detect the areas where population is more directly exposed to potential risks for health.

  8. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-01-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled. PMID:6734567

  9. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled.

  10. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldor, J.; Harris, J.A.; Glazer, E.; Glaser, S.; Neutra, R.; Mayberry, R.; Nelson, V.; Robinson, L.; Reed, D.

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, a strong positive association was found between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the ecologic fallacy must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the strong findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. 26 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  11. Simulations and projections of major air pollutants over the United States and uncertainty analyses, effects of natural change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang

    Changes in global climate and pollutant emissions are very likely to continue in the coming decades driven by the human-related activities and natural fluctuations in the Earth climate system. These potential changes would have very important consequences on regional air quality over the contiguous United States due to their effects on atmospheric chemical and physical processes. To understand these effects, the present studies use the global climate chemistry model, CAM-Chem version 3, to systematically assess potential changes in major air pollutants including surface ozone, particulate matter and mercury from the present (1998--2002) to the 2050 (2048--2052). The projections of future air quality consider changes in global climate, precursor emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and pollutant transport. Moreover, to evaluate the projection uncertainties resulting from different plausible trends of climate and emissions as a result of unknown human-related activities and climate variations, three IPCC SRES scenarios, A1FI, A1B and B1, are considered and compared to evaluate the resulting uncertainty in projecting future pollutant concentrations. To achieve a better understanding on the effect of mineral dust emissions on changes in future air quality especially the PM concentrations, a physical dust aerosol module is developed and incorporated into the CAM-Chem model. A mercury module is developed for the CAM-Chem model to simulate the atmospheric cycle of mercury and its consequences on the toxicity of U.S. air quality. For the study of ozone air quality, we focus on the risk of high ozone episodes and the relative contributions from changes in local anthropogenic emissions (LE) versus changes in intercontinental transport (ICT) on 2050 U.S. surface ozone air quality. It is found that the projected changes in air temperature, precipitation, lighting, planetary boundary layer height and cyclone activities tend to intensify the associated extreme

  12. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM”) Project

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calvin A.; Cox, Kelly; Hurwitz, Shelley; Walls, Ron M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9%) medical and 2,685 (55.1%) trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1%) adult and 256 (5.3%) pediatric (age ≤ 14) intubations; 225 (4.6%) did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6%) had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9%) and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%). Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test). 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD). Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7%) and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7%) encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. PMID:24672610

  13. The African American Women and Mass Media campaign: a CDC breast cancer screening project.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ingrid J; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N

    2012-11-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women's awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia.

  14. Children of parents with cancer: a collaborative project between a child psychiatry clinic and an adult oncology clinic.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Florence; Manninen, Hanna; Santalahti, Päivi; Savonlahti, Elina; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Romer, Georg; Piha, Jorma

    2007-07-01

    This article describes the development of a collaborative relationship between a child psychiatry clinic and an adult oncology clinic within a university hospital. The interest of the child psychiatry clinic was to pay attention to children of parents with cancer, and to propose an intervention to support them. A child-centred family counselling model was designed for this purpose. The preparation, implementation, and results of this project are described. Positive results, as well as mistakes and failures are discussed, and recommendations are made regarding this kind of collaboration.

  15. New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Milliken Station clean coal technology demonstration project and its impacts on the local ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gendron, L.J.; Rahimi, M.; Savichky, W.

    1998-12-31

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has recently completed a program which upgraded the boiler combustion system and installed a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The demonstration project was conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this clean coal technology demonstration (CCTD) project was to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. A four-year ambient monitoring program was conducted to evaluate the effects of the FGD system and combustion modifications on the local ambient air quality, the results of which are summarized in this paper. As part of NYSEG`s Milliken Station Clean Coal Technology Demonstration project, a flue gas desulfurization system was added as well as modifications to the combustion system and electrostatic precipitators. The demonstration project added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which was expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. The project scope also consisted of combustion modifications and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology to reduce NOx emissions. The burners were replaced with Low NOx Concentric Firing System Level 3 (LNCFS-3) burners to reduce NOx emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiency and acceptable fly ash loss on ignition (LOI). The electrostatic precipitators (ESP) on the two 160 MWe boilers were also upgraded to accommodate the wet flue gas desulfurization system. Upgrades of the ESP on each unit consisted of replacement of the internals and retirement of part of the original ESP.

  16. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  17. Blue Book: EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents EPA estimates of cancer incidence and mortality risk coefficients pertaining to low dose exposures to ionizing radiation for the U.S. population, as well as their scientific basis.

  18. Lessons Learned from Implementing a Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program for Underserved High-Risk Men in the Community: the Prostate REACH Project.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Linda; Davis, Stacy N; Gross, Laura; Bagden, Loretta; Zakrzewski, Debra; González, Evelyn; Kandadai, Venk; Rusten, Cheryl; Baskett, Jerilyn; Obeid, Elias; Giri, Veda N

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer disproportionately affects Black men, who may also encounter barriers to participation in prostate cancer risk assessment. The Prostate Risk, Education and Assessment in the Community with Help (REACH) project was a community-based extension of a comprehensive prostate cancer risk assessment program at a comprehensive cancer center. The goals of the REACH project were the following: (1) establish a community prostate cancer risk assessment clinic, (2) conduct targeted recruitment, and (3) provide navigation services including follow-up for uninsured men. Key implementation steps included the following: (1) choosing a clinic site, (2) establishing patient access procedures, (3) establishing navigator services, (4) developing subsidy fund use guidelines, and (5) designing recruitment and promotion. Through community-based promotion, 64 men inquired about the program and 26 (41 %) participated. Of those screened, 46 % had abnormal results, and 2 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Here, we describe a unique demonstration project to implement a comprehensive prostate cancer risk assessment program in an underserved Black community and describe successes and challenges to inform future efforts to promote access to underserved men.

  19. Genomic instability, driver genes and cell selection: Projections from cancer to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Uri

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells and stem cells share many traits, including a tendency towards genomic instability. Human cancers exhibit tumor-specific genomic aberrations, which often affect their malignancy and drug response. During their culture propagation, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) also acquire characteristic genomic aberrations, which may have significant impact on their molecular and cellular phenotypes. These aberrations vary in size from single nucleotide alterations to copy number alterations to whole chromosome gains. A prominent challenge in both cancer and stem cell research is to identify "driver aberrations" that confer a selection advantage, and "driver genes" that underlie the recurrence of these aberrations. Following principles that are already well-established in cancer research, candidate driver genes have also been suggested in hPSCs. Experimental validation of the functional role of such candidates can uncover whether these are bona fide driver genes. The identification of driver genes may bring us closer to a mechanistic understanding of the genomic instability of stem cells. Guided by terminologies and methodologies commonly applied in cancer research, such understanding may have important ramifications for both stem cell and cancer biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.

  20. ESP v2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product includes both a presentation and an extended abstract. We describe the Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method, version 2.0. ESP is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year em...

  1. Installation Restoration Program. Ohio Air National Guard, Toledo Express Airport, Swanton, Ohio. Quality Assurance Project Plan, Project Health and Safety Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTH) Type II reagent water, and pesticide -grade methanol and hexane rinses, in that order. Specific...detergent (e.g., Liqui-Noxo, Alconoxe) and rinsed with potable water, ASTM Type II reagent water, and pesticide -grade methanol and hexane, in that order...water, rinsed with pesticide -grade methanol and hexane, and allowed to air dry. This procedure will minimize any potential cross-contamination

  2. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan L; Johnson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A few recent studies have reported positive associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the incidence of breast cancer. We capitalized on an existing Canadian multi-site population-based case-control study to further investigate this association. We used the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System, a population-based case-control study conducted in eight of 10 Canadian provinces from 1994 to 1997. A total of 1569 breast cancer cases and 1872 population controls who reported at least 90% complete self-reported addresses over the 1975-1994 exposure period were examined. Mean exposure levels to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (an indicator of traffic-related air pollution) were estimated for this period using three different measures: (1) satellite-derived observations; (2) satellite-derived observations scaled with historical fixed-site measurements of NO2; and (3) a national land-use regression (LUR) model. Proximity to major roads was also examined. Using unconditional logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for many individual-level and contextual breast cancer risk factors. We observed positive associations between incident breast cancer and all three measures of NO2 exposure from 1975 to 1994. In fully adjusted models for premenopausal breast cancer, a 10ppb increase in NO2 exposure estimated from the satellite-derived observations, the scaled satellite-derived observations, and the national LUR model produced ORs of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.92-1.74), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.92-1.79). For postmenopausal breast cancer, we found corresponding ORs of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.94-1.28) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.86-1.32). Substantial heterogeneity in the ORs was observed across the eight Canadian provinces and reduced ORs were observed when models were restricted to women who had received routine mammography examinations. No associations

  3. Time trends of esophageal cancer mortality in Linzhou city during the period 1988-2010 and a Bayesian approach projection for 2020.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Zheng; Zhang, Fang; Quan, Pei-Liang; Lu, Jian-Bang; Liu, Zhi-Cai; Sun, Xi-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, decreasing trends in esophageal cancer mortality have been observed across China. We here describe esophageal cancer mortality trends in Linzhou city, a high-incidence region of esophageal cancer in China, during 1988-2010 and make a esophageal cancer mortality projection in the period 2011-2020 using a Bayesian approach. Age standardized mortality rates were estimated by direct standardization to the World population structure in 1985. A Bayesian age-period-cohort (BAPC) analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of the age, period and birth cohort on esophageal cancer mortality in Linzhou during 1988-2010 and to estimate future trends for the period 2011-2020. Age-adjusted rates for men and women decreased from 1988 to 2005 and changed little thereafter. Risk increased from 30 years of age until the very elderly. Period effects showed little variation in risk throughout 1988-2010. In contrast, a cohort effect showed risk decreased greatly in later cohorts. Forecasting, based on BAPC modeling, resulted in a increasing burden of mortality and a decreasing age standardized mortality rate of esophageal cancer in Linzhou city. The decrease of esophageal cancer mortality risk since the 1930 cohort could be attributable to the improvements of social- economic environment and lifestyle. The standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer should decrease continually. The effect of aging on the population could explain the increase in esophageal mortality projected for 2020.

  4. Future Projections of Air Temperature and Precipitation for the CORDEX-MENA Domain by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the projected changes for the periods of 2016 - 2035, 2046 - 2065, and 2081 - 2100 in the seasonal averages of air temperature and precipitation variables with respect to the reference period of 1981 - 2000 were examined for the Middle East and North Africa region. In this context, Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was run by using two different global climate models. MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and HadGEM2 of the Met Office Hadley Centre were dynamically downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX-MENA domain. The projections were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change).

  5. Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Is Associated with Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Montreal, Canada: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Crouse, Dan L.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.; Chen, Hong; Labrèche, France

    2010-01-01

    Background Only about 30% of cases of breast cancer can be explained by accepted risk factors. Occupational studies have shown associations between the incidence of breast cancer and exposure to contaminants that are found in ambient air. Objectives We sought to determine whether the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with exposure to urban air pollution. Methods We used data from a case–control study conducted in Montreal, Quebec, in 1996–1997. Cases were 383 women with incident invasive breast cancer, and controls were 416 women with other incident, malignant cancers, excluding those potentially associated with selected occupational exposures. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured across Montreal in 2005–2006. We developed a land-use regression model to predict concentrations of NO2 across Montreal for 2006, and developed two methods to extrapolate the estimates to 1985 and 1996. We linked these estimates to addresses of residences of subjects at time of interview. We used unconditional logistic regression to adjust for accepted and suspected risk factors and occupational exposures. Results For each increase of 5 ppb NO2 estimated in 1996, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.71). Although the size of effect varied somewhat across periods, we found an increased risk of approximately 25% for every increase of 5 ppb in exposure. Conclusions We found evidence of an association between the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and exposure to ambient concentrations of NO2. Further studies are needed to confirm whether NO2 or other components of traffic-related pollution are indeed associated with increased risks. PMID:20923746

  6. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  7. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  8. AN AIR QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR INTERRELATING EFFECTS, STANDARDS, AND NEEDED SOURCE REDUCTIONS: PART 13. APPLYING THE EPA PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT TO A SET OF ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90) list 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for which "safe" ambient concentrations are to be determined. For a carcinogen, such as asbestos, the amendments specify that the safe concentration shall allow one excess cancer case per mi...

  9. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a potential human cancer hazard in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust and urban air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone [3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one (3-NBA)] is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), was found in the urine of salt mine workers occupationally exposed to diesel emissions, indicating that human exposure to 3-NBA due to diesel emissions can be significant and is detectable. There is clear evidence that 3-NBA is a genotoxic mutagen forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several human enzymes have been shown to activate 3-NBA and its metabolites in vitro and in cells to form electrophilic arylnitrenium and rearranged carbenium ions, leading to the formation of purine adducts at the C8 and N2 position of guanine and at the C8 and N6 position of adenine. The predominant DNA adducts in vivo, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone are also the most persistent adducts in target tissue in rodents, and are most probably responsible for the induction of GC-->TA transversion mutations observed in vivo. It is concluded that these adducts not only represent premutagenic lesions in DNA but are of primary importance for the initiation of the carcinogenic process and subsequent tumour formation in target tissue. Indeed, 3-NBA is carcinogenic in rats after intratracheal instillation, inducing mainly squamous cell carcinoma in lung. The intention of this article is to provide a critical review on the potential genotoxic effects of 3-NBA on human health. However, in general, there is a need for more mechanistic studies that relate 3-NBA to all processes that are considered to orchestrate tumour development and of studies on the ability of particles to promote 3-NBA

  10. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  11. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  12. The Tip of the Iceberg: Clinical Implications of Genomic Sequencing Projects in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Ludwig, Megan L.; Meraj, Taha S.; Brenner, J. Chad; Prince, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing studies have provided valuable insight into genetic aberrations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite these great advances, certain hurdles exist in translating genomic findings to clinical care. Further correlation of genetic findings to clinical outcomes, additional analyses of subgroups of head and neck cancers and follow-up investigation into genetic heterogeneity are needed. While the development of targeted therapy trials is of key importance, numerous challenges exist in establishing and optimizing such programs. This review discusses potential upcoming steps for further genetic evaluation of head and neck cancers and implementation of genetic findings into precision medicine trials. PMID:26506389

  13. Management of symptoms associated with advanced cancer: olanzapine and mirtazapine. A World Health Organization project.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Khawam, Elias; Pozuelo, Leo; Lagman, Ruth

    2002-08-01

    Advanced cancer patients are polysymptomatic and often receive multiple medications for symptom relief. Common symptoms include anorexia, weight loss, delirium and depression. Olanzapine and mirtazapine may have several advantages over older agents despite increased acquisition costs. Both medications can treat several symptoms with a low risk for drug-drug interactions and with only once- or twice-daily dosing. Drug side effects are low, compared with more conventionally used agents. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of both agents are unique and explain many of the benefits. More research and clinical experience will be necessary to define their role in the palliation of advanced cancer.

  14. Noble Energy Inc. agrees to make system upgrades and fund projects to reduce air pollution in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Denver, Colo.-- April 22, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Justice and the State of Colorado today announced a settlement with Houston-based Noble Energy, Inc. resolving alleged Clean Air Act violations stemming from the compa

  15. Development of Computer Software to Aid Environmental Decision Makers in the Education and Training of Air Force Remedial Project Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    the MITRE Air Force site coordinator education report, the environmental education research being done by the School of Aerospace Medicine, and the...Each iteration is a result 56 of discussions with Lt Col Maricle and Maj Duncan- and a review of the environmental education research completed by the

  16. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF AREA 6, DOVER AIR FORCE BASE, IN SUPPORT OF NATURAL ATTENUATION AND ENHANCED ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field program for site characterization of targeted study areas at the Dover Air Force Base was conducted between January 16, 1995, and March 9, 1995. The stated objectives of the investigation, "to characterize the stratigraphy, depth to groundwater, groundwater flow directio...

  17. Performance Summary of the 2006 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Simulation for the AQMEII Project: North American Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the CONUS using 12-km by 12-km horizontal grid spacing for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International initiative (AQMEII). The operational model performance for O3 and PM2.5<...

  18. Noble Energy Inc. Agrees to Make System Upgrades and Fund Projects to Reduce Air Pollution in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 2015 : The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Justice and the State of Colorado today announced a settlement with Houston-based Noble Energy, Inc. resolving alleged Clean Air Act violations stemming from t

  19. The Pacific Island Health Care Project: easing the cancer burden in the United States associated Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Person, Donald A

    2004-09-01

    Cancer is a serious and ever increasing problem in the United States Associated Pacific Islands (USAPIs). Nearly 30% of all consultations and referrals are for cancer. Depending on the type of cancer, the prognosis for long-term survival is often poor and the cost of caring for such patients is considerable. Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) provides tertiary medical care to patients from the USAPIs in support of Graduate Medical Education (GME) at no cost to the patient or jurisdiction. Continuing its tradition of leading telemedicine initiatives in the Pacific, TAMC has developed a web-based electronic consultation and referral network, the Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP). Ten sites in Micronesia and one in American Samoa were provided with computer equipment. Local clinicians request consultation from TAMC specialists through the internet, attaching supporting imagery. The consults are posted on a secure web page, where they are viewed, evaluated, forwarded, and commented on by the consultants. Experience with more than 2,100 cases indicates that the Internet can be easily used as a store-and-forward consultation format and offers a cost effective means for distance consultation, referral, and learning. This format has provided for a more rational evaluation of all patients but especially patients with cancer. Patients who are terminally ill, have widely metastasized disease, and/or have inoperable tumors or recurrences are excluded so that limited resources can be used for those most likely to benefit. There has been overwhelming enthusiasm for such Internet consultations between referring physicians and consultants. Many Pacific Islander patients have received state-of-the-art medical care through this program. At the same time, the training of TAMC physicians and residents has been enhanced by their opportunity to care for these remarkable and deserving patients from the Pacific.

  20. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. Results In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations. Citation Andersen ZJ, de Nazelle A, Mendez MA, Garcia-Aymerich J, Hertel O, Tjønneland A, Overvad

  1. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle; Williams, Ronald; Sharpe, Robert; Brown, Ryan; Garver, Daniel; Judge, Robert; Caudill, Motria; Rickard, Joshua; Davis, Michael; Weinstock, Lewis; Zimmer-Dauphinee, Susan; Buckley, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low-cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low-cost, continuous, and commercially available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ˜ 2 km area in the southeastern United States. Collocation of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as the degree to which multiple identical sensors produced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, and -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r < 0.5) with a reference monitor and erroneously high concentration values. A wide variety of particulate matter (PM) sensors were tested with variable results - some sensors had very high agreement (e.g., r = 0.99) between identical sensors but moderate agreement with a reference PM2.5 monitor (e.g., r = 0.65). For select sensors that had moderate to strong correlation with reference monitors (r > 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in number of sampling days could be used in a correction algorithm to improve the agreement. Maximum improvement in agreement with a reference

  2. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Covell, David G

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  3. Project INSPIRE-HBCU Undergraduate Collaborative Summer Training Program to Inspire Students in Prostate Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    continuum of opportunities including didactic and meaningful research experience and training in basic, biomedical, clinical and/or population...minority scientists, there is a gap in the early phases of the training pipeline, including the current prostate cancer education , training and...including didactic and meaningful research experience and training in basic, biomedical, clinical and/or population sciences research for promising

  4. Projected Image and Observed Behavior of Physicians in Terminal Cancer Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Gilla

    1993-01-01

    Reports on abandoned study examining potential benefits of psychotherapy to terminal cancer patients. Preliminary feasibility study found physicians' attitudes toward their dying patients as reformed and progressive. Interest shown by physicians did not translate into tangible research effort in spite of active pursuit by investigator over period…

  5. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  6. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Organization, Mission and Growth of the Vietnamese Air Force 1949-1968

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-10-08

    for Vietnamese personnel was conducted in French flying schools,- such as Avord in France, Blida in Algeria, and Marrakech in Morocco. One of the later...leaders of the VNAF, Air Vice Marshal Nguyen I Cao Ky, is a splendid illustration of this type of training. He was sent to Marrakech in Morocco and...fighter pilot. Came in military service in 1951 and commissioned in in- fantry in 1952. Fought with French and sent to pilot training at Marrakech , Morocco

  7. Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction and Ocean Processes for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and space-time variability in the Northwestern Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea on time scales from days up to several seasonal cycles . OBJECTIVES...determine the mechanisms causing vertical mixing in the Arabian Sea: wind mixing, role of air- sea interaction and surface heat and fresh water ...equatorial region and the East African Coastal current, a source of low-salinity water for the Arabian Sea. APPROACH The fast-flowing Somali

  8. The Telescope Array RADAR (TARA) Project and the Search for the Radar Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohira, Steven; TARA Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation since May 2013. It is the most ambitious effort to date to test an idea that originated in the 1940's: that ionization produced by cosmic ray extensive air showers should reflect electromagnetic radiation. The observation of this effect would open the possibility that remote-sensing radar technology could be used to detect and reconstruct extensive air showers, thus increasing the aperture available for the study of the highest-energy cosmic rays. TARA employs a bi-static radar configuration, consisting of a 25 kW, 5 MW ERP transmitter at 54.1 MHz broadcasting across the Telescope Array surface detector. 40 km distant, a set of log-periodic receiver antennas are read out by two independent data acquisition systems employing different techniques to select signals of the form expected for radar targets moving at close to the speed of light. In this talk, we describe the TARA detector and present the first quantitative limits on the radar cross-section of extensive air showers.

  9. Air quality impact of the coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the China West-East Power Transmission Project.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe; Duan, Ning; Chen, Yizhen; Li, Jindan; Chen, Fu; Liu, Simei; Pu, Wenqing

    2005-12-01

    This paper analyzes the air quality impacts of coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the West-East Power Transmission Project in China. A three-layer Lagrangian model called ATMOS, was used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental sulfur dioxide (SO2) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations under different emission control scenarios. In the year 2005, the emissions from planned power plants mainly affected the air quality of Shanxi, Shaanxi, the common boundary of Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and the area around the boundary between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. In these areas, the annually averaged incremental SO2 and PM10 concentrations exceed 2 and 2.5 microg/m3, respectively. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations are 8.3 and 7.2 microg/m3, respectively, which occur around Hancheng city, near the boundary of the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. After integrated control measures are considered, the maximum increases of annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations fall to 4.9 and 4 microg/m3, respectively. In the year 2010, the areas affected by planned power plants are mainly North Shaanxi, North Ningxia, and Northwest Shanxi. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10, concentrations are, respectively, 6.3 and 5.6 microg/m3, occurring in Northwest Shanxi, which decline to 4.4 and 4.1 microg/m3 after the control measures are implemented. The results showed that the proposed power plants mainly affect the air quality of the region where the power plants are built, with little impact on East China where the electricity will be used. The influences of planned power plants on air quality will be decreased greatly by implementing integrated control measures.

  10. Skin Vaccination against Cervical Cancer Associated Human Papillomavirus with a Novel Micro-Projection Array in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Holly J.; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Chen, Xianfeng; Frazer, Ian H.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Better delivery systems are needed for routinely used vaccines, to improve vaccine uptake. Many vaccines contain alum or alum based adjuvants. Here we investigate a novel dry-coated densely-packed micro-projection array skin patch (Nanopatch™) as an alternate delivery system to intramuscular injection for delivering an alum adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil®) commonly used as a prophylactic vaccine against cervical cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Micro-projection arrays dry-coated with vaccine material (Gardasil®) delivered to C57BL/6 mouse ear skin released vaccine within 5 minutes. To assess vaccine immunogenicity, doses of corresponding to HPV-16 component of the vaccine between 0.43±0.084 ng and 300±120 ng (mean ± SD) were administered to mice at day 0 and day 14. A dose of 55±6.0 ng delivered intracutaneously by micro-projection array was sufficient to produce a maximal virus neutralizing serum antibody response at day 28 post vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titres were sustained out to 16 weeks post vaccination, and, for comparable doses of vaccine, somewhat higher titres were observed with intracutaneous patch delivery than with intramuscular delivery with the needle and syringe at this time point. Conclusions/Significance Use of dry micro-projection arrays (Nanopatch™) has the potential to overcome the need for a vaccine cold chain for common vaccines currently delivered by needle and syringe, and to reduce risk of needle-stick injury and vaccine avoidance due to the fear of the needle especially among children. PMID:20976136

  11. [Towards informed choice: design and results of projects on (cancer) screening funded by the Federal Ministry of Health].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Töppich, J; Stomper, B

    2014-03-01

    There has been a gradual paradigm shift in the area of screening and early detection of diseases. For many years, the sole focus of public health policies was increasing the uptake rates in screening programs. However, today there is an increasing awareness of the importance of informed decision making -- particularly in the area of screening. The provision of high-quality, evidence-based, and comprehensive information on benefit and harm is an important approach in achieving this objective. The current paper presents a project that was funded by the Federal Ministry of Health. It examines whether existing information material is appropriate to support informed decision making. In the first phase of the project, different screening procedures were assessed systematically and compared using several indicators. Based on the results of an expert workshop, the subsequent research activities focused on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as one example. Phase II included the systematic search and assessment of print media, e.g., flyers and brochures, while phase III applied the same methods to websites on CRC screening. The information material was analyzed with a mix of methods, involving both experts and users. Finally, the results were presented and discussed with the authors/providers of the information material. Based on the results of this project, the Federal Center for Health Education developed a module on CRC screening for an Internet platform on women's health that is currently being evaluated. In sum, this research project contributes to the development of evidence-based and balanced information as well as informed decision making.

  12. Impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the East Mediterranean - An overview of the first results from the CITYZEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Saharan dust, vegetation and the sea, as well as from biomass burning, in overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. The east basin of the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions, include significant megacities such as Istanbul and Cairo, but also several large urban centers like to its north part Athens and Thessaloniki; to the east Izmir and Adana, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and to the south Alexandria. The region covers from rural to maritime and desert conditions. During the last decades, the East Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including enhanced vehicle circulation, and in industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems in Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole East Mediterranean region. Ozone and aerosol air quality limits are often exceeded over the entire Mediterranean, in particular during summer. High ozone and aerosol concentrations are harmful for human health and ecosystems, and they can also be responsible for agricultural crop loss and climate change. The contribution of various sources to these exceedances remains to be determined. In addition the importance of interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions in the area has to be evaluated. For this purpose, in the frame of the CityZEN EU funded project, available records of air pollution levels over the past decades have been compiled and analysed for Istanbul and Cairo

  13. BD LSRFortessa for Tulane DoD ID and Cancer Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-21

    Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Vaccines , Bioterrorism, Biothreat, Cancer, Immunity, Prophylaxis REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...funded by the DoD includes studies on microbial pathogenesis and development of vaccines and therapeutics (including testing in animal models...Development of Novel Formulations of Influenza Vaccines " PI: Ray Cummings, Ph.D., PATH Seattle NIH/NIAID R43 AI078654-01A2 (Subcontract) "Surrogate

  14. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  15. Influences of Regional Climate Change on Air Quality across the Continental U.S. Projected from Downscaling IPCC ARS Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projecting climate change scenarios to local scales is important for understanding, mitigating, and adapting to the effects of climate change on society and the environment. Many of the global climate models (GCMs) that are participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

  16. Project Documerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has started a project to actually picture the environmental movement in the United States. This is an attempt to make the public aware of the air pollution in their area or state and to acquaint them with the effects of air cleaning efforts. (PS)

  17. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  18. Coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by sex: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Jessica L.; Freedman, Neal D.; Graubard, Barry I.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Lai, Gabriel Y.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsay Y.; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark P.; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Campbell, Peter T.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. Caffeine has chemopreventive properties, but whether caffeine is responsible for the coffee-HCC association is not well studied. In addition, few studies have examined the relationship by sex, and no studies have examined whether there is an association between coffee and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Methods In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of U.S.-based cohort studies, data from 1,212,893 individuals (HCC n=860, ICC n=260) in nine cohorts were pooled. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Results Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of HCC (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; ptrend cups/day=<0.0001). More notable reduced risk was seen among women than men (pinteraction=0.07). Women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day were at a 54% lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), whereas men had more modest reduced risk of HCC (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). The associations were stronger for caffeinated coffee (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.50-1.01) than decaffeinated coffee (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54). There was no relationship between coffee consumption and ICC. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in a U.S. population, coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC. Impact Further research into specific coffee compounds and mechanisms that may account for these associations is needed. PMID:26126626

  19. DFCI Gene Index Project: Interactive Data Maps for Plant, Animal, Protist, and Fungi Organisims from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

    DOE Data Explorer

    Funding for the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Gene Index Project ended and the database was taken down in July of 2014. However, this record links you to the "tombstone" page where you will find FTP addresses for the software tools and the data created.

  20. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  2. An investigation of the relationship between air emissions of volatile organic compounds and the incidence of cancer in Indiana counties.

    PubMed

    Boeglin, Michael L; Wessels, Denise; Henshel, Diane

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a health endpoint influenced by a multitude of factors, including genetic history, individual behavior, and environmental insults. The ubiquity of toxicants in the environment has raised questions about the extent of their role in causing cancer in humans. More specifically, it is desirable to understand the cancer incidence due to airborne toxicants in anthropogenic pollution. One particular class of such pollutants is volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper reports an epidemiological investigation of the incidence of cancer in the 92 counties of Indiana. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of VOCs released in each county, as reported by the Toxic Release Inventory, and the county-by-county incidence of various types of cancer, especially those of less common organ systems not directly associated with the absorption or distribution of toxicants. Our evaluation considered chlorinated versus nonchlorinated emissions as well as stack versus fugitive emissions. We evaluated three models: linear, quadratic, and polynomial. Of these, the quadratic model appeared to be the best predictor (highest r2) for most endpoints for which there was a positive correlation. However, the linear model was the most sensitive (lowest P-value) for skin, melanoma, and endocrine-related cancers, including female genital system cancers. Our results indicate a relationship between emissions of VOCs and the incidence of some types of cancers. Most notable were strong correlations between VOC emissions and cancers of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and skin.

  3. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Statistics and Data Center - Support for Childhood Cancer Research Projects Conducted through the COG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J; Krailo, M

    2011-04-11

    Project Description: These monies will support statistical staff within the Children's Oncology Group's Statistics and Data Center. A portion of these funds will allow the hiring of a full time Master's level statistician within the Group Operations Center in Arcadia, CA to assist current PhD level statisticians with the analysis of completed and ongoing pediatric clinical trials conducted through the COG. Approximately 50% of this individual's effort will be shared by the PhD statisticians located within the COG Group Operations Center with percent effort assigned by the Associate Group Statistician. The remaining 50% will be used to support projects of general interest to the Statistics and Data Center including the development of tools to facilitate Clinical Data Upload System (CDUS) reporting and the production of study public and Data Safety Monitoring Committee reports. The remaining balance of monies will facilitate the hiring of one full time PhD level statistician located at the SDC office in Gainesville, FL. This individual will be focused on the most common pediatric cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).

  4. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chornack, M.P.; French, C.A.

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  6. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process

  7. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Indoor Air Top of Page Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) What We Do OAQPS’s ... Programs and projects managed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards AIRNow - Air Quality Forecast Air ...

  8. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  9. Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Horton, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Christopher L; Eppler, Adam; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P

    2011-10-01

    Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM(2.5) and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM(2.5) and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population.

  10. Informatics-guided procurement of patient samples for biomarker discovery projects in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Suh, K Stephen; Remache, Yvonne K; Patel, Jalpa S; Chen, Steve H; Haystrand, Russell; Ford, Peggy; Shaikh, Anadil M; Wang, Jian; Goy, Andre H

    2009-02-01

    Modern cancer research for biomarker discovery program requires solving several tasks that are directly involved with patient sample procurement. One requirement is to construct a highly efficient workflow on the clinical side for the procurement to generate a consistent supply of high quality samples for research. This undertaking needs a network of interdepartmental collaborations and participations at various levels, including physical human interactions, information technology implementations and a bioinformatics tool that is highly effective and user-friendly to busy clinicians and researchers associated with the sample procurement. Collegial participation that is sequential but continual from one department to another demands dedicated bioinformatics software coordinating between the institutional clinic and the tissue repository facility. Participants in the process include admissions, consenting process, phlebotomy, surgery center and pathology. During this multiple step procedures, clinical data are collected for detailed analytical endpoints to supplement logistics of defining and validating the discovery of biomarkers.

  11. Video-assisted thoracic lobectomy for lung cancer in Italy: the 'VATS Group' Project.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Roberto; Droghetti, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Bertani, Alessandro; Gonfiotti, Alessandro; Solli, Piergiorgio

    2016-12-01

    As part of the third Mediterranean Symposium in Thoracic Surgical Oncology, we introduce the Italian VATS Group ( http://vatsgroup.org/sito/index.php ). This national collaborative initiative was established in 2013 and started to recruit patients in January 2014; as of July 2016, 3680 patients have been enrolled in the database. Three different video-assisted thoracic surgery approaches have been predominantly used by Italian thoracic surgery centers, 71% of them preferentially adopting a multi-portal approach, with a 20% recorded morbidity. The majority of the cases were stage I adenocarcinomas of the lung. Conversion to open surgery occurred in 9% of the cases. The study suggests video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy as a 'gold standard' for the surgical treatment of early-stage lung cancer in Italy.

  12. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  13. Evaluating HapMap SNP data transferability in a large-scale genotyping project involving 175 cancer-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Gloria; González-Neira, Anna; Salas, Antonio; Milne, Roger L; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Begoña; González, Emilio; Barroso, Eva; Fernández, Lara P; Yankilevich, Patricio; Robledo, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Benítez, Javier

    2006-02-01

    One of the many potential uses of the HapMap project is its application to the investigation of complex disease aetiology among a wide range of populations. This study aims to assess the transferability of HapMap SNP data to the Spanish population in the context of cancer research. We have carried out a genotyping study in Spanish subjects involving 175 candidate cancer genes using an indirect gene-based approach and compared results with those for HapMap CEU subjects. Allele frequencies were very consistent between the two samples, with a high positive correlation (R) of 0.91 (P<1x10(-6)). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and block structures across each gene were also very similar, with disequilibrium coefficient (r (2)) highly correlated (R=0.95, P<1x10(-6)). We found that of the 21 genes that contained at least one block larger than 60 kb, nine (ATM, ATR, BRCA1, ERCC6, FANCC, RAD17, RAD50, RAD54B and XRCC4) belonged to the GO category "DNA repair". Haplotype frequencies per gene were also highly correlated (mean R=0.93), as was haplotype diversity (R=0.91, P<1x10(-6)). "Yin yang" haplotypes were observed for 43% of the genes analysed and 18% of those were identical to the ancestral haplotype (identified in Chimpazee). Finally, the portability of tagSNPs identified in the HapMap CEU data using pairwise r (2) thresholds of 0.8 and 0.5 was assessed by applying these to the Spanish and current HapMap data for 66 genes. In general, the HapMap tagSNPs performed very well. Our results show generally high concordance with HapMap data in allele frequencies and haplotype distributions and confirm the applicability of HapMap SNP data to the study of complex diseases among the Spanish population.

  14. This Is My Story: I've Got Cancer. "The Veronica Project": An Ethnographic Study of the Experiences of People with Learning Disabilities Who Have Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Davies, John

    2007-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities live longer, and the incidence of cancer is rising, it is of increasing importance to understand the lived cancer experience of this group. Consideration of the viewpoints of people with learning disabilities themselves will facilitate the development of cancer support services that are appropriate and…

  15. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two kinds of lymphocytes can attack and kill cancer cells: T-cells and B-cells. Immunotherapy aims to boost the ability of the T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes to kill cancer. This kind of therapy can also be used ...

  16. [Indoor air pollution by emissions from individual fossil fuel stoves. Possibly a so-far underestimated risk factor in development of cancers of the head and neck area].

    PubMed

    Dietz, A; Sennewald, E; Maier, H

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out three case-control studies on the relative risk of head and neck cancer in association with indoor air pollution. The studies performed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Heidelberg comprised 369 male patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx; one thousand, four hundred and seventy-six healthy subjects were used as controls and were matched for sex, age and residential area. The relative risk (RR) of laryngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove heating with oil, coal, gas and wood in a period longer than 40 years was 2.5 [confidence interval (CI): 1.51-4.05]. After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol the RR declined slightly to 2.0 [CI: 1.10-3.46] but was still significant. Increased risks were also found for daily exposure in a kitchen containing air oil, coal or wood oven for a period longer than 40 years (RR = 1.7; CI: 1.01-2.71). In this latter group the RR because 1.4 after adjustments for use of tobacco and alcohol [CI: 0.76-2.41]). The RR of pharyngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove heating with oil, coal, gas and wood in a period longer than 40 years was 3.6 [CI: 2.04-6.41]. After adjustments were made for tobacco and alcohol, the RR declined slightly to 3.3 [CI: 1.43-7.55] but was still significant. Elevated risks were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with oil, coal or wood ovens for a period longer than 40 years (RR = 1.6 [CI: 0.89-2.77].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. NASA/American Cancer Society High-Resolution Flow Cytometry Project-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. A.; Krishan, A.; Robinson, D. M.; Sams, C.; Costa, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NASA/American Cancer Society (ACS) flow cytometer can simultaneously analyze the electronic nuclear volume (ENV) and DNA content of cells. This study describes the schematics, resolution, reproducibility, and sensitivity of biological standards analyzed on this unit. METHODS: Calibrated beads and biological standards (lymphocytes, trout erythrocytes [TRBC], calf thymocytes, and tumor cells) were analyzed for ENV versus DNA content. Parallel data (forward scatter versus DNA) from a conventional flow cytometer were obtained. RESULTS: ENV linearity studies yielded an R value of 0.999. TRBC had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.18 +/- 0.13. DNA indexes as low as 1.02 were detectable. DNA content of lymphocytes from 42 females was 1.9% greater than that for 60 males, with a noninstrumental variability in total DNA content of 0.5%. The ENV/DNA ratio was constant in 15 normal human tissue samples, but differed in the four animal species tested. The ENV/DNA ratio for a hypodiploid breast carcinoma was 2.3 times greater than that for normal breast tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The high-resolution ENV versus DNA analyses are highly reliable, sensitive, and can be used for the detection of near-diploid tumor cells that are difficult to identify with conventional cytometers. ENV/DNA ratio may be a useful parameter for detection of aneuploid populations.

  18. Historical and projected emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from China's room air conditioning sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Li, Zhifang; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Recent decades witnessed the increase in production and uses of HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) and its alternative, HFC-410A (a blend of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane), in China in response to the booming of room air conditioners (RACs) for both domestic use and exports. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol, while both HCFC-22 and HFC-410A are greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study provides a most comprehensive consumption and emission inventory of refrigerants emissions (HCFC-22 and HFC-410A) from RAC sector during 1995-2014, for the first time. Our estimates show that HCFC-22 emissions increased from 0.7 Gg/yr in 1995 to 48.2 Gg/yr in 2014. The accumulative emissions contributed to global total HCFCs emissions by 4.4% (3.3%-6.1%) CFC-11-equivalent (CFC-11-eq) and 5.4% (4.1%-7.5%) CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) during 1995-2012. If left uncontrolled, accumulative emissions of HFC-410A will be12.4 (7.1-20.2) CO2-eq Pg during 2015-2050, which can offset the global climate benefits achieved by the Montreal Protocol. The HFC-410A emissions from China's RAC sector are estimated to be of importance to both global HFCs emissions and China's GHG emissions. Further, we probed the emission mitigation performances of the current 2014 North American Proposal scenario and a modified more ambitious scenario. The emissions of two mitigation scenarios are only 28% and 22% of the emissions without mitigation actions, respectively. This study is the first effort to map the transition of eliminated substance HCFC-22 and its alternative HFC-410A in RAC sector. Therefore, alternative chemicals should be scrutinized with cautions before they are promoted and applied.

  19. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program, Invention 604. Third quarter project report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-07-31

    The primary objective of this {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} project is to complete a conceptual design of this unique new combination of existing technology with cost estimates to show that the {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} system offers the economic incentive with low technical risk for a plant to be built which will demonstrate its viability. The technologies involved in the components of a {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} plant are proven, and the integration of the components into a complete plant is the only new development activity involved. Industry and the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), require the demonstration of a {open_quotes}commercial plant{close_quotes} before the viability of a new concept is accepted. To satisfy this requirement and construction of a plant of commercially viable size in excess of 15 MW if cogeneration and above 30 MW if all power, is proposed. This plant will produce economical power and heat for the owner. The plant will operate a full commercial life and continue as an operating demonstration of the viability of the technology, gathering long term life and maintenance data, all adding to the credibility of the concept.

  20. Comparison among dimensionality reduction techniques based on Random Projection for cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haozhe; Li, Jie; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Wang, Yadong

    2016-12-01

    Random Projection (RP) technique has been widely applied in many scenarios because it can reduce high-dimensional features into low-dimensional space within short time and meet the need of real-time analysis of massive data. There is an urgent need of dimensionality reduction with fast increase of big genomics data. However, the performance of RP is usually lower. We attempt to improve classification accuracy of RP through combining other reduction dimension methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Feature Selection (FS). We compared classification accuracy and running time of different combination methods on three microarray datasets and a simulation dataset. Experimental results show a remarkable improvement of 14.77% in classification accuracy of FS followed by RP compared to RP on BC-TCGA dataset. LDA followed by RP also helps RP to yield a more discriminative subspace with an increase of 13.65% on classification accuracy on the same dataset. FS followed by RP outperforms other combination methods in classification accuracy on most of the datasets.

  1. A virtual clinical trial using projection-based nodule insertion to determine radiologist reader performance in lung cancer screening CT

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Hu, Qiyuan; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Levin, David L.; Johnson, Tucker F.; Hora, Megan J.; Dirks, Shane; Chen, Baiyu; McMillan, Kyle; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, JG; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2017-01-01

    Task-based image quality assessment using model observers is promising to provide an efficient, quantitative, and objective approach to CT dose optimization. Before this approach can be reliably used in practice, its correlation with radiologist performance for the same clinical task needs to be established. Determining human observer performance for a well-defined clinical task, however, has always been a challenge due to the tremendous amount of efforts needed to collect a large number of positive cases. To overcome this challenge, we developed an accurate projection-based insertion technique. In this study, we present a virtual clinical trial using this tool and a low-dose simulation tool to determine radiologist performance on lung-nodule detection as a function of radiation dose, nodule type, nodule size, and reconstruction methods. The lesion insertion and low-dose simulation tools together were demonstrated to provide flexibility to generate realistically-appearing clinical cases under well-defined conditions. The reader performance data obtained in this virtual clinical trial can be used as the basis to develop model observers for lung nodule detection, as well as for dose and protocol optimization in lung cancer screening CT. PMID:28392614

  2. Use of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP) in the analysis of childhood cancer in four California counties. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Close, E.R.; Holmes, H.H.; Selvin, S. |

    1995-10-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP). Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease rates are constant. The present report describes the application of the DEMP technique to 401 childhood cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 1988 in four California counties, with the use of map files and population data for the 262 tracts of the 1980 Census. A k`th nearest neighbor analysis provides strong evidence for geographic non-uniformity in tract rates (p < 10{sup {minus}4}). No such effect is observed for artificial cases generated under the assumption of constant rates. Work is in progress to repeat the analysis with improved population estimates derived from both 1980 and 1990 Census data. Final epidemiologic conclusions will be reported when that analysis is complete.

  3. Environmental Assessment for Taxiway Whiskey Supplemental Projects at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pollutants and the number of exceedances in Prince George’s County in 2014. Table 3-4. Air quality standards and monitored data Pollutant Air quality...stationary sources of air emissions for each of the criteria pollutants of concern and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Monitoring and recordkeeping requirements...the Air Force and any contractors would comply with all applicable air pollution control regulations. Construction dust or emissions from construction

  4. Measurement and modelling of air pollution and atmospheric chemistry in the U.K. West Midlands conurbation: overview of the PUMA Consortium project.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R M; Yin, J; Tilling, R M; Cai, X; Seakins, P W; Hopkins, J R; Lansley, D L; Lewis, A C; Hunter, M C; Heard, D E; Carpenter, L J; Creasey, D J; Lee, J D; Pilling, M J; Carslaw, N; Emmerson, K M; Redington, A; Derwent, R G; Ryall, D; Mills, G; Penkett, S A

    2006-05-01

    The PUMA (Pollution of the Urban Midlands Atmosphere) Consortium project involved intensive measurement campaigns in the Summer of 1999 and Winter of 1999/2000, respectively, in which a wide variety of air pollutants were measured in the UK West Midlands conurbation including detailed speciation of VOCs and major component analysis of aerosol. Measurements of the OH and HO2 free radicals by the FAGE technique demonstrated that winter concentrations of OH were approximately half of those measured during the summer despite a factor of 15 reduction in production through the photolysis of ozone. Detailed box modelling of the fast reaction chemistry revealed the decomposition of Criegee intermediates formed from ozone-alkene reactions to be responsible for the majority of the formation of hydroxyl in both the summer and winter campaigns, in contrast to earlier rural measurements in which ozone photolysis was predominant. The main sinks for hydroxyl are reactions with NO2, alkenes and oxygenates. Concentrations of the more stable hydrocarbons were found to be relatively invariant across the conurbation, but the impacts of photochemistry were evident through analyses of formaldehyde which showed the majority to be photochemical in origin as opposed to emitted from road traffic. Measurements on the upwind and downwind boundaries of the conurbation revealed substantial enhancements in NOx as a result of emissions within the conurbation, especially during westerly winds which carried relatively clean air. Using calcium as a tracer for crustal particles, it proved possible to reconstruct aerosol mass from the major chemical components with a fairly high degree of success. The organic to elemental carbon ratios showed a far greater influence of photochemistry in summer than winter, presumably resulting mainly from the greater availability of biogenic precursors during the summer campaign. Two urban airshed models were developed and applied to the conurbation, one Eulerian, the

  5. SU-F-BRB-14: Dosimetric Effects at Air- Tissue Boundary Due to Magnetic Field in MR-Guided IMRT/VMAT Delivery for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Chen, X; Schultz, C; Li, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The advent of the MR-Linac enables real-time and high soft tissue contrast image guidance in radiation therapy (RT) delivery. Potential hot-spots at air-tissue interfaces, such as the sphenoid sinus, in RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), could potentially occur due to the electron return effect (ERE). In this study, we investigate the dosimetric effects of ERE on the dose distribution at air-tissues interfaces in HNC IMRT treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on planning CT’s acquired for HNC cases (nasopharynx, base of skull and paranasal sinus) using a research planning system (Monaco, v5.09.06, Elekta) employing Monte Carlo dose calculations with or without the presence of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The dose in the air cavity was calculated in a 1 & 2 mm thick tissue layer, while the dose to the skin was calculated in a 1, 3 and 5 mm thick tissue layer. The maximum dose received in 1 cc volume, D1cc, were collected at different TMF strengths. Plan qualities generated with or without TMF or with increasing TMF were compared in terms of commonly-used dose-volume parameters (DVPs). Results: Variations in DVPs between plans with and without a TMF present were found to be within 5% of the planning CT. The presence of a TMF results in <5% changes in sinus air tissue interface. The largest skin dose differences with and without TMF were found within 1 mm of the skin surface Conclusion: The presence of a TMF results in practically insignificant changes in HNC IMRT plan quality, except for skin dose. Planning optimization with skin DV constraints could reduce the skin doses. This research was partially supported by Elekta Inc. (Crowley, U.K.)

  6. Record linkage to correct under‐ascertainment of cancers in HIV cohorts: The Sinikithemba HIV clinic linkage project

    PubMed Central

    Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kielkowski, Danuta; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Cloete, Christie; Giddy, Janet; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance of HIV‐related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu‐Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods. We calculated incidence rates for all cancers, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), cervix, non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma and non‐AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) before and after inclusion of linkage‐identified cancers with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8,721 records of HIV‐positive patients were linked with 35,536 cancer records. Between 2004 and 2010, we identified 448 cancers, 82% (n = 367) were recorded in the cancer registry only, 10% (n = 43) in the HIV cohort only and 8% (n = 38) both in the HIV cohort and the cancer registry. The overall cancer incidence rate in patients starting ART increased from 134 (95% CI 91–212) to 877 (95% CI 744–1,041) per 100,000 person‐years after inclusion of linkage‐identified cancers. Incidence rates were highest for KS (432, 95% CI 341–555), followed by cervix (259, 95% CI 179–390) and NADCs (294, 95% CI 223–395) per 100,000 person‐years. Ascertainment of cancer in HIV cohorts is incomplete, PRL is both feasible and essential for cancer ascertainment. PMID:27098265

  7. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Fung, Inez; Thornton, Peter E; Covey, Curtis; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N

  8. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  9. Structured electronic template for histopathology reports on colorectal carcinomas: a joint project by the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society for Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bjugn, Roger; Casati, Bettina; Norstein, Jarle

    2008-03-01

    Both individual patient treatment and cancer registries depend on adequate histopathology reports. To ensure the quality of these reports, professional organizations have published guidelines on minimum data sets for various cancer types. Norway has a population of 4.6 million, and all individuals have a unique identification number. As required by law, relevant information on cancer is submitted to the Cancer Registry of Norway. A closed, national health data network has been established facilitating electronic transferal between various institutions. The Cancer Registry and the Norwegian Society for Pathology have jointly established a nationwide project to (i) develop standardized templates in database format for histopathology reports on cancer resection specimens and (ii) develop an Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard to facilitate future electronic transfer of cancer reports from hospitals to the Cancer Registry. A minimum data set template for reporting colorectal carcinoma resection specimens and the Extensible Markup Language standard have been established. The template is based on international guidelines and classification systems. For most key parameters, pull-down menus with predefined alternatives have been constructed. The template is fully integrated into software being used by all pathology laboratories in Norway. Since the introduction of the template in April 2005, the template had been used for reporting 430 (93%) of 462 colorectal resections at 2 pilot laboratories (Akershus University Hospital [Lørenskog, Norway] and Stavanger, University Hospital [Stavanger, Norway]), demonstrating that high and consistent quality can be ascertained. Pathologists have found the template both time saving and user friendly. The template is now gradually implemented nationwide.

  10. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weaken. Talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control. Support Groups The diagnosis and treatment of cancer often causes ...

  11. Community collaboration to increase foreign-born women¿s participation in a cervical cancer screening program in Sweden: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevailing inequities in healthcare have been well addressed in previous research, especially screening program participation, but less attention has been paid to how to overcome these inequities. This paper explores a key factor of a successful improvement project: collaboration with local doulas to raise cervical cancer screening participation by more than 40 percent in an area with a large number of foreign-born residents. Methods Data was collected through two focus group discussions with the doulas in order to design interventions and debrief after interventions had been carried out in the community. Various tools were used to analyze the verbal data and monitor the progress of the project. Results Three major themes emerged from the focus group discussions: barriers that prevent women from participating in the cervical cancer screening program, interventions to increase participation, and the role of the doulas in the interventions. Conclusions This paper suggests that several barriers make participation in cervical cancer screening program more difficult for foreign-born women in Sweden. Specifically, these barriers include lack of knowledge concerning cancer and the importance of preventive healthcare services and practical obstacles such as unavailable child care and language skills. The overarching approach to surmount these barriers was to engage persons with a shared cultural background and mother tongue as the target audience to verbally communicate information. The doulas who helped to identify barriers and plan and execute interventions gained increased confidence and a sense of pride in assisting to bridge the gap between healthcare providers and users. PMID:25106490

  12. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  13. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  14. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  15. The Conversations About Cancer (CAC) Project – Phase II: National Findings from Viewing When Cancer Calls… and Implications for Entertainment-Education (E-E)

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Wayne A.; Dozier, David M.; Buller, Mary K.; Gutzmer, Kyle; Fluharty, Lyndsay; Myers, Valerie H.; Buller, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We address cancer communication by creating and assessing the impacts of a theatrical production, When Cancer Calls…(WCC…), anchored in conversations from the first natural history of a patient and family members talking through cancer on the telephone. Methods A national study was conducted using a multi-site and randomized controlled trial. An 80-minute video was produced to assess viewing impacts across cancer patients, survivors, and family members. Comparisons were made with a control video on cancer nutrition and diet. Pretest-posttest sample size was 1006, and 669 participants completed a 30-day follow-up impacts assessment. Results All five family and communication indices increased significantly for WCC…. When compared to the placebo, average pretest-posttest change scores were higher for self-efficacy (775%), family fabric (665%), outside support (189%), and family communication (97%). One month following viewings, WCC… participants reported 30% more conversations about cancer among patients and family members about cancer. Conclusion A new genre of Entertainment-Education (E-E) was created that triggers positive reactions from audience members. Managing delicate and often complex communication about the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of cancer journeys is fundamentally important for everyday living. Practice Implications Unique opportunities exist to make WCC… available to national and global audiences, create tailored curricula, and integrate these viewings into educational programs for patients, family members, and care-provider teams. PMID:26547304

  16. Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

  17. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  18. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 5 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  19. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 8 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  20. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  1. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  2. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies.

  3. The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Senior Leader Perspective July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 4 The Air Advisor The Face of US Air Force Engagement Maj Gen Timothy M...The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal

  4. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  5. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I. )

    1990-06-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

  6. The use and interpretation of anthropometric measures in cancer epidemiology: A perspective from the world cancer research fund international continuous update project.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Fay, Stephanie H; Giovannucci, Edward; Leitzmann, Michael F; Marklew, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne; Mullee, Amy; Romieu, Isabelle; Thune, Inger; Uauy, Ricardo; Wiseman, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric measures relating to body size, weight and composition are increasingly being associated with cancer risk and progression. Whilst practical in epidemiologic research, where population-level associations with disease are revealed, it is important to be aware that such measures are imperfect markers of the internal physiological processes that are the actual correlates of cancer development. Body mass index (BMI), the most commonly used marker for adiposity, may mask differences between lean and adipose tissue, or fat distribution, which varies across individuals, ethnicities, and stage in the lifespan. Other measures, such as weight gain in adulthood, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, contribute information on adipose tissue distribution and insulin sensitivity. Single anthropometric measures do not capture maturational events, including the presence of critical windows of susceptibility (i.e., age of menarche and menopause), which presents a challenge in epidemiologic work. Integration of experimental research on underlying dynamic genetic, hormonal, and other non-nutritional mechanisms is necessary for a confident conclusion of the overall evidence in cancer development and progression. This article discusses the challenges confronted in evaluating and interpreting the current evidence linking anthropometric factors and cancer risk as a basis for issuing recommendations for cancer prevention.

  7. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  8. [How to understand and facilitate return to school of high school students treated for cancer: analysis of a sociology research-action project].

    PubMed

    Rollin, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.

  9. Indoor radon and lung cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Blot, W.J.; Xu, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Zhao, D.Z.; Stone, B.J.; Sun, J.; Jing, L.B.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-06-20

    Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer risk, we placed alpha-track radon detectors in the homes of 308 women with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 356 randomly selected female control subjects of similar age. Measurements were taken after 1 year. All study participants were part of the general population of Shenyang, People's Republic of China, an industrial city in the northeast part of the country that has one of the world's highest rates of lung cancer in women. The median time of residence in the homes was 24 years. The median household radon level was 2.3 pCi/L of air; 20% of the levels were greater than 4 pCi/L. Radon levels tended to be higher in single-story houses or on the first floor of multiple-story dwellings, and they were also higher in houses with increased levels of indoor air pollution from coal-burning stoves. However, the levels were not higher in homes of women who developed lung cancer than in homes of controls, nor did lung cancer risk increase with increasing radon level. No association between radon and lung cancer was observed regardless of cigarette-smoking status, except for a nonsignificant trend among heavy smokers. No positive associations of lung cancer cell type with radon were observed, except for a nonsignificant excess risk of small cell cancers among the more heavily exposed residents. Our data suggest that projections from surveys of miners exposed to high radon levels may have overestimated the overall risks of lung cancer associated with levels typically seen in homes in this Chinese city.

  10. Aviation-attributable ozone as a driver for changes in mortality related to air quality and skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2016-11-01

    Aviation is a significant source of tropospheric ozone, which is a critical UV blocking agent, an indirect precursor to the formation of particulate matter, and a respiratory health hazard. To date, investigations of human health impacts related to aviation emissions have focused on particulate matter, and no global estimate yet exists of the combined health impact of aviation due to ozone, particulate matter and UV exposure changes. We use a coupled tropospheric-stratospheric chemical-transport model with a global aviation emissions inventory to estimate the total impact of aviation on all three risk factors. We find that surface ozone due to aviation emissions is maximized during hemispheric winter due to the greater wintertime chemical lifetime of ozone, but that a smaller enhancement of 0.5 ppbv occurs during summertime. This summertime increase results in an estimated 6,800 premature mortalities per year due to ozone exposure, over three times greater than previous estimates. During the winter maximum, interaction with high background NOx concentrations results in enhanced production of nitrate aerosol and increased annual average exposure to particulate matter. This ozone perturbation is shown to be the driving mechanism behind an additional 9,200 premature mortalities due to exposure to particulate matter. However, the increase in tropospheric ozone is also found to result in 400 fewer mortalities due to melanoma skin cancer in 2006. This is the first estimate of global melanoma mortality due to aviation, and the first estimate of skin cancer mortality impacts due to aviation using a global chemical transport model.

  11. Integrative Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Signature in Bladder Cancer: A Linkage to The Cancer Genome Atlas Project and Prediction of Survival

    PubMed Central

    von Rundstedt, Friedrich-Carl; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Ma, Jing; Arnold, James M.; Gohlke, Jie; Putluri, Vasanta; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Piyarathna, D. Badrajee; Lotan, Yair; Gödde, Daniel; Roth, Stephan; Störkel, Stephan; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Lerner, Seth P.; Coarfa, Cristian; Putluri, Nagireddy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We used targeted mass spectrometry to study the metabolic fingerprint of urothelial cancer and determine whether the biochemical pathway analysis gene signature would have a predictive value in independent cohorts of patients with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Pathologically evaluated, bladder derived tissues, including benign adjacent tissue from 14 patients and bladder cancer from 46, were analyzed by liquid chromatography based targeted mass spectrometry. Differential metabolites associated with tumor samples in comparison to benign tissue were identified by adjusting the p values for multiple testing at a false discovery rate threshold of 15%. Enrichment of pathways and processes associated with the metabolic signature were determined using the GO (Gene Ontology) Database and MSigDB (Molecular Signature Database). Integration of metabolite alterations with transcriptome data from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) was done to identify the molecular signature of 30 metabolic genes. Available outcome data from TCGA portal were used to determine the association with survival. Results We identified 145 metabolites, of which analysis revealed 31 differential metabolites when comparing benign and tumor tissue samples. Using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Database we identified a total of 174 genes that correlated with the altered metabolic pathways involved. By integrating these genes with the transcriptomic data from the corresponding TCGA data set we identified a metabolic signature consisting of 30 genes. The signature was significant in its prediction of survival in 95 patients with a low signature score vs 282 with a high signature score (p = 0.0458). Conclusions Targeted mass spectrometry of bladder cancer is highly sensitive for detecting metabolic alterations. Applying transcriptome data allows for integration into larger data sets and identification of relevant metabolic pathways in bladder cancer progression. PMID:26802582

  12. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  13. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  14. Cancer patient pathways in Denmark as a joint effort between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians--a national Danish project.

    PubMed

    Probst, Helene Bilsted; Hussain, Zubair Butt; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    In 2007 and 2008 Danish Cancer Patient Pathways for 32 cancer types were developed and afterwards implemented on a national scale. Often bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians look upon the health sector in different ways and work independent of each other. In Denmark, as indeed internationally, patient pathways are frequently developed solely by health professionals and the consequence may be major difficulties in implementing the pathways on a national scale. In this article we describe how national Danish Cancer Patient Pathways were developed with a consensus seeking model and the impact it has had on the health system. The model used in Denmark ensured involvement and cooperation between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians and afterwards a successful national implementation. The Cancer Patient Pathways has significantly reduced waiting times which is thought to increase survival. This experience gives important input to the continuous challenges on how to implement evidence based medicine on a national scale and stipulates a model for this process.

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Risk in Relation to IGF-1 and its Genetic Determinants: A Case Control Study Within the Cancer Prostate Sweden Project (CAPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    www.interscience. wiley.com). Abbreviations: CAPS, Cancer Prostate in Sweden; CEPH, Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain; htSNPs, haplotype tagging...downloading genotype data for 30 Caucasian Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios from the HapMap Phase 1 data base,15 covering the IGF1

  17. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  18. Development of a risk assessment tool for projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Gao, Ying; Battsend, Munkhzul; Chen, Kexin; Lu, Wenli; Wang, Yaogang

    2014-11-01

    The optimal approach regarding breast cancer screening for Chinese women is unclear due to the relative low incidence rate. A risk assessment tool may be useful for selection of high-risk subsets of population for mammography screening in low-incidence and resource-limited developing country. The odd ratios for six main risk factors of breast cancer were pooled by review manager after a systematic research of literature. Health risk appraisal (HRA) model was developed to predict an individual's risk of developing breast cancer in the next 5 years from current age. The performance of this HRA model was assessed based on a first-round screening database. Estimated risk of breast cancer increased with age. Increases in the 5-year risk of developing breast cancer were found with the existence of any of included risk factors. When individuals who had risk above median risk (3.3‰) were selected from the validation database, the sensitivity is 60.0% and the specificity is 47.8%. The unweighted area under the curve (AUC) was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.50-0.78). The risk-prediction model reported in this article is based on a combination of risk factors and shows good overall predictive power, but it is still weak at predicting which particular women will develop the disease. It would be very helpful for the improvement of a current model if more population-based prospective follow-up studies were used for the validation.

  19. Characteristics of future air cargo demand and impact on aircraft development: A report on the Cargo/Logistic Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Current domestic and international air cargo operations are studied and the characteristics of 1990 air cargo demand are postulated from surveys conducted at airports and with shippers, consignees, and freight forwarders as well as air, land, and ocean carriers. Simulation and route optimization programs are exercised to evaluate advanced aircraft concepts. The results show that proposed changes in the infrastructure and improved cargo loading efficiencies are as important enhancing the prospects of air cargo growth as is the advent of advanced freighter aircraft. Potential reductions in aircraft direct operating costs are estimated and related to future total revenue. Service and cost elasticities are established and utilized to estimate future potential tariff reductions that may be realized through direct and indirect operating cost reductions and economies of scale.

  20. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532