Science.gov

Sample records for air carbon monoxide

  1. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities.

  2. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  3. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour...

  4. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour...

  5. [Evaluation of the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Moes, Alicja; Chadzyński, Radosław; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    In spite of intensified antitobacco campaigns and decrease in social acceptance for smoking it is still an important issue. In prevention there is a need to make smokers and non-smoking people aware of a level of exposure to tobacco smoke. One of the objective methods to evaluate this exposition is to measure a concentration of the carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The aim of our study was to evaluate the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The research was based on examination of 67 patients admitted to admission room in SP CSK, Warsaw. The level of carbon monoxide was measured with Smokerlyzer device in 56 cases (34 women, 22 men). Everyone in this group answered questions concerning a reason of admission to hospital, concomitant diseases, and addiction to smoking and ways of fight against the addiction as far as smokers are concerned. Current smokers answered also questions about their attitude to smoking and filled in Fagerström and Schneider tests. In a group of 67 patients 11 were not able to proceed the test with Smokerlyzer, 5 (45.5%) due to dyspnea, 4 (36.4%) due to lack of a verbal contact. In the group of 56 investigated patients 20 (35.7%) have never smoked, 32 (57.1%) were ex-smokers and 4 (7.1%) were current smokers. 3 (75%) of the smokers have tried to give up smoking 3 times on average. In the Fagerström test their mean came to 3.5 points, what indicates a low level of addiction. The Schneider test averaged out 8 points, what indicates a good motivation to give up smoking. The average of concentration of carbon monoxide in exhaled air came to 8 ppm (1.87% Hb) in this group. In the group of non-smoking patients the level of carbon monoxide came to 1.4 ppm (0.67%Hb). In the group of nonsmoking patients exposed to the tobacco smoke, the level of carbon monoxide came to 3 ppm (1.15%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The increased CO level in exhaled air is usually caused by smoking cigarettes and exposure to

  6. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  7. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... August 31, 2011 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 Review of National..., 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AI43 Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY... and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO). Based on its...

  8. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  9. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  10. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards...

  11. Indoor air quality: Carbon monoxide, molds and beyond. Current issue paper number 198

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, L.

    1999-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of several of the major indoor air pollutants and some of the ways in which indoor air quality is addressed by governments in the United States and Canada. The emphasis is on non-industrial settings. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, radon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke and particles, volatile organic compounds, and molds.

  12. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... February 11, 2011 Part VI Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 National Ambient Air... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national...

  13. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. ...

  15. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  16. Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaubert, Earl C.; And Others

    Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by volume. Gas indicator tubes have been used for many years primarily as detectors of hazardous gases…

  17. Carbon monoxide in the home environment

    SciTech Connect

    Love, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate carbon monoxide exposure in homes equipped with vented and unvented heating systems by monitoring air and resident expired breath in order to calculate of blood carbon monoxide levels. Carbon monoxide in air and expired breath data were evaluated utilizing existing exposure assessment models for blood carbon monoxide determinations. Results of the study indicated that carbon monoxide exposure and subsequent uptake by home residents are at levels exceeding that threshold of subjective and objective system response and may attribute to ill health. The mean carbon monoxide level in home air ranged from 3.0 to 105 ppm with calculated blood carbon monoxide values that range from 0.632 to 2.681%. 85% of the vented homes studied had an average daily carbon monoxide level at or below 7.0 ppm in comparison to 83% of the unvented homes with an average daily carbon monoxide level at or below 27.0 ppm.

  18. On the effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2009-06-15

    The effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in an ethylene/air diffusion flame is investigated by experiment and detailed numerical simulation. The paper focuses on the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition by comparing the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen diluted flames. Both experiment and simulation show that although overall the addition of carbon monoxide monotonically reduces the formation of soot, the chemical effect promotes the formation of soot in an ethylene/air diffusion flame. The further analysis of the details of the numerical result suggests that the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition may be caused by the modifications to the flame temperature, soot surface growth and oxidation reactions. Flame temperature increases relative to a nitrogen diluted flame, which results in a higher surface growth rate, when carbon monoxide is added. Furthermore, the addition of carbon monoxide increases the concentration of H radical owing to the intensified forward rate of the reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H and therefore increases the surface growth reaction rates. The addition of carbon monoxide also slows the oxidation rate of soot because the same reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H results in a lower concentration of OH. (author)

  19. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  20. Carbon monoxide in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Swinnerton, J W; Lamontagne, R A; Linnenbom, V J

    1971-05-28

    Concentrations of carbon monoxide in rainwater collected at widely diverse locations show up to a 200-fold supersaturation relative to the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere. These results indicate the existence of an additional natural source of carbon monoxide not heretofore considered. Production of carbon monoxide in clouds is tentatively attributed to the photochemical oxidation of organic matter or the slight dissociation of carbon dioxide induced by electrical discharges, or both. Methane concentrations measured in the same rainwater show that the partitioning of this gas, unlike that of carbon monoxide, is very close to a state of equilibrium.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  2. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  3. AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe

    Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  6. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... colorless gas created when fuels (such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the ...

  8. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  9. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  19. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  20. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  1. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  2. Radiocarbon ( 14C) measurements to quantify sources of atmospheric carbon monoxide in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klouda, George A.; Connolly, Michael V.

    Atmospheric air samples were collected during the winter of 1989-1990 in Albuquerque, NM, U.S.A., for radiocarbon ( 14C) analysis of carbon monoxide (CO). An experimental sample design was prepared to target periods when the concentration of CO exceeds the 9 μl l-1 (volume fraction), 8 h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and during periods of attainment. Sampling sites, time of day, sampling duration, and meteorology were carefully considered so that source impacts be optimal. A balanced sampling factorial design was used to yield maximum information from the constraints imposed; the number of samples was limited by the number of sample canisters available, time and resources. Radiocarbon measurements of urban CO, " clean-air" CO background from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, average (wood) logs and oxygenated-gasolines were used in a three-source model to calculate the contribution of wood burning to the total atmospheric CO burden in Albuquerque. Results show that the estimated fractional contribution of residential wood combustion (Θ' Rwc) ranged from 0 to 0.30 of CO concentrations corrected for " clean-air" background. For these same samples, the respective CO concentrations attributed to wood burning range from 0 to 0.90 μmol mol -1 (mole fraction), well below the NAAQS. In all cases, fossil CO is the predominant source of ambient CO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 6.34 μmol mol -1 A final comment is made on the potential of fossil CO measurements as an indirect tracer of atmospheric benzene, relevant to exposure risk estimates of motor vehicle emissions and occupational health and safety standards.

  3. Transmissivity of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drayson, S. R.; Tallamraju, R.; Chaney, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The line strengths and self- and nitrogen-broadened half widths for selected lines of the 4.6 micron fundamental band of carbon monoxide were determined. The band strength determined at stp. is higher than previously reported measurements. The half widths agree well with other measurements and calculations.

  4. Review of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide assessment of scientific and technical information. OAQPS staff paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, D.J.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scientific and technical information that EPA staff believes is most relevant to the review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The assessment is intended to bridge the gap between the scientific review in the EPA criteria document for carbon monoxide and the judgements required of the Administrator in setting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The major recommendations of the staff paper include the following: (1) There continues to be a need to control ambient levels of carbon monoxide to protect public health; (2) Both 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times should be retained for primary carbon monoxide standards; (3) Exposure analysis results indicate relatively few individuals with angina pectoris would experience carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 2.1% or greater when exposed to carbon monoxide levels in ambient air only if current standards are attained; (4) Public health risk for COHb levels of 2.0% or lower appears to be small, if any; (5) Current 1-hour (35 ppm) and 8-hour (9 ppm) standards for carbon monoxide should be reaffirmed.

  5. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The fuel cell is a system which employs an electrochemical process to convert gases- J such as hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity. Under NASA sponsorship, GE's Aircraft Equipment Division developed fuel cells to supply electrical power for the Gemini and Biosatellite spacecraft of the sixties and is currently working on advanced fuel cell development. This long-term effort has resulted in a series of spinoff applications using the same general technology for a variety of purposes, among them the recently marketed Dosimeter. The Dosimeter is designed to help users meet safety requirements for industrial atmospheres, as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and other regulatory agencies. The compact, pocket-sized sensor measures personnel exposure to carbon monoxide and provides both a visual and an audible alarm if the concentration of the gas exceeds present levels. The Dosimeter offers substantial improvement in measuring accuracy over earlier warning indicators.

  7. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  8. [Carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, K; Ruschulte, H; Heine, J; Piepenbrock, S

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete burning of coals and carbon compounds and is a gas without any typical taste, colour or smell. Defective radiators or gas pipes, open fireplaces, fires and explosions are sources of unintended CO production and inhalation. CO bonds with haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen does. CO toxicity causes impaired oxygen delivery and utilisation at cellular level. It affects different sites within the body, but has its most profound impact on the organs with the highest oxygen requirement. CO concentration and the intensity and duration of inhalation determine the extent of intoxication. Following basic life support, assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen is essential during emergency care. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) is the preferred therapeutic option for releasing CO from its binding to haemoglobin. It has been shown that CO may cause lipid peroxidation and leukocyte-mediated inflammatory changes in the brain, a process that may be inhibited by HBO. Patients with neurological symptoms including loss of consciousness and expectant mothers should undergo HBO treatment, no matter how high their CO levels are. Neonates and in-utero fetuses are more vulnerable due to the natural leftward shift of the dissociation curve of fetal haemoglobin, a lower baseline pO2 and carboxyhaemoglobin levels at equilibration that are 10-15% higher than maternal levels. Physicians need to be aware of the potential occurrence of this life threatening hazard so that appropriate emergency treatment can be administered and fatalities prevented. PMID:10920484

  9. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  10. Carbon monoxide: Anticoagulant or procoagulant?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2014-03-01

    Within the past decade there have been several investigations attempting to define the impact of exogenous and endogenous carbon monoxide exposure on hemostasis. Critically, two bodies of literature have emerged, with carbon monoxide mediated platelet inhibition cited as a cause of in vitro human and in vitro/in vivo rodent anticoagulation. In contrast, interaction with heme groups associated with fibrinogen, α₂-antiplasmin and plasmin by carbon monoxide has resulted in enhanced coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis in vitro in human and other species, and in vivo in rabbits. Of interest, the ultrastructure of platelet rich plasma thrombi demonstrates an abnormal increase in fine fiber formation and matting that are obtained from humans exposed to carbon monoxide. Further, thrombi obtained from humans and rabbits have very similar ultrastructures, whereas mice and rats have more fine fibers and matting present. In sum, there may be species specific differences with regard to hemostatic response to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide may be a Janus-faced molecule, with potential to attenuate or exacerbate thrombophilic disease.

  11. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the National Capital Air Quality Control Region. I - Measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment (COPE) and the National Capital Air Quality Control Region (NCAQCR) undertook a series of measurements of atmospheric CO and CH4 to determine the accuracy of the airborne COPE Correlation Interfer4meter. The device, a modified Michelson interferometer, measures the atmospheric column density of CO and CH4 at 2.3 microns with tropospheric measurement sensitivities of 70 and 10 PPB, respectively. Data for evaluating the remote measurements included atmospheric column density measurements at a ground truth site using a van-mounted infrared Fourier spectrometer; continuous ground level gas chromatographic measurements; and chromatographic data from atmospheric grab samples collected by aircraft and at ground locations. The instruments and sampling techniques used in the experiment are described in detail.

  12. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritant gas that accounts for numerous cases of CO poisoning every year from a variety of sources of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. These include poorly functioning heating systems, indoor propane-powered forklifts, indoor burning of charcoal burning briquettes, riding in the back of pick-up trucks, ice skating rinks using propane-powered resurfacing machines, and gasoline-powered generators that are not in correct locations. Once CO is inhaled it binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen that leads to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity and decreased release of oxygen to tissues leading to tissue hypoxia. Ischemia occurs with CO poisoning when there is loss of consciousness that is accompanied by hypotension and ischemia in the arterial border zones of the brain. Besides binding to many heme-containing proteins, CO disrupts oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of free radicals. Once hypotension and unconsciousness occur with CO poisoning, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis follow. Because COHb has a short half-life, examination of other biomarkers of CO neurotoxicity that reflect inflammation or neuronal damage has not demonstrated consistent results. The initial symptoms with CO exposure when COHb is 15-30% are nonspecific, namely, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and impaired manual dexterity. However individuals with ischemic heart disease may experience chest pain and decreased exercise duration at COHb levels between 1% and 9%. COHb levels between 30% and 70% lead to loss of consciousness and eventually death. Following resolution of acute symptoms there may be a lucid interval of 2-40 days before the development of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS), with diffuse demyelination in the brain accompanied by lethargy, behavior changes, forgetfulness, memory loss, and parkinsonian features. Seventy-five percent of patients with DNS

  13. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  3. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and ...

  5. Air pollution of Moscow by the carbon monoxide and aerosols, boundary layer parameters and estimation of the CO sources intensity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, V.; Fokeeva, E.; Kuznetsov, R.; Emilenko, A.; Kopeikin, V.

    2009-04-01

    The results of measurements of the carbon monoxide total content, the soot and submicron aerosols content are given for the period 2005-2008 over Moscow. Two identical grating spectrometers of medium resolution (0,2sm-1) are used with appropriate solar tracking systems, one of which is located outside the city at Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS 56oN, 38oE, 60km West from Moscow in the rural zone) and the other one is inside a city center. This method makes possible to determine the characteristics of anthropogenic pollution, urban part of the CO content. Some simultaneously measurements of aerosols content, the CO column and CO background concentrations in Moscow, autumn 2007 are presented. Nephelometer and quartz filters for soot sampling were used for aerosols measurements. Correlations coefficients between aerosols, CO background concentration and urban part of the CO content were obtained. Permanent sounding of boundary layer was carried out using acoustic locator (SODAR) LATAN-3. Applications of SODAR data (profile of wind speed and inversion height) makes possible to forecast of air pollution situations in megacities area. We obtained the correlation coefficients for the urban part of the CO content with the wind speed for cold and warm seasons. Analysis results of measurements demonstrated preeminent influence of the wind in certain boundary layer (up to 500m) upon the CO extension. The intensity of CO sources in Moscow was estimated. The systematization of CO diurnal variations for different meteorological conditions was performed. Comparing our results with the results of the earlier measurements period (1993-2005), we found out that the urban part of the CO content in the surface air layer over the city did not increase in spite of more than tripled number of motor-vehicles in Moscow. So using the applications of this spectroscopic method we can obtain the air pollution trend from the averaged air pollution measured values.

  6. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... CONTACT: Andy Chang, Environmental Engineer, Air Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR..., (312) 886-0258, chang.andy@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Final Rules section of...

  7. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  8. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chemical produced from the incomplete burning of natural gas or other products containing carbon. ... indoor and camp stoves) Water heaters that use natural gas Note: This list may not be all inclusive.

  11. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

  12. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  17. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  18. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  19. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  4. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis. PMID:25715861

  5. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis.

  6. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3... either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3... either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a...

  9. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  12. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  13. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  20. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  1. Carbon copy deaths: carbon monoxide gas chamber.

    PubMed

    Patel, F

    2008-08-01

    The news media can exert a powerful influence over suicidal behaviour. It has been observed that like-minded individuals are able to preplan a group suicide method using modern communication technology in the form of websites and online chatrooms and mobile phone texting. A case of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is presented to illustrate the recent phenomenon of cyber suicides by suffocation from a burning barbecue (charcoal burner) in 'gas chamber' conversions. Although barbecues (BBQ) are very popular in Britain and widely available, there have been relatively few reported cases of copycat deaths from CO gas suffocation. PMID:18586213

  2. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... monoxide poisoning increases after disasters when gasoline- or diesel-powered generators may be more frequently used to ... can mimic symptoms of sea sickness. Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance. Consider installing a carbon ...

  3. Determination of carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in refinery hydrogen gases and air by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marian; Kartanowicz, Rafal; Jastrzebski, Daniel; Kamiński, Marcin M

    2003-03-14

    This paper illustrates a method for determining trace amounts of CO, CH4 and CO2 with the detection limit of 0.15, 0.15 and 0.20 microg/l, respectively, in refinery hydrogen gases or in air. A simple modification of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector is presented. A Porapak Q column, additionally connected with a short molecular sieve 5A packed column and a catalytic hydrogenation reactor on the Ni catalyst have been applied. The principle of the analytical method proposed is the separation of CO from O2 before the introduction of CO to the methanizer. The analytical procedure and examples of the results obtained have been presented. The modification applied makes it possible to use the GC instrument for other determinations, requiring utilization of the Porapak Q column and the flame-ionization detector. In such cases, the short molecular sieve 5A column and the methanizer can be by-passed.

  4. Carbon-monoxide Indicators for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, S H J; Peterson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.

  5. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

  6. Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings.

  7. Analysis of GASP carbon monoxide data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for the period March 1977 through October 1978 was analyzed. The CO data are summarized and the distribution and variations in space and time of this gas are presented. The data show that the CO mixing ratios are higher in the troposphere than those in the stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere the highest value of CO mixing ratio occurs in spring, although more data are needed to verify these findings. Correlation coefficients among CO, O3, air temperature (T) and winds were calculated for different regions under different seasons. It was found that the CO correlates negatively with O3 above 20 degrees latitude and positively below that latitude. Case studies using the data of CO, O3, and T measured simultaneously were performed. Discussions and suggestions are made. Ozone data on seasonal basis is also summarized.

  8. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  9. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  10. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  12. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  13. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  14. Annual hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations and surface to air exchanges in a rural area (Québec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, Philippe; Poissant, Laurier; Villemur, Richard

    The industrialization and the demographic expansion have both influenced the biogeochemical cycle of hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). In the actual context, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the natural sources and sinks of these trace gases is then crucial to infer possible effects of climate and land use changes on their global budget. This article reports the H 2, CO and CO 2 concentrations and micrometeorological fluxes measured during 1 year in a rural area of the mixed wood ecozone of Canada. Land use represents a critical issue in the control of trace gas natural sources or sinks of that region, which is the most densely habited in Canada. On average, the site emitted CO 2 at a rate of 7.7 g m -2 d -1 and consumed H 2 and CO at 0.34 and 5.1 mg m -2 d -1, respectively. Temperature was the most important factor affecting the H 2 and CO surface to air exchanges. The strength of the soil sink was maximal at the end of the summer, while H 2 and CO emissions were observed at the snow-melting period. In winter, H 2 and CO depositions were attributed to their oxidation by photochemically active compounds within the snow cover. When soil temperature was above 10 °C, trace gas fluxes followed a well-defined diurnal cycle. H 2 and CO 2 deposition rates were positively correlated with H 2O fluxes, while CO followed the inverse trend. CO 2 diurnal variations resulted from a balance between photosynthesis and soil respiration, while some biotic and abiotic factors were proposed to explain the trend observed for H 2. In the case of CO, emissions originating from heat- and photo-induced reactions were involved in the attenuation in the strength of the soil sink during daytime. Measured fluxes were compared with the literature to show the relative importance of the rural areas in the studied trace gases budget.

  15. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  16. Source Attribution and Interannual Variability of Arctic Pollution in Spring Constrained by Aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and Satellite (AIRS) Observations of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Purdy, M. T.; Kopacz, M.; LeSager, P.; Carouge, C.; Holmes, C. D.; Yantosca, R. M.; Batchelor, R. L.; Strong, K.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Holloway, J. S.; McMillan, W. W.; Warner, J.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wu, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003-2008) CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month-1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.1 for European anthropogenic, 4.2 for North American anthropogenic, 9.3 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year), and 21 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Synoptic pollution influences in the Arctic free troposphere include contributions of comparable magnitude from Russian biomass burning and from North American, European, and Asian anthropogenic sources. European pollution dominates synoptic variability near the surface. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS is capable of observing pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003-2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Nino Index, suggesting a link between El Nino and northward pollution transport. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007-2008 La Nina. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Nino conditions.

  17. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  18. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  2. Coupling of Carbon Monoxide with Nitrogen Monoxide at a Frustrated Lewis Pair Template.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ke-Yin; Kehr, Gerald; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Liu, Lei; Grimme, Stefan; Erker, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of carbon monoxide with nitrogen monoxide was achieved at a frustrated Lewis pair template. This unique reaction uses hydride as an auxiliary, which reductively activates carbon monoxide at the frustrated Lewis pair. The CO/NO coupling reaction then takes place through a pathway involving a radical reaction in which the hydrogen atom auxiliary is eventually removed again.

  3. Modeling carbon monoxide uptake during work

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, T.E.; Duker, J.

    1981-05-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is the result of a diminished capacity of the blood to transport oxygen and sustain a level of metabolic activity. The diminished capacity is expressed in terms of the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level in the blood which is dependent upon the concentration of CO in the inhaled air. The rate of CO uptake or elimination is dependent upon the concentration of CO in the air as well as pulmonary diffusion capacity and alveolar ventilation which change with different metabolic rates. Coburn, Forster, and Kane (CFK) developed a mathematical model to describe the uptake and elimination kinetics of CO in sedentary individuals. The CFK model was used in a mathematical simulation of CO uptake and elimination where the independent variables were inhaled CO concentration and metabolic rate. The metabolic rate was used to specify pulmonary diffusing capacity and alveolar ventilation. As the level of COHb increased the metabolic rate was decreased to a level compatible with the impaired oxygen transport. A physical fatigue limit was also included. The theoretical model was used to simulate conditions beyond the range of exposures permissible under experimental laboratory conditions.

  4. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. ); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. ); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. ); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. ); Warren, J. ); Gottlieb, S.O.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

  5. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  6. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  7. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  8. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) vinyl complexes as highly sensitive and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic probes for the sensing of carbon monoxide in air.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Anita; Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Moragues, María E; Sancenón, Félix; Dingwall, Paul; Brown, Neil J; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; White, Andrew J P; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2015-10-01

    The detection of carbon monoxide in solution and air has been achieved using simple, inexpensive systems based on the vinyl complexes [M(CHCHR)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3 )2 ] (R=aryl, BTD=2,1,3-benzothiadiazole). Depending on the nature of the vinyl group, chromogenic and fluorogenic responses signalled the presence of this odourless, tasteless, invisible, and toxic gas. Solutions of the complexes in CHCl3 underwent rapid change between easily differentiated colours when exposed to air samples containing CO. More significantly, the adsorption of the complexes on silica produced colorimetric probes for the naked-eye detection of CO in the gas phase. Structural data for key species before and after the addition of CO were obtained by means of single X-ray diffraction studies. In all cases, the ruthenium and osmium vinyl complexes studied showed a highly selective response to CO with exceptionally low detection limits. Naked-eye detection of CO at concentrations as low as 5 ppb in air was achieved with the onset of toxic levels (i.e., 100 ppm), thus resulting in a remarkably clear colour change. Moreover, complexes bearing pyrenyl, naphthyl, and phenanthrenyl moieties were fluorescent, and greater sensitivities were achieved (through turn-on emission fluorescence) in the presence of CO both in solution and air. This behaviour was explored computationally using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) experiments. In addition, the systems were shown to be selective for CO over all other gases tested, including water vapour and common organic solvents. Supporting the metal complexes on cellulose strips for use in an existing optoelectronic device allows numerical readings for the CO concentration to be obtained and provision of an alarm system.

  9. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) vinyl complexes as highly sensitive and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic probes for the sensing of carbon monoxide in air.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Anita; Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Moragues, María E; Sancenón, Félix; Dingwall, Paul; Brown, Neil J; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; White, Andrew J P; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2015-10-01

    The detection of carbon monoxide in solution and air has been achieved using simple, inexpensive systems based on the vinyl complexes [M(CHCHR)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3 )2 ] (R=aryl, BTD=2,1,3-benzothiadiazole). Depending on the nature of the vinyl group, chromogenic and fluorogenic responses signalled the presence of this odourless, tasteless, invisible, and toxic gas. Solutions of the complexes in CHCl3 underwent rapid change between easily differentiated colours when exposed to air samples containing CO. More significantly, the adsorption of the complexes on silica produced colorimetric probes for the naked-eye detection of CO in the gas phase. Structural data for key species before and after the addition of CO were obtained by means of single X-ray diffraction studies. In all cases, the ruthenium and osmium vinyl complexes studied showed a highly selective response to CO with exceptionally low detection limits. Naked-eye detection of CO at concentrations as low as 5 ppb in air was achieved with the onset of toxic levels (i.e., 100 ppm), thus resulting in a remarkably clear colour change. Moreover, complexes bearing pyrenyl, naphthyl, and phenanthrenyl moieties were fluorescent, and greater sensitivities were achieved (through turn-on emission fluorescence) in the presence of CO both in solution and air. This behaviour was explored computationally using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) experiments. In addition, the systems were shown to be selective for CO over all other gases tested, including water vapour and common organic solvents. Supporting the metal complexes on cellulose strips for use in an existing optoelectronic device allows numerical readings for the CO concentration to be obtained and provision of an alarm system. PMID:26270512

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with narghile use.

    PubMed

    Cavus, Umut Yucel; Rehber, Zehra Hamiyet; Ozeke, Ozcan; Ilkay, Erdogan

    2010-05-01

    The case history is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who was admitted to hospital after two syncopal episodes caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking narghile. Clinicians should be aware of this association when they evaluate syncope in the emergency department, especially in narghile users. PMID:20442182

  11. Selective Oxidizer For Removal Of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trocciola, John C.; Schroll, Craig R.; Lesieur, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    Catalytic apparatus selectively oxidizes most of carbon monoxide (without oxidizing hydrogen) in stream of reformed fuel gas fed to low-temperature fuel cell. Multiple catalytic stages at progressively lower temperatures operate without becoming poisoned. Catalysts used to oxidize CO selectively include platinum on alumina and commercial catalyst known as "Selectoxo."

  12. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  14. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  16. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  17. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  1. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  4. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  8. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  10. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  12. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  14. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  16. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring network in each carbon monoxide maintenance area; implement contingency measures in the event of... three maintenance areas; coordinate with EPA in the event the carbon monoxide design value(s) in any... maintenance plan 8-hour carbon monoxide design value criterion of 7.65 parts per million. If the...

  5. Minimal risk of carbon monoxide exposure with oil heat: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that can be produced by all heating equipment used in homes that burn natural gas, propane, fueloil, wood, coal or other home heating fuels. Carbon monoxide is extremely hazardous even in very small concentrations and can produce injury or death when it reaches only a fraction of one percent in the air. The recent reports of injury and death by exposure to carbon monoxide have alerted homeowners to the serious nature of exposure to this gaseous byproduct of fuel burning. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set 9 parts per million carbon monoxide are shown as its concentration in air increases. CO replaces the oxygen in blood and causes hypoxia (lack of oxygen) which can damage the body`s circulatory and central nervous systems leading to injury or death depending on the time of exposure and CO concentration.

  6. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Wang, Tong; Qiu, Hong; Pun, Vivian C; Chan, Chi Sing; Louie, Peter K K; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2014-12-15

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with emergency hospitalizations for COPD. We collected daily emergency hospital admission data and air pollution data from January 2001 to December 2007. We used log-linear Poisson models to estimate the associations between daily hospital admissions for COPD and the average daily concentrations of carbon monoxide while controlling for the traffic-related co-pollutants nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm. Results showed that ambient carbon monoxide was negatively associated with the risk of hospitalizations for COPD. After adjustment for levels nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, the negative associations of carbon monoxide with COPD hospitalizations became stronger. The risk estimates were similar for female and male subjects. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization for COPD, which suggests that carbon monoxide exposure provides some acute protection of against exacerbation of COPD.

  7. An OSSE to Quantify the Impact of S5 Spaceborne Carbon Monoxide Total Column Measurements on Air Pollution Analysis and Forecast over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abida, R.; Attié, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Ricaud, P.; Eskes, H.; Kujanpää, J.; Segers, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of ISOTROP project (Impact of Spaceborne Observations on Tropospheric Composition Analysis and Forecast) aiming to assess the impact of sentinel 4 (GEO) and 5 (LEO) measurements of O3, CO, NO2 and HCHO to better constrain pollutant concentrations and precursor emissions that influence air quality. A Regional-scale Observing System Simulattion Experiment (OSSE ) has been conducted over Europe to determine the impact of S5-precursor carbon monoxide total column future observations on tropospheric composition forecasting and analysis. This OSSE study involves two independant CTM models which is a considerable advantage for the study, since it guarantees that the OSSE results will not be overly optimistic results and the OSSE will more realistically simulate an assimilation of real observations. The nature run which consitute the true composition atmospheric state is simulated by LOTOS-EUROS model combined with the global TM5 chemistry-transport model. The synthetic S5-p CO total column measurements and their error characterisitcs are derived from the nature run data and generated by KNMI and FMI teams using a state-of-the-art retrieval algorithm involved in TROPOMI development. The control run in which we assimilate the CO measurements is MOCAGE model. Interestingly, the OSSE results show substantial benefit from CO data assimilation especially in the boundary layer on both the forecast and analysis, and demenstrated that a high-spatial resolution and high-quality measurements of S5 CO total column could potentially constrain the concentration in the atmospheric boundar layer.

  8. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure. PMID:1482718

  9. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  10. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  11. Mapping carbon monoxide using GPS tracked sensors.

    PubMed

    Milton, Richard; Steed, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pilot study where we have mapped urban air pollution using mobile carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. Our objective is to use inexpensive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to track the sensors and explore CO variations at a fine geographic scale. The critical issue in data processing is the treatment of the imprecise logs from the GPS. By using knowledge about the route and the geometry of the buildings, we are able to increase the position accuracy significantly, while at the same time showing that certain events, such as CO profiles while crossing roads, can be detected with a high degree of accuracy. Comparisons between data from our own mobile sensors and a fixed sensor site show good agreement in the vicinity of the fixed sensor, while at the same time identifying significant CO peaks within 100 m of this location. Using the mobile sensors to collect data along two of the main roads in the area, we are able to show CO variations along an urban canyon for parallel and perpendicular wind directions. Finally, a number of significant sources of CO were discovered during the course of the study, which suggest possible locations for fixed sensor sites in the future. We conclude by discussing the results in the context of the push towards large sensor networks and mobile communications. The potential for ad hoc mobile sensor networks may be very large.

  12. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  13. Collaborative Testing of Methods to Measure Air Pollutants, II. The Non-Dispersive Infrared Method for Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Herbert C.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The Methods Standardization Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Center, has undertaken a program to standardize methods used in measuring air pollutants covered by the national primary and secondary air quality standards. This paper presents the results of a collective test of the method specified for…

  14. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the national capital air quality control region. III - Correlation interferometer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. W.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Dick, R.; Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of experiments were performed with a correlation interferometer on-board a Bell Jet Ranger 206 Helicopter. The first consisted of simultaneous ground- and air-truth measurements as the instrumented helicopter passed over the Cheverly site. The second consisted of several measurement flights in and around the national capital air quality control region (Washington, D.C.). The correlation interferometer data, the infrared Fourier spectrometer data, and the integrated altitude sampling data showed agreement within the errors of the individual measurements. High values for CO were found from the D.C. flight data to be reproducible and concentrated in areas of stop-and-go traffic. It is concluded, that pollutants at low altitudes are detectable from an air-borne platform by remote correlation interferometry and that the correlation interferometer measurements agree with ground- and air-truth data.

  15. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning with thrombus in the heart: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cuma; Günay, Nurullah; Büyükaslan, Hasan; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Bozkurt, Selim

    2005-12-15

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas, and is lighter than air. It is an end product of the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Its effects are most prominent in organs sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Carbon monoxide poisoning becomes more abundant in winter and at cold places. In Turkey, every year we see several deaths due to poisonous gas leaks from coal or wood stoves. Deaths particularly due to hypoxia-related central nervous system damage and ventricular dysrhythmias are observed. On the other hand, an association between thromboembolic accidents and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in literature. Thromboembolic accidents in the mesenteric, central nervous system, and extremities are reported. However, no atrial thrombus has been mentioned. In this study, a case of an atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning following a diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment in the emergency room is reported and the literature is revisited. PMID:16282157

  16. Air quality at Santiago, Chile: a box modeling approach—I. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorquera, Héctor

    Ambient monitored data at Santiago, Chile, are analyzed using box models with the goal of assessing contributions of different economic activities to air pollution levels. The period analyzed is 1990-2000, characterized by the introduction of air pollution emissions standards, shift to unleaded gasoline and compressed natural gas, and steady growth of the private and public fleet and the associated fuel consumption growth. The box models explicitly include the seasonal behavior of meteorological variables; the results show that dispersion conditions in fall and winter seasons are 20-30% of the summertime values. This result explains the poor air quality in those seasons and shows that significant emissions reductions are required in order to improve air quality in wintertime. Emissions of CO, NO x and SO 2 are estimated from data on fuel consumption in the city; the estimated parameters are thus fleet-average or industry-average emission factors. In terms of contributions to ambient concentrations, older cars and diesel vehicles are the major contributors to CO and NO x impacts, with more than 60% and 50%, respectively. Ambient concentrations of SO 2 are largely dominated by stationary sources, although long range contributions are not negligible. By contrast, CO and NO x pollution is dominated by local sources within the city boundaries. The box models can be used for forecasting purposes, and they can predict annual average concentrations within 20% of the observed values. The methodology requires data on ambient air quality measurements and fuel consumption statistics, and produces quantitative results, which can be combined with economic models to analyze environmental regulation and public policies.

  17. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  18. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

  19. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  20. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  1. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  2. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  3. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  7. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  9. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon...

  12. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  13. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  14. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  15. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  18. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  1. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  3. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  4. Carbon monoxide safety systems for gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, T.G.; Palmer, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of a self-powered carbon monoxide safety control system for application to gas appliances is reported. A comparison of the various possible technologies is made, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. Results of an experimental study of a chemioptical sensor, describing its CO sensitivity, dose response time, reusibility, and dependence on temperature and humidity are presented. The effects of four interfering gasses, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acrolein, and formic acid, are also included. Details are shown for a safety control system now undergoing field tests in gas room heaters.

  5. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. ); Tans, P.P. )

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    PubMed

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-01-01

    Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation.

  8. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  9. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  11. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  12. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  13. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  15. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868.1430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control... New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State... carbon monoxide state implementation plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York—Northern New...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control... New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State... carbon monoxide state implementation plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York—Northern New...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control... New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State... carbon monoxide state implementation plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York—Northern New...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control... New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State... carbon monoxide state implementation plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York—Northern New...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control... New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State... carbon monoxide state implementation plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York—Northern New...

  5. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The...

  6. Placental diffusing capacities at varied carbon monoxide tensions.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, J M; Wickham, W K; Drummond, W H

    1977-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that carbon monoxide transfer across the placenta is, in part, a facilitated process, we have looked for evidence of saturation kinetics for carbon monoxide. In eight pregnant ewes, fetal to maternal carbon monoxide transfer was examined in a preparation in which the fetal side of the placenta was perfused with blood. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations on the fetal side of the placenta were varied from 4.8 to 70% in 23 measurements. At increased carbon monoxide tensions, the transfer from fetus to mother always decreased. The slope of log rate of carbon monoxide transfer vs. log partial pressure gradient across the placenta was significantly different from 1. Placental membrane diffusing capacity was calculated separately from total placental diffusing capacity which includes hemoglobin reaction rates and erythrocyte membrane diffusion. Placental membrane diffusing capacity decreased at increased carbon monoxide tensions. Placental permeability for urea did not change with increasing carbon monoxide tensions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbon monoxide diffusion in the placenta is, in part, carrier mediated. PMID:864001

  7. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  8. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  9. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Colorado, 1986 through 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, M; Simon, P A; Hoffman, R E

    1995-01-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings were identified through death certificates, by hyperbaric chambers, and by laboratories required to report carboxyhemoglobin levels greater than 12%. From 1986 to 1991, 981 cases were reported, including 174 deaths. Deaths most often resulted from fire-related carbon monoxide intoxication (36.2%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (34.5%), and furnaces (10.3%). Among nonfatal cases, furnaces were the leading source of carbon monoxide exposure (44.3%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (22.8%). The importance of furnaces and other home heating devices in carbon monoxide intoxication may be underappreciated if only mortality data are examined. Surveillance of carbon monoxide-related morbidity is a useful adjunct to mortality surveillance in guiding prevention efforts. PMID:7604927

  14. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  15. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction–oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated. PMID:26489669

  16. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mark A; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  17. Infrared Spectra of High Pressure Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Lorenzana, H E

    2001-09-21

    We report infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) at high pressures. Although CO is one of the simplest heteronuclear diatomic molecules, it displays surprisingly complex behavior at high pressures and has been the subject of several studies [1-5]. IR spectroscopic studies of high pressures phases of CO provide data complementing results from previous studies and elucidating the nature of these phases. Though a well-known and widely utilized diagnostic of molecular systems, IR spectroscopy presents several experimental challenges to high pressure diamond anvil cell research. We present measurements of the IR absorption bands of CO at high pressures and experimentally illustrate the crucial importance of accurate normalization of IR spectra specially within regions of strong absorptions in diamond.

  18. Airborne intercomparisons of carbon monoxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and included a laser differential absorption method and two grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. Measurements were obtained during approximately 90 flight hours, during which the CO mixing ratios ranged from about 60 to 140 ppbv. The level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements was well within the overall accuracy stated for each instrument. The correlation observed between the measurements from the respective pairs of instruments ranged from 0.85 to 0.98, with no evidence for the presence of either a constant or proportional bias between any of the instruments.

  19. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe.

  1. Carbon monoxide in the treatment of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Kiichi; Choi, Augustine M K

    2015-12-15

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low-molecular-weight gas, is endogenously produced in the body as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. As the beneficial roles of HO system have been elucidated in vitro and in vivo, CO itself has also been reported as a potent cytoprotective molecule. Whereas CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard at high concentration, low-dose exogenous CO treatment (~250-500 parts per million) demonstrates protective functions including but not limited to the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in preclinical models of human diseases. Of note, CO exposure confers protection in animal models of sepsis by inhibiting inflammatory responses and also enhancing bacterial phagocytosis in leukocytes. These unique functions of CO including both dampening inflammation and promoting host defense mechanism are mediated by multiple pathways such as autophagy induction or biosynthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators. We suggest that CO gas may represent a novel therapy for patients with sepsis.

  2. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  5. Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Ivan A; Acuna, Dora; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Lopez, Ivan E; Amarnani, Abhimanyu; Cortes, Max; Edmond, John

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic very mild prenatal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure (25 parts per million) subverts the normal development of the rat cerebellar cortex. Studies at this chronic low CO exposure over the earliest periods of mammalian development have not been performed to date. Pregnant rats were exposed chronically to CO from gestational day E5 to E20. In the postnatal period, rat pups were grouped as follows: Group A: prenatal exposure to CO only; group B: prenatal exposure to CO then exposed to CO from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P20; group C: postnatal exposure only, from P5 to P20, and group D, controls (air without CO). At P20, immunocytochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers, and structural and functional proteins were assessed in the cerebellar cortex of the four groups. Quantitative real time PCR assays were performed for inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) nitric oxide synthases. Results Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), SOD2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) immunoreactivity increased in cells of the cerebellar cortex of CO-exposed pups. INOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity also increased in blood vessels and Purkinje cells (PCs) of pups from group-A, B and C. By contrast, nNOS immunoreactivity decreased in PCs from group-B. Endothelial NOS immunoreactivity showed no changes in any CO-exposed group. The mRNA levels for iNOS were significantly up-regulated in the cerebellum of rats from group B; however, mRNA levels for nNOS and eNOS remained relatively unchanged in groups A, B and C. Ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased in group-B. Immunocytochemistry for neurofilaments (structural protein), synapsin-1 (functional protein), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA), were decreased in groups A and B. Immunoreactivity for two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, remained unchanged. The

  6. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow

  7. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Seda; Ozturk, Tayfun; Ozmen, Yavuz; Durukan, Polat

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking. PMID:23585971

  8. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel; Anthony H. , Medlin; J. Will , Bastasz; Robert J.

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  9. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  10. Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires

    SciTech Connect

    Cagliostro, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

  11. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  12. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H.

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

  14. Factors affecting expired waveform for carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.Z.; Lewis, S.M.; Mittman, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors previously presented a method based on a computer lung model for determining the distribution of both specific ventilation and specific diffusing capacity. These argon and carbon monoxide (CO) washin and washout studies were obtained in 12 normal subjects and 24 patients with varying degrees of obstructive lung disease. In addition to end-tidal and mixed expired gas concentrations, the expired waveform for both gases was sampled. In patients we found that this method failed to adequately describe CO dynamics during the early part of expiration; predicted concentrations were higher than actual data. Modifications of the original model that satisfy all data are presented. This new model suggests that CO uptake occurs in spaces with ventilatory properties of dead space. The accuracy and reliability of these observations were established by computer simulation studies as well as by repeated testing in one subject. These proved to be highly reproducible over a period of 5 mo. Standard parameter sensitivity tests showed parameters to vary by less than 10% and to be stable even when realistic levels of noise were added to the data. We conclude that studies involving ventilation of insoluble gases are insufficient to describe gas exchange in the lung. The addition of an exchangeable gas adds significant understanding of lung function, particularly in disease.

  15. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  16. Vehicle occupant exposure to carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Koushki, P.A.; al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Niaizi, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper focuses on the auto commuting micro-environment and presents typical carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations to which auto commuters in central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were exposed. Two test vehicles traveling over four main arterial roadways were monitored for inside and outside CO levels during eighty peak and off-peak hours extending over an eight-month period. The relative importance of several variables which explained the variability in CO concentrations inside autos was also assessed. It was found that during peak hours auto commuters were exposed to mean CO levels that ranged from 30 to 40 ppm over trips that typically took between 25 to 40 minutes. The mean ratio of inside to outside CO levels was 0.84. Results of variance component analyses indicated that the most important variables affecting CO concentrations inside autos were, in addition to the smoking of vehicle occupants, traffic volume, vehicle speed, period of day and wind velocity. An increase in traffic volume from 1,000 to 5,000 vehicles per hour (vph) increased mean CO level exposure by 71 percent. An increase in vehicle speed from 14 to 55 km/h reduced mean CO exposure by 36 percent. The number of traffic interruptions had a moderate effect on mean concentrations of CO inside vehicles.

  17. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized.

  18. Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turino, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

  19. Carbon monoxide and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Raub, J A; Benignus, V A

    2002-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and thereby reducing oxygen (O(2)) delivery to the body's organs and tissues. High COHb concentrations are poisonous. Central nervous system (CNS) effects in individuals suffering acute CO poisoning cover a wide range, depending on severity of exposure: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, disorientation, confusion, collapse, and coma. At lower concentrations, CNS effects include reduction in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. Earlier work is frequently cited to justify the statement that CO exposure sufficient to produce COHb levels of ca. 5% would be sufficient to produce visual sensitivity reduction and various neurobehavioral performance deficits. In a recent literature re-evaluation, however, the best estimate was that [COHb] would have to rise to 15-20% before a 10% reduction in any behavioral or visual measurement could be observed. This conclusion was based on (1) critical review of the literature on behavioral and sensory effects, (2) review and interpretation of the physiological effects of COHb on the CNS, (3) extrapolation from the effects of hypoxic hypoxia to the effects of CO hypoxia, and (4) extrapolation from rat behavioral effects of CO to humans. Also covered in this review article are effects of chronic CO exposure, the discovery of neuroglobin, a summary of the relatively new role for endogenous CO in neurotransmission and vascular homeostasis, groups which might be especially sensitive to CO, and recommendations on further research. The interested reader is directed to other published reviews of the literature on CO and historically seminal references that form our understanding of this ubiquitous gas. PMID

  20. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  1. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using a tin oxide catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Gudde, Nicholas J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the steps involved in the development by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) of a catalytic device for the recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a CO2 laser system. It contrasts the differences between CO oxidation for air purification and for laser environmental control, but indicates that there are similarities between the physical specifications. The principal features of catalytic devices are outlined and some experimental work described. This includes measurements concerning the structure and mechanical properties of the artifact, the preparation of the catalyst coating and its interaction with the gaseous environment. The paper concludes with some speculation about the method by which the reaction actually occurs.

  2. Mathematical models of the uptake of carbon monoxide on hemoglobin at low carbon monoxide levels.

    PubMed Central

    Joumard, R; Chiron, M; Vidon, R; Maurin, M; Rouzioux, J M

    1981-01-01

    Coburn's differential equation for the uptake of carbon monoxide by hemoglobin and two particular types of solution of this equation were considered and the solutions verified for a group of healthy adults consisting of 73 nonsmoking pedestrians or car passengers exposed to low levels of carbon monoxide as experienced in the city of Lyon. The CO levels at the breathing level and the walking speed of the subjects was continually measured, and the carboxyhemoglobin levels determined at the beginning and the end of each test journey. The values of all the other relevant parameters were also determined. The half-life of carboxyhemoglobin was studied as a function of the degree of activity, the age, the sex and the height of the subjects. Finally a mathematical model was set up to represent a periodic uptake of CO which made it possible to estimate the variations in the carboxyhemoglobin level for any subject during a period of a day or a week without any need to know the initial level. PMID:7333242

  3. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Production Associated with Ineffective Erythropoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter; Coburn, Ronald F.; Williams, William J.; Goldwein, Manfred I.; Rother, Mary L.; Shafer, Brenda C.

    1967-01-01

    The rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production (˙Vco), determined by the closed rebreathing system technique, was elevated above the normal range in four of five patients studied with ineffective erythropoiesis (four patients with primary refractory anemia, one with thalassemia). The mean molar ratio of ˙Vco to ˙Vheme (rate of circulating heme catabolism, determined from 51Cr red cell survival curves) was 3.0 ± 0.6 (SE), indicating that most of the CO originated from sources other than circulating erythrocyte hemoglobin, in contrast to previous findings in patients with hemolytic anemia, where ˙Vco paralleled ˙Vheme closely. After administration of glycine-2-14C to these patients, endogenous CO was isolated by washout of body CO stores at high pO2 or by reacting peripheral venous blood samples with ferricyanide. The CO was then oxidized to CO2 by palladium chloride and trapped for counting in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. “Early labeled” peaks of 14CO were demonstrated which paralleled “early labeled” peaks of stercobilin and preceded maximal labeling of circulating heme. Production of “early labeled” 14CO in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis was greatly increased, up to 14 times that found in a normal subject. The increased ˙Vco and “early 14CO” production shown by these patients are presumably related mainly to heme catabolism in the marrow. The possibility exists that hepatic heme and porphyrin compounds may also contribute significantly to ˙Vco, as suggested by the finding of a high ˙Vco in an additional patient with porphyria cutanea tarda. PMID:6074003

  9. Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide–water and carbon monoxide–carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

  10. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  12. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability. To obtain a comprehensive assessment, diverse biological models were employed. These involved cardiac electrical testing in the normal and ischemic heart in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The experimental plan was designed both to examine the direct effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the myocardium and to evaluate possible indirect influences through alterations in platelet aggregability or changes in central nervous system activity in the conscious animal. Our results indicate that exposure to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, is without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. It is important to note that the total exposure period was in the range of 90 to 124 minutes. The possibility that longer periods of exposure or exacerbation from nicotine in cigarette smoke could have a deleterious effect cannot be excluded. We also examined whether or not alterations in platelet aggregability due to carbon monoxide exposure could be a predisposing factor for cardiac arrhythmias. A model involving partial coronary artery stenosis was used to simulate the conditions under which platelet plugs could lead to myocardial ischemia and life-threatening arrhythmias. We found no changes either in the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Thus, carbon monoxide exposure does not appear to alter platelet aggregability or its effect on coronary blood flow during stenosis. In the final series of experiments, we examined the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state.

  13. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested. PMID:27076001

  14. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  15. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Saxena, Amit; Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Shrivastava, A R; Gutch, P K; Shinde, C P

    2012-11-30

    Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO(2) through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO+1/2O(2)→CO(2). Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO. PMID:23083941

  16. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  19. Carbon monoxide on Jupiter and implications for atmospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Barshay, S. S.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the equilibrium and disequilibrium thermochemistry of the recently discovered carbon monoxide on Jupiter suggests that the presence of this gas in the visible atmosphere is a direct result of very rapid upward mixing from levels in the deep atmosphere where the temperature is about 1100 K and where carbon monoxide is thermodynamically much more stable. As a consequence the observed carbon monoxide mixing ratio is a sensitive function of the vertical eddy mixing coefficient. We infer a value for this latter coefficient which is about three to four orders of magnitude greater than that in the earth's troposphere. This result directly supports existing structural and dynamical theories implying very rapid convection in the deep Jovian atmosphere, driven by an internal heat source.

  20. Carbon Monoxide in the Earth's Atmosphere: Increasing Trend.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M A; Rasmussen, R A

    1984-04-01

    The results of an analysis of more than 60,000 atmospheric measurements of carbon monoxide taken over 3(1/2) years at Cape Meares, Oregon (45 degrees N, 125 degrees W), indicate that the background concentration of this gas is increasing. The rate of increase, although uncertain, is about 6 percent per year on average. Human activities are the likely cause of a substantial portion of this observed increase; however, because of the short atmospheric lifetime of carbon monoxide and the relatively few years of observations, fluctuations of sources and sinks related to the natural variability of climate may have affected the observed trend. Increased carbon monoxide may deplete tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, slowing down the removal of dozens of man-made and anthropogenic trace gases and thus indirectly affecting the earth's climate and possibly the stratospheric ozone layer.

  1. Biological significance of fluctuating concentrations of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Fox, S.H.

    1986-09-01

    The biological significance of fluctuating concentrations is not well understood. Fluctuation patterns can be approximated as a Fourier series of sine waves of different amplitudes, periods, and phases. A theoretical equation was developed for relating carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood to sine wave exposure patterns of carbon monoxide. It was experimentally validated for rabbits exposed to 50-350 ppm of CO in sine waves of periods from 37 to 280 min. Higher frequency carbon monoxide concentration fluctuations were more highly attenuated in the blood in accordance with the equation. The response may be viewed in a new perspective as a modification of the original fluctuation pattern by the transmittance of the biological window. A simplified method of evaluating biologically effective concentrations for different carbon monoxide fluctuation patterns is proposed.

  2. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  3. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  4. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  5. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  6. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Carbon monoxide poisoning Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea • Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: O2 treatment Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. Case Report: In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  7. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

  8. Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C. ); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. ); Wade, L.O. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

  9. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  10. COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

  11. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  12. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  13. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Pollution and Neurodevelopment: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  15. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  2. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  3. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  4. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior to... corrective action which may be taken.) (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its initial use and... (64 percent) is required (see following table). Example calibration points (%) Acceptable...

  5. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior to... corrective action which may be taken.) (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its initial use and... (64 percent) is required (see following table). Example calibration points (%) Acceptable...

  6. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior to... corrective action which may be taken.) (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its initial use and... (64 percent) is required (see following table). Example calibration points (%) Acceptable...

  7. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior to... corrective action which may be taken.) (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its initial use and... (64 percent) is required (see following table). Example calibration points (%) Acceptable...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalu...

  14. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  15. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) ... Traditional) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Fiche d'information ...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrative Code. (2) The transportation control plans for the following urban areas: Akron (ozone component... areas: Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus and Youngstown. (b) (c) Part D—No Action—USEPA at this time takes no action on the carbon monoxide portions of the plan submitted for the urban areas of Akron...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalua...

  19. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  20. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  6. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-16

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Carbon Monoxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1182 Section 63.1182 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1182 Section 63.1182 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1182 Section 63.1182 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  10. Carbon monoxide and the eye: Implications for glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo

    2011-05-01

    In the late 1990s, the scientific community witnessed a very peculiar phenomenon: the transformation of nitric oxide (NO) from a noxious gas into a key chemical messenger. The importance of NO in biology and medicine was highlighted in 1998 when the Nobel Prize was awarded in Physiology and Medicine to Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro and Ferid Murad for their pioneering work on the role of NO in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In this same time period, carbon monoxide (CO), another gas usually associated with environmental pollution, air poisoning and suicidal behavior, was also undergoing a similar change in image, although not as closely followed. It had been known for several decades that the human body generated CO upon the decomposition of hemoglobin, which was determined by the discovery that heme oxygenase (HO) is the enzymatic source of CO. However, CO's role as an endogenous neurotransmitter was established only in the early 1990s. Since then, many biological activities of CO have been demonstrated in studies using different tools, such as the pharmacological induction of HO by hemin, the direct administration of CO or the use of pro-drugs that generate CO. This review focuses on CO as a fine modulator of intraocular pressure and on its potential implications in glaucoma.

  11. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liming; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated using CO concentration data from full-scale mine fire tests. The model was then used to investigate the effect of airflow leakage on CO concentration reduction in the mine entries. The inflow of fresh air at the leakage location was found to cause significant CO reduction. MFIRE simulation was conducted to predict the CO spread in the entire mine ventilation network using both a constant heat release rate and a dynamic fire source created from FDS. The results from both FDS and MFIRE simulations are compared and the implications of the improved MFIRE capability are discussed. PMID:27069400

  12. Dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Song, J J; Zhang, H Y; Fu, K; Lan, H B; Deng, Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Eighty healthy male rats were exposed to CO and randomly divided into four groups: hyperbaric oxygen treatment (H), treatment (D), combined hyperbaric and dexamethasone treatment (C), and a control (M) group in which the rats inhaled CO to coma in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber, then were removed without further treatment. Twelve rats were put into the hyperbaric oxygen chamber and treated with air for 60 min (N) group. An eight arm maze was used to evaluate cognitive and memory abilities of these mice. Serum myelin basic protein (MBP) levels were evaluated using ELISA, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to observe brain demyelination and morbidity associated with delayed encephalopathy. A sample of the hippocampus from each group was examined by light microscopy. Cognitive and memory functions decreased in the control group M. Three days after CO poisoning, the serum MBP level of each group increased significantly. On Day 10 after CO poisoning, the MBP levels in groups C and D decreased significantly, but returned to normal on Day 18. MBP levels in the M and H groups were elevated at all time points. Brain MRIs showed significant differences among C, D, H and control M groups. Hematoxylin & eosin staining of the hippocampus showed greater damage in the control M and H groups. Early dexamethasone treatment may be useful for preventing delayed encephalopathy after CO poisoning and may reduce serum MBP levels.

  13. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  14. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide in a single chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Mehta, P; Hussain, A; Tartakovsky, B; Neburchilov, V; Raghavan, V; Wang, H; Guiot, S R

    2010-05-01

    Electricity production from carbon monoxide (CO) is demonstrated in a single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a CoTMPP-based air cathode. The MFC was inoculated with anaerobic sludge and continuously sparged with CO as a sole carbon source. Volumetric power output was maximized at a CO flow rate of 4.8LLR(-1)d(-1) reaching 6.4mWLR(-1). Several soluble and gaseous degradation products including hydrogen, methane, and acetate were detected, resulting in a relatively low apparent Coulombic efficiency of 8.7%. Tests also demonstrated electricity production from hydrogen and acetate with the highest and fastest increase in voltage exhibited after acetate injection. It is hypothesized that electricity generation in a CO-fed MFC is accomplished by a consortium of carboxydotrophic and carbon monoxide - tolerant anodophilic microorganisms. PMID:25919620

  15. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  16. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  17. Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over several hours. It is possible that some of the cardiovascular effects of smoking may be related to the high levels of CO in cigarette smoke, but it has been difficult to isolate the contribution of CO independent of the effects of other smoke constituents. PMID:6418540

  18. Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon-18 monoxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Mazzone, R. W.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult to measure with a respiratory mass spectrometer because of the similar mass numbers of CO and nitrogen, but this is possible using carbon-18 monoxide. The mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, and background were all found to be adequate. The measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity was examined. Unless the mean alveolar volume during breath holding is used in the calculation, the value for Dco obtained depends on which portion of the alveolar sample is analyzed. The anatomic dead space for CO was found to be almost the same as that for argon suggesting that the diffusion rate at the dead space-alveolar gas interface was not greatly affected by the alveolar concentration of the gas.

  19. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W.; Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Barrie, L.A.; Burney, L.G.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  1. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  2. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  3. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  4. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  5. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  6. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the national capital air quality control region. II - Meteorological conditions and chromatographic and spectrometric results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamontagne, R. A.; Swinnerton, J. W.; Wilkniss, P. E.; Bressan, D. J.; Lebel, P. J.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The meteorological conditions during this program consisted of a stagnant high pressure system which was subsequently replaced by southward moving Canadian air. This change in air masses produced distinct changes in the ambient CO concentrations. Ground level concentrations decreased from an average of 1.3 ppm at the beginning of the experiment to 0.2 ppm at the end. Vertical profiles obtained during the experiment showed decreases in the CO concentrations with altitude. Agreement of gas chromatography data for CO and CH4 by NASA and NRL was within 5% for the concentrations encountered. Results from NASA's Infrared Fourier Spectrometer agreed with the gas chromatographic results both in trends and concentrations of CO and CH4 observed with the passing frontal system.

  7. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  8. The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Henry G., Jr.; Connors, Vickie S.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Holland, J. Alvin; Sherrill, Robert T.; Casas, Joseph C.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

  9. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  10. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  11. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R.; Piotrowski, J.

    1997-12-31

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  12. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed.

  13. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of CO in ambient air are based on automated measurement of the absorption of infrared radiation by CO... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) 1.0Applicability 1.1This non-dispersive infrared photometry (NDIR)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of CO in ambient air are based on automated measurement of the absorption of infrared radiation by CO... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) 1.0Applicability 1.1This non-dispersive infrared photometry (NDIR)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Measurements of CO in ambient air are based on automated measurement of the absorption of infrared radiation by... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) 1.0 Applicability 1.1 This non-dispersive infrared photometry (NDIR)...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.D.

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  3. 193Ir Mössbauer spectroscopy of Pt-IrO 2 nanoparticle catalysts developed for detection and removal of carbon monoxide from air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, J. A.; Marcinkowska, K.; Wagner, F. E.

    2010-08-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy of 73.0 keV gamma-ray transition in 193Ir and supplementary analytical techniques were used to study the microstructure and chemical form of polymer-supported hydrophobic bimetallic Pt-Ir catalysts for detection and removal of CO from humid air at ambient conditions. The catalysts, typically with a composition of 9 wt.% Pt and 1 wt.% Ir, were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of polystyrene-divinylbenzene (SDB) granules with ethanol solutions of hexachloroplatinic and hexachloroiridic acids. This procedure, followed by reduction in H 2 or CO at only 200 °C or 250 °C, resulted in formation of highly-dispersed Pt-Ir particles usually smaller than 20 nm and having high catalytic activity and selectivity. Mössbauer spectra of 73.0 keV gamma-ray transition in 193Ir were taken after consecutive steps of preparation and exposure of catalysts to better understand and further improve the fabrication processes. In the as-impregnated state, iridium was found mostly as Ir(III) in [IrCl 6] 3- ions, with only a small fraction of Ir(IV) in [IrCl 6] 2- ions. The iridium in bimetallic clusters formed by reduction in hydrogen showed a strong tendency towards oxidation on exposure to air at room temperature, while Pt remained mostly metallic. In the most active and stable catalysts, the Ir and Pt in metallic regions of the clusters did not tend to segregate, unlike in Pt-Ir/silica-supported catalysts studied by us earlier. Further, this study shows that the IrO 2-like regions in the clusters exhibit stronger deviations from local symmetry and stoichiometry of crystalline IrO 2 than observed previously in Pt-Ir/silica catalysts. Our study also indicates that in the examined Pt-IrO 2 nanoparticles iridium largely provides the dissociative O 2 adsorption sites, while the CO adsorption occurs primarily at metallic Pt sites.

  4. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  5. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

  6. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  7. Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfisch, W.H.; Hoop, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Affecting Planetary Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric hazes are present in a range of solar system and extrasolar planetary atmospheres, and organic hazes, such as that in Titan's atmosphere, could be a source of prebiotic molecules.1 However, the chemistry occurring in planetary atmospheres and the resulting chemical structures are still not clear. Numerous experimental simulations2 have been carried out in the laboratory to understand the chemistry in N2/CH4 atmospheres, but very few simulations4 have included CO in their initial gas mixtures, which is an important component in many N2/CH4 atmospheres including Titan, Triton, and Pluto.3 Here we have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments using AC glow discharge (cold plasma) as energy source to irradiate reactions in gas mixtures of CO, CH4, and N2 with a range of CO mixing ratios (from 0, 0.05%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, to 5%) at low temperature (~100 K). Gas phase products are monitored during the reaction by quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS), and solid phase products are analyzed by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS results show that with the increase of CO in the initial gases, the production of nitrogenous organic molecules increases while the production of hydrogen molecules decreases in the gas phase. NMR measurements of the solid phase products show that with the increase of CO, hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen or oxygen in unsaturated structures increase while those bonded to saturated carbon decrease, which means more unsaturated species and less saturated species formed with the addition of CO. MS and NMR results demonstrate that the inclusion of CO affects the compositions of both gas and solid phase products, indicating that CO has an important impact on the chemistry occurring in our experiments and probably in planetary atmospheres.1. Hörst, S. M., et al. 2012, AsBio, 12, 8092. Cable, M. L., et al. 2012, Chem. Rev., 112, 18823. Lutz, B. L., et al. 1983, Sci, 220, 1374; Greaves, J. S., et al

  9. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers.

  10. Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open environment (outdoors)

    SciTech Connect

    DiMaio, V.J.; Dana, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity to a rich source of carbon monoxide.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J. )

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

  12. New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a filter paper support, utilized the reduction of bromate to bromine which then changed 3-,3'-, 5-,5'-tetramethylbenzidine from yellow to blue, phenothiazine from white to green, and 4-dimethylamino-4'-,4/double prime/-dimethoxytriphenylmethanol from colorless to red-purple. Quantitative measurements were made by reflectance spectroscopy. The method for carbon monoxide involved the use of tetrakis (acetamide-) Pd(II) ditetrafluoroborate, sodium iodate, and leuco crystal violet all together on a filter paper support. Carbon monoxide reduced the Pd(II)-acetamide complex to metallic palladium. The metallic palladium then reduced iodate to hypoiodous acid, HOI, which, in turn, oxidized leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The crystal violet color was then measured by reflectance.

  13. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  20. Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus.

    PubMed Central

    Champine, J E; Uffen, R L

    1987-01-01

    Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32Pi into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized. PMID:3308854

  1. Carbon Monoxide Retrievals From Short Wave Infrared Observations Of Sciamachy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno-Garcia, Sebastian; Lihtenberg, Gunter; Hess, Michael

    2013-12-01

    For the estimation of vertical column densities from short-wave near infrared nadir observations from SCIA- MACHY (and similar instruments like GOSAT) the “Beer InfraRed Retrieval Algorithm” BIRRA has been developed that performs a nonlinear or separable least squares fit of concentration profile scaling factors along with some auxiliary parameters. Our recent work focuses on improvements with respect to wavelength calibration, a more flexible multiwindow fitting scheme, and a better modeling of SCIAMACHY's channel 8 spectral response function. Here we present results from carbon monoxide retrevials from SCIAMACHY's channel 8 indicating the significant impact of fitting the wavelength shift.

  2. Shock-tube study of carbon monoxide dissociation kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dissociation-rate data were obtained over the temperature range 5600-12,000 K. The experiments were conducted with undiluted CO to emphasize rate constants applicable to molecular gas systems. Data were obtained as time-resolved pressure measurements on the end wall of a shock tube and, in some cases, as emission histories of the C2 Swan system (0-0 band) behind incident shock waves. Results confirm the presence of C2 as an intermediate species in CO decomposition.

  3. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  4. [Severe recurrent carbon monoxide poisoning caused by smoking].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Daniel Bech; Jacobsen, Villads Bønding

    2015-01-26

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, colourless and toxic gas. Sources of CO include car exhaust, charcoal and tobacco smoke. CO binds to haemoglobin forming carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). Heavy smokers have COHb levels up to 15%. There are reports of COHb levels of 24,2% caused by tobacco use and 28,7% after narghile smoking. A 54-year-old woman with schizophrenia was admitted at the intensive care unit with COHb levels as high as 35% caused by cigarillo smoking. She also presented with severe thiazide-induced hyponatriaemia and high haemoglobin levels. PMID:25612978

  5. Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

  6. Carbon monoxide binding to a fish hemoglobin under photostationary conditions.

    PubMed

    Torkelson, S J; Gibson, Q H

    1978-10-25

    Determinations of carbon monoxide binding curves for hemoglobin from Brevoortia tyrannus under equilibrium and photostationary conditions show that in the light, the curve is shifted to the right and altered in shape. The Bohr effect is much less in the light. The kinetics of the transition between equilibrium and photostationary states has been examined. All of the results are satisfactorily described using the two-state model of Monod, J. Wyman, J., and Changeux, J.P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118 with the assumption that light produces an additive increase in the rate of dissociation of ligand from the R and T states. PMID:701255

  7. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, A. Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2014-07-07

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  8. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  9. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Tolerance among Thermoanaerobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joana I; Alves, M Madalena; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 10(5) Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T. brockii subsp. finnii, T. pseudethanolicus, and T. wiegelii were exposed to increased CO concentrations in the headspace, while growth, glucose consumption and product formation were monitored. Remarkably, glucose conversion rates by Thermoanaerobacter species were not affected by CO. All the tested strains fermented glucose to mainly lactate, ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen, but final product concentrations differed. In the presence of CO, ethanol production was generally less affected, but H2 production decreased with increasing CO partial pressure. This study highlights the CO resistance of Thermoanaerobacter species. PMID:27621723

  11. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Tolerance among Thermoanaerobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joana I.; Alves, M. Madalena; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 105 Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T. brockii subsp. finnii, T. pseudethanolicus, and T. wiegelii were exposed to increased CO concentrations in the headspace, while growth, glucose consumption and product formation were monitored. Remarkably, glucose conversion rates by Thermoanaerobacter species were not affected by CO. All the tested strains fermented glucose to mainly lactate, ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen, but final product concentrations differed. In the presence of CO, ethanol production was generally less affected, but H2 production decreased with increasing CO partial pressure. This study highlights the CO resistance of Thermoanaerobacter species. PMID:27621723

  13. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Tolerance among Thermoanaerobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joana I.; Alves, M. Madalena; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 105 Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T. brockii subsp. finnii, T. pseudethanolicus, and T. wiegelii were exposed to increased CO concentrations in the headspace, while growth, glucose consumption and product formation were monitored. Remarkably, glucose conversion rates by Thermoanaerobacter species were not affected by CO. All the tested strains fermented glucose to mainly lactate, ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen, but final product concentrations differed. In the presence of CO, ethanol production was generally less affected, but H2 production decreased with increasing CO partial pressure. This study highlights the CO resistance of Thermoanaerobacter species.

  14. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  15. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed Central

    Krzycki, J A; Zeikus, J G

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogeneous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent Km of 5 mM for CO and a Vmax of 1,300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed. Images PMID:6425262

  16. Carbon monoxide and ST-elevation myocardial infarction: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sward, Douglas G; Sethuraman, Kinjal N; Wong, Jennifer S; Rosenthal, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    We describe two cases of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram associated with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a condition rarely reported in the literature. The first was a 62-year-old woman who experienced chest pain in the emergency department (ED) while being assessed for exposure to carbon monoxide in her home. The second was an 80-year-old man who fainted at home and was found to have ST elevation during the ED workup. After hospitalization, he returned home and soon thereafter had difficulty walking and speaking. The responding paramedics detected a very high CO level in the home. Both patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy within the first several hours of presentation. For this combination of conditions, it is difficult to derive evidence-based management recommendations, given the paucity of cases reported to date. We conclude that rapid consultation with interventional cardiology and consideration of angioplasty or stenting are appropriate, especially when electrocardiographic findings and echocardiography point to a specific coronary distribution. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy might have a role in the treatment, based on its effects on myocardial ischemia and injury in other models.

  17. Unsuccessful suicide by carbon monoxide: a secondary benefit of emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.

    1981-11-01

    Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

  18. Anesthesia-Related Carbon Monoxide Exposure: Toxicity and Potential Therapy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) during general anesthesia can result from volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents and rebreathing of endogenously produced CO. Although adherence to the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation guidelines reduces the risk of CO poisoning, patients may still experience subtoxic CO exposure during low-flow anesthesia. The consequences of such exposures are relatively unknown. In contrast to the widely recognized toxicity of high CO concentrations, the biologic activity of low concentration CO has recently been shown to be cytoprotective. As such, low-dose CO is being explored as a novel treatment for a variety of different diseases. Here, we review the concept of anesthesia-related CO exposure, identify the sources of production, detail the mechanisms of overt CO toxicity, highlight the cellular effects of low-dose CO, and discuss the potential therapeutic role for CO as part of routine anesthetic management. PMID:27537758

  19. Some observations on the oscillatory behavior of carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaffrey, B. J.; Berlad, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The oscillatory behavior of the oxidation of carbon monoxide was experimentally studied in an attempt to further elucidate the reaction at low pressure. The phenomenon is observed as multiple explosions and involves successive flashes of light accompanying the slow reaction in a static system, including over 450 flashes in one case. Electronically excited hydroxyl radicals (water impurity) and carbon dioxide have been identified as components of the emission. The phase difference between the two was seen to be negligible. The nature of the temperature and pressure changes during a cycle indicates that the oscillation is purely kinetic rather than thermokinetic. A procedure is presented whereby sustained oscillations can be obtained for particular regions in the pressure-temperature plane, vessel surface pretreatments, and H2O-containing reactants.

  20. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, J.

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  1. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  2. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the...

  3. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  4. Tristetraprolin mediates anti-inflammatory effects of carbon monoxide on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Chen, Yingqing; Yang, Jung Wook; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Jeong Woo; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2015-11-01

    Low-dose inhaled carbon monoxide is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). However, the precise mechanism by which carbon monoxide confers protection against ALI is not clear. Tristetraprolin (TTP; official name ZFP36) exerts anti-inflammatory effects by enhancing decay of proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. With the use of TTP knockout mice, we demonstrate here that the protection by carbon monoxide against LPS-induced ALI is mediated by TTP. Inhalation of carbon monoxide substantially increased the pulmonary expression of TTP. carbon monoxide markedly enhanced the decay of mRNA-encoding inflammatory cytokines, blocked the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased tissue damage in LPS-treated lung tissue. Moreover, knockout of TTP abrogated the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effects of carbon monoxide in LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that carbon monoxide-induced TTP mediates the protective effect of carbon monoxide against LPS-induced ALI by enhancing the decay of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. Iron and carbon monoxide enhance coagulation and attenuate fibrinolysis by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2014-10-01

    Two parallel lines of investigation elucidating novel mechanisms by which iron (scanning electron microscopy-based) and carbon monoxide (viscoelastic-based) enhance coagulation and diminish fibrinolysis have emerged over the past few years. However, a multimodal approach to ascertain the effects of iron and carbon monoxide remained to be performed. Such investigation could be important, as iron and carbon monoxide are two of the products of heme catabolism via heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme upregulated in a variety of disease states associated with thrombophilia. Human plasma was exposed to ferric chloride, carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, or their combination. Viscoelastic studies demonstrated ferric chloride and carbon monoxide mediated enhancement of velocity of growth, and final clot strength, with the combination of the two molecules noted to have all the prothrombotic kinetic effects of either separately. Parallel ultrastructural studies demonstrated separate types of fibrin polymer cross-linking and matting in plasma exposed to ferric chloride and carbon monoxide, with the combination sharing features of each molecule. In conclusion, we present the first evidence that iron and carbon monoxide interact with key coagulation and fibrinolytic processes, resulting in thrombi that begin to form more quickly, grow faster, become stronger, and are more resistant to lysis.

  6. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  7. Carbon monoxide toxicity. January 1978-March 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 221 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Carbon monoxide toxicity. April 1978-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 237 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae.

  11. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND FORMATION ROUTES TO CARBON DIOXIDE IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Chris J.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2009-05-15

    The formation of carbon dioxide from the processing of carbon monoxide (CO) and molecular oxygen ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) via radiolysis is studied within the context of its formation in interstellar ices in quiescent clouds. With the help of isotopic labeling, we were able to 'trace' the atoms and provide mechanistical information on how carbon monoxide is decomposed, and carbon dioxide is formed in interstellar ices. Here, we quantify the production of {sup 18}O{sub 3}, O{sup 18}O{sub 2}, {sup 18}OO{sup 18}O, C{sup 18}O, CO{sub 2}, {sup 18}OCO, and C{sup 18}O{sub 2}. In contrast to experiments using ultraviolet irradiation, we find that upon exposure to energetic electrons, isolated carbon monoxide molecules are able to undergo unimolecular decomposition to give suprathermal carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atoms. Molecular oxygen decomposes to two oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atoms can react with carbon monoxide via addition to form the carbon dioxide isotopomers as observed experimentally. This mechanism to form carbon dioxide is distinctly different to the one observed in pure carbon monoxide ices where electronically excited carbon monoxide reacts with a neighboring carbon monoxide molecule to form solely carbon dioxide and a carbon atom.

  12. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site.

    PubMed

    Buss, Joshua A; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  13. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  14. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site.

    PubMed

    Buss, Joshua A; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  15. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  16. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  17. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  18. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  19. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured...

  20. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  5. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  6. Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Noritomo; Nakao, Atsunori; Osako, Takaaki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamada, Taihei; Kohama, Keisuke; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors.

  7. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  8. Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions with regenerative thermal oxidizers

    SciTech Connect

    Firmin, S.M.; Lipke, S.; Baturay, A.

    1996-09-01

    Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been extensively used for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from various sources. However, very little information is available on the ability of RTOs to control carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper presents the results of extensive tests conducted on two RTOs to determine their VOC and CO control efficiencies. The inlet gas stream to the RTOs includes VOC and CO concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm and 3,600 ppm, respectfully. The testing demonstrated that both RTOs were capable of controlling greater than 98% of both inlet VOCs and CO. While the destruction efficiencies within the combustion chambers exceeded 99.9%, direct leakage past valves accounted for the lower control efficiencies. The tests indicated that the overall VOC and CO control efficiencies of the RTOs may be limited by valve leakage. The design and permitting of a RTO should include conservative control estimates which account for possible valve leakage.

  9. The dissociation of shock-heated carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the dissociation kinetics of undiluted carbon monoxide over the 5,600 to 12,000 K temperature range. Data are presented that have been obtained as time-resolved pressure measurements on the end wall of a shock tube and radiation emission of a C2 Swan system (0-0 band) behind incident shock waves. The decomposition of CO is complex and includes a chain with C2 as an intermediate species. The dissociation rate for the overall process has been found to be independent of the proportions of the collision partners M = CO, C, and O. The rate constant found is on the average about 10 times that previously measured with argon as the collision partner.

  10. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4). PMID:27200045

  11. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4). PMID:27200045

  12. Detection of the J = 6. -->. 5 transition of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Erickson, N.R.; Fetterman, H.R.; Clifton, B.J.; Peck, D.D.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Koepf, G.A.; Buhl, D.; McAvoy, N.

    1981-01-15

    The J = 6..-->..5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL ''plateau source'' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km s/sup -1/. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. Our data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approx.180 K.

  13. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

  15. Carbon Monoxide Expedites Metabolic Exhaustion to Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-01-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion. PMID:24121491

  16. The therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Naito, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. Because the precise pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear, it is important to investigate the pathogenesis of IBD and to evaluate new anti-inflammatory strategies. Recent accumulating evidence has suggested that carbon monoxide (CO) may act as an endogenous defensive gaseous molecule to reduce inflammation and tissue injury in various organ injury models, including intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, exogenous CO administration at low concentrations is protective against intestinal inflammation. These data suggest that CO may be a novel therapeutic molecule in patients with IBD. In this review, we present what is currently known regarding the therapeutic potential of CO in intestinal inflammation.

  17. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, D.; Albert, K. R.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Ambus, P.

    2013-12-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity-enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to either a chamber on a field of grass or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all plant species that were examined exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV radiation as well as the UV component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the natural grassland scale.

  18. [Etiology of combined inhalational hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Sigrist, T; Dirnhofer, R

    1979-01-01

    A young man was found dead in a kitchen, that was partly burnt. Autopsy revealed, as cause of death, a combined intoxication following inhalation of carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid. Own investigations on the pyrolysis of pieces of furniture found in the kitchen (plastic plates containing melamine and plates containing formaldehyde) showed, that hydrocyanic acid was liberated through combustion of such substances and inhaled by the victim. The poisoning picture is discussed, and discussion includes especially considerations on the peculiar sensitivity of the brain toward the action of hydrocyanic acid and the relative insensitivity of the heart muscle. It is thought that the cause of such sensitivity difference lies in the physiological differences of the intracellular energy production. Finally the dangers of combustion gases developing from burning plastic materials are reemphasized.

  19. Multiple targets of carbon monoxide gas in the intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. It is important to investigate the precise pathogenesis of IBD, to evaluate new anti-inflammatory agents, and to develop novel drugs. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effects is only partially understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that CO could play a role in the functional modulation of epithelial and immunological cells in the intestine. In this short review, we have highlighted the recent findings that CO stimulates the epithelial cell restitution and FGF production from myofibroblasts. CO was also shown to regulate T cell activation and differentiation, and to activate macrophages. Finally, we have discussed the direction of translational research with respect to launching a novel agent for releasing CO in the intestine.

  20. A possible carbon monoxide shuttle in the lung.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Ronald F

    2016-08-01

    The Coburn, Forster, Kane Equation (CFKE) describes a current understanding of the physiology of lung uptake and excretion of carbon monoxide (CO). The lung mean capillary PCO is an important term in this equation because it drives CO excretion and functions as "back-pressure" during uptake of exogenous CO. Results of previous studies have indicated that the mean capillary PCO of normal human lungs is equal to values calculated using the Haldane Equation, as described by the CFKE. The physiological explanation of how this parameter is set at this level is unknown. As a possible explanation, this study tested a hypothesis that a CO shuttle could be involved. Results of calculation-simulations indicate that a CO shuttle operates in a single alveolus model and imply that it could function as a determinant of the lung mean capillary PCO.

  1. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability.

  2. Carboxyhemoglobin formation due to carbon monoxide exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.; Annau, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) is a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. There have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. Such an implementation is of interest because many experiments on the effects of CO in rats were done without measuring COHb. To extrapolate from rats to humans requires a rat version of the CFKE. A CFKE was implemented for rats by using parameters found in the literature and estimating them from the data. It was deduced from the blood-gas data that rats hyperventilate slightly as COHb increases. The hyperventilation required an iterative solution to the CFKE. The iterative CFKE predictions were found to differ statistically from observations, but in explainable ways and/or in small amounts.

  3. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

  4. COMPARISON OF CMAQ DERIVED CARBON MONOXIDE COLUMNS WITH MOPITT CARBON MONOXIDE DATA, SENSITIVITY TO WILDFIRE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All model results need to be evaluated against observed data, no matter what the model

    scale. Traditionally for air quality applications, the observed data have been limited to

    concentrations measured by networks of ground stations. These are located mostly in

  5. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  6. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

  7. Estimation of the carbon monoxide emissions due to Sandia National Laboratories commuter and on-base traffic for conformity determination

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, Y.; Royer, R.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the analysis and conclusion of an investigation of the carbon monoxide emissions resulting from Sandia National Laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) commuter and on-base traffic for the Clean Air Act (CAA) Conformity Determination. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County was classified as a nonattainment area by the Environmental Protection Agency. Nonattainment area is an area which is shown by monitored data or which is calculated by air quality modeling to exceed any National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County exceeds the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and ozone. The Conformity Determination was needed to complete the CAA Title V Permitting process for SNL and the DOE. The analysis used the EPA approved MOBILE5a Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions modeling program. This analysis will provide a baseline for mobile sources to allow Sandia to estimate any future activity and how that activity will impact CO emissions. The General Conformity Rule (AQCR 43) requires that operations which will increase CO emissions in nonattaimnent or maintenance areas such as Bernalillo County undergo conformity analyses to determine whether or not they will impact ambient air quality in the area.

  8. Validation of Carbon Monoxide and Methane Vertical Column Densities Retrieved from SCIAMACHY Infrared Nadir Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstaffl, Philipp; Hamidouche, Mourad; Schreier, Franz; Gimeno Garcia, Sebastian; Lichtenberg, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane are key species of Earth's atmosphere, highly relevant for climate and air quality. Accordingly, a large number of spaceborne sensors are observing these species in the microwave, thermal and near infrared. For the analysis of short wave infrared spectra measured by SCIAMACHY aboard the ENVISAT satellite and similar instrument(s) we had developed the Beer InfraRed Retrieval Algorithm: BIRRA is a separable least squares fit of the measured radiance with respect to molecular column densities and auxiliary parameters (optional: surface albedo, baseline, slit function width, and wavenumber shift). BIRRA has been implemented in the operational SCIAMACHY L1 to 2 processor for the retrieval of CO and CH4 from channel 8 (2.3 mue) and 6 (1.6 mue), respectively. Our tests are based on separate comparisons with existing space or ground-based measurements of carbon monoxide and methane column densities. In this poster intercomparisons of CO and CH4 columns estimated from SCIAMACHY with coincident and co-located retrievals provided by ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are provided. More specifically, we have used data from several NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) stations. Our strategy for quality check of these products and the selection of specific geographical areas will be discussed.

  9. Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

  10. The redox combustion of carbon monoxide for recovering pure carbon dioxide by using molten (Na+,K+)2(CO32-,SO42-) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Shimano, Satoshi; Asakura, Shukuji

    2006-06-01

    Large-scale combustion systems, such as thermal power plants, emit large amounts of carbon dioxide, which can increase global warming. A molten salt redox combustion system was proposed to recover pure carbon dioxide exhausted from the combustion of fossil fuels. This system is composed of two successive processes by using reactions occurring in a molten salt. The molten salt is the mixture of the molten alkali metal sulfates and carbonates. The sulfate ions oxidize the fuels in first processes, being changed to reductive species such as sulfide ions. In this process, carbon dioxide and water are exclusively exhausted. The reductive species of sulfur compounds are oxidized to regenerate the sulfate ions by air in the second process. In this study, these above two processes were tried by using molten [(Na(+))(0.5),(K(+))(0.5)](2)[(CO(3)(2-))(0.9),(SO(4)(2-))(0.1)] alternatively. The oxidation of carbon monoxide as fuel by sulfate ions and the regeneration of sulfate ions by air were investigated in the temperature range of 700-950 degrees C, respectively. These reactions were exothermic. The rate of the regeneration of the sulfate ions was extremely high. During the oxidation of carbon monoxide, the reaction was first order in carbon monoxide with an activation energy of 101 kJ mol(-1). The optimum condition to recover pure carbon dioxide on practical operation was discussed.

  11. A review on engineering of cellulosic cigarette paper to reduce carbon monoxide delivery of cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Li, Jinsong; Qian, Xueren; Ren, Wanshan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-30

    In cigarette production, the cellulosic paper essentially derived from flax fibers or other fiber materials is used as the wrapping material. During smoking of cigarettes, the highly toxic carbon monoxide is produced. To decrease the amount of carbon monoxide emission in the mainstream smoke, the engineering of all cigarette components including cellulosic cigarette paper and tobacco column is critical. This review summarizes the concepts related to engineering of cigarette paper. These mainly include permeability control, increased use of burn additives, optimization of fiber basis weight, engineering of calcium carbonate fillers, and incorporation of catalysts/oxidants. In particular, catalytic and/or oxidative conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been very widely reported. The control of permeability/diffusivity of cigarette paper is also of critical importance for enhanced diffusion of carbon monoxide out of the cigarette. The development of new concepts and combination of various concepts may lead to breakthroughs in this area.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis and Secondary Necrosis in Syncytiotrophoblast

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Belkacemi, Louiza; Dickinson, Michelle; Graham, Charles H.; Smith, Graeme N.

    2006-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, affects 5 to 7% of pregnancies. Oxidative stress-induced placental injury and subsequent release of placental debris into the maternal circulation are key pathogenic events in the progression of pre-eclampsia. Women who smoke cigarettes throughout pregnancy are 33% less likely to develop this disorder than nonsmoking women. We postulated that elevated carbon monoxide concentrations in serum of smoking women inhibits apoptosis and debris shedding of trophoblast cells exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury because carbon monoxide has cytoprotective effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. This may be responsible for the reduced risk of pre-eclampsia in smoking women. To assess the cytoprotective properties of carbon monoxide within placental tissue, carbon monoxide treatments were administered to in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation-insulted villous explants cultured from term human placenta. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using molecular and morphological approaches. Placental villous explants treated with carbon monoxide demonstrated 60% less hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in the differentiated syncytiotrophoblast layer compared with untreated explants undergoing a similar insult. In addition, retention of intact syncytial membranes was observed in carbon monoxide-treated explants. These observations indicate that carbon monoxide has potent antiapoptotic properties within human placenta and may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of pre-eclampsia. PMID:16936254

  13. Estimating Effects of Brazilian Forest Wildfires on the Carbon Monoxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, S.; Qu, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2004-12-01

    Forest wildfires have dramatically increased in recent years due to global warming and extreme dry conditions. Forest wildfires spew out a significant amount of atmospheric pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, due to incomplete burning of the biomass. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a high increase of carbon monoxide leads to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood which decreases the oxygen intake capacity of human body and at moderate concentration angina, impaired vision and reduced brain function may occur. As compared to Northern America where significant amount of carbon monoxide released is caused by combustion devices and furnace, the increase of carbon monoxide concentration in Brazilian regions is mainly attributed to the forest fires. In this study, carbon monoxide datasets from the Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) have been analyzed to see the amount of increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest wildfires, ire, particularly in summer of 2003. The study reveals that there is a significant increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest fires.

  14. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  15. Passenger exposure to carbon monoxide -- as related to a portal-to-portal, inter-city, airplane trip

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1998-12-31

    This paper surveys carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations under various conditions during four different modes of transportation during inter-city air travel. The analysis describes: (1) a mobile receptor measurement system to quantify the extent of the CO exposure, (2) the reason for the CO fluctuations during the ground transportation segment of the inter-city trip, and (3) a precise method for evaluating passenger health-effects.

  16. Direct measurement of the oceanic carbon monoxide flux by eddy correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Wilson, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from a field trial of ship-based air-sea flux measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) by direct eddy correlation with an infrared-laser trace gas analyzer. The analyzer utilizes Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to achieve high selectivity for CO, rapid response (~2 Hz) and low noise. Over a two-day sea trial, peak daytime seawater CO concentrations were ~1.5 nM and wind speeds were consistently 10-12 m s-1. A clear diel cycle in CO flux with an early afternoon maximum was observed. An analysis of flux error suggests the effects of non-stationarity are important, and air-sea CO flux measurements are best performed in regions remote from continental pollution sources.

  17. Direct measurement of the oceanic carbon monoxide flux by eddy correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Wilson, S. T.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results from a field trial of ship-based air-sea flux measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) by direct eddy correlation using an infrared-laser trace gas analyzer. The analyzer utilizes Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to achieve high selectivity for CO, rapid response (10 Hz) and low noise. Over a two-day sea trial, peak daytime seawater CO concentrations were ~ 1.5 nM and wind speeds were consistently 10-12 m s-1. A clear diel cycle in CO flux with an early afternoon maximum was observed. An analysis of flux error sources suggests air-sea CO flux measurements are best performed in regions remote from continental pollution sources.

  18. Monitoring of endogenous carbon monoxide dynamics in human breath by tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Daraselia, Mikhail V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Temporal variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation and sport loading were first studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 56185 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Fort Collins AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This limited...

  20. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)....

  1. 78 FR 46861 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Greeley AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This limited maintenance plan...

  2. Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

  3. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  4. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  6. a New Gas Correlation Radiometer for Remote Sounding of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexey; Drummond, James

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is extremely important component of the Earth's atmosphere since it is an indicator of air quality and plays a great role in tropospheric chemistry. Experimental data about CO mixing ratio distribution are necessary to study long range transport of pollutions and are being used along with models in understanding the CO budget. Remote sounding techniques from space are very advantageous in terms of global monitoring of CO. The gas correlation radiometry method has been successfully employed on a number of satellite based instruments for remote sounding of atmospheric gases for several decades. In this report a new concept of gas correlation radiometer for remote sounding of carbon monoxide from space is described. A length modulated cell, used for the first time with the MOPITT instrument, coupled with a static dual detector per channel architecture underlies the optical design of the new sounder. The main goal of the design is to produce an extremely simple and compact system which will in turn lead to a small space instrument. A laboratory prototype of the radiometer has been built in Dalhousie University. Its characteristics are investigated to verify the new concept. The sources of optical imbalance will be discussed as well as the methods for optical imbalance characterization and minimization. The results of the radiometer calibration and laboratory measurements of CO are presented. This work is supported by the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Atlantic Innovation Fund/Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust and Dalhousie University.

  7. Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lijie; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei

    2009-03-01

    Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were compared with ground level observations at two remote sites, Ryori (39.03°N, 141.82°E) and Yonagunijima (24.47°N, 123.02°E). The comparison shows that the model reproduces their seasonal variation patterns reasonably well, and simulated ozone levels are generally in good agreement with the observed ones, but carbon monoxide concentrations are underestimated. Analysis of horizontal distributions of monthly averaged ozone mixing ratios in the surface layer indicates that ozone concentrations have noticeable differences among the four seasons; they are generally higher in the spring and summer while lower in the winter, reflecting the seasonal variation of solar intensity and photochemical activity and the fact that the monsoons over East Asia are playing an important role in ozone distributions.

  8. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  9. [Carbon monoxide poisoning due to lack of maintenance of a natural gas boiler].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Johannessen, A C

    1994-01-17

    Carbon monoxide causes one third of all poisoning deaths in Denmark, but is probably grossly underdiagnosed. We present a case where an elderly couple was admitted on several occasions to local hospitals with a variety of symptoms and signs; e.g. flu-like symptoms, generalized seizures, polycythaemia, chest pain, and ventricular tachycardia. The correct diagnosis, carbon monoxide poisoning, was made when the dog in the family was found dead; examination of the natural gas boiler revealed sooting, clogging of the flue, and a carbon monoxide concentration above 0.2 percent. The natural gas boiler had not been checked after installation five years earlier. Natural gas installations are becoming still more prevalent in Danish homes, but present regulations regarding the installations are apparently not yet able to prevent new incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:8296426

  10. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  11. Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

  12. [Carbon monoxide poisoning due to lack of maintenance of a natural gas boiler].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Johannessen, A C

    1994-01-17

    Carbon monoxide causes one third of all poisoning deaths in Denmark, but is probably grossly underdiagnosed. We present a case where an elderly couple was admitted on several occasions to local hospitals with a variety of symptoms and signs; e.g. flu-like symptoms, generalized seizures, polycythaemia, chest pain, and ventricular tachycardia. The correct diagnosis, carbon monoxide poisoning, was made when the dog in the family was found dead; examination of the natural gas boiler revealed sooting, clogging of the flue, and a carbon monoxide concentration above 0.2 percent. The natural gas boiler had not been checked after installation five years earlier. Natural gas installations are becoming still more prevalent in Danish homes, but present regulations regarding the installations are apparently not yet able to prevent new incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  14. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability. Research report, Sep 85-Jul 88

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability in the normal and ischemic heart of anesthetized and conscious dogs. Exposure (90 to 120 minutes) to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, was without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability in laboratory dogs. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. Using a model involving partial coronary artery stenosis, no changes were found in either the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Also examined were the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state in order to take into consideration possible adverse consequences mediated by the central nervous system. The study found no adverse effects on the cardiac-excitable properties in response to either a 2-hour- or 24-hour-exposure paradigm.

  15. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  16. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. PMID:26341269

  17. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  18. Carbon monoxide and the CNS: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L A

    2015-01-01

    Haem oxygenase (HO) and its product carbon monoxide (CO) are associated with cytoprotection and maintenance of homeostasis in several different organs and tissues. This review focuses upon the role of exogenous and endogenous CO (via HO activity and expression) in various CNS pathologies, based upon data from experimental models, as well as from some clinical data on human patients. The pathophysiological conditions reviewed are cerebral ischaemia, chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis and pain. Among these pathophysiological conditions, a variety of cellular mechanisms and processes are considered, namely cytoprotection, cell death, inflammation, cell metabolism, cellular redox responses and vasomodulation, as well as the different targeted neural cells. Finally, novel potential methods and strategies for delivering exogenous CO as a drug are discussed, particularly approaches based upon CO-releasing molecules, their limitations and challenges. The diagnostic and prognostic value of HO expression in clinical use for brain pathologies is also addressed. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24758548

  19. Reinforcing breath carbon monoxide reductions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Crowley, T J; MacDonald, M J; Zerbe, G O; Petty, T L

    1991-12-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) usually results from tobacco smoking. Smoking cessation slows COPD's progression, but few have studied anti-smoking treatments in COPD. In 3-month trials we paid lottery tickets during daily home visits to still-smoking COPD patients for reductions in breath carbon monoxide (CO), a measure of smoke intake. In our first protocol experimental patients received 0-3 tickets per day, depending upon the extent of CO reduction below pre-treatment baselines; yoked controls received the same number of tickets, but not contingent on CO. The protocol produced no change. In a second study patients were assigned a post-baseline quit-date, received nicotine gum, and were paid up to 5 tickets per night, but only for CO less than 10 parts per million (ppm). CO fell sharply as the intervention began, but gradually rose again. A third protocol added special reinforcement schedules for those who did not quit or relapsed (up to 20 tickets per night for CO less than 10 ppm). Daily CO concentrations fell from 27.1 parts per million (baseline mean) to 12.7 (intervention mean), but rapid increases followed the intervention. Few patients stopped smoking, but CO and cigarettes used per day significantly fell during Studies 2 and 3. Post-hoc analysis suggested only a small effect from gum. PMID:1797517

  20. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Mexico city

    SciTech Connect

    Riveros, H.G.; Julian-Sanchez, A.; Riveros-Rosas, H.; Tejeda, J.; Oritz, L.

    1995-12-01

    In Mexico City, the use and composition of fuels determine that carbon monoxide (CO) comes mostly from mobile sources, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from fixed and mobile sources. By simultaneously measuring hydrocarbons (HC), CO, and SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere of Mexico City, the relative amounts coming from different sources can be estimated. Assuming that some HC are emitted proportionally to CO emissions, we can establish that [HC]{sub 1} = m1{center_dot}[CO], where the proportionality constant m1 corresponds to the ratio of emissions factor for HC and CO in mobile sources. Similarly for fuels containing sulfur, it can be assumed that [HC]{sub 2} = m2{center_dot}[SO{sub 2}]. In this way, the total HC are [HC]{sub total}= [HC]{sub 0} +m1{center_dot}[CO]+m2{center_dot}[SO{sub 2}], where [HC]{sub 0}, corresponds mainly to other sources like solvent evaporation, gas consumption, and natural emissions. In this way, it can be estimated that in Mexico City 75% of average HC comes from mobile sources, 5% from sulfur-related sources, and 19% from natural sources and solvent evaporation. Compared with the HC/CO ratio measured in the exhaust pipe of vehicles, we estimated that 70% of HC emitted from mobile sources are evaporative losses, and only 30% come through the exhaust system. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  2. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  3. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Hammerle, A.; Kitz, F.; Spielmann, F.

    2015-12-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Preliminary results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true for soil flux measurements.

  4. Stability of blood carbon monoxide and hemoglobins during heating.

    PubMed

    Seto, Y; Kataoka, M; Tsuge, K

    2001-09-15

    The effects of heating on hemoglobin (Hb) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels in human blood were investigated by in vitro experiments. Head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC) using a molecular sieve 5A stationary phase and thermal conductivity detection was adopted for the measurement of CO gas, and spectrophotometric methods were used for the measurement of various Hb forms, protein and heme contents. Deteriorated absorbance spectra were observed for heat-treated blood samples, and double wavelength spectrophotometry was proven to give wrong percent saturation of carboxyhemoglobin content (% CO-Hb). The blood sample taken from one fatal fire casualty gave significantly higher % CO-Hb measured spectrophotometrically, compared to that by HS-GC. Control blood or purified Hb solution, which was saturated with CO in designated extent, was heated in a sealed vial. Under the incubation below 54 degrees C, all Hb forms were stable, except for oxyhemoglobin (Hb-O(2)), which was partially oxidized to met-hemoglobin (Met-Hb). In contrast, under the incubation at 65 degrees C, Met-Hb was denatured completely to be insoluble, and Hb-O(2) was partially denatured via Met-Hb formation. CO-Hb was resistant against heating. The difference of heat susceptibility and precipitability among Hb forms resulted in artificial increase of % CO-Hb. During heating, spontaneous CO was produced from blood.

  5. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  6. Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Provides Cerebral Cytoprotection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Vicki L.; Zurakowski, David

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations imparts protective effects in numerous preclinical small animal models of brain injury. Evidence of protection in large animal models of cerebral injury, however, has not been tested. Neurologic deficits following open heart surgery are likely related in part to ischemia reperfusion injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Using a model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in piglets, we evaluated the effects of CO to reduce cerebral injury. DHCA and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced significant alterations in metabolic demands, including a decrease in the oxygen/glucose index (OGI), an increase in lactate/glucose index (LGI) and a rise in cerebral blood pressure that ultimately resulted in increased cell death in the neocortex and hippocampus that was completely abrogated in piglets preconditioned with a low, safe dose of CO. Moreover CO-treated animals maintained normal, pre-CPB OGI and LGI and corresponding cerebral sinus pressures with no change in systemic hemodynamics or metabolic intermediates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that inhaled CO may be beneficial in preventing cerebral injury resulting from DHCA and offer important therapeutic options in newborns undergoing DHCA for open heart surgery. PMID:22879904

  7. Responses of the working rat heart to carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; McGrath, J J

    1989-07-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide (CO) were studied in the isolated working rat heart. Hearts removed from male laboratory rats were perfused via the left atrium with Krebs-Henseleit solution (KH) oxygenated with 95% O2-5% CO2 (O2). Heart rate and arterial pressures were measured by a transducer inserted in the aortic outflow line and connected to a data logger. Aortic flow was determined by collecting the effluent from the aortic bubble trap in a graduated cylinder. Coronary flow through the pulmonary cannula was collected and measured in a graduated cylinder. After 30 min, the hearts were challenged with solutions containing either CO (5% CO-90% O2-5% CO2) or N2 (5% N2-90% O2-5% CO2) for 10 min (Challenge I). After recovery in O2, the hearts were challenged with the alternate test solution (Challenge II). CO increased coronary flow (CF) and coronary flow as a percent of cardiac output (CF%) 13 and 16% respectively. N2 had no significant effect on CF or CF%. CO and N2 had no significant effect on heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen consumption or on aortic flow or pressure. These results indicate that vasodilation is the major response of the working heart to CO, and this response is not mediated by simple hypoxia. PMID:2813558

  8. Nicotine and carbon monoxide: effects on the isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1986-01-01

    We studied the combined effects of carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine on the performance of the isolated rat heart. Hearts were removed from laboratory rats and perfused through the aorta with 95% O2-5% CO2 (oxygenated) Krebs-Henseleit solution (KHs). After 30 min, the perfusate was switched rapidly to one of three solutions: KHs containing 10% CO-85% O2-5% CO2 (CO), 10 micrograms/ml nicotine (Nic), or CO combined with nicotine (CO + Nic). KHs containing CO increased coronary flow by 41% without affecting heart rate or pulse pressure. Coronary flow returned to control values during recovery in oxygenated KHs. KHs containing Nic decreased heart rate by 20% and coronary flow by 28%. Pulse pressure was unaffected. Both heart rate and coronary flow returned towards control values during recovery in oxygenated KHs. KHs containing CO + Nic decreased heart rate 16% but stimulated coronary flow 13%. Heart rate returned towards control values during recovery; however, coronary flow, which declined to control values after 8 min, continued to decrease during recovery. These results indicate that the separate effects of CO and Nic on coronary flow in the isolated rat heart are opposing and reversible, but that the decrease they produce in combination is irreversible.

  9. Carbon monoxide observed in Venus' atmosphere with SOIR/VEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Mahieux, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The SOIR instrument on board the ESA Venus Express mission has been operational during the complete duration of the mission, from April 2006 up to December 2014. Spectra were recorded in the IR spectral region (2.2-4.3 μm) using the solar occultation geometry, giving access to a vast number of ro-vibrational lines and bands of several key species of the atmosphere of Venus. Here we present the complete set of vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) densities and volume mixing ratios (vmr) obtained during the mission. These profiles are spanning the 65-150 km altitude range. We discuss the variability which is observed on the short term, but also the long term trend as well as variation of CO with solar local time and latitude. Short term variations can reach one order of magnitude on less than one month periods. SOIR does not observe a marked long term trend, except perhaps at the beginning of the mission where an increase of CO density and vmr has been observed. Evening abundances are systematically higher than morning values at altitudes above 105 km, but the reverse is observed at lower altitudes. Higher abundances are observed at the equator than at the poles for altitude higher than 105 km, but again the reverse is seen at altitudes lower than 90 km. This illustrates the complexity of the 90-100 km region of the Venus' atmosphere where different wind regimes are at play.

  10. Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.

    PubMed Central

    Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested. PMID:9549414

  11. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW.

  12. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured systems: A mechanochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulas, Gabriele; Campesi, Renato; Garroni, Sebastiano; Delogu, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated the mechanochemical hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured FeCo- and Mg 2Ni-based catalysts. To this aim powdered materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, were subjected to mechanical treatment under CO + H 2 atmosphere. A methodology to evaluate the activity of the solid catalysts on an absolute basis was developed. Conversion data were, indeed, expressed as turnover frequency, TOF, and related to the occurrence of ball to powder collision events through the mechanochemical turnover frequency parameter, MTOF. Differences in the catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the two FeCo-based studied systems, the solid solution Fe 50Co 50 and its dispersion on TiO 2 support. As for the Mg 2Ni system, we explored the possibility to estimate the specific role of hydrogen pre-activation step. The catalytic properties of the mechanically alloyed Mg 2Ni system were compared with the conversion data shown by the same system pre-hydrogenated and subsequently milled under CO atmosphere.

  13. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  14. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Forklift Use During Produce Packing Operations.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Anne E; Langley, Ricky L; McDaniel, Jesse S

    2016-01-01

    In August 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health investigated a carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on a farm. Two employees were overcome by CO and lost consciousness while using a propane-powered forklift to load produce into a refrigerated trailer backed up to a warehouse. One employee died, and the second employee was admitted to the hospital for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Eighteen people, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years, were potentially exposed to CO, including the two employees, a family member who discovered the employees, two bystanders who stopped to offer assistance, and 13 first responders. Thirteen people who assisted in the emergency response experienced symptoms such as headache and dizziness, and all 16 who assisted were evaluated in a local hospital emergency department and released after receiving 100% oxygen. Blood tests showed five people (the two employees, family member, and two bystanders) had elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, but all first responders had levels within normal range. Firefighters measured a peak CO concentration of 2214 parts per million in the warehouse. The North Carolina Division of Occupational Safety and Health investigated and determined that the forklift, operated inside the trailer with no ventilation, was the source of the CO. Public health investigation activities included interviewing responders, obtaining ambient CO concentration measurements from the fire department, advising the local health director, reviewing medical records, and developing a line listing of exposed persons. To prevent CO poisoning, employers should consider replacing gas-powered equipment with electric equipment, which does not produce CO.

  16. Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.; McGrath, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca/sup + +/) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using /sup 45/Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with /sup 45/Ca and gassed with O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca/sup + +/ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, respectively. CO reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations significantly (P<0.01) by 29% to 369 /+ -/ 18 mM/g tissue. Verapamil treatment reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca/sup + +/ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle.

  17. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  18. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline). PMID:27669255

  19. Analysis of carbon monoxide budget in North China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhao, Chunsheng; Lin, Yunping; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tie, Xuexi; Chan, Lo-Yin

    2007-01-01

    A global chemical transport model (MOZART-2; model of ozone and related tracers, version 2) was used to assess physical and chemical processes that control the budget of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) in North China. Satellite observations of CO from the measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with model results for the analysis. The comparison between the model simulations and the satellite observations of total column CO (TCO) shows that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal distributions. However, the model results underestimate TCO by 23% in North China. This underestimation of TCO may be caused by the uncertainties of emissions. The tropospheric CO budget analysis suggests that in North China, surface emission is the largest source of tropospheric CO. The main sinks of tropospheric CO in this region are chemical reaction and stratosphere_and_troposphere exchange. The analysis also shows that most of inflow CO to Pacific regions comes from the upwind regions of North China. This transport of CO is significant during Winter and Spring time. PMID:17092540

  20. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. . Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.