Science.gov

Sample records for air cancer project

  1. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  2. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shimizu, H

    1977-12-01

    The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and the volume of traffic as indicated by auto exhaust concentration was examined; the results, though suggestive, did not yield consistent evidence of the association between them. Traffic jams in Nagoya began 15 years ago, a period that may not be long enough to provide definitive data on the incidence of lung cancer. The high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was observed in cities with a population of less than 1 million and guns (rural areas) along the coast, although those in the metropolitan areas with populations of more than 1 million were average. The SMR did not correlate with various socioeconomic conditions and industrial air pollution. Meteorologic or geologic conditions and ocean currents were not associated with SMR of lung cancer by city and gun. The population of a gun or of some cities was not large enough to be statistically significant, and the mortality rate of lung cancer was not always stable.

  3. Air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, G M

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro researches (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  4. Air pollution and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  5. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  6. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  7. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  8. The Pediatric Cancer Genome Project

    PubMed Central

    Downing, James R; Wilson, Richard K; Zhang, Jinghui; Mardis, Elaine R; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ding, Li; Ley, Timothy J; Evans, William E

    2013-01-01

    The St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project (PCGP) is participating in the international effort to identify somatic mutations that drive cancer. These cancer genome sequencing efforts will not only yield an unparalleled view of the altered signaling pathways in cancer but should also identify new targets against which novel therapeutics can be developed. Although these projects are still deep in the phase of generating primary DNA sequence data, important results are emerging and valuable community resources are being generated that should catalyze future cancer research. We describe here the rationale for conducting the PCGP, present some of the early results of this project and discuss the major lessons learned and how these will affect the application of genomic sequencing in the clinic. PMID:22641210

  9. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  10. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  11. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  12. More air-breathing spaceplane projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Diane L.

    1989-08-01

    The development and funding of current air-breathing spaceplane projects are discussed. The research considered includes: West Germany's Saenger, the UK's Hotol, the US's NASP, India's hyperplane, and the hypersonic activities of France, Japan, and the USSR. The basic characteristics of a spaceplace are: a reduction in launch costs, reusability, easier ground operations and launch preparation, short turnaround times, horizontal take-off and landing, and reliability and safety. Various types of power-plant concepts for the spaceplane, such as turbojet, ramjet, and scramjet, are described and diagrams are presented. The design of the airframe, aerodynamic heating, payload capacity, and the cost for developing an air-breathing spaceplane are examined. Applications for the spaceplane are proposed.

  13. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  14. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  15. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  16. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  17. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51... quality data and projections. (a) Each plan must contain a summary of data showing existing air quality. (b) Each plan must: (1) Contain a summary of air quality concentrations expected to result...

  18. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  19. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.; Whitehead, A. H.; Goldhagen, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) established that the uncertainty in the data and models associated with the high-altitude radiation environment could and should be reduced. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) created the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project under the auspices of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program Office at the Langley Research Center. NASA's HSR Program was developed to address the potential of a second-generation supersonic transport. A critical element focussed on the environmental issues, including the threat to crew and passengers posed by atmospheric radiation. Various international investigators were solicited to contribute instruments to fly on an ER-2 aircraft at altitudes similar to those proposed for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A list of participating investigators, their institutions, and instruments with quantities measured is presented. The flight series took place at solar minimum (radiation maximum) with northern, southern, and east/west flights. The investigators analyzed their data and presented preliminary results at the AIR Workshop in March, 1998. A review of these results are included.

  20. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  1. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  2. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  3. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  4. 40 CFR 51.115 - Air quality data and projections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality data and projections. 51.115 Section 51.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.115...

  5. 50th project Air Force, 1946 - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Contents: a partnership of trust 47 analytic methods, 11 out of the box, 53 systems training program, 17 space, 57 defense economics, 23 strategy for the nuclear era, 61 manpower, 29 theater air operation, 61 logistics, 33 computing, 71 acquisition policy, 39 international studies, 75 the post-cold war world, 43 arms control, 79 the new challenge.

  6. Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert A.; Hirata, Glenn T.

    The document presents the final report of the Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project, an effort to assess the impact and effectiveness of special education related services in Hawaii. Each of the four project objectives focused on accomplishment of one of the evaluation types specified in the Context-Input-Process-Product…

  7. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  8. Cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Fatema Z; Garabrant, David H; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-02-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality were summarized in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. The index subjects were Operation Ranch Hand veterans who sprayed 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin)-contaminated herbicides in Vietnam. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia during the same period but did not spray herbicides. We assessed cancer incidence and mortality using national rates and contrasted cancer risk in each of three Ranch Hand dioxin exposure categories relative to comparisons. The incidence of melanoma and prostate cancer was increased among white Ranch Hand veterans relative to national rates. Among veterans who spent at most 2 years in Southeast Asia, the risk of cancer at any site, of prostate cancer and of melanoma was increased in the highest dioxin exposure category. These results appear consistent with an association between cancer and dioxin exposure.

  9. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  10. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution.

  11. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  12. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  13. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory – that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings. PMID:26674418

  14. Outdoor air pollution and female lung cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and female lung cancer, the authors conducted a matched case-control study using female deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1994 through 2003. Data on all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. A municipality-based aggregate index of long-term exposure to air pollution was created by dividing the annual average of the measured values for each pollutant by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for that pollutant. The ratios for each pollutant were scaled to a 100-point scale and then averaged together to generate an index value representing the net burden of these pollutants, with each weighted equally. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to the levels of the index just described. Women who lived in the group of municipalities with highest levels of air pollution exposure index were at a statistically significant increased lung cancer risk compared to the group living in municipalities with the lowest air pollution exposure index after controlling for possible confounders (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.61). The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of air pollutants in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:16966302

  15. Relighting demonstration project Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, L.L.; Purcell, C.W.; McKay, H.; Harris, L.

    1994-09-01

    Significant energy savings are available through relighting with modern, energy efficient systems. As a demonstration, a relighting project was recently completed at Robins Air Force Base, Warner-Robins, Georgia. The project was designed to overcome a reluctance to pursue large scale relighting of the entire facility due to prior unfavorable experiences and an unusually large non-office working environment. The project followed contemporary lighting design practices, with the added dimension of involving building occupants in the process. Involving building occupants promoted their acceptance of the project and provided needed critical feedback. Their involvement helped secure their assistance in resolving special design concerns involving radio frequency interference and glare. Although often cited as simple, relighting projects are commonly confronted with problems. This document describes problems, foreseen and unforeseen, encountered by this relighting demonstration, and their solutions.

  16. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  17. Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  18. Grid Technologies for Cancer Research in the ACGT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukacki, Juliusz; Wegener, Dennis

    The ACGT project focuses on the domain of cancer research with the ultimate objective to design, development and validation of an integrated grid-enabled platform supporting post-genomic, multi-centric clinical trials on cancer.

  19. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  20. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J L; He, X Z; Chapman, R S; Cao, S R; Harris, D B; Li, X M; Xian, Y L; Jiang, W Z; Xu, C W; Chuang, J C

    1987-01-01

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality is among China's highest and, especially in females, is more closely associated with indoor burning of "smoky" coal, as opposed to wood or "smokeless" coal, than with tobacco smoking. Indoor air samples were collected during the burning of all three fuels. In contrast to wood and smokeless coal emissions, smoky coal emission has high concentrations of submicron particles containing mutagenic organics, especially in aromatic and polar fractions. These studies suggested an etiologic link between domestic smoky coal burning and lung cancer in Xuan Wei.

  2. Cancer risk assessment of selected hazardous air pollutants in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Szu-Ying; Wu, Yi-Hua; Cullen, Alison C; Larson, Timothy V; Williamson, John; Liu, L-J Sally

    2009-04-01

    The risk estimates calculated from the conventional risk assessment method usually are compound specific and provide limited information for source-specific air quality control. We used a risk apportionment approach, which is a combination of receptor modeling and risk assessment, to estimate source-specific lifetime excess cancer risks of selected hazardous air pollutants. We analyzed the speciated PM(2.5) and VOCs data collected at the Beacon Hill in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2004 with the Multilinear Engine to first quantify source contributions to the mixture of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in terms of mass concentrations. The cancer risk from exposure to each source was then calculated as the sum of all available species' cancer risks in the source feature. We also adopted the bootstrapping technique for the uncertainty analysis. The results showed that the overall cancer risk was 6.09 x 10(-5), with the background (1.61 x 10(-5)), diesel (9.82 x 10(-6)) and wood burning (9.45 x 10(-6)) sources being the primary risk sources. The PM(2.5) mass concentration contributed 20% of the total risk. The 5th percentile of the risk estimates of all sources other than marine and soil were higher than 110(-6). It was also found that the diesel and wood burning sources presented similar cancer risks although the diesel exhaust contributed less to the PM(2.5) mass concentration than the wood burning. This highlights the additional value from such a risk apportionment approach that could be utilized for prioritizing control strategies to reduce the highest population health risks from exposure to HAPs.

  3. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  4. Lung cancer and ambient air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae, A.; Pukkala, E.; Hakulinen, T.

    1993-12-31

    In a record linkage study between the population register of the City of Helsinki and the Finnish Cancer Registry, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of lung cancer for 33 subareas of Helsinki were estimated in order to determine the regional differences and the extent to which these were the effects of socioeconomic factors and air pollution. In addition, the SIRs for people living along main streets were calculated. In 1975-86, 2,439 cases of lung cancer among males and 765 among females were diagnosed in a population of 0.5 million inhabitants. In the subareas, the SIR for males varied from 0.56 to 1.56 and for females from 0.29 to 3.17. A strong inverse association, most likely due to smoking, was observed between lung cancer and average educational level. The levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in the air of various parts of the city were assessed from mathematical models. After adjustment for age, sex, and level of education, the lung cancer risk increased slightly, but nonsignificantly, with increasing SO{sub 2} concentration, being 1.3% higher in the subareas with the highest SO{sub 2} concentrations as compared with the subareas with the lowest concentrations. There was no consistent relation between the concentration of NO{sub 2} and the incidence of lung cancer. The SIR for people living along main streets was slightly lower than for the whole city, varying from 0.39 to 1.31 for males and from 0.24 to 1.51 for females. This variation was likewise mainly attributable to average educational level, but the multiple regression model also revealed slightly, although nonsignificantly, higher SIRs along the streets with denser road traffic. 51 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  6. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  7. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  8. On cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of data from various sources for a cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution is discussed. Considering the irreversibility of initiations, a multiplicative model is preferred for solid tumors. As has been concluded for exposure to ionizing radiation, the multiplicative model, in comparison with the additive model, predicts a relatively larger number of cases at high ages, with enhanced underestimation of risks by short follow-up times in disease-epidemiological studies. For related reasons, the extrapolation of risk from animal tests on the basis of daily absorbed dose per kilogram body weight or per square meter surface area without considering differences in life span may lead to an underestimation, and agreements with epidemiologically determined values may be fortuitous. Considering these possibilities, the most likely lifetime risks of cancer death at the average exposure levels in Sweden were estimated for certain pollution fractions or indicator compounds in urban air. The risks amount to approximately 50 deaths per 100,000 for inhaled particulate organic material (POM), with a contribution from ingested POM about three times larger, and alkenes, and butadiene cause 20 deaths, respectively, per 100,000 individuals. Also, benzene and formaldehyde are expected to be associated with considerable risk increments. Comparative potency methods were applied for POM and alkenes. Due to incompleteness of the list of compounds considered and the uncertainties of the above estimates, the total risk calculation from urban air has not been attempted here. PMID:7821292

  9. Projection of cancer incident cases for India -till 2026.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Neevan Divya Rani; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Aras, Radha Yeshwant

    2013-01-01

    Projection of cancer incidence is essential for planning cancer control actions, health care and allocation of resources. Here we project the cancer burden at the National and State level to understand the magnitude of cancer problem for the various calendar years from 2011 to 2026 at 5-yearly intervals. The age, sex and site-wise cancer incidence data along with populations covered by the registries were obtained from the report of National Cancer Registry Programme published by Indian Council of Medical Research for the period 2001-2004. Pooled age sex specific cancer incidence rates were obtained by taking weighted averages of these seventeen registries with respective registry populations as weights. The pooled incidence rates were assumed to represent the country's incidence rates. Populations of the country according to age and sex exposed to the risk of development of cancer in different calendar years were obtained from the report of Registrar General of India providing population projections for the country for the years from 2001 to 2026. Population forecasts were combined with the pooled incidence rates to estimate the projected number of cancer cases by age, sex and site of cancer at various 5-yearly periods Viz. 2011, 2016, 2021 and 2026. The projections were carried out for the various leading sites as well as for 'all sites' of cancer. In India, in 2011, nearly 1,193,000 new cancer cases were estimated; a higher load among females (603,500) than males (589,800) was noted. It is estimated that the total number of new cases in males will increased from 0.589 million in 2011 to 0.934 million by the year 2026. In females the new cases of cancer increased from 0.603 to 0.935 million. Three top most occurring cancers namely those of tobacco related cancers in both sexes, breast and cervical cancers in women account for over 50 to 60 percent of all cancers. When adjustments for increasing tobacco habits and increasing trends in many cancers are made, the

  10. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  11. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  12. International network of cancer genome projects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumors from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of over 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically-relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies. PMID:20393554

  13. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  14. Projection Moire Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat s wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  15. [Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-cancer Analysis Project].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Cancer can exhibit different forms depending on the site of origin, cell types, the different forms of genetic mutations which also affect cancer therapeutic effect. Although many genes have been demonstrated to change a direct result of the change in phenotype, however, many cancers lineage complex molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network analyzed a large human tumors, in order to find the molecular changes in DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic level, The results contain a wealth of data provides us with an opportunity for common, personality and new ideas throughout the cancer lineages form a whole description. Pan-cancer genome program first compares the 12 kinds of cancer types. Analysis of different tumor molecular changes and their functions, will tell us how effective treatment method is applied to a similar phenotype of the tumor.

  16. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    PubMed

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  17. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  18. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John N; Collisson, Eric A; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Ozenberger, Brad A; Ellrott, Kyle; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sander, Chris; Stuart, Joshua M

    2013-10-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile.

  19. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John N; Collisson, Eric A; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Ozenberger, Brad A; Ellrott, Kyle; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sander, Chris; Stuart, Joshua M

    2013-10-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile. PMID:24071849

  20. Hazardous air pollutants and childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer in Southeast Texas, 1995--2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kristina Walker

    Southeast Texas, including Houston, has a large presence of industrial facilities and has been documented to have poorer air quality and significantly higher cancer rates than the remainder of Texas. Given citizens' concerns in this 4th largest city in the U.S., Mayor Bill White recently partnered with the UT School of Public Health to determine methods to evaluate the health risks of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Sexton et al. (2007) published a report that strongly encouraged analytic studies linking these pollutants with health outcomes. In response, we set out to complete the following aims: 1. determine the optimal exposure assessment strategy to assess the association between childhood cancer rates and increased ambient levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene (in an ecologic setting) and 2. evaluate whether census tracts with the highest levels of benzene or 1,3-butadiene have higher incidence of childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer compared with census tracts with the lowest levels of benzene or 1,3-butadiene, using Poisson regression. The first aim was achieved by evaluating the usefulness of four data sources: geographic information systems (GIS) to identify proximity to point sources of industrial air pollution, industrial emission data from the U.S. EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), routine monitoring data from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) from 1999-2000 and modeled ambient air levels from the U.S. EPA's 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment Project (NATA) ASPEN model. Further, once these four data sources were evaluated, we narrowed them down to two: the routine monitoring data from the AQS for the years 1998-2000 and the 1999 U.S. EPA NATA ASPEN modeled data. We applied kriging (spatial interpolation) methodology to the monitoring data and compared the kriged values to the ASPEN modeled data. Our results indicated poor agreement between the two methods. Relative to the U.S. EPA ASPEN modeled estimates, relying on kriging to classify census

  1. 76 FR 64991 - Environmental Assessment for the I-395 Air Rights Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Assessment for the I-395 Air Rights Project AGENCY: Federal... Department of Transportation are announcing the availability for public review of the Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared for the I-395 Air Rights Projects in conjunction with the District Department...

  2. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  3. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  4. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  5. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  6. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  7. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project: new resources for reading the molecular signatures of cancer.

    PubMed

    Strausberg, R L

    2001-09-01

    The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) has built informational, technological, and physical resources to interface genomics with basic and clinical cancer research. The CGAP web site (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov) provides informatics tools for in silico analysis of the CGAP datasets as well as information for accessing each of the CGAP resources. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ambient exposure to criteria air pollutants and female lung cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and female lung cancer, the authors conducted a matched case-control study using female deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair-matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Classification of exposure to municipality air pollution was based on the measured levels of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The results of the present study show that there is a significant positive association between the levels of air pollution and female lung cancer mortality. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.24 (1.03-1.50) for the group with medium air pollution level and 1.46 (1.18-1.81) for the group with high air pollution level when compared to the group with the low air pollution level. Trend analyses showed statistically significant trend in risk of female lung cancer with increasing air pollution level. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of air pollutants in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:18300049

  9. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    CGAP generated a wide range of genomics data on cancerous cells that are accessible through easy-to-use online tools. Researchers, educators, and students can find "in silico" answers to biological questions through the CGAP website. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov to learn how to navigate the website.

  10. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  11. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  12. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS)-an international project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4) to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children) positions, and 5) to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone. PMID:20380704

  13. Cancer Survivorship Research: A Review of the Literature and Summary of Current NCI-Designated Cancer Center Projects

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, J. Phil; Dean, Julie A.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors and amount of cancer survivorship research has grown substantially during the past three decades. This paper provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention. PMID:21980012

  14. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Liu, Qun; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation. PMID:24636232

  15. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  16. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  17. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  18. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  19. Beneficial outcomes of the air curtain project in Ghana, August 14-27, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of questions existed about the feasibility of using the air curtain system in West Africa and after the project was completed many of the questions had been answered. Air curtains can be securely mounted on the truck mounted stairs used for passenger planning and deplaning. The Accra Airpor...

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE CLIMATE IMPACT ON REGIONAL AIR QUALITY (CIRAQ) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Impacts on Regional Air Quality (CIRAQ) project will develop model-estimated impacts of global climate changes on ozone and particulate matter (PM) in direct support of the USEPA Global Change Research Program's (GCRP) national air quality assessment. EPA's urban/reg...

  1. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  2. Employment Projections and Program Priorities. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dan; Collier, Kitty

    This study compared occupational projections for Alabama with graduation rates in corresponding academic programs to provide a context for state and institutional policy decisions on new program initiatives and to comply with recent program viability legislation. The study examined number of degrees conferred, employment projections, and…

  3. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  4. Hot-Air Balloons: Project-Centered Study as a Bridge between Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Moshe; Raz, Eli

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a project-based unit on hot-air balloons used with Israeli junior high school students. Concludes that students in the program gained experience with high-level scientific principles and technological processes, the project allows for a learning environment of cooperation and teamwork, and collaboration between…

  5. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from galactic cosmic rays greatly limit space mission lengths and potential risk mitigation evaluations. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death and protects against uncertainties using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. Revisions to this model for lifetime cancer risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described here. We review models of space environments and transport code predictions of organ exposures, and characterize uncertainties in these descriptions. We summarize recent analysis of low linear energy transfer radio-epidemiology data, including revision to Japanese A-bomb survivor dosimetry, longer follow-up of exposed cohorts, and reassessments of dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors. We compare these projections and uncertainties with earlier estimates. Current understanding of radiation quality effects and recent data on factors of relative biological effectiveness and particle track structure are reviewed. Recent radiobiology experiment results provide new information on solid cancer and leukemia risks from heavy ions. We also consider deviations from the paradigm of linearity at low doses of heavy ions motivated by non-targeted effects models. New findings and knowledge are used to revise the NASA risk projection model for space radiation cancer risks.

  6. Effect of air pollution on lung cancer: a Poisson regression model based on vital statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Tango, T

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a Poisson regression model for time trends of mortality to detect the long-term effects of common levels of air pollution on lung cancer, in which the adjustment for cigarette smoking is not always necessary. The main hypothesis to be tested in the model is that if the long-term and common-level air pollution had an effect on lung cancer, the death rate from lung cancer could be expected to increase gradually at a higher rate in the region with relatively high levels of air pollution than in the region with low levels, and that this trend would not be expected for other control diseases in which cigarette smoking is a risk factor. Using this approach, we analyzed the trend of mortality in females aged 40 to 79, from lung cancer and two control diseases, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, based on vital statistics in 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area for 1972 to 1988. Ward-specific mean levels per day of SO2 and NO2 from 1974 through 1976 estimated by Makino (1978) were used as the ward-specific exposure measure of air pollution. No data on tobacco consumption in each ward is available. Our analysis supported the existence of long-term effects of air pollution on lung cancer. PMID:7851329

  7. Smoking, air pollution, and the high rates of lung cancer in Shenyang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.Y.; Blot, W.J.; Xiao, H.P.; Wu, A.; Feng, Y.P.; Stone, B.J.; Sun, J.; Ershow, A.G.; Henderson, B.E.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. )

    1989-12-06

    A case-control study involving interviews with 1,249 patients with lung cancer and 1,345 population-based controls was conducted in Shenyang, an industrial city in northeastern China, where mortality rates are high among men and women. Cigarette smoking was found to be the principal cause of lung cancer in this population, accounting for 55% of the lung cancers in males and 37% in females. The attributable risk percentage among females is high compared to elsewhere in China, largely because of a higher prevalence of smoking among women. After adjustment for smoking, there were also significant increases in lung cancer risk associated with several measures of exposure to air pollutants. Risks were twice as high among those who reported smoky outdoor environments, and increased in proportion to years of sleeping on beds heated by coal-burning stoves (kang), and to an overall index of indoor air pollution. Threefold increases in lung cancer risk were found among men who worked in the nonferrous smelting industry, where heavy exposures to inorganic arsenic have been reported. The associations with both smoking and indoor air pollution were stronger for squamous cell and small cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. Risks due to smoking or air pollution were not greatly altered by adjustment for consumption of fresh vegetables or sources of beta carotene or retinol, prior chronic lung diseases, or education level. The findings suggest that smoking and environmental pollution combine to account for the elevated rates of lung cancer mortality in Shenyang.

  8. Particulate Air Pollution in Mexico City: A Collaborative Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, Sylvia A.; Bian, Xindi; Doran, J C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Hubbe, John M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Shaw, William J.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Arriaga, J. L.; Ortiz, E.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G.; Vega, E.; Limon, T.; Guzman, F.; Archuleta, J.; Bossert, J. E.; Elliott, S.; Lee, J. T.; McNair, L. A.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Coulter, R. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Neff, W.; Petty, R.

    1999-10-01

    PM10, PM2.5, precursor gas, and upper-air meteorological measurements were taken in Mexico City, Mexico, from February 23 to March 22, 1997, to understand concentrations and chemical compositions of the city's particulate matter (PM). Average 24-hr PM10 concentrations over the period of study at the core sites in the city were 75 micrograms/m3. The 24-hr standard of 150 micrograms/m3 was exceeded for seven samples taken during the study period; the maximum 24-hr concentration measured was 542 micrograms/m3. Nearly half of the PM10 was composed of fugitive dust from roadways, construction, and bare land. About 50% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5, with higher percentages during the morning hours. Organic and black carbon constituted up to half of the PM2.5. PM concentrations were highest during the early morning and after sunset, when the mixed layers were shallow. Meteorological measurements taken during the field campaign show that on most days air was transported out of the Mexico City basin during the afternoon with little day-to-day carryover.

  9. Project puts Clean Air worst case' rule to test

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1994-09-01

    DuPont was one of eight companies with plants in the Kanawha Valley that took part in a pioneering effort to company with EPA's proposed Risk Management Programs (RMP) rule (40 CFR Part 68, or section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act). When the rule is finalized, perhaps in early 1996, about 140,000 facilities across the country will have three years to comply. The RMP proposes that companies estimate the potential effects of significant accidental releases'' of 77 acutely toxic chemicals, 63 flammable gases and volatile flammable liquids, and certain explosive substances. A list of the chemicals and threshold quantities was published in the Jan. 31 Federal Register. Companies also must compile and make public a five-year history of releases, and document their prevention and emergency response plans.

  10. A projective surgical navigation system for cancer resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Qi; Shao, Pengfei; Wang, Dong; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Zeshu; Wang, Xinrui; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique can provide precise and real-time information about tumor location during a cancer resection surgery. However, many intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are based on wearable devices or stand-alone displays, leading to distraction of the surgeons and suboptimal outcome. To overcome these limitations, we design a projective fluorescence imaging system for surgical navigation. The system consists of a LED excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, a mini projector and a CMOS camera. A software program is written by C++ to call OpenCV functions for calibrating and correcting fluorescence images captured by the CCD camera upon excitation illumination of the LED source. The images are projected back to the surgical field by the mini projector. Imaging performance of this projective navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex-vivo chicken tissue model. In all the experiments, the projected images by the projector match well with the locations of fluorescence emission. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed projective navigation system can be a powerful tool for pre-operative surgical planning, intraoperative surgical guidance, and postoperative assessment of surgical outcome. We have integrated the optoelectronic elements into a compact and miniaturized system in preparation for further clinical validation.

  11. Association of brain cancer with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and brain cancer (29 yr of age or younger), the authors conducted a matched case-control study using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible brain cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of subjects who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were not associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. The proportion of a municipality's total population employed in the petrochemical industry in a municipality was used as an indicator of a resident's exposure to air emissions from the petrochemical industry. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to the levels of the index just described. Subjects who lived in the group of municipalities characterized by the highest levels of petrochemical air pollution had a statistically significant higher risk of developing brain cancer than the group that lived in municipalities with the lowest petrochemical air pollution levels after controlling for possible confounders (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.00-2.73). The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of petrochemical air pollution in the etiology of brain cancer. PMID:18214804

  12. Overview of the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  13. Identifying Etiologically Distinct Sub-Types of Cancer: A Demonstration Project Involving Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Colin B; Orlow, Irene; Zabor, Emily C; Arora, Arshi; Sharma, Ajay; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly detailed molecular portraits of tumor specimens, much attention has been directed toward identifying clinically distinct subtypes of cancer. Subtyping of tumors can also be accomplished with the goal of identifying distinct etiologies. We demonstrate the use of new methodologies to identify genes that distinguish etiologically heterogeneous subtypes of breast cancer using data from the case–control Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Tumor specimens were evaluated using a breast cancer expression panel of 196 genes. Using a statistical measure that distinguishes the degree of etiologic heterogeneity in tumor subtypes, each gene is ranked on the basis of its ability to distinguish etiologically distinct subtypes. This is accomplished independently using case–control comparisons and by examining the concordance odds ratios in double primaries. The estrogen receptor gene, and others in this pathway with expression levels that correlated strongly with estrogen receptor levels, demonstrate high degrees of etiologic heterogeneity in both methods. Our results are consistent with a growing literature that confirms the distinct etiologies of breast cancers classified on the basis of estrogen receptor expression levels. This proof-of-principle project demonstrates the viability of new strategies to identify genomic features that distinguish subtypes of cancer from an etiologic perspective. PMID:25974664

  14. Ohio Aluminum Industries: Compressed air system improvement project saves energy and improves product quality

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, Ohio Aluminum Industries implemented the first phase of a compressed air system improvement project at its Cleveland, Ohio, plant. By completing this phase, the plant stabilized the system's pressure and improved its performance. Furthermore, it yielded annual energy savings of 716,000 kilowatt-hours and $73,200. The total cost for the project's first phase was $83,500, making the simple payback slightly more than 1 year.

  15. Propagation Of Error And The Reliability Of Global Air Temperature Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, P.

    2013-12-01

    General circulation model (GCM) projections of the impact of rising greenhouse gases (GHGs) on globally averaged annual surface air temperatures are a simple linear extrapolation of GHG forcing, as indicated by their accurate simulation using the equation, ΔT = a×33K×[(F0+∑iΔFi)/F0], where F0 is the total GHG forcing of projection year zero, ΔFi is the increment of GHG forcing in the ith year, and a is a variable dimensionless fraction that follows GCM climate sensitivity. Linearity of GCM air temperature projections means that uncertainty propagates step-wise as the root-sum-square of error. The annual average error in total cloud fraction (TCF) resulting from CMIP5 model theory-bias is ×12%, equivalent to ×5 Wm-2 uncertainty in the energy state of the projected atmosphere. Propagated uncertainty due to TCF error is always much larger than the projected globally averaged air temperature anomaly, and reaches ×20 C in a centennial projection. CMIP5 GCMs thus have no predictive value.

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  17. The Conversations About Cancer (CAC) project: assessing feasibility and audience impacts from viewing The Cancer Play.

    PubMed

    Beach, Wayne A; Buller, Mary K; Dozier, David M; Buller, David B; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award-winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre- and postperformance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on five factor-analyzed indices/indicators-two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator-and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus-group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded effort to

  18. Prostate cancer incidence in Air Force aviators compared with non-aviators

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, David; Boyd, Douglas D.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Shen, Yu; del Junco, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several studies investigating whether prostate cancer incidence is elevated in aviators both in the civilian and military sectors have yielded inconsistent findings. Most investigations have compared aviators to the general population. Instead, our study compared prostate cancer incidence rates among officer aviator and non-aviators in the United States Air Force to reduce confounding by socioeconomic status and frequency of medical exams. Methods This retrospective analysis ascertained prostate cancer cases using the Automated Cancer Tumor Registry of the Department of Defense linked to personnel records from the USAF Personnel Center to identify aviators and non-aviators. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards model allowed comparison of prostate cancer incidence rates in USAF aviators and non-aviators. Results After adjustment for age and race, the hazards ratio for prostate cancer incidence comparing aviators with non-aviators was 1.15 (95 % confidence interval, 0.85-1.44). Neither prostate cancer incidence nor time to diagnosis differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Our study compared prostate cancer rates in aviators with a reference group of non-aviators similar in socio-economic level and frequency of exams. When compared to this internal reference group the risk of prostate cancer in USAF officer aviators appeared similar with no significant excess. PMID:22097644

  19. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  20. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood, H. Dean; Downward, George S.; Chapman, Robert S.; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity. PMID:25223911

  1. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood Iii, H Dean; Downward, George S; Chapman, Robert S; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity. PMID:25223911

  2. Assessment of Sociodemographic and Geographic Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson’s chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  3. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC.

  4. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  5. The Roland Maze Project school-based extensive air shower network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, J.; Jȩdrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzyński, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Łódź. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented.

  6. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in New Hampshire and Vermont

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Gruber, Joann F.; Mwenda, Kevin M.; Moore, Jason H.; Onega, Tracy; Karagas, Margaret R.; Shi, Xun; Duell, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor air pollution is known to contribute to increased lung cancer incidence. This study is the first to address the contribution of home heating fuel and geographical course particulate matter (PM10) concentrations to lung cancer rates in New Hampshire, U.S. First, Pearson correlation analysis and Geographically weighted regression were used to investigate spatial relationships between outdoor PM10 and lung cancer rates. While the aforementioned analyses did not indicate a significant contribution of PM10 to lung cancer in the state, there was a trend towards a significant association in the northern and southwestern regions of the state. Second, case-control data were used to estimate the contributions of indoor pollution and second hand smoke to risk of lung cancer with adjustment for confounders. Increased risk was found among those who used wood or coal to heat their homes for more than 10 winters before the age of 18, with a significant increase in risk per winter. Resulting data suggest that further investigation of the relationship between heating-related air pollution levels and lung cancer risk is needed. PMID:24273369

  7. Monitoring Air Quality over China: Evaluation of the modeling system of the PANDA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarar, Idir; Katinka Petersen, Anna; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Xuemei; Fan, Qi; Wang, Lili

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a pressing problem in Asia and specifically in China due to rapid increase in anthropogenic emissions related to growth of China's economic activity and increasing demand for energy in the past decade. Observed levels of particulate matter and ozone regularly exceed World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines in many parts of the country leading to increased risk of respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The EU-funded project PANDA aims to establish a team of European and Chinese scientists to monitor air pollution over China and elaborate air quality indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. PANDA combines state-of-the-art air pollution modeling with space and surface observations of chemical species to improve methods for monitoring air quality. The modeling system of the PANDA project follows a downscaling approach: global models such as MOZART and MACC system provide initial and boundary conditions to regional WRF-Chem and EMEP simulations over East Asia. WRF-Chem simulations at higher resolution (e.g. 20km) are then performed over a smaller domain covering East China and initial and boundary conditions from this run are used to perform simulations at a finer resolution (e.g. 5km) over specific megacities like Shanghai. Here we present results of model simulations for January and July 2010 performed during the first year of the project. We show an intercomparison of the global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem) simulations and a comprehensive evaluation with satellite measurements (NO2, CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) at several surface stations. Using the WRF-Chem model, we demonstrate that model performance is influenced not only by the resolution (e.g. 60km, 20km) but also the emission inventories used (MACCity, HTAPv2), their resolution and diurnal variation, and the choice of initial and boundary conditions (e.g. MOZART, MACC analysis).

  8. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  9. The air matters – sleeve air cavity as a marker guiding image-guided helical tomotherapy to target cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Ya-Ting; Chang, Chih-Long; Tai, Hung-Chi; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Liao, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy has been recommended as standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. To validate the main tumor location before each high-precision helical tomotherapy (HT) fraction, the development of a more reliable marker or indicator is of clinical importance to avoid inadequate coverage of the main tumor. Material and methods A 61-year-old woman with cervical cancer, TMN stage cT2b2N1M1, FIGO stage IVB was presented. Extended field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy and the interdigitated delivery of intracavitary brachytherapy was performed. Helical tomotherapy equipped with megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) was used for image-guided radiotherapy. For the insertion of tandem of brachytherapy applicator, a silicone sleeve with a central hollow canal was placed into the endocervical canal with the caudal end stopping at the outer surface of the cervical os, and making contact with the distal boundary of the cervical tumor during the entire brachytherapy course. Results In the remaining EBRT fractions, we found that the air cavity inside the central hollow canal of the sleeve could be clearly identified in daily CBCT images. The radiation oncologists matched the bony markers to adjust the daily setup errors because the megavoltage of the CBCT images could not provide a precise boundary between the soft tissue and the tumor, but the sleeve air cavity, with a clear boundary, could be used as a surrogate and reliable marker to guide the daily setup errors, and to demonstrate the primary tumor location before delivery of each HT fraction. Conclusions The application of the sleeve during the interdigitated course of HT and brachytherapy in this patient provided information for the feasibility of using the sleeve air cavity as a surrogate marker for the localization of the main primary tumor before the daily delivery of image-guided HT. PMID:26985201

  10. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans.

  11. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-06-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure-genomic mutation relationship at a large scale.

  12. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hoan, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Churl Ho; Moon, Eunpyo; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  13. Characterization of Somatic Mutations in Air Pollution-Related Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Min-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Chao; Wu, Li-Chuan; Cheng, Xin; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Li, Gao-Feng; He, Shui-Wang; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Liang; Pan, Chun-Ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hao-Bin; Hong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Mao, Wen-Jing; Jin, Xiao-Long; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shu-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Zi; Dong, Hui; Tian, Lin-Wei; Chen, Sai-Juan; Cao, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as Group 1 carcinogenic to humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China attributed to severe air pollution generated by combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis of air pollution. Here we analyzed the somatic mutations of 164 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used. Whole genome sequencing revealed a mean of 289 somatic exonic mutations per tumor and the frequent C:G → A:T nucleotide substitutions in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Exome sequencing of 2010 genes showed that Xuanwei and CR NSCLCs had a mean of 68 and 22 mutated genes per tumor, respectively (p < 0.0001). We found 167 genes (including TP53, RYR2, KRAS, CACNA1E) which had significantly higher mutation frequencies in Xuanwei than CR patients, and mutations in most genes in Xuanwei NSCLCs differed from those in CR cases. The mutation rates of 70 genes (e.g., RYR2, MYH3, GPR144, CACNA1E) were associated with patients' lifetime benzo(a)pyrene exposure. This study uncovers the mutation spectrum of air pollution-related lung cancers, and provides evidence for pollution exposure–genomic mutation relationship at a large scale. PMID:26288819

  14. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer. Objective We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer. Methods We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit. Results For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (> 10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95–1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly. Conclusions This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence. PMID:21227886

  15. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  16. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  17. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  18. The Conversations about Cancer (CAC) Project: Assessing Feasibility and Audience Impacts from Viewing The Cancer Play*

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Wayne A.; Buller, Mary K.; Dozier, David M.; Buller, David B.; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre-and post-performance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on 5 factor analyzed indices/indicators – two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator – and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded

  19. Cotton gin trash incinerator-air heat project. Consultant report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The California Energy Commission has funded the final phase of a four year project resulting in development of a successful system for burning cotton gin trash as a fuel providing the heat for ginning. The incinerator - air heater system installed in Corcoran, California operates continuously throughout the ginning season. Trash feeding and burning rate is automatically controlled from the combustion temperature, hot air temperature is controlled by the drying needs, and ashes are automatically removed from the system and pneumatically conveyed to the disposal site. The system complies with state and county air pollution codes by means of baghouse collectors. Savings in fossil fuel and trash disposal costs have demonstrated the equipment system is feasible for a four year payback at large, well utilized gins.

  20. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration. PMID:21793731

  1. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    PubMed

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  2. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from gastric cancer in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of air pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death attributed to gastric cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 2004 through 2008. Data for all eligible gastric cancer deaths were obtained and compared to a control group consisting of individuals who died from causes other than neoplasms and diseases that were associated with gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders. The controls were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was randomly selected from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from two major petroleum supply companies. The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The exposed individuals were subdivided into three categories (≤25th percentile; 25th-75th percentile; >75th percentile) according to PSD in the residential municipality. Results showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with the highest PSD were at an increased risk of death attributed to gastric cancer compared to those subjects living in municipalities with the lowest PSD. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of gastric cancer.

  3. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  4. [Role of outdoor and indoor air pollution in the etiology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zaridze, D G; Zemlianaia, G M; Aĭtakov, Z N

    1995-01-01

    The results of a case-control study of lung cancer risk in female non-smokers in Moscow are presented in the paper. The increase in a risk of lung cancer was found to be associated with outdoor pollution, the closure of the residence to chemical industry and ferrous and non-ferrous smelters, environmental tobacco smoke from husbands and exposure to radon (Rn) at home. The relative risk of lung cancer (RR) for those living in high air polluted versus relatively pure areas was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.2-5.6). RR of lung cancer related to the closure of the residence to chemical industry and ferrous and non-ferrous smelters were 2.0 (95% CI = 1.0-3.9) and 1.75 (95% CI = 1.0-3.1). The analysis has shown that there is an increase in lung cancer risk in women whose husbands smoke, which is as high as 1.9 (95% CI = 1.3-2.9). Lung cancer risk is associated with levels of exposure to Rn in the dwellings: RR was 2.48 (95% CI = 1.4-4.3) for the Rn concentration of > 24.3 Bq/m3 versus < 13 Bq/m3.

  5. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie A

    2003-01-01

    Background This two-part study employs several statistical techniques to evaluate the geographic distribution of breast cancer in females and colorectal and lung cancers in males and females in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. In this second paper, we compare patterns in standardized morbidity ratios (SMR values), calculated from New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) data, to geographic patterns in overall predicted risk (OPR) from air toxics using exposures estimated in the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment database. Results We identified significant geographic boundaries in SMR and OPR. We found little or no association between the SMR of colorectal and breast cancers and the OPR for each cancer from exposure to the air toxics. We did find boundaries in male and female lung cancer SMR and boundaries in lung cancer OPR to be closer to one another than expected. Conclusion While consistent with a causal relationship between air toxics and lung cancer incidence, the boundary analysis does not demonstrate the existence of a causal relationship. However, now that the areas of overlap between boundaries in lung cancer incidence and potential airborne exposures have been identified, we can begin to evaluate local- as well as large-scale determinants of lung cancer. PMID:12633502

  6. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  7. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  8. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  9. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Ghazarian, Armen A.; DeMarini, David M.; Sapkota, Amir; Jack, Darby; Lan, Qing; Winn, Deborah M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most exposed populations. A workshop was held in Arlington, Virginia, 9–11 May 2011, to better understand women’s and children’s potential health effects from IAP in developing countries. Workshop participants included international scientists, manufacturers, policy and regulatory officials, community leaders, and advocates who held extensive discussions to help identify future research needs. Objectives: Our objective was to identify research opportunities regarding IAP and cancer, including research questions that could be incorporated into studies of interventions to reduce IAP exposure. In this commentary, we describe the state of the science in understanding IAP and its associations with cancer and suggest research opportunities for improving our understanding of the issues. Discussion: Opportunities for research on IAP and cancer include studies of the effect of IAP on cancers other than lung cancer; studies of genetic factors that modify susceptibility; studies to determine whether the effects of IAP are mediated via germline, somatic, and/or epigenetic changes; and studies of the effects of IAP exposure via dermal and/or oral routes. Conclusions: IAP from indoor coal use increases the risk of lung cancer. Installing chimneys can reduce risk, and some genotypes, including GSTM1-null, can increase risk. Additional research is needed regarding the effects of IAP on other cancers and the effects of different types of solid fuels, oral and dermal routes of IAP exposure, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and genetic susceptibility. PMID:22846419

  10. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  11. The Atlanta Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Air Quality Modeling Project: How High-Resoution Remote Sensing Data Can Improve Air Quality Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William L.; Khan, Maudood N.

    2006-01-01

    The Atlanta Urban Heat Island and Air Quality Project had its genesis in Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air quality) that began in 1996. Project ATLANTA examined how high-spatial resolution thermal remote sensing data could be used to derive better measurements of the Urban Heat Island effect over Atlanta. We have explored how these thermal remote sensing, as well as other imaged datasets, can be used to better characterize the urban landscape for improved air quality modeling over the Atlanta area. For the air quality modeling project, the National Land Cover Dataset and the local scale Landpro99 dataset at 30m spatial resolutions have been used to derive land use/land cover characteristics for input into the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model that is one of the foundations for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to assess how these data can improve output from CMAQ. Additionally, land use changes to 2030 have been predicted using a Spatial Growth Model (SGM). SGM simulates growth around a region using population, employment and travel demand forecasts. Air quality modeling simulations were conducted using both current and future land cover. Meteorological modeling simulations indicate a 0.5 C increase in daily maximum air temperatures by 2030. Air quality modeling simulations show substantial differences in relative contributions of individual atmospheric pollutant constituents as a result of land cover change. Enhanced boundary layer mixing over the city tends to offset the increase in ozone concentration expected due to higher surface temperatures as a result of urbanization.

  12. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-09-23

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3' untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target.

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  14. American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

  15. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY OF TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION FINDINGS IN A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER XXI PROGRAM PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1996 to 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a U.S.-Mexico Border X...

  16. Indoor air quality large building characterization project planning. Report for September 1992--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Kulp, R.N.; Pyle, B.; Williamson, A.; McDonough, S.

    1998-08-01

    Three buildings were characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS) for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon carbon dioxide, particle concentrations, temperature, humidity, pressure differentials, ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations, and outdoor air (OA) intake flow rates were collected. The OA intake was adjusted when possible, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data were collected. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO{sub 2} generation/decay rates, and IAQ levels were established for baseline and OA-adjusted conditions.

  17. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-03-15

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies.

  18. Cohort study of Air Canada pilots: mortality, cancer incidence, and leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Le, N D; Fang, R; Deschamps, M; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Moody, J

    1996-01-15

    Despite the special working environment and exposures of airline pilots, data on risk of death and cancer incidence in this occupational group are limited. The authors investigated a cohort of 2,740 Air Canada pilots who contributed 62,449 person-years of observation. All male pilots employed for at least 1 year on and since January 1, 1950, were studied. The cutoff date for outcome information was December 31, 1992. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) were used to compare mortality rates and cancer incidence rates of the cohort with the respective Canadian population rates. Ninety percent confidence intervals of the SMR and SIR were calculated. Statistically significant decreased mortality was observed for all causes (SMR = 0.63, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.70), for all cancers (SMR = 0.61, 90% CI 0.48-0.76), and for all noncancer diseases (SMR = 0.53, 90% CI 0.45-0.62). Mortality from aircraft accidents was significantly raised (SMR = 26.57, 90% CI 19.3-35.9). Significantly decreased cancer incidence was observed for all cancers (SIR = 0.71, 90% CI 0.61-0.82), rectal cancer (SIR = 0.42, 90% CI 0.14-0.96), lung cancer (SIR = 0.28, 90% CI 0.16-0.46), and bladder cancer (SIR = 0.36, 90% CI 0.12-0.82). Prostate cancer (SIR = 1.87, 90% CI 1.38-2.49) and acute myeloid leukemia (SIR = 4.72, 90% CI 2.05-9.31) were significantly increased. The preferred relative risk model for radiation-induced nonchronic lymphoid leukemia (Beir V report) was applied to the cohort by using published estimates of in-flight radiation exposures. The estimated relative risk ranged from 1.001 to 1.06 and did not differ significantly from the observed SIR (SIR = 1.88, 90% CI 0.80-3.53). However, the incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia was significantly increased. Monitoring of in-flight radiation exposure and long-term follow-up of civil aviation crew members is needed to further assess cancer incidence and leukemia risk in this special

  19. Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020

    Cancer.gov

    Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010. If newly developed tools for cancer diagnosis, treatme

  20. ESP 2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year emissions can then translated into an emissions inventory and applied in climate and air quality mod...

  1. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  2. Sleep duration and breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project follow-up cohort

    PubMed Central

    Qian, X; Brinton, L A; Schairer, C; Matthews, C E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Short sleep has been hypothesised to increase the risk of breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between sleep and different subtypes of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status. Methods: Among 40 013 women in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, including 1846 incident breast cancer cases, we prospectively examined self-reported weekday and weekend sleep duration in relation to breast cancer risk. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We found no association between sleep and overall breast cancer. However, we observed a decreased risk of ER+PR+ breast cancer (RR <6 vs 8 – 9 h (95% CI): 0.54 (0.31, 0.93), P for trend, 0.003) with shorter sleep duration. Conclusions: Our finding does not support an association between sleep duration and overall breast cancer risk. However, the effect of sleep on different subtypes of breast cancer deserves further investigation. PMID:25474248

  3. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  4. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures. PMID:25058894

  5. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  6. Household air pollution and lung cancer risk among never-smokers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Greg A; Hashibe, Mia; Siwakoti, Bhola; Wei, Mei; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Pun, Chin Bahadur; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-05-01

    More than half of the global population relies on biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, crop residue, dung) for cooking and/or heating purposes. Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the use of these solid fuels is of particular concern, given the overall prevalence as well as the intensity of exposure and the range of potential adverse health outcomes. Long term exposure to HAP is a major public health concern, particularly among women and children in low and middle income countries. In this study, we investigated the association between exposure to HAP resulting from combustion of biomass and lung cancer risk among Nepalese population. Using a hospital-based case-control study (2009-2012), we recruited 606 lung cancer cases and 606 healthy controls matched on age (±5 years), gender, and geographical residence. We used unconditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for lung cancer risk associated with HAP exposures, adjusting for potential confounders (tobacco use, TB status, SES, age, gender, ethnicity, and exposure to second hand smoke. In our overall analysis, we observed increased risk of lung cancer among those who were exposed to HAPs (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.00-3.14). A more detailed analysis stratified by smoking status showed considerably higher risk of lung cancer associated with increasing duration of exposure to HAP from biomass combustion, with evidence of a borderline exposure-response relationship (Ptrend=0.05) that was more pronounced among never-smokers (Ptrend=0.01). Our results suggest that chronic exposure to HAP resulting from biomass combustion is associated with increased lung cancer risk, particularly among never-smokers in Nepal. PMID:26874046

  7. Prostate cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam war.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, Marian; Michalek, Joel E; Ketchum, Norma S

    2006-03-01

    US Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand sprayed herbicides contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same time period but did not spray herbicides. Here we investigate a potential association between exposure to TCDD and prostate cancer. Data were available for 2516 veterans (1019 Ranch Hand and 1497 Comparison) who participated in at least one of six physical examinations starting in 1982 and had a measurement of serum TCDD. We assigned Ranch Hands to two exposure categories: Lower and Higher, based on their median 20-year cumulative TCDD level. In total, 81 Comparison and 59 Ranch Hand prostate cancers were identified between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2003. We found no overall increase in the risk of prostate cancer in Ranch Hand veterans versus the Comparisons. There was a positive association in Ranch Hand veterans in the Higher TCDD category who served in SEA before 1969 (RR=2.27, 95% CI 1.11-4.66) when more contaminated herbicides were used, but the number of cases was small (n=15). A within-group comparison found that in Comparison veterans, time served in SEA was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (RR=2.18, 95% CI 1.27-3.76, >789 days versus < or =789 days). No increase in the risk of prostate cancer was observed within the Ranch Hand group in association with TCDD or time served in SEA. These analyses suggest that a longer service in SEA and exposures other than TCDD may have increased the risk of prostate cancer in Comparison veterans. PMID:16047038

  8. Childhood cancer incidence rates and hazardous air pollutants in California: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Gunier, Robert B; Goldberg, Debbie E; Hertz, Andrew; Smith, Daniel F

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are compounds shown to cause cancer or other adverse health effects. We analyzed population-based childhood cancer incidence rates in California (USA) from 1988 to 1994, by HAP exposure scores, for all California census tracts. For each census tract, we calculated exposure scores by combining cancer potency factors with outdoor HAP concentrations modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the relationship between childhood cancer rates and exposure scores for 25 potentially carcinogenic HAPs emitted from mobile, area, and point sources and from all sources combined. Our study period saw 7,143 newly diagnosed cancer cases in California; of these, 6,989 (97.8%) could be assigned to census tracts and included in our analysis. Using Poisson regression, we estimated rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and sex. We found little evidence for elevated cancer RRs for all sites or for gliomas among children living in high-ranking combined-source exposure areas. We found elevated RRs and a significant trend with increasing exposure level for childhood leukemia in tracts ranked highest for exposure to the combined group of 25 HAPs (RR = 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42) and in tracts ranked highest for point-source HAP exposure (RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.11, 1.57). Our findings suggest an association between increased childhood leukemia rates and high HAP exposure, but studies involving more comprehensive exposure assessment and individual-level exposure data will be important for elucidating this relationship. PMID:12676632

  9. Cancer incidence in Priolo, Sicily: a spatial approach for estimation of industrial air pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Fazzo, Lucia; Carere, Mario; Tisano, Francesco; Bruno, Caterina; Cernigliaro, Achille; Cicero, Maria Rita; Comba, Pietro; Contrino, Maria Luisa; De Santis, Marco; Falleni, Fabrizio; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Madeddu, Anselmo; Marcello, Ida; Regalbuto, Carlo; Sciacca, Giovanna; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Zona, Amerigo

    2016-01-01

    The territory around the industrial Sicilian area of Priolo, Italy, has been defined as a contaminated site (CS) of national priority for remediation because of diffuse environmental contamination caused by large industrial settlements. The present study investigates the spatial distribution of cancer into the CS territory (period 1999-2006). Different geographical methods used for the evaluation of the impact of industrial air pollutants were adopted. Using the database of Syracuse Province Cancer Registry, gender-specific standardised incidence ratios were calculated for 35 tumour sites for the CS overall and for each municipality included in the CS. A cluster analysis for 17 selected neoplasms was performed at micro-geographical level. The identification of the priority index contaminants (PICs) present in environmental matrices and a review of their carcinogenicity have been performed and applied in the interpretation of the findings. The area has a higher cancer incidence with respect to the provincial population, in particular excess is registered among both genders of lung, bladder and breast cancers as well as skin melanoma and pleural mesothelioma and there is an a priori evidence of association with the exposure to PICs. The study highlights the need to provide different approaches in CSs where several exposure pathways might be relevant for the population. The presence of potential sources of asbestos exposure deserves specific concern. PMID:27087035

  10. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-20

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Michels, Karin B.; Casagrande, John T.; Cooke, Rosie; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Ewertz, Marianne; Falk, Roni T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gkiokas, George; Habel, Laurel A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lynge, Elsebeth; Lubin, Jay H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Negri, Eva; Olsson, Håkan; Parisi, Dominick; Petridou, Eleni Th.; Riboli, Elio; Sesso, Howard D.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Thomas, David B.; Willett, Walter C.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. Methods The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium provided 2,378 cases and 51,959 controls for analysis from 10 case-control and 10 cohort studies. Individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), which were then combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one sub-analysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 grams/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent=1.29, 95%CI:0.97–1.71; OR>0–<7 g/day referent=1.36, 95%CI:1.04–1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. Conclusions In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk of male breast cancer. Impact Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to be carcinogenic for male breast cancer. Future studies should aim to assess these exposures in relation to subtypes of male breast cancer. PMID:25515550

  12. Methodological aspects of estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe: the experience of the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Mallone, Sandra; De Angelis, Roberta; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Siesling, Sabine; Gatta, Gemma; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the usage and the performance evaluation of the completeness index method in the 'Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe project' (RARECARE) for estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe. The 15-year prevalence at 1st January 2003 for 255 cancers is obtained from a pool of 22 RARECARE cancer registries (CRs). Incidence and survival models are applied to the RARECARE database to estimate the parameters from which the completeness indices are calculated. Complete prevalence is obtained adjusting the observed 15-year prevalence by the completeness index, to account for those cancer survivors diagnosed before the CR activity started. Main factors influencing the performance of the completeness index method for rare cancers are the same as for common cancers: age distribution of incidence and lethality of the cancer. For cancers occurring in the elderly, with low survival rates and consequently a restricted number of long-term survivors we obtained completeness indices higher than 0.9. Values lower than 0.7 correspond to those cancers with good prognosis and/or incidence more concentrated at the younger ages, indicating that 15 years of follow up are insufficient to detect all prevalent cases. Validation analysis shows that for a restricted subgroup of rare cancers with very low incidence and low survival, the completeness indices were not able to adequately correct the observed prevalence even considering a registration period of 20 years. On average, sensitivity analyses show a slight overestimation of complete prevalence for rare and common cancers whose increasing incidence is known in literature. RARECARE is the largest project on rare cancers conducted to date. Improving health care programs for cancer survivors is a public health priority and prevalence data which provides important information in this field should be regularly asked to Member States and included in the EU health statistics.

  13. The Human Vaccines Project: A roadmap for cancer vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pedro; Banchereau, Jacques; Bhardwaj, Nina; Cockett, Mark; Disis, Mary L; Dranoff, Glenn; Gilboa, Eli; Hammond, Scott A; Hershberg, Robert; Korman, Alan J; Kvistborg, Pia; Melief, Cornelis; Mellman, Ira; Palucka, A Karolina; Redchenko, Irina; Robins, Harlan; Sallusto, Federica; Schenkelberg, Theodore; Schoenberger, Stephen; Sosman, Jeffrey; Türeci, Özlem; Van den Eynde, Benoît; Koff, Wayne; Coukos, George

    2016-04-13

    Cancer vaccine development has been vigorously pursued for 40 years. Immunity to tumor antigens can be elicited by most vaccines tested, but their clinical efficacy remains modest. We argue that a concerted international effort is necessary to understand the human antitumor immune response and achieve clinically effective cancer vaccines.

  14. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  15. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections for Exploration Missions: Uncertainty Reduction and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Badhwar, Gautam; Saganti, Premkumar; Schimmerling, Walter; Wilson, John; Peterson, Leif; Dicello, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss expected lifetime excess cancer risks for astronauts returning from exploration class missions. For the first time we make a quantitative assessment of uncertainties in cancer risk projections for space radiation exposures. Late effects from the high charge and energy (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays including cancer and the poorly understood risks to the central nervous system constitute the major risks. Methods used to project risk in low Earth orbit are seen as highly uncertain for projecting risks on exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating HZE ion risks. Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error distributions represents the lack of knowledge in each factor to quantify risk projection overall uncertainty. Cancer risk analysis is applied to several exploration mission scenarios. At solar minimum, the number of days in space where career risk of less than the limiting 3% excess cancer mortality can be assured at a 95% confidence level is found to be only of the order of 100 days.

  17. Measuring cancer prevalence in Europe: the EUROPREVAL project.

    PubMed

    Capocaccia, R; Colonna, M; Corazziari, I; De Angelis, R; Francisci, S; Micheli, A; Mugno, E

    2002-06-01

    Cancer prevalence is the proportion of individuals in a population who at some stage during their lifetime have been diagnosed with cancer, irrespective of the date of diagnosis. Cancer prevalence statistics have generally been provided by a limited number of well established cancer registries that have been in existence for several decades. The advent of systematic follow-up of life status of incident cases and the availability of new statistical methodologies, now makes it possible for registries established during the 1970s or 1980s to provide prevalence data. The main problems encountered in the estimation of prevalence are the inclusion of: (i) cases lost to follow-up; (ii) cases known only from their death certificate; (iii) cases diagnosed before the start of registration; and (iv) the treatment of multiple tumours and migrations. The main aim of this paper was to review these problems and discuss, through the experience gained with EUROPREVAL, how they can be overcome. A method is presented for the calculation of prevalence of all cancers combined in the populations covered by the 45 cancer registries participating in EUROPREVAL. Prevalence of cancer is estimated to be 2% on average, with the highest values (3%) in Sweden and the lowest in Eastern Europe, with a minimum of approximately 1% in Poland.

  18. European research projects for metrology in Brachytherapy and External Beam Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike; Toni, Maria Pia

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), two projects were launched with the central objective of providing reliable measuring techniques for the methods of modern cancer therapy using ionizing radiation—such as brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and hadron therapy—and using high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. The two three-year projects are ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ (Brachytherapy) and ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’ (EBCT). For these modern treatment methods there is an urgent requirement for establishing a sound metrological basis with regard to the radiation dose delivered and its spatial distribution. This paper gives a brief overview about the two projects' work, their goals and findings. The details of the projects' work and their outcomes are presented within these conference proceedings or in the cited publications.

  19. Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Carl-Elis; Gerde, Per; Hanberg, Annika; Jernström, Bengt; Johansson, Christer; Kyrklund, Titus; Rannug, Agneta; Törnqvist, Margareta; Victorin, Katarina; Westerholm, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion. Domestic wood burning and road traffic are the major sources of PAHs in Sweden. In Stockholm, the sum of 14 different PAHs is 100-200 ng/m(3) at the street-level site, the most abundant being phenanthrene. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) varies between 1 and 2 ng/m(3). Exposure to PAH-containing substances increases the risk of cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of PAHs is associated with the complexity of the molecule, i.e., increasing number of benzenoid rings, and with metabolic activation to reactive diol epoxide intermediates and their subsequent covalent binding to critical targets in DNA. B[a]P is the main indicator of carcinogenic PAHs. Fluoranthene is an important volatile PAH because it occurs at high concentrations in ambient air and because it is an experimental carcinogen in certain test systems. Thus, fluoranthene is suggested as a complementary indicator to B[a]P. The most carcinogenic PAH identified, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, is also suggested as an indicator, although it occurs at very low concentrations. Quantitative cancer risk estimates of PAHs as air pollutants are very uncertain because of the lack of useful, good-quality data. According to the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, the unit risk is 9 X 10(-5) per ng/m(3) of B[a]P as indicator of the total PAH content, namely, lifetime exposure to 0.1 ng/m(3) would theoretically lead to one extra cancer case in 100,000 exposed individuals. This concentration of 0.1 ng/m(3) of B[a]P is suggested as a health-based guideline. Because the carcinogenic potency of fluoranthene has been estimated to be approximately 20 times less than that of B[a]P, a tentative guideline value of 2 ng/m(3) is suggested for fluoranthene. Other significant PAHs are phenanthrene, methylated phenanthrenes/anthracenes and pyrene (high air concentrations), and large-molecule PAHs such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo

  20. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME AIR POLLUTION MONITORING AND OUTREACH PROGRAM FOR YOUR COMMUNITY: THE AIRBEAT PROJECT OF ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Roxbury Air Monitoring (AirBeat) Project. The purpose of AirBeat is to make real-time air quality monitoring information (for ozone, black carbon, and fine particulates) available to the Boston MA community of Roxbur...

  1. A case-control study of air pollution and tobacco smoking in lung cancer among women in Athens

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulos, D.; Kalandidi, A.; Tomos, P.; Riboli, E. )

    1991-03-01

    A case-control study exploring the role of smoking and outdoor air pollution in the causation of lung cancer, by histologic type, in nonsmoking women, was undertaken in Athens between 1987 and 1989. One hundred one women with lung cancer and 89 comparison women with fractures or other orthopedic conditions, all permanent residents of Greater Athens, were included in the study. Smoking habits were ascertained through interviews, whereas lifetime exposure to air pollution was assessed by linking blindly lifelong residential and employment addresses of all subjects with objectively estimated or presumed air pollution levels. The age-adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer among current smokers compared with nonsmokers was 3.40 (1.75-6.61); it was 7.43 (2.88-19.13) among those smoking for more than 30 years and 7.46 (2.40-23.17) among those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. The age-adjusted relative risk was 1.70 (0.75-3.89) for adenocarcinoma and 6.45 (2.73-15.25) for other histologic types of lung cancer; statistically significant dose-response trends were evident for both histologic groups. Air pollution levels were associated with increased risk for lung cancer but the relative risk was small and statistically not significant. However, when both air pollution and duration (or quantity) of tobacco smoking, as well as their interaction, were introduced in a multiple logistic regression model, the interaction term was significant at the suggestive level of 0.10. Whereas there is no effect of air pollution among nonsmokers, the relative risk contrasting extreme quartiles of air pollution among smokers of 30 years duration was 2.23. The interaction was almost exclusively accounted for by the nonadenocarcinoma lung tumors.

  2. System considerations, projected requirements and applications for aeronautical mobile satellite communications for air traffic services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.; Miller, C. M.; Scales, W. C.; Dement, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    The projected application and requirements in the near term (to 1995) and far term (to 2010) for aeronautical mobile services supporting air traffic control operations are addressed. The implications of these requirements on spectrum needs, and the resulting effects on the satellite design and operation are discussed. The U.S. is working with international standards and regulatory organizations to develop the necessary aviation standards, signalling protocols, and implementation methods. In the provision of aeronautical safety services, a number of critical issues were identified, including system reliability and availability, access time, channel restoration time, interoperability, pre-emption techniques, and the system network interfaces. Means for accomplishing these critical services in the aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS), and the various activities relating to the future provision of aeronautical safety services are addressed.

  3. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Simulation and projection of summer surface air temperature over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface air temperature changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The air temperature indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum temperature), t2m (daily average temperature) and tmn (daily minimum temperature), and extreme high-temperature events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface air temperature and extreme high-temperature events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface air temperature were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface air temperature over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three temperature indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-temperature events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface air temperature; Extreme high-temperature events; Regional climate model; Climate change

  5. Traffic air pollution and lung cancer in females in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of disease development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between traffic air pollution exposure and development of lung cancer in females, studies were conducted using a matched cancer case-control model into deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data on all eligible lung cancer deaths in females were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cancer cases by year of birth and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer; PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The results showed that there was a significant exposure-response relationship between PSD and risk of lung cancer in females after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:19308850

  6. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  7. Projected increases in near-surface air temperature over Ontario, Canada: a regional climate modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    As the biggest economy in Canada, the Province of Ontario is now suffering many consequences caused by or associated with global warming, such as frequent and intense heat waves, floods, droughts, and wind gust. Planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies against the changing climate, which requires a better understanding of possible future climate outcomes over the Province in the context of global warming, is of great interest to local policy makers, stakeholders, and development practitioners. Therefore, in this study, high-resolution projections of near-surface air temperature outcomes including mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature over Ontario are developed, aiming at investigating how the global warming would affect the local climatology of the major cities as well as the spatial patterns of air temperature over the entire Province. The PRECIS modeling system is employed to carry out regional climate ensemble simulations driven by the boundary conditions of a five-member HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble (i.e., HadCM3Q0, Q3, Q10, Q13, and Q15). The ensemble simulations are then synthesized through a Bayesian hierarchical model to develop probabilistic projections of future temperature outcomes with consideration of some uncertain parameters involved in the regional climate modeling process. The results suggest that there would be a consistent increasing trend in the near-surface air temperature with time periods from 2030s to 2080s. The most likely mean temperature in next few decades (i.e., 2030s) would be [-2, 2] °C in northern Ontario, [2, 6] °C in the middle, and [6, 12] °C in the south, afterwards the mean temperature is likely to keep rising by ~ 2 °C per 30-years period. The continuous warming across the Province would drive the lowest mean temperature up to 2 °C in the north and the highest mean temperature up to 16 °C in the south. In addition, the spread of the most likely ranges of future outcomes shows a consistent

  8. Air quality and students' health in Shanghai (China): an educational and scientific project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution

  9. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population. PMID:24624813

  10. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population.

  11. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  12. Analysis of the American Cancer Society's Generation Fit Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael; Goodwin, Steve; Ellenberg, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the American Cancer Society's (ACS's) media based peer education program, Message Magic: Selling Healthy Eating and Physical Activity, on participant self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors and advocacy skill development. High school students participating in the program were required to work as a…

  13. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of kidney cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Moore, Lee E; Stevens, Victoria L; Ahn, Jiyoung; Albanes, Demetrius; Hartmuller, Virginia; Setiawan, V Wendy; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Snyder, Kirk; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Campbell, David S; Chen, Yu; Chow, Wong-Ho; Horst, Ronald L; Kolonel, Laurence N; McCullough, Marjorie L; Purdue, Mark P; Koenig, Karen L

    2010-07-01

    Although the kidney is a major organ for vitamin D metabolism, activity, and calcium-related homeostasis, little is known about whether this nutrient plays a role in the development or the inhibition of kidney cancer. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors examined the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and kidney cancer within a large, nested case-control study developed as part of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured from 775 kidney cancer cases and 775 age-, sex-, race-, and season-matched controls from 8 prospective cohort studies. Overall, neither low nor high concentrations of circulating 25(OH)D were significantly associated with kidney cancer risk. Although the data showed a statistically significant decreased risk for females (odds ratio = 0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.85) with 25(OH)D concentrations of > or =75 nmol/L, the linear trend was not statistically significant and the number of cases in this category was small (n = 14). The findings from this consortium-based study do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with the risk of kidney cancer overall or with renal cell carcinoma specifically. PMID:20562187

  14. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index.

  15. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  16. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  17. Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from US and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast cancer (1990–2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months post-diagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95%CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference=lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93–1.25), 1.01 (0.87–1.18), and 1.10 (0.95–1.28) for recurrence (Ptrend=0.34) and 1.01 (0.88–1.15), 0.97 (0.84–1.11), and 0.99 (0.86–1.13) for total mortality (Ptrend=0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by ER status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between post-diagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  18. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  19. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  20. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  1. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  2. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  3. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  4. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  5. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk

  6. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk

  7. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control.

  8. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  9. Lung cancer mortality trends in Chile and six-year projections using Bayesian dynamic linear models.

    PubMed

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Moraga, Tomás; Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to analyze lung cancer mortality trends in Chile from 1990 to 2009, and to project the rates six years forward. Lung cancer mortality data were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health. To obtain mortality rates, population projections were used, based on the 2002 National Census. Rates were adjusted using the world standard population as reference. Bayesian dynamic linear models were fitted to estimate trends from 1990 to 2009 and to obtain projections for 2010-2015. During the period under study, there was a 19.9% reduction in the lung cancer mortality rate in men. In women, there was increase of 28.4%. The second-order model showed a better fit for men, and the first-order model a better fit for women. Between 2010 and 2015 the downward trend continued in men, while a trend to stabilization was projected for lung cancer mortality in women in Chile. This analytical approach could be useful implement surveillance systems for chronic non-communicable disease and to evaluate preventive strategies. PMID:26578021

  10. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  11. Recent outcomes in European multicentre projects on ambient particulate air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, Thomas . E-mail: thomas.sandstrom@lung.umu.se; Cassee, Flemming R.; Salonen, Raimo; Dybing, Erik

    2005-09-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient air pollution have triggered epidemiologists, toxicologists and chemists to combine their experience to investigate the toxicity of ambient PM (particulate matter) from European sites with differing traffic intensity, in order to increase the understanding of the role of fine and coarse PM, the role of chemical characteristics and relate that to health effects. Under the European Union 5th Framework Programme (FP5), the HEPMEAP, RAIAP and PAMCHAR projects have utilised high-volume samplers to collect PM in European locations with contrasting PM sources and performed a range of different laboratory investigations. The PM investigated generally induced significant biological responses, with both coarse (2.5-10 {mu}m) and fine (0.1-2.5 {mu}m) PM being able to induce toxic effects. The chemical composition of the PM (also reflecting the differences in the emission-source contribution) has been suggested to play an important role in these responses. Oxidative and immune effects have been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. Investigations have also given support for the assumption that asthmatic and elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be more susceptible to PM exposure.

  12. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0{sub 2 } in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0[sub 2 ] in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  14. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  15. PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS

    PubMed Central

    Land, Charles E.; Bouville, Andre; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946–1958 at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external radioactive components of fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses on cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948–1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years (1959–1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% and 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28%–69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2%–22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2% (0.5%–5%) and 1% (0.2%–2%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and between 1% and 55% for all cancers combined. The

  16. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  17. Projections of the breast cancer burden to U.S. women: 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Kessler, L G; Feuer, E J; Brown, M L

    1991-01-01

    Although breast cancer incidence rates in the United States have been climbing for the last 40 years, recent trends have shown a more dramatic increase since 1982. This recent rise has been the subject of much study, and it is likely due in part to increased mammographic screening. A mathematical model incorporating the long-term incidence trend estimated from the Connecticut Tumor Registry and recent increases in availability of dedicated mammography machines is described and used to project incidence rates. Projections of breast cancer incidence rates among U.S. women ages 50 and over from 1990 to the year 2000 are developed. It appears that breast cancer incidence rates will continue to rise until about 1990 and then decline as screening rates stabilize. PMID:2008426

  18. [Adolescents with cancer: the "Youth Project" at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Veneroni, Laura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Spreafico, Filippo; Terenziani, Monica; Massimino, Maura; Luksch, Roberto; Casanova, Michela; Meazza, Cristina; Polastri, Daniela; Gandola, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer are a particular group of patients who are less likely to gain access to optimal cancer services at comprehensive cancer Centers: many studies suggest adolescents fare less well than children with the same disease. The paper describes the key issues of the "Youth Project" of the Pediatric Oncology Unit IRCCS Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents (over 15 years old) and young adults (up to 25 years old) with solid tumors. This project is a possible clinical and organizational model to address the unique needs of patients in this age group and for bridge the gap in access to care and in recruitment in clinical trials, in clinical and psycho-social management and in curves of healing. The paper also describes the activity of the Adolescent Commission established by the Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AIEOP).

  19. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    , we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic-related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise. Citation Mordukhovich I, Beyea J, Herring AH, Hatch M, Stellman SD, Teitelbaum SL, Richardson DB, Millikan RC, Engel LS, Shantakumar S, Steck SE, Neugut AI, Rossner P Jr., Santella RM, Gammon MD. 2016. Vehicular traffic–related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP). Environ Health Perspect 124:30–38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307736 PMID:26008800

  20. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module V: Urban Air Quality - At What Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this model are five activities dealing with air quality and sources of air pollution in the urban environment. Activities included are: (1) the nature of the atmosphere; (2) discussion of major pollutants; (3) measuring air quality; (4) inversions; and (5) pollution control. Also included are an overview, teacher background…

  1. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  2. Students meeting with caregivers of cancer patient: results of an experience-based learning project.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Beste M; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Kuscu, M Kemal; Yondem, Merve; Buyukkara, Elif; Eken, E Gokcen; Kahyaoglu, Figen

    2012-12-01

    The communication between medical students and cancer caregivers, and the problems they have experienced as well as the outcomes for their professional development before starting clinical practice was assessed in the context of a student research project. Data were collected by questionnaires or by 20 to 40-min long interviews with cancer caregivers. Their communications with physicians, hearing the bad news, and health service satisfaction were questioned. Therefore, the caregivers trusted the professional approach of their physician. However, they expected more empathic communication in the process of diagnosis and therapy. Development of empathy and trust-based communication between patients and physicians and enhancement of the quality of devoted time to cancer patients and caregivers may have an effect on the course of disease. Interviewer students mentioned that they developed communication skills about difficult clinical tasks and in delivering bad news face to face to cancer caregivers before starting their clinical education. PMID:22733617

  3. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; James, Wesley; Kedia, Satish

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from the 2000 United States Census. The association was examined using multivariable geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The risk difference between African American and White concentrated areas was defined as the absolute disparity, and the percent difference as the relative disparity. GWR analyses show that cancer risks increase with respect to increasing percent of African Americans at the census tract level. Individuals in African American concentrated tracts bear 6% more cancer risk burden than in White concentrated tracts. The distribution of major roads causes the largest absolute disparity and the distribution of industrial facilities causes the largest relative disparity. Effective strategies for reduction in environmental disparity should especially target sources of large absolute disparities. PMID:25089776

  4. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  5. A case-control study of lung cancer with special reference to the effect of air pollution in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, W; Becher, H; Wahrendorf, J; Basa-Cierpialek, Z

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to assess the affect of inhaled pollutants on lung cancer risk. DESIGN--The study was a retrospective case-control survey of lung cancer deaths over a six year period (1980-1985). Information on occupation, smoking habits, and residency was collected from next of kin. Classification of exposure to community air pollution was based on measured levels of total suspended particular matter and sulphur dioxide. SETTING--Cases and controls had been resident in the city of Cracow, Poland. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were male (n = 901, questionnaire response rate 70.7%) and female (n = 198, response rate 65.1%) lung cancer deaths; controls were deaths from other causes, excluding other respiratory diseases, and frequency matched by age and sex (males n = 875, response rate 73.5%; females n = 198, response rate 64.0%). MAIN RESULTS--Lung cancer risk was found to depend strongly on total cigarette consumption, on age at starting to smoke, and on time since stopping smoking. Relative risk estimates for occupational exposure in iron and steel foundries or in other industries were significantly increased in males. Relative risk in men for highest air pollution level was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.01), while in women the increase was not significant. The joint action of the risk facts of smoking, occupational exposure, and air pollution was found to fit almost perfectly into a multiplicative model. CONCLUSIONS--Under conditions found in Cracow, air pollution may increase lung cancer risk, acting multiplicatively with known risk factors such as smoking and industrial exposure. PMID:2370498

  6. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  7. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  8. Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy: spatial analysis of risk as a function of distance from sources.

    PubMed Central

    Biggeri, A; Barbone, F; Lagazio, C; Bovenzi, M; Stanta, G

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between four sources of environmental pollution (shipyard, iron foundry, incinerator, and city center) and lung cancer risk, we conducted a case-control study of decreased men in Trieste, Italy. We identified 755 cases of lung cancer and 755 controls through the local autopsy registry. Information on smoking habits, occupational history, and place of residence were obtained from the subject's next of kin. The case-control design was used to properly account for subject-specific confounders, which represent a major problem in geographical analysis. Spatial models were used to evaluate the effect of sources of pollution on lung cancer after adjustment for age, smoking habits, likelihood of exposure to occupational carcinogens, and levels of air particulate. The models are based on distance from the sources and enable estimation of the risk gradient and directional effects separately for each source. The risk of lung cancer was highly related to the city center (p = 0.0243), with an excess relative risk at zero distance of 2.2 and a smooth decrease moving away from the source (-0.015), and related to the incinerator (p = 0.0098), with an excess relative risk of 6.7 in the source and a very steep decrease (-0.176). These results are consistent with findings of previous analyses and provide further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor of lung cancer. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3 PMID:8841761

  9. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  10. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies. PMID:24823605

  11. Complex mixtures of air pollutants: characterizing the cancer risk of polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Lewtas, J

    1993-01-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic organic matter (POM) are used to illustrate the scientific problems and issues associated with characterizing the comparative risk of related complex mixtures. The complexity of mixtures in which the active components are not well characterized present special challenges, which include identifying the critical components of mixtures, their sources, and the appropriate biomarker(s) of exposure and dose; developing the appropriate experimental models for dose-response assessment; species extrapolation; and developing a scientific basis for predicting from one mixture to another. Strategies for addressing these issues include bioassay-directed chemical characterization of bioactive components of complex mixtures, apportionment methods to determine the source of biological activity and risk, DNA adduct methods to determine tissue exposure and target dose of mixtures, and comparative approaches to determining the relative similarity, potency, and risk of complex mixtures. Epidemiological data are available for humans exposed to POM from coke ovens, coal roofing tar, coal smoke, aluminum smelters, and cigarette smoke. These emissions are characterized and compared to POM from automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline), woodstove emissions, residential oil furnace emissions, and ambient air particles. The tumor potency and estimated cancer risks for these POM mixtures ranges over nearly three orders of magnitude. PMID:8354169

  12. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  13. Biological Marker Analysis as Part of the CIBERES-RTIC Cancer-SEPAR Strategic Project on Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard; Montuenga, Luis M; Sánchez de Cos, Julio; Villena, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the Clinical and Molecular Staging of Stage I-IIp Lung Cancer Project is to identify molecular variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TMN classification in stage I/IIp non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical data and lung tissue, tumor and blood samples will be collected from 3 patient cohorts created for this purpose. The prognostic protein signature will be validated from these samples, and micro-RNA, ALK, Ros1, Pdl-1, and TKT, TKTL1 y G6PD expression will be analyzed. Tissue inflammatory markers and stromal cell markers will also be analyzed. Methylation of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in the tissue samples will be determined, and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood will also be analyzed. Variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TNM in NSCLC by molecular staging may be identified from this extensive analytical panel. PMID:25614375

  14. Biological Marker Analysis as Part of the CIBERES-RTIC Cancer-SEPAR Strategic Project on Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard; Montuenga, Luis M; Sánchez de Cos, Julio; Villena, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the Clinical and Molecular Staging of Stage I-IIp Lung Cancer Project is to identify molecular variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TMN classification in stage I/IIp non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical data and lung tissue, tumor and blood samples will be collected from 3 patient cohorts created for this purpose. The prognostic protein signature will be validated from these samples, and micro-RNA, ALK, Ros1, Pdl-1, and TKT, TKTL1 y G6PD expression will be analyzed. Tissue inflammatory markers and stromal cell markers will also be analyzed. Methylation of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in the tissue samples will be determined, and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood will also be analyzed. Variables that improve the prognostic and predictive accuracy of TNM in NSCLC by molecular staging may be identified from this extensive analytical panel.

  15. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  16. Nutrient pathways and breast cancer risk: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Patrick T; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Xu, Xinran; Fink, Brian N; Steck, Susan E; Gaudet, Mia M; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Wolff, Mary S; Neugut, Alfred I; Chen, Jia; Gammon, Marilie D

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of biochemical pathways has not been previously examined when considering the influence of diet on breast cancer risk. To address this issue, we used interview data from a population-based sample of 1463 breast cancer cases and 1500 controls. Dietary intake was assessed shortly after diagnosis using a 101-item food frequency questionnaire. Age- and energy-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for individual micro- and macronutrients were estimated with logistic regression. Hierarchical modeling was used to account for biologically plausible nutrient pathways (1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, glycemic control, and phytoestrogens). Effect estimates from hierarchical modeling were more precise and plausible compared to those from multivariable models. The strongest relationship observed was for the glycemic control pathway, but confidence intervals (CI) were wide [OR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.62, 1.21)]. Little or no effect was observed for the 1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, and phytoestrogen pathways. Associations were similar when stratified by supplement use. Our approach that emphasizes biochemical pathways, rather than individual nutrients, revealed that breast cancer risk may be more strongly associated with glycemic control factors than those from other pathways considered. Our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for multiple nutrient pathways when examining associations between dietary intake and breast cancer. PMID:23530633

  17. Projecting Changes in Climate & Air Quality for the Southeastern U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent improvements in air quality in the United States have been due to significant reductions in emissions of precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM), and these downward emissions trends are expected to continue in the next few decades. To ensure that planned air quali...

  18. Air and Life. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 223. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    The purpose of these activities is to offer the secondary school student an opportunity to review what he/she has learned about air by moving quickly through a series of "Do-it-yourself" experiments. Emphasis is placed on the study of the composition of air and relating this information to life in aquatic and marine environments. Included are…

  19. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  20. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  1. Evaluating teaching techniques in the Hmong breast and cervical cancer health awareness project.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage and have low literacy and experienced care that are not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male participants = 30 and female participants = 120). Teach-back method was used to assess the participants' understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants' responses. The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people's understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly, all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations.

  2. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Rădoi, V; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania. Since 2013, an increased trend of endometrial cancer occurrence has been registered in urban areas as compared with rural ones. Unfortunately, most of the cancer cases are diagnosed too late, in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting into diminished lifetime expectancy. The first part of the article concentrated on issues such as: the description of the study, results, and discussions regarding the study, definitions and terms, risk factors specific for endometrial carcinomas, presentation of the activities of the Program, etc. Objective: Drafting a national program that will serve as an early diagnosis method of endometrial cancer. This second part of the study continues with the presentation of the activities of the Program, analyzes the human resources and materials needed to implement the Program, presents the strategies and the indicators specific for the implementation of the project. Methods and Results: A standardization of the diagnostic steps was proposed and the focus was on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: The first steps were approached in the first part of the study and the second part of the study investigated the proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test

  3. [DianaWeb: a demonstration project to improve breast cancer prognosis through lifestyles].

    PubMed

    Villarini, Anna; Villarini, Milena; Gargano, Giuliana; Moretti, Massimo; Berrino, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In the field of cancer prevention, the public ask to be involved more actively in scientific research and in the production of knowledge. This is leading to an increase of participatory projects in the field of epidemiology. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention in the past 15 years; it is becoming a recognized and important approach in addressing health disparities in cancer prevention. The increasing accessibility of new methods of comparison, discussion and information allows to link a large number of people. The project DianaWeb was born in 2015 at the Department of Predictive Medicine and Prevention of the National Cancer Institute, Milan. This CBPR involves women with diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). DianaWeb communications are based on an interactive online platform developed "ad hoc" (www.dianaweb.org). With very few exceptions, all communication between participants and research team will be on the web. The recruitment is done through Internet, hospitals, physicians, media and word of mouth. Women can join the project independently, under the control of researchers and the aim of the study is to assess whether healthy eating and regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and increase survival rates in women with diagnosis of BC. About 50,000 Italian women with a diagnosis of BC with or without metastasis, local recurrence or second cancers; with in situ or invasive cancer, whatever the disease stage at diagnosis, whatever histological diagnosis, whatever the time elapsed since diagnosis should be recruited in the DianaWeb project. The volunteers are asked to send clinical information about their condition from diagnosis onwards, on their weight and other anthropometric measures, lifestyles and nutrition through online questionnaires. Moreover, the women enrolled in the study, after login, can access evidence-based information and results obtained during the project (individual and whole community

  4. Pleasant Prairie Power Plant air quality control upgrade project, Pleasant Praire, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhart, S.; Pennline, D.; Brodsky, I.; Bichler, D.

    2007-10-15

    We Energies recently completed a multiyear project at its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant to add a selective catalytic reduction system to one of its two units and a scrubber to both. These projects are described. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Enrollment Projections: Combining Statistics and Gut Feelings. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Julie; Stroupe, Jane

    Personnel at the College of Lake County (CLC) developed a projections model for student enrollment that satisfies the need for information for budget projections and for planning purposes. CLC is a medium-sized suburban community college located north of Chicago. The Enrollment Management Team was asked to create a process to project enrollments…

  6. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  7. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    PubMed Central

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L D; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication-behavior change (CBC) model. Since a true experimental design was not feasible, program evaluation is based on several complementary quasi-experimental designs. Analysis of baseline data indicate that the county where the intervention is taking place, and the control county, are similar with respect to both demographic characteristics and the current level of screening activity. Preliminary results indicate that the program has been successful in raising women's level of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening. PMID:2511586

  8. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    PubMed

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L D; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication-behavior change (CBC) model. Since a true experimental design was not feasible, program evaluation is based on several complementary quasi-experimental designs. Analysis of baseline data indicate that the county where the intervention is taking place, and the control county, are similar with respect to both demographic characteristics and the current level of screening activity. Preliminary results indicate that the program has been successful in raising women's level of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening.

  9. Separate and Unequal: Residential Segregation and Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Ambient Air Toxics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between racial residential segregation and estimated ambient air toxics exposures and their associated cancer risks using modeled concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. We combined pollutant concentration estimates with potencies to calculate cancer risks by census tract for 309 metropolitan areas in the United States. This information was combined with socioeconomic status (SES) measures from the 1990 Census. Estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics were highest in tracts located in metropolitan areas that were highly segregated. Disparities between racial/ethnic groups were also wider in more segregated metropolitan areas. Multivariate modeling showed that, after controlling for tract-level SES measures, increasing segregation amplified the cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics for all racial groups combined [highly segregated areas: relative cancer risk (RCR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–107; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28–1.36]. This segregation effect was strongest for Hispanics (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.61–1.88) and weaker among whites (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24–1.33), African Americans (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.21; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24–1.53), and Asians (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). Results suggest that disparities associated with ambient air toxics are affected by segregation and that these exposures may have health significance for populations across racial lines. PMID:16507462

  10. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials. PMID:27570834

  11. GST genotypes and lung cancer susceptibility in Asian populations with indoor air pollution exposures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, H Dean; Berndt, Sonja I; Lan, Qing

    2007-01-01

    About half of the world's population is exposed to smoke from heating or cooking with coal, wood, or biomass. These exposures, and fumes from cooking oil use, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in the detoxification of a wide range of human carcinogens in these exposures. Functional polymorphisms have been identified in the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes, which may alter the risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to coal, wood, and biomass smoke, and cooking oil fumes. We performed a meta-analysis of 6 published studies (912 cases; 1063 controls) from regions in Asia where indoor air pollution makes a substantial contribution to lung cancer risk, and evaluated the association between the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and GSTP1 105Val polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Using a random effects model, we found that carriers of the GSTM1 null genotype had a borderline significant increased lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-1.79; p=0.10), which was particularly evident in the summary risk estimate for the four studies carried out in regions of Asia that use coal for heating and cooking (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.25-2.14; p=0.0003). The GSTT1 null genotype was also associated with an increased lung cancer risk (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89; p=0.001), but no association was observed for the GSTP1 105Val allele. Previous meta- and pooled-analyses suggest at most a small association between the GSTM1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in populations where the vast majority of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco, and where indoor air pollution from domestic heating and cooking is much less than in developing Asian countries. Our results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype may be associated with a more substantial risk of lung cancer in populations with coal exposure.

  12. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  13. Ranking Cancer Risks of Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Miranda M.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Spengler, John D.; Houseman, E. Andres; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2007-01-01

    Background In this study we compared cancer risks from organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) based on total personal exposure summed across different microenvironments and exposure pathways. Methods We developed distributions of personal exposure concentrations using field monitoring and modeling data for inhalation and, where relevant, ingestion pathways. We calculated risks for a nonoccupationally exposed and nonsmoking population using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Office of Environmental Health and Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) unit risks. We determined the contribution to risk from indoor versus outdoor sources using indoor/outdoor ratios for gaseous compounds and the infiltration factor for particle-bound compounds. Results With OEHHA’s unit risks, the highest ranking compounds based on the population median are 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, benzene, and dioxin, with risks on the order of 10−4–10−5. The highest risk compounds with the U.S. EPA unit risks were dioxin, benzene, formaldehyde, and chloroform, with risks on a similar order of magnitude. Although indoor exposures are responsible for nearly 70% of risk using OEHHA’s unit risks, when infiltration is accounted for, inhalation of outdoor sources contributed 50% to total risk, on average. Additionally, 15% of risk resulted from exposures through food, mainly due to dioxin. Conclusions Most of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzene, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene risk came from outdoor sources, whereas indoor sources were primarily responsible for chloroform, formaldehyde, and naphthalene risks. The infiltration of outdoor pollution into buildings, emissions from indoor sources, and uptake through food are all important to consider in reducing overall personal risk to HAPs. PMID:17687442

  14. Optical detection of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Ling; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chuang, Chin-Ho; Chen, Yu-Bin; Chang, Shu-Jing; Ke, Tung-Ting; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of all cancer-related deaths in humans. As a result, reliable techniques for detecting metastatic cells are urgently required. Although various techniques have been proposed for metastasis detection, they are generally capable of detecting metastatic cells only once migration has already occurred. Accordingly, the present study proposes an optical method for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells using a scanned laser pico-projection system (SLPP). The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using five pairs of cancer cell lines and two pairs of non-cancer cell lines treated by IPTG induction in order to mimic normal cells with an overexpression of oncogene. The results show that for all of the considered cell lines, the SLPP speckle contrast of the high-metastatic cells is significantly higher than that of the low-metastatic cells. As a result, the speckle contrast measurement provides a reliable means of distinguishing quantitatively between low- and high-metastatic cells of the same origin. Compared to existing metastasis detection methods, the proposed SLPP approach has many advantages, including a higher throughput, a lower cost, a larger sample size and a more reliable diagnostic performance. As a result, it provides a highly promising solution for physical characterization of metastatic cancer cells in vitro.

  15. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  16. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 4: Solar air conditioning: Active, hybrid and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    The status of absorption cycle solar air conditioning and the Rankine cycle solar cooling system is reviewed. Vapor jet ejector chillers, solar pond based cooling, and photovoltaic compression air conditioning are also briefly discussed. Hybrid solar cooling by direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and dehumidification by desiccation are described and discussed. Passive solar cooling by convective and radiative processes, evaporative cooling by passive processes, and cooling with roof ponds and movable insulation are reviewed. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is discussed.

  17. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases.

  18. A combined analysis of the short-term effects of photochemical air pollutants on mortality within the EMECAM project.

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Marc; Ballester, Ferran; Barceló, Maria Antònia; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Bellido, Juan; Tenías, José María; Ocaña, Ricardo; Figueiras, Adolfo; Arribas, Federico; Aragonés, Nuria; Tobías, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluís; Cañada, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, some epidemiologic studies have attributed adverse effects of air pollutants on health not only to particles and sulfur dioxide but also to photochemical air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). The effects are usually small, leading to some inconsistencies in the results of the studies. Furthermore, the different methodologic approaches of the studies used has made it difficult to derive generic conclusions. We provide here a quantitative summary of the short-term effects of photochemical air pollutants on mortality in seven Spanish cities involved in the EMECAM project, using generalized additive models from analyses of single and multiple pollutants. Nitrogen dioxide and ozone data were provided by seven EMECAM cities (Barcelona, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Oviedo, Seville, and Valencia). Mortality indicators included daily total mortality from all causes excluding external causes, daily cardiovascular mortality, and daily respiratory mortality. Individual estimates, obtained from city-specific generalized additive Poisson autoregressive models, were combined by means of fixed effects models and, if significant heterogeneity among local estimates was found, also by random effects models. Significant positive associations were found between daily mortality (all causes and cardiovascular) and NO(2), once the rest of air pollutants were taken into account. A 10 microg/m(3) increase in the 24-hr average 1-day NO(2)level was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths of 0.43% [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.003-0.86%] for all causes excluding external. In the case of significant relationships, relative risks for cause-specific mortality were nearly twice as much as that for total mortality for all the photochemical pollutants. Ozone was independently related only to cardiovascular daily mortality. No independent statistically significant relationship between photochemical air pollutants and respiratory mortality was found. The

  19. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Project Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in France: incidence over 1980-2005 and projection to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Karine; Belot, Aurélien; Launoy, Guy; Velten, Michel; Bossard, Nadine; Iwaz, Jean; Righini, Christian Adrien; Delafosse, Patricia; Guizard, Anne-Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Over the 1998-2002 period, some French Départements have been shown to have the world's highest incidence of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in men. The objectives were to describe the changes in UADT cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2005 period, present projections for 2010, and describe the anatomical and histological characteristics of these tumours. The trend of cancer-incidence over 1980-2005 and projection up to 2010 were obtained using age-period-cohort models (data from eleven cancer registries) and incidence/mortality ratios in the area covered by these registries. The description of UADT cancers by anatomical and histological characteristics concerned data collected between 1980 and 2004 in eleven cancer registries. In men, cancer incidence decreased in all cancer sites and the world-standardized incidence rates decreased by 42.9% for lip-oral cavity-pharynx (LOCP) cancers and 50.4% for larynx cancer. In women, the world-standardized incidence rates increased by 48.6% for LOCP cancers and 66.7% for larynx cancer. Incidence increased the most for oropharynx, palate, and hypopharynx cancers. Incidence analysis by one-year cohorts revealed a progressive shift of the incidence peak towards younger and younger generations, with no change as yet in the mean age at diagnosis. In France, the incidence of these cancers is still higher than in other European and North American countries. This urges actions towards reducing the major risk factors for those cancers, namely alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially among young people, and reducing exposure to risk factors due to social inequalities. PMID:21397551

  1. GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms, tobacco, air pollution, and lung cancer: a study in rural Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Pisani, P.; Srivatanakul, P.; Randerson-Moor, J.; Vipasrinimit, S.; Lalitwongsa, S.; Unpunyo, P.; Bashir, S.; Bishop, D.T.

    2006-04-15

    Incidence rates of lung cancer is high in Lampang Province in northern Thailand, particularly in women. This study was conducted to quantify the risk of lung cancer associated with exposures prevalent in the area and to investigate possible interactions with genetic susceptibility. The presence of several large open-cast coal mines from 1955 close to electricity-generating plants was a particular focus of concern. A point source air pollution exposure index was calculated for each village/ township reported in residential histories based on the linear distance from the Mae Moh Center (the area of the electricity-generating plants), the year-specific gaseous (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}) or total suspended particulate emissions from the Mae Moh Power Plant, and the percentage of wind from the center. Odds ratios for the disease associated with categorical variables were estimated within unconditional logistic regression. Extraction of genomic DNA and genotyping of variants in CYP1A1 and GSTM1 were conducted to assess the extent of modification of risk by these genes that are involved in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoking of local high tar unfiltered products is commonamongst women. None of the three polymorphisms examined increased the risk of lung cancer or modified the risk associated with smoking. 96% of male and 64% of female lung cancer incidence were explained by tobacco smoking. None of the potential sources of air pollution deriving from the combustion of coal and wood, or polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 gene or deletion of the GSTM1 had an effect on the risk of lung cancer, either together or separately.

  2. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use, chronic lung diseases and lung cancer in Harbin, Northeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Galeone, C.; Pelucchi, C.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Bosetti, C.; Hu, J.F.

    2008-10-15

    In some areas of China, indoor air pollution (IAP) originating principally from the combustion of solid fuels has a relevant role in lung cancer. Most previous studies focused on the female population and only a few on both the sexes. We analyzed the relationship between IAP from solid fuel use and selected chronic lung diseases and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Northeast China, an area with a very high base line risk of lung cancer for both the sexes. We used data from a case-control study conducted between 1987 and 1990, including 218 patients with incident, histologically confirmed lung cancer and 436 controls admitted to the same hospitals as cases. We calculated an index of IAP from solid fuel use exposure using data on heating type, cooking fuel used, and house measurements. Cases reported more frequently than controls on exposure to coal fuel for house heating and/or cooking, and the odds ratio (OR) for ever versus never exposed was 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.46). The ORs of lung cancer according to subsequent tertiles of IAP exposure index were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.14-2.89) and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.26-3.15) as compared with the lowest tertile. The ORs of lung cancer for participants with a history of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis were 3.79 (95% CI: 2.38-6.02) and 3.82 (95% CI: 1.97-7.41), respectively. This study gives further support and quantification of the positive association between IAP, history of selected nonmalignant lung diseases, and lung cancer risk for both the sexes.

  3. The stomach cancer pooling (StoP) project: study design and presentation.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Lunet, Nuno; Boccia, Stefania; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Praud, Delphine; Boffetta, Paolo; Levi, Fabio; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Hu, Jinfu; Johnson, Kenneth C; Ferraroni, Monica; Yu, Guo-Pei; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Malekzadeh, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Ye, Weimin; Zaridze, David; Maximovitch, Dmitry; Aragonés, Nuria; Martín, Vicente; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Bellavia, Andrea; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Mu, Lina; Arzani, Dario; Kurtz, Robert C; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Muscat, Joshua; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer affects about one million people per year worldwide, being the second leading cause of cancer mortality. The study of its etiology remains therefore a global issue as it may allow the identification of major targets, besides eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, for primary prevention. It has however received little attention, given its comparatively low incidence in most high-income countries. We introduce a consortium of epidemiological investigations named the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Twenty-two studies agreed to participate, for a total of over 9000 cases and 23 000 controls. Twenty studies have already shared the original data set. Of the patients, 40% are from Asia, 43% from Europe, and 17% from North America; 34% are women and 66% men; the median age is 61 years; 56% are from population-based case-control studies, 41% from hospital-based ones, and 3% from nested case-control studies derived from cohort investigations. Biological samples are available from 12 studies. The aim of the StoP Project is to analyze the role of lifestyle and genetic determinants in the etiology of gastric cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data. The uniquely large data set will allow us to define and quantify the main effects of each risk factor of interest, including a number of infrequent habits, and to adequately address associations in subgroups of the population, as well as interaction within and between environmental and genetic factors. Further, we will carry out separate analyses according to different histotypes and subsites of gastric cancer, to identify potential different risk patterns and etiological characteristics.

  4. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment.

  5. Aeronautical diagnostics for Clear-Air Turbulence forecast at Meteofrance in the context of DELICAT European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audrey, Crespin; Christine, Lebot; Yves, Bouteloup; Francois, Bouyssel

    2011-12-01

    A study on Clear-Air Turbulence (abbreviated by CAT) forecast in a Numerical Weather Model is presented in this paper. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ARPEGE Meteofrance-NWP model's ability to reproduce CAT, by calculating various CAT indices at the regional scale (over Europe) in this model. The list of indices used here is inspired from that proposed by R. Sharman & Wolff (2006). Calculated indices are then compared with AMDARs (Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay) turbulence measurements during winter, early in 2010. This work was performed within DELICAT european project (*DEmonstration of LIdar based Clear-Air Turbulence detection), in the Seventh Research Framework program of the European Union [FP7], in Meteofrance national weather agency.

  6. Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and lung cancer mortality: A 12-year cohort study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Li-Wen; Huang, Jia-Ju; Song, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Luo-Ping; Qian, Zheng-Min; Trevathan, Edwin; Mao, Hong-Jun; Han, Bin; Vaughn, Michael; Chen, Ke-Xin; Liu, Ya-Min; Chen, Jie; Zhao, Bao-Xin; Jiang, Guo-Hong; Gu, Qing; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Dong, Guang-Hui; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2016-11-15

    Cohort evidence that links long-term exposures to air pollution and mortality comes largely from the United States and European countries. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposures to particulate matter <10μm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mortality of lung cancer in Northern China. A cohort of 39,054 participants were followed during 1998-2009. Annual average concentrations for PM10, NO2, and SO2 were determined based on data collected from central monitoring stations. Lung cancer deaths (n=140) were obtained from death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, education, marital status, smoking status, passive smoking, occupation, alcohol consumption, etc. Each 10mg/m(3) increase in PM10 concentrations was associated with a 3.4%-6.0% increase in lung cancer mortality in the time-varying exposure model and a 4.0%-13.6% increase in the baseline exposure model. In multi-pollutant models, the magnitude of associations was attenuated, most strongly for PM10. The association was different in men and women, also varying across age categories and different smoking status. Substantial differences exist in the risk estimates for participants based on assignment method for air pollution exposure. PMID:27425436

  7. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  8. LLPi: Liverpool Lung Project Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer Incidence.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Michael W; Chen, Ying; Raji, Olaide Y; Duffy, Stephen W; Field, John K

    2015-06-01

    Identification of high-risk individuals will facilitate early diagnosis, reduce overall costs, and also improve the current poor survival from lung cancer. The Liverpool Lung Project prospective cohort of 8,760 participants ages 45 to 79 years, recruited between 1998 and 2008, was followed annually through the hospital episode statistics until January 31, 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk predictors of lung cancer incidence. C-statistic was used to assess the discriminatory accuracy of the models. Models were internally validated using the bootstrap method. During mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 237 participants developed lung cancer. Age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.06], male gender (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98), smoking duration (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.79-3.30), prior diagnosis of malignant tumor (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.08-3.89), and early onset of family history of lung cancer (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.04-2.72) were associated with the incidence of lung cancer. The LLPi risk model had a good calibration (goodness-of-fit χ(2) 7.58, P = 0.371). The apparent C-statistic was 0.852 (95% CI, 0.831-0.873) and the optimism-corrected bootstrap resampling C-statistic was 0.849 (95% CI, 0.829-0.873). The LLPi risk model may assist in identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer in population-based screening programs.

  9. Extended duration orbiter medical project Microbial Air Sampler (STS-50/USML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

    1994-01-01

    The Microbial Air Sampler was used on mission days 1, 7, and 13 in the Spacelab during STS-50/USML-1. Microbial air samples were collected using two types of media strips containing agar (Rose Bengal for yeast and molds, TSA for bacteria). The bacterial level found on day 1 was lower than experienced on previous Spacelab missions. A high level of fungi was present on day 1, however subsequent samples on days 7 and 13 did not indicate fungal growth. Bacterial growth was also minimized in this microgravity environment as the mission progressed. No pathogenic microorganisms were isolated, and the health risk from airborne microbes was minimal throughout the mission.

  10. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  11. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  12. Overview of the reanalysis of the Harvard Six Cities Study and American Cancer Society Study of Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T; Goldberg, Mark S; Hoover, B Kristin; Siemiatycki, Jack; Jerrett, Michael; Abrahamowicz, Michal; White, Warren H

    This article provides an overview of the Reanalysis Study of the Harvard Six Cities and the American Cancer Society (ACS) studies of particulate air pollution and mortality. The previous findings of the studies have been subject to debate. In response, a reanalysis team, comprised of Canadian and American researchers, was invited to participate in an independent reanalysis project to address the concerns. Phase I of the reanalysis involved the design of data audits to determine whether each study conformed to the consistency and accuracy of their data. Phase II of the reanalysis involved conducting a series of comprehensive analyses using alternative statistical methods. Alternative models were also used to identify covariates that may confound or modify the association of particulate air pollution as well as identify sensitive population subgroups. The audit demonstrated that the data in the original analyses were of high quality, as were the risk estimates reported by the original investigators. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that the mortality risk estimates reported in both studies were found to be robust against alternative Cox models. Detailed investigation of the covariate effects found a significant modifying effect of education and a relative risk of mortality associated with fine particles and declining education levels. The study team applied spatial analytic methods to the ACS data, resulting in various levels of spatial autocorrelations supporting the reported association for fine particles mortality of the original investigators as well as demonstrating a significant association between sulfur dioxide and mortality. Collectively, our reanalysis suggest that mortality may be attributable to more than one component of the complex mixture of ambient air pollutants for U.S. urban areas.

  13. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  14. Electric component cooling alternatives: Compressed air and liquid nitrogen. Project report, June 1991-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, S.S.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate tools used to troubleshoot circuit boards with known or suspected thermally intermittent components. Spray cans of refrigerants (R-12 (CFC-12) and R-22 (HCFC-22)), which are commonly used in electronics manufacturing and repair businesses for this purpose, served as the benchmark for the evaluation. A promising alternative technology that was evaluated in the study is a compressed-air tool that provides a continuous stream of cold air that can be directed toward specific components. Another alternative technology that was considered is a Dewar flask that dispenses cold nitrogen gas as the cooling agent. Critical parameters were measured for each cooling method to provide a basis for comparison of compressed air and liquid nitrogen with spray cans of refrigerant. Although the plan was written specifically for the evaluation of compressed air, the test plan was written to include an evaluation of liquid nitrogen because test site staff were interested in evaluating this technology. The liquid nitrogen evaluation showed that it could be a viable alternative.

  15. VESL for Heating and Air Conditioning: A Competency-based Curriculum Guide. Project OSCAER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Valadez, Jeanne, Ed.; Pankratz, David, Ed.

    This guide is intended for vocational educators developing the vocational English as a second language (VESL) component of a course in heating and air conditioning. The introductory section examines assumptions about second language learning and instruction and VESL classes, local adaptations of the curriculum, and sample VESL lessons. The chapter…

  16. Mortality and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution: ongoing analyses based on the American Cancer Society cohort.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Rainham, Daniel; Calle, Eugenia; Thurston, George; Thun, Michael

    This article provides an overview of previous analysis and reanalysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort, along with an indication of current ongoing analyses of the cohort with additional follow-up information through to 2000. Results of the first analysis conducted by Pope et al. (1995) showed that higher average sulfate levels were associated with increased mortality, particularly from cardiopulmonary disease. A reanalysis of the ACS cohort, undertaken by Krewski et al. (2000), found the original risk estimates for fine-particle and sulfate air pollution to be highly robust against alternative statistical techniques and spatial modeling approaches. A detailed investigation of covariate effects found a significant modifying effect of education with risk of mortality associated with fine particles declining with increasing educational attainment. Pope et al. (2002) subsequently reported results of a subsequent study using an additional 10 yr of follow-up of the ACS cohort. This updated analysis included gaseous copollutant and new fine-particle measurements, more comprehensive information on occupational exposures, dietary variables, and the most recent developments in statistical modeling integrating random effects and nonparametric spatial smoothing into the Cox proportional hazards model. Robust associations between ambient fine particulate air pollution and elevated risks of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality were clearly evident, providing the strongest evidence to date that long-term exposure to fine particles is an important health risk. Current ongoing analysis using the extended follow-up information will explore the role of ecologic, economic, and, demographic covariates in the particulate air pollution and mortality association. This analysis will also provide insight into the role of spatial autocorrelation at multiple geographic scales, and whether critical instances in time of exposure to fine particles influence the risk of mortality

  17. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11–12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  18. Highlights of the ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, 11-12 March 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Marcelo Blanco; Bramajo, Marina; Bruno, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The ecancer/SAC First International Prostate Cancer Symposium, held in Buenos Aires, included national, regional, and international experts in the field of prostate cancer. More than 200 professionals from a variety of areas (clinical urologists, pathologists, oncologists, biologists, imaging specialists, radiation therapists, and generalist doctors, among others) attended, and they proposed multidisciplinary management of prostate pathology from the start in concordance with the ideas set forth by the organising committee. A radiotherapy workshop was also held during the symposium, in which new techniques and their possible uses were specifically discussed. In addition to the local doctors, Dr Lilian Faroni (COI Group, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Dr Leonardo Carmona (Chilean Head and Neck Institute, Chile), and Dr Anthony Addesa (Jupiter Medical Centre, Florida, USA) also participated in this symposium. PMID:27350786

  19. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  20. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  1. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  2. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes.

  3. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  4. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-09-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. PMID:10464074

  5. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs. (TEM)

  6. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  7. Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines

  8. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  9. Cost of illness of the stomach cancer in Japan - a time trend and future projections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stomach cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Japan. The objectives of this study were to estimate and project the economic burden associated with stomach cancer in Japan, and to identify the key factors that drive the economic burden of stomach cancer. Methods We calculated Cost of illness (COI) of 1996, 2002, 2008, 2014 and 2020 by using government office statistics and the COI method. We calculated direct cost and indirect cost (morbidity cost and mortality cost), and estimated the COI by summing them up. Results The number of deaths remained at approximately 50,000 in 1996–2008. COI was in downward trend from 1,293.5 billion yen in 1996 to 1,114.2 billion yen in 2008. Morbidity cost was 85.6 billion yen and 54.0 billion yen, mortality cost was 972.3 billion yen and 806.4 billion yen, and mortality cost per person was 19.4 million yen and 16.1 million yen in 1996 and 2008, respectively. Decrease of mortality cost that accounted for a large part of the COI (72.4% in 2008) was the major contributing factor. COI is predicted to decrease if the trend of health related indicators continues (442.8-1,056.1 billion yen depending on the model in 2020). Mortality cost per person is also predicted to decrease (9.5-12.5 million yen depending on the model in 2020). Conclusions If the trend of health related indicators continues, it is estimated that COI of stomach cancer would decrease. “Aging”, “change of the healthcare providing system” and “new medical technology” are considered as contributing factors of COI. PMID:23879739

  10. NSAID Use and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chan, Andrew T; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Chen, Jie; Chong, Dawn Q; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry I; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Hou, Lifang; Jacobs, Eric J; King, Lindsay Y; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; Palmer, Julie R; Purdue, Mark P; Rosenberg, Lynn; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Sigurdson, Alice J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Campbell, Peter T; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the two most common types of liver cancer. A number of prior experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen, may potentially protect against liver cancer. However, no observational study has examined the association between aspirin duration and dose or other over-the-counter non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and liver cancer incidence. Furthermore, the association between NSAID use and risk of ICC is unclear. As part of the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, we harmonized data on 1,084,133 individuals (HCC = 679, ICC = 225) from 10 U.S.-based prospective cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Current aspirin use, versus nonuse, was inversely associated with HCC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81), which persisted when restricted to individuals not using non-aspirin NSAIDs and in a 5- and 10-year lag analysis. The association between aspirin use and HCC risk was stronger for users who reported daily use, longer duration use, and lower dosage. Ibuprofen use was not associated with HCC risk. Aspirin use was associated with a reduced ICC risk in men (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98) but not women (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.89-2.01; P(interaction) = 0.01). The observed inverse association between aspirin use and liver cancer in our study, together with previous data, suggests the merit of future intervention studies of aspirin and other agents that affect chronic inflammatory pathways for HCC and possibly ICC. PMID:26391917

  11. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    SciTech Connect

    Munyon, W. J.; Lee, M. B.

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of {+-}5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 {mu}m, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within {+-}30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  12. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Lee, M B

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of +/-5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 microm, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within +/-30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  13. Air pollution combustion emissions: characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    emissions and ambient fine particulate air pollution have been associated with measures of genetic damage. Long-term epidemiologic studies have reported an increased risk of all causes of mortality, cardiopulmonary mortality, and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposures to air pollution. Adverse reproductive effects (e.g., risk for low birth weight) have also recently been reported in Eastern Europe and North America. Although there is substantial evidence that PAH or substituted PAH may be causative agents in cancer and reproductive effects, an increasing number of studies investigating cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular effects are investigating these and other potential causative agents from air pollution combustion sources.

  14. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Makar, P. A.; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6) scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here. The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions - that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6 emissions for 2050 resulted in an improved air

  15. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Makar, P. A.; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6) scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here. The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions - that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6 emissions for 2050 resulted in an improved air

  16. Air-chemistry studies over the Gulf of Mexico: a bilateral scientific cooperative project between the United States of America and the United States of Mexico. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Parungo, F.; Miller, J.

    1988-02-01

    This report documents the scientific research of a bilateral cooperative project between the United States of America and The United States of America. In 1986 scientists from both nations joined a research cruise in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the air chemistry over the water that the two nations share. Emphases were placed on natural air quality, anthropogenic air pollution, acid rain, air-sea-land exchanges of gases and aerosols. The investigation included in-situ measurements and post-cruise laboratory analyses. Chemical, physical, meteorological, and oceanographic analyses were conducted to survey temporal and spatial variations of diverse parameters throughout the Gulf. The data sets were analyzed, interpreted, and intercorrelated. The results show that during the cruise (20 July-22 August), the large-scale air trajectories were easterly from the Caribbean Sea at all levels; however, the Gulf air measured was highly polluted in general.

  17. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a measure of personality type and learning style, was used at Saint Louis University in the TRAILS (Tracking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style) Project. In addition to considering links between learning styles and student academic achievement and aptitude, MBTI was used to identify…

  18. Using Spreadsheet Modeling Techniques for Capital Project Review. AIR 1985 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynor, Robert K.

    The value of microcomputer modeling tools and spreadsheets to help college institutional researchers analyze proposed capital projects is discussed, along with strengths and weaknesses of different software packages. Capital budgeting is the analysis that supports decisions about the allocation and commitment of funds to long-term capital…

  19. An Economically Driven Enrollment Projections Model. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael, Jr.; Chino, Laney

    An admissions/enrollment model was developed using 5 years of data on undergraduate and graduate enrollment, admissions, budget and tuition revenues, and anticipated tuition costs. The model produced estimates of admissions and enrollment numbers required to meet projected increases in the institutional budget. Using a variation of the Markov…

  20. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…

  1. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR Professional File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Trucking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style (TRAILS) research project at St. Louis University, which is designed to incorporate information on learning style in ongoing enrollment research and improve campus retention, is described. Learning style and the Tinto Model of student attrition are discussed, along with the…

  2. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  3. Effective Dimension Reduction Using Sequential Projection Pursuit On Gene Expression Data for Cancer Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Havre, Susan L.

    2004-06-23

    Motiviation: Classification is a powerful tool for uncovering interesting phenomena, for example classes of cancer, in microarray data. Due to the small number of observations (n) in comparison to the number of variables (p), genes, classification on microarray data is challenging. Thus, multivariate dimension reduction techniques are commonly used as a precursor to classification of microarray data; typically this is principal component analysis (PCA) or singular value decomposition (SVD). Since PCA and SVD are concerned with explaining the variance-covariance structure of the data, they may not be the best choice when the between-cluster variance is smaller than the within-cluster variance. Recently an attractive alternative to PCA, sequential projection pursuit (SPP), has been introduced which is designed to elicit clustering tendencies in the data. Thus, in some cases SPP may be more appropriate when performing clustering or classification analysis. Results: We compare the performance of SPP to PCA on two cancer gene expression datasets related to leukemia and colon cancer. Using PCA and SPP to reduce the dimensionality of the data to m<

  4. The Project Data Sphere Initiative: Accelerating Cancer Research by Sharing Data

    PubMed Central

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E.; Corty, Robert W.; Basch, Ethan; Milowsky, Mathew I.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In this paper, we provide background and context regarding the potential for a new data-sharing platform, the Project Data Sphere (PDS) initiative, funded by financial and in-kind contributions from the CEO Roundtable on Cancer, to transform cancer research and improve patient outcomes. Given the relatively modest decline in cancer death rates over the past several years, a new research paradigm is needed to accelerate therapeutic approaches for oncologic diseases. Phase III clinical trials generate large volumes of potentially usable information, often on hundreds of patients, including patients treated with standard of care therapies (i.e., controls). Both nationally and internationally, a variety of stakeholders have pursued data-sharing efforts to make individual patient-level clinical trial data available to the scientific research community. Potential Benefits and Risks of Data Sharing. For researchers, shared data have the potential to foster a more collaborative environment, to answer research questions in a shorter time frame than traditional randomized control trials, to reduce duplication of effort, and to improve efficiency. For industry participants, use of trial data to answer additional clinical questions could increase research and development efficiency and guide future projects through validation of surrogate end points, development of prognostic or predictive models, selection of patients for phase II trials, stratification in phase III studies, and identification of patient subgroups for development of novel therapies. Data transparency also helps promote a public image of collaboration and altruism among industry participants. For patient participants, data sharing maximizes their contribution to public health and increases access to information that may be used to develop better treatments. Concerns about data-sharing efforts include protection of patient privacy and confidentiality. To alleviate these concerns, data sets are

  5. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site. PMID:11726020

  6. Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure, Distance to Road, and Incident Lung Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Spiegelman, Donna; Wang, Molin; Fisher, Jared A.; Hong, Biling; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of literature has suggested an elevated risk of lung cancer associated with particulate matter and traffic-related pollutants. Objective: We examined the relation of lung cancer incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter and residential distance to roadway, as a proxy for traffic-related exposures. Methods: For participants in the Nurses’ Health Study, a nationwide prospective cohort of women, we estimated 72-month average exposures to PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 and residential distance to road. Follow-up for incident cases of lung cancer occurred from 1994 through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by smoking status was examined. Results: During 1,510,027 person-years, 2,155 incident cases of lung cancer were observed among 103,650 participants. In fully adjusted models, a 10-μg/m3 increase in 72-month average PM10 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.14], PM2.5 (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.25), or PM2.5–10 (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.20) was positively associated with lung cancer. When the cohort was restricted to never-smokers and to former smokers who had quit at least 10 years before, the associations appeared to increase and were strongest for PM2.5 (PM10: HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.32; PM2.5: HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.77; PM2.5–10: HR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.37). Results were most elevated when restricted to the most prevalent subtype, adenocarcinomas. Risks with roadway proximity were less consistent. Conclusions: Our findings support those from other studies indicating increased risk of incident lung cancer associated with ambient PM exposures, especially among never- and long-term former smokers. Citation: Puett RC, Hart JE, Yanosky JD, Spiegelman D, Wang M, Fisher JA, Hong B, Laden F. 2014. Particulate matter air pollution exposure, distance to road, and incident lung cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environ

  7. Rare neuroendocrine tumours: results of the surveillance of rare cancers in Europe project.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Otter, Renée; Larrañaga, Nerea; Tavilla, Andrea; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Baudin, Eric; Poston, Graeme; Links, Thera

    2013-07-01

    Because of the low incidence, and limited opportunities for large patient volume experiences, there are very few relevant studies of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). A large population-based database (including cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 and registered in 76 population-based cancer registries [CRs]), provided by the project 'surveillance of rare cancers in Europe' (RARECARE) is used to describe the basic indicators of incidence, prevalence and survival of NETs, giving a unique overview on the burden of NETs in Europe. NETs at all cancer sites, excluding lung, were analysed in this study. In total over 20,000 incident cases of NETs were analysed and a data quality check upon specific NETs was performed. The overall incidence rate for NETs was 25/1,000,000 and was highest in patients aged 65 years and older with well differentiated endocrine carcinomas (non-functioning pancreatic and gastrointestinal) (40 per 1,000,000). We estimated that slightly more than 100,000 people were diagnosed with NETs and still alive in EU27 at the beginning of 2008. Overall, NETs had a 5 year relative survival of 50%; survival was low (12%) for poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and relatively high (64%) for well differentiated carcinoma (not functioning of the pancreas and digestive organs). Within NETs, endocrine carcinoma of thyroid gland had the best 5-year relative survival (82%). Because of the complexity and number of the different disciplines involved with NETs (as they arise in many organs), a multidisciplinary approach delivered in highly qualified reference centres and an international network between those centres is recommended.

  8. In situ detection of lung cancer volatile fingerprints using bronchoscopic air-sampling.

    PubMed

    Santonico, M; Lucantoni, G; Pennazza, G; Capuano, R; Galluccio, G; Roscioni, C; La Delfa, G; Consoli, D; Martinelli, E; Paolesse, R; Di Natale, C; D'Amico, A

    2012-07-01

    Lung cancer diagnosis via breath analysis has to overcome some issues that can be summarized by two crucial points: (1) further developments for more performant breath sampling technologies; (2) discovering more differentiated volatile fingerprints to be ascribed to specific altered biological mechanisms. The present work merges these two aspects in a pilot study, where a breath volume, sampled via endoscopic probe, is analyzed by an array of non-selective gas sensors. Even if the original non-invasive methods of breath analysis has been laid in favour of the endoscopic means, the innovative technique here proposed allows the analysis of the volatile mixtures directly sampled near the tumor mass. This strategy could open the way for a better understanding of the already obtained discrimination among positive and negative cancer cases. The results obtained so far confirm the established discrimination capacity. This allows to discriminate the different subtypes of lung cancer with 75% of correct classification between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. This result suggests that a 'zoom-in' on the cancer settled inside the human body can increase the resolution power of key-volatiles detection, allowing the discrimination among different cancer fingerprints. We report this novel technique as a robust support for a better comprehension of the promising results obtained so far and present in literature; it is not to be intended as a replacement for non-invasive breath sampling procedure with the endoscope.

  9. Air liquide 1.8 K refrigeration units for CERN LHC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Benoît; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M.; Caillaud, Aurélie

    2002-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be CERN's next research instrument for high energy physics. This 27 km long circular accelerator will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operated below 2.0 K. It will thus require high capacity refrigeration below 2.0 K [1, 2]. Coupled to a refrigerator providing 18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K [3], these systems will be able to absorb a cryogenic power of 2.4 kW at 1.8 K in nominal conditions. Air Liquide has designed one Cold Compressor System (CCS) pre-series for CERN-preceding 3 more of them (among 8 in total located around the machine). These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement coupled to room temperature screw compressors, are presented. Key components characteristics will be given.

  10. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  11. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure.

  12. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  13. Improving the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James B; Walshe, Maria; Aggarwal, Dinesh; Thapar, Ankur; Hardman, John; Wilson, Jonathan; Oshowo, Ayo; Bhan, Chetan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to improve the lead-time and the patient experience of the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway. This project worked within the constraints of limited resources and an austere environment. The core team included a project manager trained in quality improvement methodologies. Senior and Fleming's planned change model was used as the overall framework. Baseline data supported the case for change and highlighted targets for improvement. A stakeholder workshop employed social movement theory, lean thinking, experience-based design and patient stories to engage influential leaders and secure support and commitment. Solutions that arose from the workshop were then researched. A "Genchi Genbutsu" ethos took the team to Northumbria to learn about another unit's pathway innovations. Subsequently, our new pathway employed solutions aimed at increasing the proportion of patients who went straight-to-test. Consensus on the design was achieved using Schein's process consultation theory. Implementation of the new pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the median time from referral to endoscopy from 26 days to 14 days (P<0.001), and a significant increase in the proportion going straight-to-test from 6% to 43%. Changes to improve patient experience were also implemented, however data to evidence this has not yet been collected. Going forward, further standardisation is required and issues around sustainability need to be tackled. This project exemplified, amongst others, the value of working from data from the beginning and a comprehensive early stakeholder engagement. PMID:27637830

  14. Improving the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James B; Walshe, Maria; Aggarwal, Dinesh; Thapar, Ankur; Hardman, John; Wilson, Jonathan; Oshowo, Ayo; Bhan, Chetan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to improve the lead-time and the patient experience of the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway. This project worked within the constraints of limited resources and an austere environment. The core team included a project manager trained in quality improvement methodologies. Senior and Fleming's planned change model was used as the overall framework. Baseline data supported the case for change and highlighted targets for improvement. A stakeholder workshop employed social movement theory, lean thinking, experience-based design and patient stories to engage influential leaders and secure support and commitment. Solutions that arose from the workshop were then researched. A "Genchi Genbutsu" ethos took the team to Northumbria to learn about another unit's pathway innovations. Subsequently, our new pathway employed solutions aimed at increasing the proportion of patients who went straight-to-test. Consensus on the design was achieved using Schein's process consultation theory. Implementation of the new pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the median time from referral to endoscopy from 26 days to 14 days (P<0.001), and a significant increase in the proportion going straight-to-test from 6% to 43%. Changes to improve patient experience were also implemented, however data to evidence this has not yet been collected. Going forward, further standardisation is required and issues around sustainability need to be tackled. This project exemplified, amongst others, the value of working from data from the beginning and a comprehensive early stakeholder engagement.

  15. Using color intensity projections to visualize air flow in operating theaters with the goal of reducing infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, Keith S.; van Asperen, Niek; de Jong, Joost; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2013-03-01

    Infection following neurosurgery is all too common. One possible source of infection is the transportation of dust and other contaminates into the open wound by airflow within the operating theatre. While many modern operating theatres have a filtered, uniform and gentle flow of air cascading down over the operating table from a large area fan in the ceiling, many obstacles might introduce turbulence into the laminar flow including lights, equipment and personal. Schlieren imaging - which is sensitive to small disturbances in the laminar flow such as breathing and turbulence caused by air warmed by a hand at body temperature - was used to image the air flow due to activities in an operating theatre. Color intensity projections (CIPs) were employed to reduce the workload of analyzing the large amount of video data. CIPs - which has been applied to images in angiography, 4D CT, nuclear medicine and astronomy - summarizes the changes over many gray scale images in a single color image in a way which most interpreters find intuitive. CIPs uses the hue, saturation and brightness of the color image to encode the summary. Imaging in an operating theatre showed substantial disruptions to the airflow due to equipment such as the lighting. When these disruptions are combined with such minor factors as heat from the hand, reversal of the preferred airflow patterns can occur. These reversals of preferred airflow patterns have the potential to transport contaminates into the open wound. Further study is required to understand both the frequency of the reversed airflow patterns and the impact they may have on infection rates.

  16. Project 57 Air Monitoring Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2013 (October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; McCurdy, Greg; Mizell, Steve A

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is currently working to achieve regulatory closure of radionuclide-contaminated Soils sites under its auspices. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion Site is located in Emigrant Valley, Nevada, on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. Closure plans being developed for the CAUs both on and off of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) may include postclosure monitoring for the possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and postclosure monitoring program. The DOE has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil from the Project 57 site during ambient wind events. The assessment is intended to provide site-specific information on meteorological conditions that result in airborne soil particle redistribution, as well as determine which, if any, radiological contaminants may be entrained with the soil particles and estimate their concentrations.

  17. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2) and a chemical transport model (for O3). The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51), while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38) and O3 (R2 = 0.56). Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6), 17.7 ppb (4.1), and 26.4 ppb (3.4) respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years) and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years). Approximately 50% of individuals

  18. Air pollution and cardiovascular admissions association in Spain: results within the EMECAS project

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Rodríguez, P; Iñíguez, C; Saez, M; Daponte, A; Galán, I; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Bellido, J; Cirarda, F B; Cañada, A; Guillén, J J; Guillén‐Grima, F; López, E; Pérez‐Hoyos, S; Lertxundi, A; Toro, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular admissions in 14 Spanish cities Methods The period under study was from 1995 to 1999. Daily emergency admissions for all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and heart diseases (HD) were obtained from hospital records, and the corresponding daily levels of particulates, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone were recorded. The magnitude of association was estimated using Poisson generalised additive models controlling for confounding and overdispersion. For each cause, lagged effects, up to three days, of each pollutant were examined and combined estimates were obtained. For ozone the analyses were restricted to the warm period. One and two pollutant models were performed. Results Associations were more consistent in lag 0 (concurrent day) and 1 (lag 0–1), except in the case of ozone where there was a more delayed relation (lag 2–3). For combined estimates an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 levels in lag 0–1 was associated with an increase of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.5%) in the number of hospital admissions for CVD, and 1.6% (0.8 to 2.3%) for HD. For ozone the corresponding estimates for lag 2–3 were 0.7% (0.3 to 1.0) for CVD, and 0.7% (0.1 to 1.2) for HD. An increase of 1 mg/m3 in CO levels was associated with an increase of 2.1% (0.7 to 3.5%) in CVD admissions, and 4.2% (1.3 to 7.1%) in HD admissions. SO2 and NO2 estimates were more sensitive in two pollutant models Conclusions A short term association between increases in daily levels of air pollutants and the number of daily admissions for cardiovascular diseases, with specificity for heart diseases, has been described in Spanish cities. PMID:16537350

  19. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  20. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    PubMed

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents.

  1. LUNG CANCER, CARDIOPULMONARY MORTALITY AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Urban impact on air quality in RegCM/CAMx couple for MEGAPOLI project - high resolution sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies show considerable effect of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on climate on regional and local scale. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the magnitude of climate forcing due to atmospheric chemistry/aerosols on regional scale, the development of coupling of regional climate model and chemistry/aerosol model was started on the Department of Meteorology and Environmental Protection, Charles University, Prague, for the EC FP6 Project QUANTIFY and EC FP6 Project CECILIA. For this coupling, existing regional climate model and chemistry transport model have been used at very high resolution of 10km grid. Climate is calculated using RegCM while chemistry is solved by CAMx. The experiments with the couple have been prepared for EC FP7 project MEGAPOLI assessing the impact of the megacities and industrialized areas on climate. Meteorological fields generated by RCM drive CAMx transport, chemistry and a dry/wet deposition. A preprocessor utility was developed for transforming RegCM provided fields to CAMx input fields and format. New domain have been settled for MEGAPOLI purpose in 10km resolution including all the European "megacities" regions, i.e. London metropolitan area, Paris region, industrialized Ruhr area, Po valley etc. There is critical issue of the emission inventories available for 10km resolution including the urban hot-spots, TNO emissions are adopted for this sensitivity study in 10km resolution for comparison of the results with the simulation based on merged TNO emissions, i.e. basically original EMEP emissions at 50 km grid. The sensitivity test to switch on/off Paris area emissions is analysed as well. Preliminary results for year 2005 are presented and discussed to reveal whether the concept of effective emission indices could help to parameterize the urban plume effects in lower resolution models. Interactive coupling is compared to study the potential of possible impact of urban air-pollution to the urban area climate.

  3. Use of process evaluation to guide health education in Forsyth County's project to prevent cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Sharp, P C; Young, L D; Daniels, L A

    1991-01-01

    The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer Prevention Project is a 5-year public health education program designed to increase the proportion of black women in the county who are appropriately screened for cervical cancer. In this paper, the authors report on process evaluation--the procedures used to monitor the intervention and to insure that the target population was reached with a high quality, community-based health education program. A system that encompasses documentation of program activities, interviews with women in waiting rooms of primary care providers, semiannual interviews with a panel of approximately 100 women from the target population, and telephone followup with participants in direct education workshops was designed and implemented. Through October 1990, more than 2,100 interviews had been conducted. Data from these activities have facilitated continued development and refinement of educational materials, provided guidance for developing new strategies for reaching the target population, and provided continuous feedback to program managers to allow monitoring the impact of all program activities. PMID:1899943

  4. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  5. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment.

  6. The IASLC lung cancer staging project: the new database to inform the eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rami-Porta, Ramón; Bolejack, Vanessa; Giroux, Dorothy J; Chansky, Kari; Crowley, John; Asamura, Hisao; Goldstraw, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The analyses of the retrospective database of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), consisting of more than 81,000 evaluable patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, formed the basis of recommendations to the Union for International Cancer Control and the American Joint Committee on Cancer for the revision of the sixth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer. However, despite the large number of patients, not all descriptors could be validated. This prompted a new collection of retrospective and prospective data to overcome the limitations of the original retrospective database. The new IASLC database has information on 94,708 new patients diagnosed of lung cancer between 1999 and 2010. They originated from 35 sources in 16 countries, and 4,667 were submitted via the online electronic data capture system. Europe contributed 46,560 patients, Asia: 41,705, North America: 4,660, Australia: 1,593, and South America: 190. After exclusions, 77,156 (70,967 with nonsmall cell lung cancer and 6,189 with small cell lung cancer) remained for analysis. This database will be analyzed according to established objectives for the T, the N, and the M components to inform the eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer due to be published in 2016. The IASLC hopes for the continuing contribution of our partners around the world to improve the classification of anatomical extent of disease, but also to create prognostic groups in a parallel project of the IASLC Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee.

  7. [Compensable occupational disease and cancer: how to improve the recognition rate? "Cursus Laboris" Project in Midi-Pyrenees: feasibility study].

    PubMed

    Rougé-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Hérin, Fabrice; Julien, Sylvie; Oustric, Stéphane; Forichon, Emmanuel; Delaperche, Florence; Bauvin, Eric; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Five to ten percent of cancers are of occupational origin but only 0.5% of cancers are compensable occupational diseases recognized in 2001. The project "Curriculum Laboris" was launched in Midi-Pyrenees with the objective to establish an organization to improve the identification, reporting and recognition of occupational cancers. The project consisted firstly in creating an online training module for professionals. Furthermore, a pilot has identified patients with lung, bladder, head and neck or hematologic cancer. Afterwards, four investigators realized an interview with the patients "marked" to define their careers. Finally, a group of experts produced advice, providing the general practitioner, the aid element in drafting the initial medical certificate (CMI) as part of the recognition process. Twenty-three patients were identified, 21 surveys were carried out. Six returns were filed and actually recognized. The generalization of our device measures meet the Cancer Plan II 2009 to 2013 and may improve the number of cancers recognized as compensable occupational diseases.

  8. Late effects of air pollution with special reference to lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, L; Cederlöf, R

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Hygiene of the National Swedish Environment Protection Board and of the Karolinska Institute have prepared an extensive review on health effects of air pollution, to be used by the Swedish Parliamentary Committee on Energy and the Environment. This report forms the basis for one part of the review, that on late effects. Much of the work on the review, is the result of a team effort involving researchers from numerous organizations. PMID:348461

  9. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks. PMID:23989624

  10. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  11. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5

  12. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System, NextGen Systems Analysis, Integration and Evaluation Project. Version 1.0; Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quon, Leighton

    2010-01-01

    The key objectives of the NASA ASP are to: Improve mobility, capacity efficiency and access of the airspace system. Improve collaboration, predictability, and flexibility for the airspace users. Enable accurate modeling and simulation of air transportation systems. Accommodate operations of all classes of aircraft. Maintain system safety and environmental protection. In support of these program objectives, the major goal of the NextGen-SAIE Project is to enable the transition of key capacity and efficiency improvements to the NAS. Since many aspects of the NAS are unique to specific airport or airspace environments, demand on various parts of the NAS is not expected to increase equally as system demand grows. SAIE will provide systems level analysis of the NAS characteristics, constraints, and demands such that a suite of capacity-increasing concepts and technologies for system solutions are enabled and facilitated. The technical objectives in support of this goal are the following: Integration, evaluation, and transition of more mature concepts and technologies in an environment that faithfully emulates real-world complexities. Interoperability research and analysis of ASP technologies across ATM functions is performed to facilitate integration and take ASP concepts and technologies to higher Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Analyses are conducted on the program s concepts to identify the system benefits or impacts. System level analysis is conducted to increase understanding of the characteristics and constraints of airspace system and its domains.

  13. Plasma proteomics, the Human Proteome Project, and cancer-associated alternative splice variant proteins.

    PubMed

    Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-05-01

    This article addresses three inter-related subjects: the development of the Human Plasma Proteome Peptide Atlas, the launch of the Human Proteome Project, and the emergence of alternative splice variant transcripts and proteins as important features of evolution and pathogenesis. The current Plasma Peptide Atlas provides evidence on which peptides have been detected for every protein confidently identified in plasma; there are links to their spectra and their estimated abundance, facilitating the planning of targeted proteomics for biomarker studies. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) combines a chromosome-centric C-HPP with a biology and disease-driven B/D-HPP, upon a foundation of mass spectrometry, antibody, and knowledgebase resource pillars. The HPP aims to identify the approximately 7000 "missing proteins" and to characterize all proteins and their many isoforms. Success will enable the larger research community to utilize newly-available peptides, spectra, informative MS transitions, and databases for targeted analyses of priority proteins for each organ and disease. Among the isoforms of proteins, splice variants have the special feature of greatly enlarging protein diversity without enlarging the genome; evidence is accumulating of striking differential expression of splice variants in cancers. In this era of RNA-sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, it is no longer sufficient to speak simply of increased or decreased expression of genes or proteins without carefully examining the splice variants in the protein mixture produced from each multi-exon gene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  14. The Project ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Balan, Stefan; Brokaw, Frances C.; Seville, Janette; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor; Byock, Ira R.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Context There are few randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of palliative care. Objective To determine the effect of a palliative care intervention on quality of life (QOL), symptom intensity, mood, and resource utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial (November 2003-May 2008) of 322 patients with advanced cancer and an identified caregiver in a rural, NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH) and affiliated outreach clinics and Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center (White River Junction, VT). Intervention A multi-component, psycho-educational, palliative care intervention (Project ENABLE) conducted by an advanced practice nurse consisting of 4 weekly educational sessions and monthly follow-up until death or study completion. Main Outcome Measures (1) The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative (range: 0 to 184; higher scores indicate better QOL), (2) Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (range: 0 to 900; higher scores indicate greater symptom intensity), (3) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (range: 0 to 60; higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms), completed at baseline, 1 month and every 3 months until death or study completion, (4) days in hospital, intensive care unit (ICU), and emergency department visits recorded in the medical record. Results 322 participants with gastrointestinal (41%), lung (36%), genitourinary (12%), and breast (10%) cancer were randomized. Estimated treatment effects (intervention minus usual care) for all subjects were 4.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −27.8 (P = .06) for symptom intensity, and −1.8 (P = .02) for depressed mood. Estimated average treatment effects in the sample of participants who died during the study were 8.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −24.2 (P = .24) for symptom intensity, and −2.7 (P = .03) for depressed mood. Days in hospital, intensive care unit, and emergency department visits were not different

  15. An ET-CURE pilot project supporting undergraduate training in cancer research, emerging technology, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danyell S; Fang, Bin; Dalton, William S; Meade, Cathy D; Koomen, John M

    2012-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities has created pilot training opportunities under the "Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences" program that focus on emerging technologies. In this pilot project, an 18-month cancer biology research internship was reinforced with: instruction in an emerging technology (proteomics), a transition from the undergraduate laboratory to a research setting, education in cancer health disparities, and community outreach activities. A major goal was to provide underrepresented undergraduates with hands-on research experiences that are rarely encountered at the undergraduate level, including mentoring, research presentations, and participation in local and national meetings. These opportunities provided education and career development for the undergraduates, and they have given each student the opportunity to transition from learning to sharing their knowledge and from being mentored to mentoring others. Here, we present the concepts, curriculum, infrastructure, and challenges for this training program along with evaluations by both the students and their mentors. PMID:22528637

  16. Evaluating the Contribution of Natural Variability and Climate Model Response to Uncertainty in Projections of Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the effects of internal variability and model response in projections of climate impacts on U.S. ground-level ozone across the 21st century using integrated global system modeling and global atmospheric chemistry simulations. The impact of climate change on air polluti...

  17. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  18. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  19. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  20. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  1. Contributing to Tumor Molecular Characterization Projects with a Global Impact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    My name is Nicholas Griner and I am the Scientific Program Manager for the Cancer Genome Characterization Initiative (CGCI) in the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG). Until recently, I spent most of my scientific career working in a cancer research laboratory. In my postdoctoral training, my research focused on identifying novel pathways that contribute to both prostate and breast cancers and studying proteins within these pathways that may be targeted with cancer drugs.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  3. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  4. Design and conduct of a low-cost mammography screening project: experience of the American Cancer Society, Texas Division.

    PubMed

    Vogel, V G; Peters, G N; Evans, W P

    1992-01-01

    To improve compliance with recommendations for screening mammography, the American Cancer Society (ACS) Texas Division designed and conducted a media-promoted screening project in 1987. The project was planned during a 2-year period by a task force made up of physicians and lay members of ACS division committees. Radiology centers desiring to participate in the project were asked to submit information about the number of patients they could screen and their equipment, along with physics data, to a review committee. Of 306 facilities that responded, 266 (87%) passed the initial review. Thirteen facilities (4%) submitted images from two examinations using a dedicated mammography phantom, and 27 sites (9%) entered the project by agreeing to adhere to the project standards and guidelines without undergoing formal review. All facilities agreed to provide mammograms for $50 to women scheduling appointments during a 2-week media campaign in February 1987. The project generated 64,459 mammographic screening examinations. Our experience indicates that a media campaign can encourage women to have screening mammograms and that screening facilities will agree to screen a large number of women at reduced cost. This strategy, if widely applied, can improve compliance with mammographic screening recommendations and reduce breast cancer mortality.

  5. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  6. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-01-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled. PMID:6734567

  7. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldor, J.; Harris, J.A.; Glazer, E.; Glaser, S.; Neutra, R.; Mayberry, R.; Nelson, V.; Robinson, L.; Reed, D.

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, a strong positive association was found between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the ecologic fallacy must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the strong findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. 26 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  9. Recent findings from the Human Proteome Project: opening the mass spectrometry toolbox to advance cancer diagnosis, surveillance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cantor, David I; Nice, Edouard C; Baker, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    The Human Proteome Project stands to eclipse the Human Genome Project in terms of scope, content and interpretation. Its outputs, in conjunction with recent developments across the proteomics community, provide new tools for cancer research with the potential of providing clinically relevant insights into the disease. These collectively may guide the development of future diagnosis, surveillance and treatment strategies. Having established a robust organizational framework within the international community, the Human Proteome Organization and the proteomics community at large have made significant advances in biomarker discovery, detection, molecular imaging and in exploring tumor heterogeneity. Here, the authors discuss some developments in cancer proteomics and how they can be implemented to reduce the global burden of the disease.

  10. MODIA: Vol. 1. Overview of a Tool for Planning the Use of Air Force Training Resources. A Project AIR FORCE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter-Huffman, Polly

    MODIA (Method of Designing Instructional Alternatives) was developed to help the Air Force manage resources for formal training by systematically and explicitly relating quantitative requirements for training resources to the details of course design and course operation during the planning stage. It suggests approaches to course design not…

  11. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD) to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds) and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants). At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other. PMID:19426510

  12. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  13. FRESH AIR: an implementation research project funded through Horizon 2020 exploring the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic respiratory diseases in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes FRESH AIR, an implementation science project exploring how to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic lung diseases in contexts with limited healthcare resources. It consists of inter-related studies that take place in four countries that are part of the International Primary Care Respiratory Group’s (IPCRG) global network: Uganda, the Kyrgyz Republic, Vietnam and Greece. The project has been funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 research programme and runs from October 2015 until September 2018. PMID:27356621

  14. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  15. An Association Between Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality From Lung Cancer and Respiratory Diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Tajima, Kazuo; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Takezaki, Toshiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Tominaga, Suketami

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for a link between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung cancer is limited to Western populations. In this prospective cohort study, we examined this association in a Japanese population. Methods The study comprised 63 520 participants living in 6 areas in 3 Japanese prefectures who were enrolled between 1983 and 1985. Exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using data from monitoring stations located in or nearby each area. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios associated with the average concentrations of these air pollutants. Results The 10-year average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 before recruitment (1974–1983) were 16.8 to 41.9 µg/m3, 2.4 to 19.0 ppb, and 1.2 to 33.7 ppb, respectively (inter-area range). During an average follow-up of 8.7 years, there were 6687 deaths, including 518 deaths from lung cancer. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality associated with a 10-unit increase in PM2.5 (µg/m3), SO2 (ppb), and NO2 (ppb) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.12–1.37), 1.26 (1.07–1.48), and 1.17 (1.10–1.26), respectively, after adjustment for tobacco smoking and other confounding factors. In addition, a significant increase in risk was observed for male smokers and female never smokers. Respiratory diseases, particularly pneumonia, were also significantly associated with all the air pollutants. Conclusions Long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with lung cancer and respiratory diseases in Japan. PMID:21325732

  16. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  17. Presentation of a Swedish study program concerning recruitment, selection and training of student air traffic controllers: The MRU project phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The Director of the ANS Department has set up an objective for the efficiency of screening and training procedures for air traffic controller students which implies that all students admitted 'shall be considered to have the qualification for - and be given the means of - completing the training'. As a consequence, a study project has been established. It is run by the ANS Department with members from the Swedish CAA, in close cooperation with Uppsala University.

  18. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan L; Johnson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A few recent studies have reported positive associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the incidence of breast cancer. We capitalized on an existing Canadian multi-site population-based case-control study to further investigate this association. We used the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System, a population-based case-control study conducted in eight of 10 Canadian provinces from 1994 to 1997. A total of 1569 breast cancer cases and 1872 population controls who reported at least 90% complete self-reported addresses over the 1975-1994 exposure period were examined. Mean exposure levels to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (an indicator of traffic-related air pollution) were estimated for this period using three different measures: (1) satellite-derived observations; (2) satellite-derived observations scaled with historical fixed-site measurements of NO2; and (3) a national land-use regression (LUR) model. Proximity to major roads was also examined. Using unconditional logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for many individual-level and contextual breast cancer risk factors. We observed positive associations between incident breast cancer and all three measures of NO2 exposure from 1975 to 1994. In fully adjusted models for premenopausal breast cancer, a 10ppb increase in NO2 exposure estimated from the satellite-derived observations, the scaled satellite-derived observations, and the national LUR model produced ORs of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.92-1.74), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.92-1.79). For postmenopausal breast cancer, we found corresponding ORs of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.94-1.28) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.86-1.32). Substantial heterogeneity in the ORs was observed across the eight Canadian provinces and reduced ORs were observed when models were restricted to women who had received routine mammography examinations. No associations

  19. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  20. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  1. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a potential human cancer hazard in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust and urban air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone [3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one (3-NBA)] is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), was found in the urine of salt mine workers occupationally exposed to diesel emissions, indicating that human exposure to 3-NBA due to diesel emissions can be significant and is detectable. There is clear evidence that 3-NBA is a genotoxic mutagen forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several human enzymes have been shown to activate 3-NBA and its metabolites in vitro and in cells to form electrophilic arylnitrenium and rearranged carbenium ions, leading to the formation of purine adducts at the C8 and N2 position of guanine and at the C8 and N6 position of adenine. The predominant DNA adducts in vivo, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone are also the most persistent adducts in target tissue in rodents, and are most probably responsible for the induction of GC-->TA transversion mutations observed in vivo. It is concluded that these adducts not only represent premutagenic lesions in DNA but are of primary importance for the initiation of the carcinogenic process and subsequent tumour formation in target tissue. Indeed, 3-NBA is carcinogenic in rats after intratracheal instillation, inducing mainly squamous cell carcinoma in lung. The intention of this article is to provide a critical review on the potential genotoxic effects of 3-NBA on human health. However, in general, there is a need for more mechanistic studies that relate 3-NBA to all processes that are considered to orchestrate tumour development and of studies on the ability of particles to promote 3-NBA

  2. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  3. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Anna; Miller, Anthony B; Weichenthal, Scott A; To, Teresa; Wall, Claus; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Crouse, Dan Lawson; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Recently, air pollution has been classified as a carcinogen largely on the evidence of epidemiological studies of lung cancer. However, there have been few prospective studies that have evaluated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and cancer at lower concentrations. We conducted a prospective analysis of 89,234 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. The cohort was linked to the Canadian Cancer Registry to identify incident lung cancers through 2004. Surface PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using satellite data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize associations between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual-level characteristics, including smoking. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%), married (80%) women with a median PM2.5 exposure of 9.1 µg/m(3) . In total, 932 participants developed lung cancer. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.65). The strongest associations were observed with small cell carcinoma (HR: 1.53; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.53) and adenocarcinoma (HR: 1.44; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.97). Stratified analyses suggested increased PM2.5 risks were limited to those who smoked cigarettes. Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer. Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations such as those currently found in Canadian cities.

  4. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Anna; Miller, Anthony B; Weichenthal, Scott A; To, Teresa; Wall, Claus; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Crouse, Dan Lawson; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Recently, air pollution has been classified as a carcinogen largely on the evidence of epidemiological studies of lung cancer. However, there have been few prospective studies that have evaluated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and cancer at lower concentrations. We conducted a prospective analysis of 89,234 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. The cohort was linked to the Canadian Cancer Registry to identify incident lung cancers through 2004. Surface PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using satellite data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize associations between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual-level characteristics, including smoking. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%), married (80%) women with a median PM2.5 exposure of 9.1 µg/m(3) . In total, 932 participants developed lung cancer. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.65). The strongest associations were observed with small cell carcinoma (HR: 1.53; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.53) and adenocarcinoma (HR: 1.44; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.97). Stratified analyses suggested increased PM2.5 risks were limited to those who smoked cigarettes. Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer. Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations such as those currently found in Canadian cities. PMID:27380650

  5. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  6. AN AIR QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR INTERRELATING EFFECTS, STANDARDS, AND NEEDED SOURCE REDUCTIONS: PART 13. APPLYING THE EPA PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT TO A SET OF ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90) list 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) for which "safe" ambient concentrations are to be determined. For a carcinogen, such as asbestos, the amendments specify that the safe concentration shall allow one excess cancer case per mi...

  7. Perceptions of cancer and its causes among "Industrial Corridor" residents: the LMRICS Planning Project. Lower Mississippi River Interagency Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Fick, A; Thomas, S M; Williams, D L; Hayden, J

    1999-04-01

    The Industrial Corridor is composed of 11 parishes heavily concentrated with petrochemical facilities along the Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to the mouth of the river. There exists a generalized belief that the proximity of these waste-emitting industries to residential areas has adversely impacted the health of the residents including increasing the rates of cancer. At the same time, Louisiana Tumor Registry data do not support the widely held belief of excess cancer rates in the corridor. A community in the corridor was chosen to explore the issues of health beliefs, health-seeking behavior, and perceived quality of life. An extensive questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of community residents. The results of the questionnaire suggest there may be multiple factors that influence the perceived well-being and preventive health practices of corridor residents.

  8. Simulations and projections of major air pollutants over the United States and uncertainty analyses, effects of natural change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang

    Changes in global climate and pollutant emissions are very likely to continue in the coming decades driven by the human-related activities and natural fluctuations in the Earth climate system. These potential changes would have very important consequences on regional air quality over the contiguous United States due to their effects on atmospheric chemical and physical processes. To understand these effects, the present studies use the global climate chemistry model, CAM-Chem version 3, to systematically assess potential changes in major air pollutants including surface ozone, particulate matter and mercury from the present (1998--2002) to the 2050 (2048--2052). The projections of future air quality consider changes in global climate, precursor emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and pollutant transport. Moreover, to evaluate the projection uncertainties resulting from different plausible trends of climate and emissions as a result of unknown human-related activities and climate variations, three IPCC SRES scenarios, A1FI, A1B and B1, are considered and compared to evaluate the resulting uncertainty in projecting future pollutant concentrations. To achieve a better understanding on the effect of mineral dust emissions on changes in future air quality especially the PM concentrations, a physical dust aerosol module is developed and incorporated into the CAM-Chem model. A mercury module is developed for the CAM-Chem model to simulate the atmospheric cycle of mercury and its consequences on the toxicity of U.S. air quality. For the study of ozone air quality, we focus on the risk of high ozone episodes and the relative contributions from changes in local anthropogenic emissions (LE) versus changes in intercontinental transport (ICT) on 2050 U.S. surface ozone air quality. It is found that the projected changes in air temperature, precipitation, lighting, planetary boundary layer height and cyclone activities tend to intensify the associated extreme

  9. Spirituality, psychotherapy and music in palliative cancer care: research projects in psycho-oncology at an oncology center in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Renz, Monika; Schütt Mao, Miriam; Cerny, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    It is recognized as increasingly important in palliative care that spiritual needs of terminally ill patients should be acknowledged and addressed. Two research projects investigated the feasibility of psychotherapeutic and music therapeutic assistance offered to advanced cancer patients. The first project (1998-2000) sought to improve the understanding of the effect of therapeutic support given to 80 patients and the characteristics of the dying process. The second project (2000-2003) assessed the significance of spiritual experiences in illness and affliction. Empathic therapeutic assistance, observations and systematic record keeping were combined with statistical assessment in an interdisciplinary approach. A respectful attitude and spiritual care were taken to perceive and analyse changes in border areas of life. The first project studied the rules and methods of terminal communication and described three stages in the dying process. After a 'passing through,' the dying often had a spiritual opening leading in a state beyond all pain. The second project concentrated on spiritual experiences. Of 251 treated patients, 135 had such experiences. Spiritual experiences can have a great impact on physical and emotional well-being (alleviate pain, release from anxiety and despair, engender feelings of serenity and wholeness) and facilitate dying. Music therapy, psychotherapy and spiritual assistance offer essential methods for psycho-oncology and palliative care. A holistic and interdisciplinary approach is needed to assist patients in their complex suffering. Our findings on spiritual experience and terminal communication should stimulate further research in a still unexplored territory of clinical research.

  10. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329

  11. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project.

    PubMed Central

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J. C.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up period of 15 years (mean follow-up time 12.5 years) 260 women developed breast cancer. Fat distribution, assessed by contrasting groups of subcapsular and triceps skinfold thickness, was found to be unrelated to breast cancer incidence. No significant relationship between body fat, measured either by weight, Quetelet's index, triceps skinfold or subscapular skinfold, and breast cancer risk was found when analysed in quartiles. However, women in the upper decile compared with the lower decile of the distribution of Quetelet's index were found to have a 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1-3.3) higher risk for breast cancer. These results seemed to be in contrast with the significant positive association between fatness, analysed in quartiles, and breast cancer observed in a cross-sectional study, based on mammographic screening, carried out previously in the same population. Although the differences between the present, prospective, study and our cross-sectional study may be due to chance it may be that there are differences between characteristics of breast cancer detected at screening and subsequently, which influence the associations between measures of fatness and risk of breast cancer. PMID:8297734

  12. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    EPIC-Italy is the Italian section of a larger project known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), a prospective study on diet and cancer carried out in 10 European countries. In the period 1993-1998, EPIC-Italy completed the recruitment of 47,749 volunteers (15,171 men, 32,578 women, aged 35-65 years) in 4 different areas covered by cancer registries: Varese (12,083 volunteers) and Turin (10,604) in the Northern part of the country; Florence (13,597) and Ragusa (6,403) in Central and Southern Italy, respectively. An associate center in Naples enrolled 5,062 women. Detailed information for each individual volunteer about diet and life-style habits, anthropometric measurements and a blood sample was collected, after signing an informed consent form. A food frequency questionnaire specifically developed for the Italian dietary pattern was tested in a pilot phase. A computerized data base with the dietary and life-style information of each participant was completed. Blood samples were processed in the same day of collection, aliquoted (RBC, WBC, serum and plasma) and stored in liquid nitrogen containers. Follow-up procedures were validated and implemented for the identification of newly diagnosed cancer cases. Cancer incidence was related to dietary habits and biochemical markers of food consumption and individual susceptibility in order to test the role of diet-related exposure in the etiology of cancer and its interaction with other environmental or genetic determinants. The comparability of information in a prospective study design is much higher than in other studies. The availability of such a large biological bank linked to individual data on dietary and life-style exposures also provides the unique opportunity of evaluating the role of selected genotypes involved in the metabolism of chemical compounds and DNA repair, potentially related to the risk of cancer, in residents of geographic areas of Italy characterized by specific

  13. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  14. New York State Electric and Gas Corporation`s Milliken Station clean coal technology demonstration project and its impacts on the local ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Gendron, L.J.; Rahimi, M.; Savichky, W.

    1998-12-31

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has recently completed a program which upgraded the boiler combustion system and installed a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The demonstration project was conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this clean coal technology demonstration (CCTD) project was to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. A four-year ambient monitoring program was conducted to evaluate the effects of the FGD system and combustion modifications on the local ambient air quality, the results of which are summarized in this paper. As part of NYSEG`s Milliken Station Clean Coal Technology Demonstration project, a flue gas desulfurization system was added as well as modifications to the combustion system and electrostatic precipitators. The demonstration project added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which was expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. The project scope also consisted of combustion modifications and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology to reduce NOx emissions. The burners were replaced with Low NOx Concentric Firing System Level 3 (LNCFS-3) burners to reduce NOx emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiency and acceptable fly ash loss on ignition (LOI). The electrostatic precipitators (ESP) on the two 160 MWe boilers were also upgraded to accommodate the wet flue gas desulfurization system. Upgrades of the ESP on each unit consisted of replacement of the internals and retirement of part of the original ESP.

  15. ESP v2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product includes both a presentation and an extended abstract. We describe the Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method, version 2.0. ESP is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year em...

  16. Methodology and Limitations of Ohio Enrollment Projections. The AIR Professional File, No. 4, Winter 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    Two quantitative enrollment projection techniques and the methods used by researchers at the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR) are discussed. Two quantitative approaches that are typically used for enrollment projections are curve-fitting techniques and causal models. Many state forecasters use curve-fitting techniques, a popular approach because only…

  17. Present and future projects of the International Breast Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Goldhirsch, A; Gelber, R D; Castiglione, M; Price, K N; Rudenstam, C M; Lindtner, J; Collins, J; Senn, H J; Brunner, K W; Galligioni, E

    1994-08-01

    The International Breast Cancer Study Group (formerly the Ludwig Group) has conducted nine clinical trials since 1978 (see the Appendix for participants and authors). Biologic hypotheses related to the combined use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in women with operable breast cancer were tested. Questions of timing of chemotherapy with respect to tumor surgery and late introduction of chemotherapy were also evaluated. Ongoing and future trials continue in this tradition to investigate combinations of available endocrine therapies and cytotoxic agents.

  18. Randomized Trial of Tailored Skin Cancer Prevention for Children: The Project SCAPE Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Steffen, Alana D.; Schoenfeld, Elinor; Tappe, Karyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a tailored intervention to promote sun protection in parents and their children, hypothesizing that the tailored intervention would lead to improved skin cancer prevention behaviors compared to generic materials. Families were recruited through schools and community centers and were included if there was one child in Grades 1–3 at moderate to high risk for skin cancer. Participants were randomized into one of two intervention groups: a tailored intervention, in which they received personalized skin cancer education through the mail; or a control group who received generic skin cancer information materials. Both pre- and post-intervention, parents completed questionnaires about their and their children’s skin cancer risk and prevention knowledge and behaviors. Parents also completed 4-day sun exposure and protection diaries for their child and themselves. Tailored group participants demonstrated significantly greater positive changes in prevention behavior after the intervention, including children’s use of sunscreen, shirts, and hats, and parents’ use of shade, and skin examinations. Effect sizes were small and perceived benefits and social norms mediated intervention effects. Findings from this study support the efficacy of focusing tailored communications to families in order to change skin cancer prevention practices in young children. PMID:23806094

  19. Genomic instability, driver genes and cell selection: Projections from cancer to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Uri

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells and stem cells share many traits, including a tendency towards genomic instability. Human cancers exhibit tumor-specific genomic aberrations, which often affect their malignancy and drug response. During their culture propagation, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) also acquire characteristic genomic aberrations, which may have significant impact on their molecular and cellular phenotypes. These aberrations vary in size from single nucleotide alterations to copy number alterations to whole chromosome gains. A prominent challenge in both cancer and stem cell research is to identify "driver aberrations" that confer a selection advantage, and "driver genes" that underlie the recurrence of these aberrations. Following principles that are already well-established in cancer research, candidate driver genes have also been suggested in hPSCs. Experimental validation of the functional role of such candidates can uncover whether these are bona fide driver genes. The identification of driver genes may bring us closer to a mechanistic understanding of the genomic instability of stem cells. Guided by terminologies and methodologies commonly applied in cancer research, such understanding may have important ramifications for both stem cell and cancer biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.

  20. Precautions for breast cancer-related lymphoedema: risk from air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Asdourian, Maria S; Skolny, Melissa N; Brunelle, Cheryl; Seward, Cara E; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-09-01

    Precautionary recommendations conveyed to survivors of cancer by health-care practitioners to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema are indispensable aspects of clinical care, yet remain unsubstantiated by high-level scientific evidence. By reviewing the literature, we identified 31 original research articles that examined whether lifestyle-associated risk factors (air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and skin infections-eg, cellulitis) increase the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Among the few studies that lend support to precautionary guidelines, most provide low-level (levels 3-5) or inconclusive evidence of an association between lymphoedema and these risk factors, and only four level 2 studies show a significant association. Skin infections and previous infection or inflammation on the ipsilateral arm were among the most clearly defined and well established risk factors for lymphoedema. The paucity of high-level evidence and the conflicting nature of the existing literature make it difficult to establish definitive predictive factors for breast cancer-related lymphoedema, which could be a considerable source of patient distress and anxiety. Along with further research into these risk factors, continued discussion regarding modification of the guidelines and adoption of a risk-adjusted approach is needed. PMID:27599144

  1. Future Projections of Air Temperature and Precipitation for the CORDEX-MENA Domain by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the projected changes for the periods of 2016 - 2035, 2046 - 2065, and 2081 - 2100 in the seasonal averages of air temperature and precipitation variables with respect to the reference period of 1981 - 2000 were examined for the Middle East and North Africa region. In this context, Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was run by using two different global climate models. MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and HadGEM2 of the Met Office Hadley Centre were dynamically downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX-MENA domain. The projections were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change).

  2. PROJECTING FUTURE-YEAR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS: EMERGING APPROACHES FROM THE EPA ORD GLOBAL CHANGE AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is exploring approaches for assessing the relative impacts of climate and emissions changes on future-year air quality. A challenge related to this effort is the development of emissions inventories out to the year 2050. This pap...

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF AREA 6, DOVER AIR FORCE BASE, IN SUPPORT OF NATURAL ATTENUATION AND ENHANCED ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field program for site characterization of targeted study areas at the Dover Air Force Base was conducted between January 16, 1995, and March 9, 1995. The stated objectives of the investigation, "to characterize the stratigraphy, depth to groundwater, groundwater flow directio...

  4. Performance Summary of the 2006 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Simulation for the AQMEII Project: North American Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the CONUS using 12-km by 12-km horizontal grid spacing for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International initiative (AQMEII). The operational model performance for O3 and PM2.5<...

  5. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  6. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  7. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Cirstoiu, MM; Rădoi, V; Bohîlțea, LC; Furtunescu, F

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania, reaching in 2013 the average value of 8.06/ 100,000 women, and 15.97/ 100,000 women within the highest risk age range, having in recent years an increasing trend, being higher in urban than in rural population. Annually, approximately 800 new cases are registered in our country. The estimated lifetime risk of a woman to develop endometrial cancer is of about 1,03%. Based on an abnormal uterine bleeding, 35% of the endometrial cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, with significantly diminished lifetime expectancy. Objective: Drafting a national program for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Methods and Results: We proposed a standardization of the diagnostic steps and focused on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding occurring in pre/ post-menopausal women, investigating features/ anomalies of cervical cytology examination, diagnosis, treatment and proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms addresses the four risk groups, by improving information system reporting and record keeping. Improving addressability cases by increasing the health education of the population will increase the rate of diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages of the disease. Abbreviations: ACOG = American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, PATT = Partial Activated Thromboplastin Time, BRCA = Breast Cancer Gene, CT = Computerized Tomography, IFGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, HLG = Hemoleucogram, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, BMI = Body Mass Index, INR

  8. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  9. Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R W; Anderson, H R; Sunyer, J; Ayres, J; Baccini, M; Vonk, J M; Boumghar, A; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2001-11-15

    The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.

  10. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  11. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Covell, David G

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  12. The Tip of the Iceberg: Clinical Implications of Genomic Sequencing Projects in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Ludwig, Megan L.; Meraj, Taha S.; Brenner, J. Chad; Prince, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing studies have provided valuable insight into genetic aberrations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite these great advances, certain hurdles exist in translating genomic findings to clinical care. Further correlation of genetic findings to clinical outcomes, additional analyses of subgroups of head and neck cancers and follow-up investigation into genetic heterogeneity are needed. While the development of targeted therapy trials is of key importance, numerous challenges exist in establishing and optimizing such programs. This review discusses potential upcoming steps for further genetic evaluation of head and neck cancers and implementation of genetic findings into precision medicine trials. PMID:26506389

  13. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  14. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  15. The Telescope Array RADAR (TARA) Project and the Search for the Radar Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohira, Steven; TARA Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation since May 2013. It is the most ambitious effort to date to test an idea that originated in the 1940's: that ionization produced by cosmic ray extensive air showers should reflect electromagnetic radiation. The observation of this effect would open the possibility that remote-sensing radar technology could be used to detect and reconstruct extensive air showers, thus increasing the aperture available for the study of the highest-energy cosmic rays. TARA employs a bi-static radar configuration, consisting of a 25 kW, 5 MW ERP transmitter at 54.1 MHz broadcasting across the Telescope Array surface detector. 40 km distant, a set of log-periodic receiver antennas are read out by two independent data acquisition systems employing different techniques to select signals of the form expected for radar targets moving at close to the speed of light. In this talk, we describe the TARA detector and present the first quantitative limits on the radar cross-section of extensive air showers.

  16. A Randomized Trial of Tailored Skin Cancer Prevention Messages for Adults: Project SCAPE

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Steffen, Alana

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of a mailed, tailored intervention on skin cancer prevention and skin self-examination behaviors of adults at moderate and high risk for skin cancer. Methods. Adults at moderate and high risk for skin cancer were recruited in primary health care settings in Honolulu, HI, and Long Island, NY. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to 2 groups. The treatment group received tailored materials, including personalized risk feedback, and the control group received general educational materials. Multivariate analyses compared sun protection and skin self-examination between groups, controlling for location, risk level, gender, and age. Results. A total of 596 adults completed the trial. The tailored materials had a significant effect on overall sun-protection habits, the use of hats, the use of sunglasses, and the recency of skin self-examination. Some effects were moderated by location and risk level. Conclusions. Tailored communications including personalized risk feedback can improve sun-protection behaviors and skin self-examination among adults at increased risk for skin cancer. These convenient, low-cost interventions can be implemented in a variety of settings and should be tested further to assess their long-term effectiveness. PMID:20167900

  17. Quality improvement in breast cancer project: compliance with antiresorptive agents and changing patterns of drug use.

    PubMed

    Borden, Charles P; Shapiro, Charles L; Ramirez, Maria Teresa; Kotur, Linda; Farrar, William

    2014-02-01

    The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute participated in NCCN's Quality Improvement in Breast Cancer initiative. The Opportunities for Improvement (OFI) team elected to improve concordance with the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer recommendation that all patients diagnosed with skeletal metastases receive bisphosphonates. Assembling a multidisciplinary team of clinicians, researchers, and administrative stakeholders, the OFI team followed Six Sigma's approach to problem-solving known as DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control). Baseline concordance was 79%, which was below the recommended target range. Initial analysis quickly revealed that 5 cases were concordant, resulting in a new baseline of 89%. The key root cause identified for the remaining gap was lack of documentation. The solution included education regarding documentation for existing staff, in addition to hard-wiring the material into new physician orientation, discussion of all patients with bone disease at tumor board meetings, and improved consistency with use of the new electronic medical record system. After implementation, the reported concordance was 92%, and the lack of documentation problem decreased from 11% in the baseline study to 6%. The team concluded that use of the NCCN Oncology Outcomes Database as an opportunity for clinical quality improvement initiatives not only is possible but also should be an essential element of any clinical program looking to continuously improve. PMID:24614050

  18. Impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the East Mediterranean - An overview of the first results from the CITYZEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Saharan dust, vegetation and the sea, as well as from biomass burning, in overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. The east basin of the Mediterranean and the surrounding regions, include significant megacities such as Istanbul and Cairo, but also several large urban centers like to its north part Athens and Thessaloniki; to the east Izmir and Adana, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and to the south Alexandria. The region covers from rural to maritime and desert conditions. During the last decades, the East Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including enhanced vehicle circulation, and in industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems in Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole East Mediterranean region. Ozone and aerosol air quality limits are often exceeded over the entire Mediterranean, in particular during summer. High ozone and aerosol concentrations are harmful for human health and ecosystems, and they can also be responsible for agricultural crop loss and climate change. The contribution of various sources to these exceedances remains to be determined. In addition the importance of interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions in the area has to be evaluated. For this purpose, in the frame of the CityZEN EU funded project, available records of air pollution levels over the past decades have been compiled and analysed for Istanbul and Cairo

  19. Influences of Regional Climate Change on Air Quality across the Continental U.S. Projected from Downscaling IPCC ARS Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projecting climate change scenarios to local scales is important for understanding, mitigating, and adapting to the effects of climate change on society and the environment. Many of the global climate models (GCMs) that are participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

  20. Dosimetric effects of air pocket sizes in MammoSite treatment as accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Jessica; Blough, Melissa

    2009-12-23

    MammoSite Brachytherapy System had been used as one of the Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) techniques since 2002. The clinical results from several clinical institutions had shown comparable treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity, to other APBI techniques. During MammoSite treatment, air cavities had been one of the primary issues causing treatment cancellation or delay. With the tolerance of the air volume less than 10% of the total Planning Target Volume (PTV) been set, there is still no data available to show the actual dose delivered to the breast tissue with the existence of the air pocket. In this paper, Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) was used to model a hypothesis MammoSite phantom with different sizes of air pockets, and compared to the calculation results from the treatment planning system (TPS) without heterogeneous corrections. It was found that without heterogeneous corrections, the difference between the TPS and MCNP5 calculations in the air cavity surface doses and PTV point doses can be up to 2.02% and 3.61%, respectively, with the balloon and air pocket size combinations calculated in this paper. Based on the distance from the point of interest to the balloon surface, an approximate dose can be calculated using the linear relationship found in this study. These equations provide a quick and simple way to predict the actual dose delivered to the breast soft tissue located within the PTV. With the equation applied to the dose from the TPS, the dose error caused by the air pocket during MammoSite treatment can be reduced to the minimum.

  1. An intergenerational approach to prostate cancer education: findings from a pilot project in the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hebert, James R

    2014-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. This study assessed older and younger/middle-aged African-American (AA) men's (1) knowledge and attitudes about prostate cancer (PrCA) and PrCA screening, (2) participation in clinical research, and (3) health and cancer-related decision making. Twenty-eight AA men (14 older, mean age 59.8; 14 younger/middle age, mean age 30.4) received a PrCA education program and completed pre/post-education program surveys, as well as qualitative post-education interviews. Younger/middle-aged men were more knowledgeable about PrCA and PrCA screening than older men. Older men reported being invited to participate in a clinical trial more often than younger men but were more likely to report that participation in clinical trials was risky and they did not plan to participate in medical research in the future. Younger/middle-aged men were more willing to participate in a clinical trial in the future and reported fewer barriers to participation in clinical research. There is potential for using intergenerational communication strategies with older/younger AA male dyads in PrCA interventions. PMID:24557505

  2. Skin Vaccination against Cervical Cancer Associated Human Papillomavirus with a Novel Micro-Projection Array in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Holly J.; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Chen, Xianfeng; Frazer, Ian H.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Better delivery systems are needed for routinely used vaccines, to improve vaccine uptake. Many vaccines contain alum or alum based adjuvants. Here we investigate a novel dry-coated densely-packed micro-projection array skin patch (Nanopatch™) as an alternate delivery system to intramuscular injection for delivering an alum adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil®) commonly used as a prophylactic vaccine against cervical cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Micro-projection arrays dry-coated with vaccine material (Gardasil®) delivered to C57BL/6 mouse ear skin released vaccine within 5 minutes. To assess vaccine immunogenicity, doses of corresponding to HPV-16 component of the vaccine between 0.43±0.084 ng and 300±120 ng (mean ± SD) were administered to mice at day 0 and day 14. A dose of 55±6.0 ng delivered intracutaneously by micro-projection array was sufficient to produce a maximal virus neutralizing serum antibody response at day 28 post vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titres were sustained out to 16 weeks post vaccination, and, for comparable doses of vaccine, somewhat higher titres were observed with intracutaneous patch delivery than with intramuscular delivery with the needle and syringe at this time point. Conclusions/Significance Use of dry micro-projection arrays (Nanopatch™) has the potential to overcome the need for a vaccine cold chain for common vaccines currently delivered by needle and syringe, and to reduce risk of needle-stick injury and vaccine avoidance due to the fear of the needle especially among children. PMID:20976136

  3. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  4. Coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by sex: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Jessica L.; Freedman, Neal D.; Graubard, Barry I.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Lai, Gabriel Y.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsay Y.; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark P.; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Campbell, Peter T.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. Caffeine has chemopreventive properties, but whether caffeine is responsible for the coffee-HCC association is not well studied. In addition, few studies have examined the relationship by sex, and no studies have examined whether there is an association between coffee and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Methods In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of U.S.-based cohort studies, data from 1,212,893 individuals (HCC n=860, ICC n=260) in nine cohorts were pooled. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Results Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of HCC (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; ptrend cups/day=<0.0001). More notable reduced risk was seen among women than men (pinteraction=0.07). Women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day were at a 54% lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), whereas men had more modest reduced risk of HCC (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). The associations were stronger for caffeinated coffee (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.50-1.01) than decaffeinated coffee (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54). There was no relationship between coffee consumption and ICC. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in a U.S. population, coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC. Impact Further research into specific coffee compounds and mechanisms that may account for these associations is needed. PMID:26126626

  5. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  6. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process

  7. Use of maximum intensity projections (MIP) for target volume generation in 4DCT scans for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Underberg, Rene W.M.; Lagerwaard, Frank J. . E-mail: fj.lagerwaard@vumc.nl; Slotman, Ben J.; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Senan, Suresh

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: Single four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans reliably capture intrafractional tumor mobility for radiotherapy planning, but generating internal target volumes (ITVs) requires the contouring of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) in up to 10 phases of a 4DCT scan, as is routinely performed in our department. We investigated the use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) protocols for rapid generation of ITVs. Methods and Materials: 4DCT data from a mobile phantom and from 12 patients with Stage I lung cancer were analyzed. A single clinician contoured GTVs in all respiratory phases of a 4DCT, as well as in three consecutive phases selected for respiratory gating. MIP images were generated from both phantom and patient data, and ITVs were derived from encompassing volumes of the respective GTVs. Results: In the phantom study, the ratio between ITVs generated from all 10 phases and those from MIP scans was 1.04. The corresponding center of mass of both ITVs differed by less than 1 mm. In scans from patients, good agreement was observed between ITVs derived from 10 and 3 (gating) phases and corresponding MIPs, with ratios of 1.07 {+-} 0.05 and 0.98 {+-} 0.05, respectively. In addition, the center of mass of the respective ITVs differed by only 0.4 and 0.5 mm. Conclusion: MIPs are a reliable clinical tool for generating ITVs from 4DCT data sets, thereby permitting rapid assessment of mobility for both gated and nongated 4D radiotherapy in lung cancer.

  8. 76 FR 31329 - EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (Blue Book)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ..., sex, and potentially affected organ. More specifically, the Blue Book presents new EPA estimates of... cancer, (3) sex, (4) and the type of cancer. Estimates of cancer risk are based on these models....

  9. Evaluation of bituminous materials used in pavement recycling projects at Tyndall, MacDill, and Hurlburt Air Force Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiggundu, B.; Martinez, R.; Humphrey, B.; Shuler, T.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents results of a study involving bituminous materials from Tyndall and MacDill Air Force Bases and Hurlburt Field. These materials included Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), modifiers, virgin asphalts, and new aggregates. A tentative modifier selection criterion was used to judge the quality of materials used in the recycling efforts at the respective sites. The results showed that independent adequacy of physical properties from chemical properties in selection of modifiers could not be established. However, some of the results showed that physical properties were more sensitive indicators of changes in binders due to aging. In addition, this report includes the tentative modifier selection criteria and results of an interlaboratory study from which variability limits to parameters determined using modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are established. The modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are included.

  10. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals Not smoking or chewing tobacco Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily Cancer screenings, such as mammography and breast ...

  11. Do refined consensus guidelines improve the uniformity of clinical target volume delineation for rectal cancer? Results of a national review project.

    PubMed

    Joye, Ines; Macq, Gilles; Vaes, Evelien; Roels, Sarah; Lambrecht, Maarten; Pelgrims, Ans; Bussels, Barbara; Vancleef, An; Stellamans, Karin; Scalliet, Pierre; Weytjens, Reinhilde; Christian, Nicolas; Boulanger, Anne-Sophie; Donnay, Lorraine; Van Brussel, Sara; Moretti, Luigi; Van den Bergh, Laura; Van Eycken, Elisabeth; Debucquoy, Annelies; Haustermans, Karin

    2016-08-01

    In a previous national central review project, 74% of the rectal cancer clinical target volumes (CTVs) needed a modification. In a follow-up initiative, we evaluated whether the use of refined international consensus guidelines improves the uniformity of CTV delineation in clinical practice. PMID:27373910

  12. DFCI Gene Index Project: Interactive Data Maps for Plant, Animal, Protist, and Fungi Organisims from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

    DOE Data Explorer

    Funding for the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Gene Index Project ended and the database was taken down in July of 2014. However, this record links you to the "tombstone" page where you will find FTP addresses for the software tools and the data created.

  13. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chornack, M.P.; French, C.A.

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for phase 2 Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building -- Project W-379

    SciTech Connect

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-06-17

    The purpose of this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to provide a rewritten NOC for obtaining regulatory approval for changes to the previous Canister Storage Building (CSB) NOCs (WDOH, 1996 and EPA, 1996) as were approved by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH, 1996a) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 1996a). These changes are because of a revised sealing configuration of the multi-canister overpacks (MCOS) that are used to store the SNF. A flow schematic of the SNF Project is provided in Figure 1-1. A separate notification of startup will be provided apart from this NOC.

  15. Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

  16. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  17. State of Washington Department of Health radioactive air emission notice of construction phase 1 for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated annual possession quantity resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System Annex (HCSA). This information will be discussed again in the Phase II NOC, providing additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the HCSA. This Phase I NOC is defined as construct in the substructure, including but limited to, pouring the concrete for the floor; construction of the process pits and exterior walls; making necessary interface connections to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) ventilation and utility systems for personnel comfort; and extending the multi-canister over-pack (MCO) handling machine rails into the HCSA. A Phase II NOC will be submitted for approval prior to installation and is defined as the completion of the HCSA, which will consist of installation of Hot Conditioning System Equipment (HCSA), air emissions control equipment, and emission monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2,300 MT (2,530 tons) of N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCSA will be constructed as an addition to the CSB and will contain the HCSA. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will remove chemically-bound water and will passivate the exposed uranium surfaces associated,with the SNF. The HCSA will house seven hot

  18. [Projection of the incidence of breast cancer in France in 2018].

    PubMed

    Bouée, S; Grosclaude, P; Alfonsi, A; Florentin, V; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagnani, F

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work is to estimate the trends of the incidence of breast cancer until 2018, in the French context on the basis of an age cohort model. The model extrapolates the trend of incidence rate per generation and age, incorporates the effects of demographic changes in the female population in terms of size and age structure and simulates the impact of the withdrawal of the use of hormone therapy for menopause (HTM) under different assumptions. The results suggest a continuous growth in the number of incident cases that would increase from 49,814 to 64,621 between 2005 and 2018. Changes in incidence following the HTM use withdrawal, should be moderate and transient. The most important epidemiological parameters in explaining the future incidence of breast cancer remains the "cohort" effect that continues to have a significant impact until the extinction of cohorts for which the increase was more marked (birth years 1920 to 1945). This factor alone explains 18% of the growth in the number of incident cases in 2018, while the effect of population growth account for 6.6%, the cessation of HTM a 6.4% decrease and aging a 4.6% growth.

  19. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Statistics and Data Center - Support for Childhood Cancer Research Projects Conducted through the COG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J; Krailo, M

    2011-04-11

    Project Description: These monies will support statistical staff within the Children's Oncology Group's Statistics and Data Center. A portion of these funds will allow the hiring of a full time Master's level statistician within the Group Operations Center in Arcadia, CA to assist current PhD level statisticians with the analysis of completed and ongoing pediatric clinical trials conducted through the COG. Approximately 50% of this individual's effort will be shared by the PhD statisticians located within the COG Group Operations Center with percent effort assigned by the Associate Group Statistician. The remaining 50% will be used to support projects of general interest to the Statistics and Data Center including the development of tools to facilitate Clinical Data Upload System (CDUS) reporting and the production of study public and Data Safety Monitoring Committee reports. The remaining balance of monies will facilitate the hiring of one full time PhD level statistician located at the SDC office in Gainesville, FL. This individual will be focused on the most common pediatric cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).

  20. Project Zero Delay: a process for accelerating the activation of cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Pilat, Susan; Bartolazzi, Marcel; Sanders, Dwana; Van Wart Hood, Jill; Tucker, Stanley D; Webster, Kevin; Mallamaci, Michael A; Strand, Steven; Babcock, Eileen; Bast, Robert C

    2009-09-10

    Drug development in cancer research is lengthy and expensive. One of the rate-limiting steps is the initiation of first-in-human (phase I) trials. Three to 6 months can elapse between investigational new drug (IND) approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the entry of a first patient. Issues related to patient participation have been well analyzed, but the administrative processes relevant to implementing clinical trials have received less attention. While industry and academia often partner for the performance of phase I studies, their administrative processes are generally performed independently, and their timelines driven by different priorities: safety reviews, clinical operations, regulatory submissions, and contracting of clinical delivery vendors for industry; contracts, budgets, and institutional review board approval for academia. Both processes converge on US Food and Drug Administration approval of an IND. In the context of a strategic alliance between M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, a concerted effort has been made to eliminate delays in implementing clinical trials. These efforts focused on close communications, identifying and matching key timelines, alignment of priorities, and tackling administrative processes in parallel, rather than sequentially. In a recent, first-in-human trial, the study was activated and the first patient identified in 46 days from completion of the final study protocol and about 48 hours after final US Food and Drug Administration IND approval, reducing the overall timeline by about 3 months, while meeting all clinical good practice guidelines. Eliminating administrative delays can accelerate the evaluation of new drugs without compromising patient safety or the quality of clinical research. PMID:19652061

  1. An alternative approach for investigating the carcinogenicity of indoor air pollution: pets as sentinels of environmental cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, J A; Wartenberg, D

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, the cancer risks associated with radon,environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and similar indoor residential exposures have been evaluated through either laboratory experiments in rodents or epidemiology studies in people. Laboratory studies have the advantage of being controlled experiments, but their utility as estimators of human risk is limited by the uncertainties of extrapolating from rodents to people and from high doses to those typically experienced in the home. These experiments also subject animals to noxious exposures, causing suffering that may be considered cruel. Traditional epidemiology studies evaluate human risk directly, at the exposure levels present in residences; however, these studies are limited by their potential for misclassification, biased recall, and uncontrolled confounding. The long time intervals involved between exposure and disease (often 30 years or more) make accurate recall particularly problematic. In this paper we discuss the limitations of these traditional approaches, especially as they relate to residential studies of radon and ETS. The problems associated with the maximum tolerated dose in rodent bioassays and exposure misclassification in traditional epidemiology are particularly examined. A third approach that supplements the traditional approaches and overcomes some of their limitations is suggested. This approach, dubbed pet epidemiology, estimates residential cancer risk by examining the exposure experience of pet dogs with naturally occurring cancers. The history of pet epidemiology is reviewed and its strengths and limitations are examined. Images p1312-a PMID:9405322

  2. Historical and projected emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from China's room air conditioning sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Fang, Xuekun; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Li, Zhifang; Hu, Jianxin; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Recent decades witnessed the increase in production and uses of HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) and its alternative, HFC-410A (a blend of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane), in China in response to the booming of room air conditioners (RACs) for both domestic use and exports. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol, while both HCFC-22 and HFC-410A are greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study provides a most comprehensive consumption and emission inventory of refrigerants emissions (HCFC-22 and HFC-410A) from RAC sector during 1995-2014, for the first time. Our estimates show that HCFC-22 emissions increased from 0.7 Gg/yr in 1995 to 48.2 Gg/yr in 2014. The accumulative emissions contributed to global total HCFCs emissions by 4.4% (3.3%-6.1%) CFC-11-equivalent (CFC-11-eq) and 5.4% (4.1%-7.5%) CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) during 1995-2012. If left uncontrolled, accumulative emissions of HFC-410A will be12.4 (7.1-20.2) CO2-eq Pg during 2015-2050, which can offset the global climate benefits achieved by the Montreal Protocol. The HFC-410A emissions from China's RAC sector are estimated to be of importance to both global HFCs emissions and China's GHG emissions. Further, we probed the emission mitigation performances of the current 2014 North American Proposal scenario and a modified more ambitious scenario. The emissions of two mitigation scenarios are only 28% and 22% of the emissions without mitigation actions, respectively. This study is the first effort to map the transition of eliminated substance HCFC-22 and its alternative HFC-410A in RAC sector. Therefore, alternative chemicals should be scrutinized with cautions before they are promoted and applied.

  3. Projections of high resolution climate changes for South Korea using multiple-regional climate models based on four RCP scenarios. Part 1: surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Myoung-Seok; Oh, Seok-Geun; Lee, Young-Suk; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    We projected surface air temperature changes over South Korea during the mid (2026-2050) and late (2076-2100) 21st century against the current climate (1981-2005) using the simulation results from five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, coupled with the Atmosphere- Ocean (HadGEM2-AO), and two ensemble methods (equal weighted averaging, weighted averaging based on Taylor's skill score) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. In general, the five RCM ensembles captured the spatial and seasonal variations, and probability distribution of temperature over South Korea reasonably compared to observation. They particularly showed a good performance in simulating annual temperature range compared to HadGEM2-AO. In future simulation, the temperature over South Korea will increase significantly for all scenarios and seasons. Stronger warming trends are projected in the late 21st century than in the mid-21st century, in particular under RCP8.5. The five RCM ensembles projected that temperature changes for the mid/late 21st century relative to the current climate are +1.54°C/+1.92°C for RCP2.6, +1.68°C/+2.91°C for RCP4.5, +1.17°C/+3.11°C for RCP6.0, and +1.75°C/+4.73°C for RCP8.5. Compared to the temperature projection of HadGEM2-AO, the five RCM ensembles projected smaller increases in temperature for all RCP scenarios and seasons. The inter-RCM spread is proportional to the simulation period (i.e., larger in the late-21st than mid-21st century) and significantly greater (about four times) in winter than summer for all RCP scenarios. Therefore, the modeled predictions of temperature increases during the late 21st century, particularly for winter temperatures, should be used with caution.

  4. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: the Black Churches United for Better Health project.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M K; Demark-Wahnefried, W; Symons, M; Kalsbeek, W D; Dodds, J; Cowan, A; Jackson, B; Motsinger, B; Hoben, K; Lashley, J; Demissie, S; McClelland, J W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of the Black Churches United for Better Health project on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among rural African American church members in North Carolina. METHODS: Ten counties comprising 50 churches were pair matched and randomly assigned to either intervention or delayed intervention (no program until after the follow-up survey) conditions. A multicomponent intervention was conducted over approximately 20 months. A total of 2519 adults (77.3% response rate) completed both the baseline and 2-year follow-up interviews. RESULTS: The 2 study groups consumed similar amounts of fruits and vegetables at baseline. AT the 2-year follow-up, the intervention group consumed 0.85 (SE = 0.12) servings more than the delayed intervention group (P < .0001). The largest increases were observed among people 66 years or older (1 serving), those with education beyond high school (0.92 servings), those widowed or divorced (0.96 servings), and those attending church frequently (1.3 servings). The last improvement occurred among those aged 18 to 37 years and those who were single. CONCLUSIONS: The project was a successful model for achieving dietary change among rural African Americans. PMID:10474558

  6. Flexible modeling of exposure-response relationship between long-term average levels of particulate air pollution and mortality in the American Cancer Society study.

    PubMed

    Abrahamowicz, Michal; Schopflocher, Tom; Leffondré, Karen; du Berger, Roxane; Krewski, Daniel

    Accurate estimation of the exposure-response relationship between environmental particulate air pollution and mortality is important from both an etiologic and regulatory perspective. However, little is known about the actual shapes of these exposure-response curves. The objective of this study was to estimate the exposure-response relationships between mortality and long-term average city-specific levels of sulfates and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). We reanalyzed the data derived from the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective study conducted in the United States between 1982 and 1989. Exposure to particulate air pollution was assessed prior to entry into the cohort. Mean sulfate concentrations for 1980 were available in 151 cities, and median PM(2.5) levels between 1979 and 1983 were available in 50 cities. Two sampling strategies were employed to reduce the computational burden. The modified case-cohort approach combined a random subcohort of 1200 individuals with an additional 1300 cases (i.e., deaths). The second strategy involved pooling the results of separate analyses of 10 disjoint random subsets, each with about 2200 participants. To assess the independent effect of the particulate levels on all-causes mortality, we relied on flexible, nonparametric survival analytical methods. To eliminate potentially restrictive assumptions underlying the conventional models, we employed a flexible regression spline generalization of the Cox proportional-hazards (PH) model. The regression spline method allowed us to model simultaneously the time-dependent changes in the effect of particulate matter on the hazard and a possibly nonlinear exposure-response relationship. The PH and linearity hypotheses were tested using likelihood ratio tests. In all analyses, we stratified by age and 5-yr age groups and adjusted for the subject's age, lifetime smoking exposure, obesity, and education. For both fine particles (PM(2.5)) and

  7. Evaluating HapMap SNP data transferability in a large-scale genotyping project involving 175 cancer-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Gloria; González-Neira, Anna; Salas, Antonio; Milne, Roger L; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Begoña; González, Emilio; Barroso, Eva; Fernández, Lara P; Yankilevich, Patricio; Robledo, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Benítez, Javier

    2006-02-01

    One of the many potential uses of the HapMap project is its application to the investigation of complex disease aetiology among a wide range of populations. This study aims to assess the transferability of HapMap SNP data to the Spanish population in the context of cancer research. We have carried out a genotyping study in Spanish subjects involving 175 candidate cancer genes using an indirect gene-based approach and compared results with those for HapMap CEU subjects. Allele frequencies were very consistent between the two samples, with a high positive correlation (R) of 0.91 (P<1x10(-6)). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and block structures across each gene were also very similar, with disequilibrium coefficient (r (2)) highly correlated (R=0.95, P<1x10(-6)). We found that of the 21 genes that contained at least one block larger than 60 kb, nine (ATM, ATR, BRCA1, ERCC6, FANCC, RAD17, RAD50, RAD54B and XRCC4) belonged to the GO category "DNA repair". Haplotype frequencies per gene were also highly correlated (mean R=0.93), as was haplotype diversity (R=0.91, P<1x10(-6)). "Yin yang" haplotypes were observed for 43% of the genes analysed and 18% of those were identical to the ancestral haplotype (identified in Chimpazee). Finally, the portability of tagSNPs identified in the HapMap CEU data using pairwise r (2) thresholds of 0.8 and 0.5 was assessed by applying these to the Spanish and current HapMap data for 66 genes. In general, the HapMap tagSNPs performed very well. Our results show generally high concordance with HapMap data in allele frequencies and haplotype distributions and confirm the applicability of HapMap SNP data to the study of complex diseases among the Spanish population.

  8. NASA/American Cancer Society High-Resolution Flow Cytometry Project-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. A.; Krishan, A.; Robinson, D. M.; Sams, C.; Costa, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NASA/American Cancer Society (ACS) flow cytometer can simultaneously analyze the electronic nuclear volume (ENV) and DNA content of cells. This study describes the schematics, resolution, reproducibility, and sensitivity of biological standards analyzed on this unit. METHODS: Calibrated beads and biological standards (lymphocytes, trout erythrocytes [TRBC], calf thymocytes, and tumor cells) were analyzed for ENV versus DNA content. Parallel data (forward scatter versus DNA) from a conventional flow cytometer were obtained. RESULTS: ENV linearity studies yielded an R value of 0.999. TRBC had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.18 +/- 0.13. DNA indexes as low as 1.02 were detectable. DNA content of lymphocytes from 42 females was 1.9% greater than that for 60 males, with a noninstrumental variability in total DNA content of 0.5%. The ENV/DNA ratio was constant in 15 normal human tissue samples, but differed in the four animal species tested. The ENV/DNA ratio for a hypodiploid breast carcinoma was 2.3 times greater than that for normal breast tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The high-resolution ENV versus DNA analyses are highly reliable, sensitive, and can be used for the detection of near-diploid tumor cells that are difficult to identify with conventional cytometers. ENV/DNA ratio may be a useful parameter for detection of aneuploid populations.

  9. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references.

  10. Evidence for passive mineral carbonation from carbon isotope geochemistry of interstitial air in mine wastes from the Dumont Nickel Project (Abitibi, Quebec).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, A.; Beaudoin, G.; Molson, J. W. H.; Plante, B.; Lemieux, J. M.; Kandji, E. H. B.

    2014-12-01

    Natural weathering of ultramafic rocks in mine tailings allows the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through the formation of magnesium carbonates. The Dumont Nickel Project (DNP) is being studied to estimate the CO2 sequestration potential of future mining residues and to evaluate the impact of mineral carbonation on the quality of mine waste drainage water. For this purpose, experimental cells were built and instrumented in 2011. The first was constructed using milling waste and the second with mining waste. Laboratory characterization of residues and field observations will be combined to propose a quantitative model of mineral carbonation and metal leaching. A decrease of CO2 concentration in the mining waste cell, from atmospheric concentrations (~390 ppmv) near the surface of the cell to ~100 ppmv near the bottom, reflects active CO2 consumption by the residues. This cell contains mining waste with a large grain size distribution ranging from blocks (<40cm) to silt-size grains. Magnesium-rich minerals such as lizardite, chrysotile and brucite are the major minerals in the residues. Mineralogical analyses (XRD, SEM and EPMA) reveal precipitation of brugnatellite and hydromagnesite, with a lamellar texture on the surface of serpentine grains. In order to better identify the different processes involved in carbonation, the carbon isotopic composition of the interstitial gases was analysed in-situ with a WS-CRDS instrument. An increase of d13C(air) from -8‰ to ~2 ‰ is correlated with the decrease in CO2 concentration within the cell, and can be explained by dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in interstitial water (Dco2-DIC 11‰) in the DNP mining residues. As gas advection is slow, CO2 supply driven by diffusion is the limiting step in the experimental cell. CO2 dissolution in interstitial water under this limited CO2 supply condition enriches 13C in residual CO2 in interstitial air. Optimized mineral carbonation reactions in DNP mining waste will require an

  11. Plasma Proteomics, The Human Proteome Project, and Cancer-Associated Alternative Splice Variant Proteins☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses three inter-related subjects: the development of the Human Plasma Proteome Peptide Atlas, the launch of the Human Proteome Project, and the emergence of alternative splice variant transcripts and proteins as important features of evolution and pathogenesis. The current Plasma Peptide Atlas provides evidence on which peptides have been detected for every protein confidently identified in plasma; there are links to their spectra and their estimated abundance, facilitating the planning of targeted proteomics for biomarker studies. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) combines a chromosome-centric C-HPP with a biology and disease-driven B/D-HPP, upon a foundation of mass spectrometry, antibody, and knowledgebase resource pillars. The HPP aims to identify the approximately 7000 “missing proteins” and to characterize all proteins and their many isoforms. Success will enable the larger research community to utilize newly-available peptides, spectra, informative MS transitions, and databases for targeted analyses of priority proteins for each organ and disease. Among the isoforms of proteins, splice variants have the special feature of greatly enlarging protein diversity without enlarging the genome; evidence is accumulating of striking differential expression of splice variants in cancers. In this era of RNA-sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, it is no longer sufficient to speak simply of increased or decreased expression of genes or proteins without carefully examining the splice variants in the protein mixture produced from each multi-exon gene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24211518

  12. Record linkage to correct under-ascertainment of cancers in HIV cohorts: The Sinikithemba HIV clinic linkage project.

    PubMed

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kielkowski, Danuta; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Cloete, Christie; Giddy, Janet; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-09-15

    The surveillance of HIV-related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods. We calculated incidence rates for all cancers, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), cervix, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) before and after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8,721 records of HIV-positive patients were linked with 35,536 cancer records. Between 2004 and 2010, we identified 448 cancers, 82% (n = 367) were recorded in the cancer registry only, 10% (n = 43) in the HIV cohort only and 8% (n = 38) both in the HIV cohort and the cancer registry. The overall cancer incidence rate in patients starting ART increased from 134 (95% CI 91-212) to 877 (95% CI 744-1,041) per 100,000 person-years after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers. Incidence rates were highest for KS (432, 95% CI 341-555), followed by cervix (259, 95% CI 179-390) and NADCs (294, 95% CI 223-395) per 100,000 person-years. Ascertainment of cancer in HIV cohorts is incomplete, PRL is both feasible and essential for cancer ascertainment. PMID:27098265

  13. Aviation-attributable ozone as a driver for changes in mortality related to air quality and skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2016-11-01

    Aviation is a significant source of tropospheric ozone, which is a critical UV blocking agent, an indirect precursor to the formation of particulate matter, and a respiratory health hazard. To date, investigations of human health impacts related to aviation emissions have focused on particulate matter, and no global estimate yet exists of the combined health impact of aviation due to ozone, particulate matter and UV exposure changes. We use a coupled tropospheric-stratospheric chemical-transport model with a global aviation emissions inventory to estimate the total impact of aviation on all three risk factors. We find that surface ozone due to aviation emissions is maximized during hemispheric winter due to the greater wintertime chemical lifetime of ozone, but that a smaller enhancement of 0.5 ppbv occurs during summertime. This summertime increase results in an estimated 6,800 premature mortalities per year due to ozone exposure, over three times greater than previous estimates. During the winter maximum, interaction with high background NOx concentrations results in enhanced production of nitrate aerosol and increased annual average exposure to particulate matter. This ozone perturbation is shown to be the driving mechanism behind an additional 9,200 premature mortalities due to exposure to particulate matter. However, the increase in tropospheric ozone is also found to result in 400 fewer mortalities due to melanoma skin cancer in 2006. This is the first estimate of global melanoma mortality due to aviation, and the first estimate of skin cancer mortality impacts due to aviation using a global chemical transport model.

  14. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  15. Community collaboration to increase foreign-born women¿s participation in a cervical cancer screening program in Sweden: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevailing inequities in healthcare have been well addressed in previous research, especially screening program participation, but less attention has been paid to how to overcome these inequities. This paper explores a key factor of a successful improvement project: collaboration with local doulas to raise cervical cancer screening participation by more than 40 percent in an area with a large number of foreign-born residents. Methods Data was collected through two focus group discussions with the doulas in order to design interventions and debrief after interventions had been carried out in the community. Various tools were used to analyze the verbal data and monitor the progress of the project. Results Three major themes emerged from the focus group discussions: barriers that prevent women from participating in the cervical cancer screening program, interventions to increase participation, and the role of the doulas in the interventions. Conclusions This paper suggests that several barriers make participation in cervical cancer screening program more difficult for foreign-born women in Sweden. Specifically, these barriers include lack of knowledge concerning cancer and the importance of preventive healthcare services and practical obstacles such as unavailable child care and language skills. The overarching approach to surmount these barriers was to engage persons with a shared cultural background and mother tongue as the target audience to verbally communicate information. The doulas who helped to identify barriers and plan and execute interventions gained increased confidence and a sense of pride in assisting to bridge the gap between healthcare providers and users. PMID:25106490

  16. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity. PMID:22985196

  17. Dosimetric comparison of treatment plans based on free breathing, maximum, and average intensity projection CTs for lung cancer SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Wang Zhiheng; Ge Hong; Zhang Tian; Cai Jing; Kelsey, Christopher; Yoo, David; Yin Fangfang

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To determine whether there is a CT dataset may be more favorable for planning and dose calculation by comparing dosimetric characteristics between treatment plans calculated using free breathing (FB), maximum and average intensity projection (MIP and AIP, respectively) CTs for lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Twenty lung cancer SBRT patients, treated on a linac with 2.5 mm width multileaf-collimator (MLC), were analyzed retrospectively. Both FB helical and four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for each patient. Internal target volume (ITV) was delineated based on MIP CTs and modified based on both ten-phase datasets and FB CTs. Planning target volume (PTV) was then determined by adding additional setup margin to ITV. The PTVs and beams in the optimized treatment plan based on FB CTs were copied to MIP and AIP CTs, with the same isocenters, MLC patterns and monitor units. Mean effective depth (MED) of beams, and some dosimetric parameters for both PTVs and most important organ at risk (OAR), lung minus PTV, were compared between any two datasets using two-tail paired t test. Results: The MEDs in FB and AIP plans were similar but significantly smaller (Ps < 0.001) than that in MIP plans. Minimum dose, mean dose, dose covering at least 90% and 95% of PTVs in MIP plans were slightly higher than two other plans (Ps < 0.008). The absolute volume of lung minus PTV receiving greater than 5, 10, and 20 Gy in MIP plans were significantly smaller than those in both FB and AIP plans (Ps < 0.008). Conformity index for FB plans showed a small but statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Dosimetric characteristics of AIP plans are similar to those of FB plans. Slightly better target volume coverage and significantly lower low-dose region ({<=}30 Gy) in lung was observed in MIP plans. The decrease in low-dose region in lung was mainly caused by the change of lung volume contoured on two datasets rather than the

  18. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  19. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  20. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  1. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  2. Reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among US women: results from the Liver Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, K A; Sahasrabuddhe, V V; Campbell, P T; Graubard, B I; Chen, J; Schwartz, L M; Petrick, J L; Alavanja, M C; Andreotti, G; Boggs, D A; Buring, J E; Chan, A T; Freedman, N D; Gapstur, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Hou, L; King, L Y; Koshiol, J; Linet, M; Palmer, J R; Poynter, J N; Purdue, M; Robien, K; Schairer, C; Sesso, H D; Sigurdson, A; Wactawski-Wende, J; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs less commonly among women than men in almost all regions of the world. The disparity in risk is particularly notable prior to menopause suggesting that hormonal exposures during reproductive life may be protective. Exogenous oestrogenic exposures such as oral contraceptives (OCs), however, have been reported to increase risk, suggesting that estrogens may be hepatocarcinogenic. To examine the effects of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones on risk, we conducted a prospective analysis among a large group of US women. Methods: In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of US-based cohort studies, data from 799 500 women in 11 cohorts were pooled and harmonised. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones with HCC (n=248). Results: Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC (HR=2.67, 95% CI=1.22–5.85), which did not appear to be related to a shorter duration of exposure to endogenous hormones or to menopausal hormone therapy use. There was no association between OC use and HCC (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.82–1.55). Nor were there associations with parity, age at first birth, age at natural menopause, or duration of fertility. Conclusions: The current study suggests that bilateral oophorectomy increases the risk of HCC but the explanation for the association is unclear. There was no association between OC use and HCC risk. Examination of endogenous hormone levels in relation to HCC may help to clarify the findings of the current study. PMID:25742475

  3. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  4. Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

  5. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  6. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  7. Separating the influence of projected changes in air temperature and wind on patterns of sea level change and ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenko, Oleg A.; Yang, Duo; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Spence, Paul; Myers, Paul G.

    2015-08-01

    We present ocean model sensitivity experiments aimed at separating the influence of the projected changes in the "thermal" (near-surface air temperature) and "wind" (near-surface winds) forcing on the patterns of sea level and ocean heat content. In the North Atlantic, the distribution of sea level change is more due to the "thermal" forcing, whereas it is more due to the "wind" forcing in the North Pacific; in the Southern Ocean, the "thermal" and "wind" forcing have a comparable influence. In the ocean adjacent to Antarctica the "thermal" forcing leads to an inflow of warmer waters on the continental shelves, which is somewhat attenuated by the "wind" forcing. The structure of the vertically integrated heat uptake is set by different processes at low and high latitudes: at low latitudes it is dominated by the heat transport convergence, whereas at high latitudes it represents a small residual of changes in the surface flux and advection of heat. The structure of the horizontally integrated heat content tendency is set by the increase of downward heat flux by the mean circulation and comparable decrease of upward heat flux by the subgrid-scale processes; the upward eddy heat flux decreases and increases by almost the same magnitude in response to, respectively, the "thermal" and "wind" forcing. Regionally, the surface heat loss and deep convection weaken in the Labrador Sea, but intensify in the Greenland Sea in the region of sea ice retreat. The enhanced heat flux anomaly in the subpolar Atlantic is mainly caused by the "thermal" forcing.

  8. Indoor radon and lung cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Blot, W.J.; Xu, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Zhao, D.Z.; Stone, B.J.; Sun, J.; Jing, L.B.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-06-20

    Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer risk, we placed alpha-track radon detectors in the homes of 308 women with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 356 randomly selected female control subjects of similar age. Measurements were taken after 1 year. All study participants were part of the general population of Shenyang, People's Republic of China, an industrial city in the northeast part of the country that has one of the world's highest rates of lung cancer in women. The median time of residence in the homes was 24 years. The median household radon level was 2.3 pCi/L of air; 20% of the levels were greater than 4 pCi/L. Radon levels tended to be higher in single-story houses or on the first floor of multiple-story dwellings, and they were also higher in houses with increased levels of indoor air pollution from coal-burning stoves. However, the levels were not higher in homes of women who developed lung cancer than in homes of controls, nor did lung cancer risk increase with increasing radon level. No association between radon and lung cancer was observed regardless of cigarette-smoking status, except for a nonsignificant trend among heavy smokers. No positive associations of lung cancer cell type with radon were observed, except for a nonsignificant excess risk of small cell cancers among the more heavily exposed residents. Our data suggest that projections from surveys of miners exposed to high radon levels may have overestimated the overall risks of lung cancer associated with levels typically seen in homes in this Chinese city.

  9. Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5, 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may shorten the lives of lung cancer patients, ... the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies air pollution as a cancer-causing agent. "This study, along ...

  10. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  11. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  12. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  13. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  14. The use and interpretation of anthropometric measures in cancer epidemiology: A perspective from the world cancer research fund international continuous update project.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Fay, Stephanie H; Giovannucci, Edward; Leitzmann, Michael F; Marklew, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne; Mullee, Amy; Romieu, Isabelle; Thune, Inger; Uauy, Ricardo; Wiseman, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric measures relating to body size, weight and composition are increasingly being associated with cancer risk and progression. Whilst practical in epidemiologic research, where population-level associations with disease are revealed, it is important to be aware that such measures are imperfect markers of the internal physiological processes that are the actual correlates of cancer development. Body mass index (BMI), the most commonly used marker for adiposity, may mask differences between lean and adipose tissue, or fat distribution, which varies across individuals, ethnicities, and stage in the lifespan. Other measures, such as weight gain in adulthood, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, contribute information on adipose tissue distribution and insulin sensitivity. Single anthropometric measures do not capture maturational events, including the presence of critical windows of susceptibility (i.e., age of menarche and menopause), which presents a challenge in epidemiologic work. Integration of experimental research on underlying dynamic genetic, hormonal, and other non-nutritional mechanisms is necessary for a confident conclusion of the overall evidence in cancer development and progression. This article discusses the challenges confronted in evaluating and interpreting the current evidence linking anthropometric factors and cancer risk as a basis for issuing recommendations for cancer prevention.

  15. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  16. Integrative Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Signature in Bladder Cancer: A Linkage to The Cancer Genome Atlas Project and Prediction of Survival

    PubMed Central

    von Rundstedt, Friedrich-Carl; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Ma, Jing; Arnold, James M.; Gohlke, Jie; Putluri, Vasanta; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Piyarathna, D. Badrajee; Lotan, Yair; Gödde, Daniel; Roth, Stephan; Störkel, Stephan; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Lerner, Seth P.; Coarfa, Cristian; Putluri, Nagireddy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We used targeted mass spectrometry to study the metabolic fingerprint of urothelial cancer and determine whether the biochemical pathway analysis gene signature would have a predictive value in independent cohorts of patients with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Pathologically evaluated, bladder derived tissues, including benign adjacent tissue from 14 patients and bladder cancer from 46, were analyzed by liquid chromatography based targeted mass spectrometry. Differential metabolites associated with tumor samples in comparison to benign tissue were identified by adjusting the p values for multiple testing at a false discovery rate threshold of 15%. Enrichment of pathways and processes associated with the metabolic signature were determined using the GO (Gene Ontology) Database and MSigDB (Molecular Signature Database). Integration of metabolite alterations with transcriptome data from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) was done to identify the molecular signature of 30 metabolic genes. Available outcome data from TCGA portal were used to determine the association with survival. Results We identified 145 metabolites, of which analysis revealed 31 differential metabolites when comparing benign and tumor tissue samples. Using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Database we identified a total of 174 genes that correlated with the altered metabolic pathways involved. By integrating these genes with the transcriptomic data from the corresponding TCGA data set we identified a metabolic signature consisting of 30 genes. The signature was significant in its prediction of survival in 95 patients with a low signature score vs 282 with a high signature score (p = 0.0458). Conclusions Targeted mass spectrometry of bladder cancer is highly sensitive for detecting metabolic alterations. Applying transcriptome data allows for integration into larger data sets and identification of relevant metabolic pathways in bladder cancer progression. PMID:26802582

  17. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  18. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  19. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. [How to understand and facilitate return to school of high school students treated for cancer: analysis of a sociology research-action project].

    PubMed

    Rollin, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.

  1. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  2. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  3. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  4. An evaluation of the integration of non-traditional learning tools into a community based breast and cervical cancer education program: The witness project of Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thelma C; Muti, Paola; Erwin, Deborah O; Womack, Sharita

    2003-01-01

    Background Breast and cervical cancer continue to represent major health challenges for African American women. among Caucasian women. The underlying reasons for this disparity are multifactorial and include lack of education and awareness of screening and early detection. Traditional educational methods have enjoyed varied success in the African American community and spawned development of novel educational approaches. Community based education programs employing a variety of educational models have been introduced. Successful programs must train and provide lay community members with the tools necessary to deliver strong educational programs. Methods The Witness Project is a theory-based, breast and cervical cancer educational program, delivered by African American women, that stresses the importance of early detection and screening to improve survival and teaches women how to perform breast self examination. Implementing this program in the Buffalo Witness Project of Buffalo required several modifications in the curriculum, integration of non-traditional learning tools and focused training in clinical study participation. The educational approaches utilized included repetition, modeling, building comprehension, reinforcement, hands on learning, a social story on breast health for African American women, and role play conversations about breast and cervical health and support. Results Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into the Witness Project training resulted in a 79% improvement in the number of women who mastered the didactic information. A seventy-two percent study participation rate was achieved by educating the community organizations that hosted Witness Project programs about the informed consent process and study participation. Conclusion Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into community outreach programs increases training success as well as community participation. PMID:12775219

  5. Characteristics of future air cargo demand and impact on aircraft development: A report on the Cargo/Logistic Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Current domestic and international air cargo operations are studied and the characteristics of 1990 air cargo demand are postulated from surveys conducted at airports and with shippers, consignees, and freight forwarders as well as air, land, and ocean carriers. Simulation and route optimization programs are exercised to evaluate advanced aircraft concepts. The results show that proposed changes in the infrastructure and improved cargo loading efficiencies are as important enhancing the prospects of air cargo growth as is the advent of advanced freighter aircraft. Potential reductions in aircraft direct operating costs are estimated and related to future total revenue. Service and cost elasticities are established and utilized to estimate future potential tariff reductions that may be realized through direct and indirect operating cost reductions and economies of scale.

  6. An assessment of air toxics in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pratt, G C; Palmer, K; Wu, C Y; Oliaei, F; Hollerbach, C; Fenske, M J

    2000-09-01

    We used monitoring and modeling to assess the concentrations of air toxics in the state of Minnesota. Model-predicted concentrations for 148 hazardous air pollutants were from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cumulative Exposure Project (1990 data). Monitoring data consisted of samples of volatile organic compounds, carbonyls, and particulate matter [Less than and equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter collected at 25 sites throughout the state for varying periods of time (up to 8 years; 1991-1998). Ten pollutants exceeded health benchmark values at one or more sites by modeling, monitoring, or both (including acrolein, arsenic, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, chloroform, ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde, and nickel). Polycyclic organic matter also exceeded the benzo[a]pyrene health benchmark value assumed to represent this class of pollutants. The highest modeled and monitored concentrations of most pollutants were near the center of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area; however, many smaller cities throughout the state also had elevated concentrations. Where direct comparisons were possible, monitored values often tended to exceed model estimates. Upper-bound excess lifetime inhalation cancer risks were estimated to range from 2.7 [times] 10(-5) to 140. 9 [times] 10(-5) (modeling) and 4.7 [times] 10(-5) to 11.0 [times] 10(-5) (using a smaller set of monitored carcinogens). Screening noncancer hazard indices summed over all end points ranged from 0.2 to 58.1 (modeling) and 0.6 to 2.0 (with a smaller set of monitored pollutants). For common sets of pollutants, the concentrations, cancer risks, and noncancer hazard indices were comparable between model-based estimates and monitored values. The inhalation cancer risk was apportioned to mobile sources (54%), area sources (22%), point sources (12%), and background (12%). This study provides evidence that air toxics are a public health concern in Minnesota.

  7. Development of a risk assessment tool for projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Gao, Ying; Battsend, Munkhzul; Chen, Kexin; Lu, Wenli; Wang, Yaogang

    2014-11-01

    The optimal approach regarding breast cancer screening for Chinese women is unclear due to the relative low incidence rate. A risk assessment tool may be useful for selection of high-risk subsets of population for mammography screening in low-incidence and resource-limited developing country. The odd ratios for six main risk factors of breast cancer were pooled by review manager after a systematic research of literature. Health risk appraisal (HRA) model was developed to predict an individual's risk of developing breast cancer in the next 5 years from current age. The performance of this HRA model was assessed based on a first-round screening database. Estimated risk of breast cancer increased with age. Increases in the 5-year risk of developing breast cancer were found with the existence of any of included risk factors. When individuals who had risk above median risk (3.3‰) were selected from the validation database, the sensitivity is 60.0% and the specificity is 47.8%. The unweighted area under the curve (AUC) was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.50-0.78). The risk-prediction model reported in this article is based on a combination of risk factors and shows good overall predictive power, but it is still weak at predicting which particular women will develop the disease. It would be very helpful for the improvement of a current model if more population-based prospective follow-up studies were used for the validation. PMID:25085581

  8. Immune response-associated gene analysis of 1,000 cancer patients using whole-exome sequencing and gene expression profiling-Project HOPE.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuto; Kondou, Ryota; Iizuka, Akira; Ohshima, Keiichi; Urakami, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Shimoda, Yuji; Tanabe, Tomoe; Ohnami, Sumiko; Ohnami, Shumpei; Kusuhara, Masatoshi; Mochizuki, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) has been progressing since its implementation in 2014 using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and gene expression profiling (GEP). With the aim of evaluating immune status in cancer patients, a gene panel consisting of 164 immune response-associated genes (56 antigen-presenting cell and T-cell-associated genes, 34 cytokine- and metabolism-associated genes, 47 TNF and TNF receptor superfamily genes, and 27 regulatory T-cell-associated genes) was established, and its expression and mutation status were investigated using 1,000 cancer patient-derived tumors. Regarding WES, sequencing and variant calling were performed using the Ion Proton system. The average number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected per sample was 183 ± 507, and the number of hypermutators with more than 500 total SNVs was 51 cases. Regarding GEP, seven immune response-associated genes (VTCN1, IL2RA, ULBP2, TREM1, MSR1, TNFSF9 and TNFRSF12A) were more than 2-fold overexpressed compared with normal tissues in more than 2 organs. Specifically, the positive rate of PD-L1 expression in all patients was 25.8%, and PD-L1 expression was significantly upregulated in hypermutators. The simultaneous analyses of WES and GEP based on immune response-associated genes are very intriguing tools to screen cancer patients suitable for immune checkpoint antibody therapy. PMID:27544999

  9. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  10. [Current situation and the role of department of clinical laboratory medicine on the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for risk of thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki; Ohana, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, large quantities of radionuclides have leaked from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant into the surrounding environment. Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project, including thyroid ultrasound examinations to screen for thyroid cancer, covering approximately 360,000 residents aged 0 to 18 years at the time of the nuclear accident. Doctors and medical technicians in the Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine of Fukushima Medical University Hospital are participating in this program as administrators, examiners, and instructors. In the first preliminary survey from October, 2011 to March, 2012 for residents in highly contaminated areas, A2 judgment, defined as cysts of < or = 20.0 mm or nodules < or = 5.0 mm in diameter, and B judgment, defined as cysts or nodules larger than A2 were found in 35.8% and 0.5%, respectively. In second preliminary survey until March, 2013, A2 and B judgments were identified in 44.6% and 0.7% of residents in intermediately contaminated areas. A secondary examination for young residents who were judged as B or C identified 28 cases of malignancy or suspected malignancy. The radiation dose, age at diagnosis, diameters and tissue characteristics of the thyroid cancer suggest that the thyroid cancer found in Fukushima had already occurred before the earthquake. Since this project should be continued for several decades, we would like to ask for your support and cooperation over the long term.

  11. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  12. Using Community Feedback to Improve Community Interventions: Results From the Deep South Network for Cancer Control Project.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Theresa A; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hardy, Claudia M; Walker, Shundra S; Thomas, Tammi Floyd; Williams, Angela G; Partridge, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    The Deep South Network for Cancer Control (DSNCC), initiated in 2000, is a dual-state, community-based participatory research infrastructure composed of academic and community partners committed to reducing cancer disparities among underserved African Americans in 12 designated counties of the Alabama Black Belt and the Mississippi Delta, 2 historically underserved areas of the country. Local residents trained as Community Health Advisors as Research Partners implemented a 3-tier community action plan (CAP) focused on promoting cancer screening, physical activity, and nutrition. Breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening, healthy eating habits, and physical activity levels increased among many, but not all, African American women in the 12-county DSNCC coverage area. Seeking to improve our reach to include participants who reported they had never heard of the DSNCC or participated in the CAP, we conducted in-depth conversations with community residents about reasons for selective nonparticipation and ways to improve participation in the DSNCC community health interventions. Three patterns and their associated themes described ways to improve the penetration of CAP strategies and tailor them to effectively reach underserved African Americans in the intervention counties. We conclude with lessons learned for future interventions. PMID:27536928

  13. [Advanced radiation therapy project for cancer treatment--from Hokkaido to the world, the world access to Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is the most major cause of death in Japan recently. In this symposium, we explained advanced treatment technology for cancer treatment, now used and that will be used in near future at the Hokkaido University Hospital. Intensity Moderated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) are considered to be the most promising and advanced technologies for cancer treatment. Various kinds of radiation treatment equipment and methods have been developed and constructed at the Hokkaido University. One of the most worlds wide famous one is the real time tumor tracking radiotherapy system. The FIRST (Funding for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology) Program has been supporting us to produce cutting-edge technology. We hope that this symposium would help the audience to understand the latest technology for cancer treatment especially in the field of radiation therapy and also we wish the audience would recognize the importance of the research aspect that have been performed at Hokkaido University and its Hospital.

  14. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M.; Ferrer, S.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Verdú, G.; Salas, M. D.; Cuevas, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 × 10-6, 6 × 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 × 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  15. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  16. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  17. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  18. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  19. Managing the analysis of air quality impacts under NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Y.B.; Leslie, A.C.D.

    1995-12-31

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates the analysis and evaluation of potential impacts of major Federal actions having the potential to affect the environment. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify an array of new air quality issues appropriate for analysis in compliance with NEPA. An example is emissions of the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. The utility industry estimates that more than 2.4 billion pounds of toxic pollutants were emitted to the atmosphere in 1988, with the potential for resultant adverse health impacts such as cancer, reproductive effects, birth defects, and respiratory illness. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides Federal funds for projects that utilize coal as the primary fuel, including the approximately 45 projects funded over the past ten years under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Provision of Federal funds brings these projects under NEPA review. While electric steam generating units greater than 25 MW are currently excluded from regulatory review for the 189 air toxics listed in Title III, they are not, due to their potential impacts, excluded from NEPA review when Federally funded, in whole or in part. The authors will discuss their experiences drawn from NEPA evaluations of coal-fired power projects, the differences between regulatory requirements and NEPA requirements, source categories, major and area sources, conformity, maximum achievable control technology, mandatory licensing, radionuclides, visibility, toxics found to be emitted from coal combustion, public involvement, citizen suits, the bounty system, and how NEPA review can result in beneficial changes to proposed projects through mitigation measures to avoid or minimize potentially adverse environmental impacts.

  20. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  1. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  3. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings.

    PubMed Central

    Olden, K; Guthrie, J

    1996-01-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of dose/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early waming signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. PMID:8933026

  4. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  5. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage.

  7. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  8. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  9. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  10. Performance Indicators and Rational Management Tools: A Comparative Assessment of Projects in North America and Europe. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwek, Brian P.; Neal, John E.

    This study developed a classification scheme to critically compare performance assessment projects at higher education universities in North America and Europe. Performance indicators and assessment initiatives were compared using nine basic dimensions: (1) locus of control, (2) degree of governmental involvement, (3) focus of performance…

  11. State of Washington Department of Ecology criteria pollutants and toxic air polluntants phase II notice of construction for the Hanford Site spent nuclear fuel project--cold vacuum dryingfacility, Project W-441

    SciTech Connect

    Jansky, M.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1997-01-24

    This Phase 11 notice of construction (NOC) provides the additional information committed to in the Phase I NOC submittal (DOE/RL-96- 55) regarding the air toxic and criteria pollutants that could potentially be emitted during operation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This Phase 11 NOC is being submitted to ensure the CVDF is in full compliance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040(8), `Commencement of Construction`. The Phase I NOC (approved September 30, 1996) was defined as constructing the substructure, including but not limited to, pouring the concrete for the floor, and construction of the exterior. This Phase 11 NOC is being submitted for approval before installation and operation of the process equipment that will generate any potential air emissions at the CVDF, and installation and operation of the emissions control equipment.

  12. HELICoiD project: a new use of hyperspectral imaging for brain cancer detection in real-time during neurosurgical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabelo, Himar; Ortega, Samuel; Kabwama, Silvester; Callico, Gustavo M.; Bulters, Diederik; Szolna, Adam; Pineiro, Juan F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral images allow obtaining large amounts of information about the surface of the scene that is captured by the sensor. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The HELICoiD (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) project is a European FET project that has the goal to develop a demonstrator capable to discriminate, with high precision, between normal and tumour tissues, operating in real-time, during neurosurgical operations. This demonstrator could help the neurosurgeons in the process of brain tumour resection, avoiding the excessive extraction of normal tissue and unintentionally leaving small remnants of tumour. Such precise delimitation of the tumour boundaries will improve the results of the surgery. The HELICoiD demonstrator is composed of two hyperspectral cameras obtained from Headwall. The first one in the spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm (visible and near infrared) and the second one in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm (near infrared). The demonstrator also includes an illumination system that covers the spectral range from 400 nm to 2200 nm. A data processing unit is in charge of managing all the parts of the demonstrator, and a high performance platform aims to accelerate the hyperspectral image classification process. Each one of these elements is installed in a customized structure specially designed for surgical environments. Preliminary results of the classification algorithms offer high accuracy (over 95%) in the discrimination between normal and tumour tissues.

  13. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony B; Harirchi, Iraj; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Noori, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Jafarizadea, Majid; Sadeghian, Mohammad Reza; Minosepehr, Mojgan

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx) and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE). Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran) from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD), tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05). A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  15. Methodology for Air Quality Forecast Downscaling from Regional- to Street-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mahura, Alexander; Amstrup, Bjarne; Hansen Saas, Bent; Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Lorenzen, Thomas; Weismann, Jakob

    2010-05-01

    The most serious air pollution events occur in cities where there is a combination of high population density and air pollution, e.g. from vehicles. The pollutants can lead to serious human health problems, including asthma, irritation of the lungs, bronchitis, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infections, and premature death. In particular air pollution is associated with increase in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In 2000 WHO estimated that between 2.5 % and 11 % of total annual deaths are caused by exposure to air pollution. However, European-scale air quality models are not suited for local forecasts, as their grid-cell is typically of the order of 5 to 10km and they generally lack detailed representation of urban effects. Two suites are used in the framework of the EC FP7 project MACC (Monitoring of Atmosphere Composition and Climate) to demonstrate how downscaling from the European MACC ensemble to local-scale air quality forecast will be carried out: one will illustrate capabilities for the city of Copenhagen (Denmark); the second will focus on the city of Bucharest (Romania). This work is devoted to the first suite, where methodological aspects of downscaling from regional (European/ Denmark) to urban scale (Copenhagen), and from the urban down to street scale. The first results of downscaling according to the proposed methodology are presented. The potential for downscaling of European air quality forecasts by operating urban and street-level forecast models is evaluated. This will bring a strong support for continuous improvement of the regional forecast modelling systems for air quality in Europe, and underline clear perspectives for the future regional air quality core and downstream services for end-users. At the end of the MACC project, requirements on "how-to-do" downscaling of European air-quality forecasts to the city and street levels with different approaches will be formulated.

  16. Summary of Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments in the Nova Air-Path and Projected Nova and Nova II System Performance Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M; Swift, C D; Murray, J R

    2007-07-17

    The authors present the results of high intensity beam propagation experiments conducted with the Nova laser system to investigate the occurrence of stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) from atmospheric nitrogen in the beam path. Enclosed is a preprint entitled ''Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen in Long Air Paths'' that they have published in the November issue of Optics Letters. The physics issues associated with SRRS are discussed at length in the preprint. The small signal steady-state SRRS gain coefficient that they determined from threshold measurements is in excellent agreement with recent direct SRRS gain measurements by Bischel, et al., at SRI, and is in good agreement with early gain estimates from Averbakh, et al., in the Soviet Union. Consequently, they have a high degree of confidence in the gain coefficient. In addition, threshold SRRS experiments on the long air-path Nova II system are in substantial agreement with the earlier Nova experiments. Nova and Nova II system performance limitations were not critically addressed in the publication so they shall discuss these issues in this paper.

  17. The EMECAM project: a multicentre study on air pollution and mortality in Spain: combined results for particulates and for sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Saez, M; Perez-Hoyos, S; Iniguez, C; Gandarillas, A; Tobias, A; Bellido, J; Taracido, M; Arribas, F; Daponte, A; Alonso, E; Canada, A; Guillen-Grima, F; Cirera, L; Perez-Boillos, M; Saurina, C; Gomez, F; Tenias, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The EMECAM study is a collaborative effort to evaluate the impact of air pollution on mortality in Spain. In this paper the combined results are presented for the short term effects of particulates and sulfur dioxide on both daily mortality for all and for specific causes. Methods: The relation between daily mortality for all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases, and air pollution for particulates (daily concentrations) and SO2 (24 and 1 hour concentrations) was assessed in 13 Spanish cities for the period 1990–6. With a standardised method, magnitude of association in each city was estimated by Poisson regression in a generalised additive model. Local estimates were obtained from both single and two pollutant analyses. Lastly, combined estimates for each cause and pollutant were obtained. Results: For combined results, in single pollutant models a 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of the mean of the concurrent and one day lag for black smoke was associated with a 0.8% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4 to 1.1%) increase in total mortality. The estimates for total suspended particles (TSPs) and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) and total mortality were slightly lower. The same increase in concentrations of SO2 was associated with a 0.5% increase in daily deaths. For groups of specific causes, higher estimations were found, specially for respiratory conditions. Peak concentrations of SO2 showed significant associations with the three groups of mortality. When two pollutant analyses were performed, estimates for particulates, specially for black smoke, did not substantially change. The estimates for daily concentrations of SO2 were greatly reduced, but, on the contrary, the association with peak concentrations of SO2 did not show any change. Conclusions: There is an association between mortality and pollution through particulates among city populations in Spain. Peak rather than daily concentrations

  18. 'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C.; Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2010-12-07

    The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

  19. NASA/Air Force Cost Model: NAFCOM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, Sharon D.; Hamcher, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM) is a parametric estimating tool for space hardware. It is based on historical NASA and Air Force space projects and is primarily used in the very early phases of a development project. NAFCOM can be used at the subsystem or component levels.

  20. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  1. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  2. Implementation of HPV-testing for cervical cancer screening in programmatic contexts: The Jujuy demonstration project in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arrossi, Silvina; Thouyaret, Laura; Laudi, Rosa; Marín, Oscar; Ramírez, Josefina; Paolino, Melisa; Herrero, Rolando; Campanera, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present results of programmatic introduction of HPV testing with cytologic triage among women 30 years and older in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, including description of the planning phase and results of program performance during the first year. We describe the project implementation process, and calculate key performance indicators using SITAM, the national screening information system. We also compare disease detection rates of HPV testing in 2012 with cytology as performed during the previous year. HPV testing with cytology triage was introduced through a consensus-building process. Key activities included establishment of algorithms and guidelines, creating the HPV laboratory, training of health professionals, information campaigns for women and designing the referral network. By the end of 2012, 100% (n = 270) of public health care centers were offering HPV testing and 22,834 women had been HPV tested, 98.5% (n = 22,515) were 30+. HPV positivity among women over 30 was 12.7%, 807 women were HPV+ and had abnormal cytology, and 281 CIN2+ were identified. CIN2+ detection rates was 1.25 in 2012 and 0.62 in 2011 when the program was cytology based (p = 0.0002). This project showed that effective introduction of HPV testing in programmatic contexts of low-middle income settings is feasible and detects more disease than cytology.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  4. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  5. MC1R gene variants and non-melanoma skin cancer: a pooled-analysis from the M-SKIP project

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, E; Fargnoli, M C; Gandini, S; Maisonneuve, P; Liu, F; Kayser, M; Nijsten, T; Han, J; Kumar, R; Gruis, N A; Ferrucci, L; Branicki, W; Dwyer, T; Blizzard, L; Helsing, P; Autier, P; García-Borrón, J C; Kanetsky, P A; Landi, M T; Little, J; Newton-Bishop, J; Sera, F; Raimondi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene regulates human pigmentation and is highly polymorphic in populations of European origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between MC1R variants and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and to investigate whether risk estimates differed by phenotypic characteristics. Methods: Data on 3527 NMSC cases and 9391 controls were gathered through the M-SKIP Project, an international pooled-analysis on MC1R, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics. We calculated summary odds ratios (SOR) with random-effect models, and performed stratified analyses. Results: Subjects carrying at least one MC1R variant had an increased risk of NMSC overall, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): SOR (95%CI) were 1.48 (1.24–1.76), 1.39 (1.15–1.69) and 1.61 (1.35–1.91), respectively. All of the investigated variants showed positive associations with NMSC, with consistent significant results obtained for V60L, D84E, V92M, R151C, R160W, R163Q and D294H: SOR (95%CI) ranged from 1.42 (1.19–1.70) for V60L to 2.66 (1.06–6.65) for D84E variant. In stratified analysis, there was no consistent pattern of association between MC1R and NMSC by skin type, but we consistently observed higher SORs for subjects without red hair. Conclusions: Our pooled-analysis highlighted a role of MC1R variants in NMSC development and suggested an effect modification by red hair colour phenotype. PMID:26103569

  6. Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in the Preoperative Multimodality Treatment of Rectal Cancer: Surgical End Points From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial R-04

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael J.; Colangelo, Linda H.; Beart, Robert W.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Allegra, Carmen J.; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C.; Shields, Anthony F.; Landry, Jerome C.; Ryan, David P.; Parda, David S.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S.; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S.; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M.; Moore, Dennis F.; Mullane, Michael R.; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Ward, Patrick J.; Wozniak, Timothy F.; Roh, Mark S.; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients and Methods Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m2, 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m2 twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). Results From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Conclusion Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. PMID:24799484

  7. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE): BACKGROUND AND AIR QUALITY ASPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with the New York State Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. The PHASE project is a ...

  8. Antibody mass escalation study in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer using 111I-J591: Lesion detectability and dosimetric projections for 90Y radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; O’Donoghue, Joseph A.; Morris, Michael J; Wills, Eze A.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Gonen, Mithat; Scher, Howard I.; Larson, Steven M.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.

    2009-01-01

    Background J591, a monoclonal antibody that targets the external domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), has potential as an agent for radioimmunotherapy. A pilot trial was carried out in patients with prostate cancer using repetitive administrations of escalating masses of J591. An analysis was carried out to assess (1) lesion detectability by 111InJ591 gamma camera imaging compared to standard imaging methods and (2) the effect of increasing antibody mass on lesion detectability, biodistribution and dosimetry. Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic prostate cancer received escalating amounts (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg) of J591 in a series of administrations each separated by 3 weeks. All antibody administrations included a fixed amount of radiolabeled antibody 111In-DOTA-J591 (2mg of J591 labeled with 185MBq (5 mCi) of 111In via the chelating agent DOTA). Three whole body gamma camera scans with at least one SPECT scan together with multiple whole body count-rate measurements and serum activity concentration measurements were obtained in all patients. Images were analyzed for distribution and lesion targeting. Estimates of clearance rates and liver and lesion uptake were made for each treatment cycle. These estimates were used to generate dosimetric projections for radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-labeled J591. Results A total of 80 lesions in 14 patients were detected. Both skeletal and soft tissue disease was targeted by the antibody as seen on 111In-J591 scans. Antibody localized to 93.7% of skeletal lesions detected by conventional imaging. Clearance of radioactivity from whole body, serum and liver was dependent on antibody mass. Normalized average values of the ratio of residence times between lesion and liver for 10, 25, 50 and 100mg of antibody were 1.0, 1.9, 3.2 and 4.0 respectively. Dosimetric projections for radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-labeled J591 suggested similar absorbed doses to lesions, for treatment at the maximally tolerated activity

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  10. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  11. News & Views Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

  12. The use of telecommunications satellites by the air, sea, and land military forces and by civil defense - Project SICRAL AM/136/80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzoni, A.

    1983-03-01

    The projected uses and design concept of SICRAL, an Italian satellite program being developed for classified and emergency communications, are discussed. It is shown that a dedicated satellite, as a complement to terrestrial systems, is ideally suited to serve the needs of the armed forces, in cooperation with NATO, and of the civil defense organizations. SICRAL should provide normal and secure telephone, telegraph and teletype, facsimile, and data-transmission services to a variable mix of fixed and mobile stations, using the SHF, UHF, and EHF bands. Present plans call for two 1400-kg triaxially stabilized multiple-payload-type geostationary satellites, one operational and one in reserve, with a third satellite ready for launch as soon as the reserve satellite becomes operational. SICRAL could be launched by Ariane IV or Shuttle for preoperational testing within five years and full operational status in six or seven years, including time for ground-facility construction.

  13. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research