Science.gov

Sample records for air carrier flight

  1. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  2. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  8. NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft 911's Final Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA 911, one of NASA's two modified Boeing 747 space shuttle carrier aircraft, flew its final flight Feb. 8, a short hop from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to the ...

  9. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. 291.45 Section 291.45 Aeronautics and... Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. (a) Each section 41103 all... summarized flight stage data and on-flight market data for revenue flights. All traffic statistics shall...

  10. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. 291.45 Section 291.45 Aeronautics and... Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. (a) Each section 41103 all... summarized flight stage data and on-flight market data for revenue flights. All traffic statistics shall...

  11. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. 291.45 Section 291.45 Aeronautics and... Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. (a) Each section 41103 all... summarized flight stage data and on-flight market data for revenue flights. All traffic statistics shall...

  12. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. 291.45 Section 291.45 Aeronautics and... Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight Market. (a) Each section 41103 all... summarized flight stage data and on-flight market data for revenue flights. All traffic statistics shall...

  13. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  14. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  15. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  16. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  17. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  18. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  19. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  20. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  1. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  2. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  3. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  4. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  5. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  6. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  7. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  8. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  9. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  10. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  11. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-10-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  12. Materials flight experiment carrier capability and future flight experiments on Hitchhiker-M carrier program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D.

    1993-01-01

    The CMSS has designed, fabricated, and qualified a unique Materials FLight EXperiment (MFLEX) carrier. The MFLEX is a reusable materials experiment carrier designed to support a wide array of sensors that measure synergistic effects on candidate space materials in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MFLEX can be integrated on a variety of launch vehicles/carriers and multiple units can be networked to optimize the surface area of carriers such as the Hitchhiker-M currently being built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  13. Air-to-air radar flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Randall E.

    1988-06-01

    This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series describes flight test techniques, flight test instrumentation, ground simulation, data reduction and analysis methods used to determine the performance characteristics of a modern air-to-air (a/a) radar system. Following a general coverage of specification requirements, test plans, support requirements, development and operational testing, and management information systems, the report goes into more detailed flight test techniques covering a/a radar capabilities of: detection, manual acquisition, automatic acquisition, tracking a single target, and detection and tracking of multiple targets. There follows a section on additional flight test considerations such as electromagnetic compatibility, electronic countermeasures, displays and controls, degraded and backup modes, radome effects, environmental considerations, and use of testbeds. Other sections cover ground simulation, flight test instrumentation, and data reduction and analysis. The final sections deal with reporting and a discussion of considerations for the future and how they may affect radar flight testing.

  14. 14 CFR 121.548a - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.548a DOD..., a DOD commercial air carrier evaluator presents S&A Form 110B, “DOD Commercial Air Carrier...

  15. 14 CFR 121.548a - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.548a DOD..., a DOD commercial air carrier evaluator presents S&A Form 110B, “DOD Commercial Air Carrier...

  16. 14 CFR 121.548a - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.548a DOD..., a DOD commercial air carrier evaluator presents S&A Form 110B, “DOD Commercial Air Carrier...

  17. 14 CFR 121.548a - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.548a DOD..., a DOD commercial air carrier evaluator presents S&A Form 110B, “DOD Commercial Air Carrier...

  18. 14 CFR 121.548a - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.548a DOD..., a DOD commercial air carrier evaluator presents S&A Form 110B, “DOD Commercial Air Carrier...

  19. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pair-of-points, without regard to individual flight number. The second grouping requires that the... shall be summarized by class of service, within pair-of-points, without regard for equipment type or... number of revenue passengers enplaned at the origin point of a flight, boarding the flight for the...

  20. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier(s) shall be paid in full for the cost of the charter transportation (for both legs, if a...

  1. Carrier account utilization at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, W. E.; Langmead, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The system in use at Goddard Space Flight Center for the utilization of the Common Use Service Carrier Account and the R&D Inventory Carrier Account technique for budgeting, accounting, financial control, and management reporting, both for the individual functional area and on a Center-wide basis, is documented.

  2. 14 CFR 158.23 - Consultation with air carriers and foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation with air carriers and foreign air carriers. 158.23 Section 158.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... funding by PFC's; (2) The PFC level for each project, the proposed charge effective date, the...

  3. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  4. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  5. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  6. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Filing and Processing License Fees § 389.24 Foreign air carriers. A foreign air carrier, or such carriers, if from the same country, acting jointly, may apply...

  7. Carrier differtial GPS for takeoff to landing of an unmanned flight vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, P.Y.; Parkinson, B.W.

    1996-10-01

    Using the carrier of the GPS signal, one is able to resolve relative displacements in space to the centimeter level. This paper describes the use of carrier differential techniques to determine the position, velocity, attitude and angular velocity of an autonomous aircraft in real time. The full state GPS estimates are used in linear quadratic (LQ) feedback control to automate the flight of the aircraft from takeoff thru landing. We present flight data from recent flight tests. In addition to GPS, the aircraft is instrumented with a variety of inexpensive conventional sensors including alpha and beta vanes, and a dynamic pressure sensor (pitot). These provide an independent measurement of the aircraft velocity relative to the air. This independent measurement of the aircraft velocity relative to the air. This independent measurements enables estimation of the the absolute wind vector, which is used in waypoint tracking. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  9. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  10. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  11. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  12. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  13. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  14. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  15. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  16. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  17. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  18. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  19. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  20. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  1. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  2. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  3. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  4. 77 FR 72432 - Application of Boutique Air, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of Boutique Air, Inc. for Commuter Air Carrier Authority AGENCY... order finding Boutique Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it commuter air carrier authority... Attachment A to the order. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Snoden, Air Carrier Fitness Division...

  5. Optical Air Flow Measurements for Flight Tests and Flight Testing Optical Air Flow Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.

  6. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section 252.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air...

  7. 14 CFR 382.41 - What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability? 382.41 Section 382.41 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.41 What...

  8. 14 CFR 382.41 - What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability? 382.41 Section 382.41 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.41 What...

  9. 14 CFR 382.41 - What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability? 382.41 Section 382.41 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.41 What...

  10. 14 CFR 382.41 - What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What flight-related information must carriers provide to qualified individuals with a disability? 382.41 Section 382.41 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.41 What...

  11. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  12. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478...-certificated repair facilities, and the air carriers' outsourcing of maintenance. In each of those reports... maintenance outsourcing practices (Recommendation 2). \\3\\ Review of Air Carriers' Use of Aircraft...

  13. Flight simulator platform motion and air transport pilot training.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T; Bussolari, S R

    1989-02-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined in two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations in platform motion design. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  14. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  15. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  16. 14 CFR 389.24 - Foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the requirement of their home governments, or as provided in a treaty or agreement with the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign air carriers. 389.24 Section 389.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION...

  17. 32 CFR 861.6 - DOD review of foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DOD review of foreign air carriers. 861.6... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.6 DOD review of foreign air carriers. Foreign air carriers providing or seeking to provide services to DOD shall...

  18. 32 CFR 861.6 - DOD review of foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOD review of foreign air carriers. 861.6... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.6 DOD review of foreign air carriers. Foreign air carriers providing or seeking to provide services to DOD shall...

  19. 32 CFR 861.6 - DOD review of foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DOD review of foreign air carriers. 861.6... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.6 DOD review of foreign air carriers. Foreign air carriers providing or seeking to provide services to DOD shall...

  20. 32 CFR 861.6 - DOD review of foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DOD review of foreign air carriers. 861.6... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.6 DOD review of foreign air carriers. Foreign air carriers providing or seeking to provide services to DOD shall...

  1. 32 CFR 861.6 - DOD review of foreign air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DOD review of foreign air carriers. 861.6... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.6 DOD review of foreign air carriers. Foreign air carriers providing or seeking to provide services to DOD shall...

  2. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Third Generation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Gaier, Eric M.; Santmire, Tara E.

    1998-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based model with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models flat are envisioned for ASAC.

  3. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 14 CFR 380.34a - Substitution of direct air carrier's security or depository agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statement by the direct air carrier on OST Form 4535 that it will take responsibility for all charter... statement from the direct air carrier and its securer (under § 212.12 of this chapter), OST Form 4533,...

  5. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2011 [FR Doc... Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations #0; #0; #0... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  6. 78 FR 50138 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... PanAir requesting a foreign air carrier permit to operate charter air transportation of property..., whether or not it constitutes part of a continuous operation that includes service to Panama. PanAir...

  7. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY...

  8. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY...

  9. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY...

  10. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY...

  11. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY...

  12. 77 FR 21834 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY..., Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This is a confirmation notice of the cancellation of TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). The...

  13. 75 FR 61485 - Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA Regional Partners and Other Interested Parties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... AGENCY Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA Regional Partners and Other Interested Parties... 19, 2011, air carriers who meet the definition of ``public water systems'' under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) must meet the first set of requirements of the new regulation. These air carriers...

  14. 78 FR 42323 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (75 FR 6164... Requirements for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), which published in the Federal Register on February... for Air Carrier Operations NPRM (77 FR 12374), the FAA proposed to amend the existing requirements...

  15. Air Data Report Improves Flight Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program in the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, which seeks to make aviation safer by developing tools for flight data analysis and interpretation and then by transferring these tools to the aviation industry, sponsored the development of Morning Report software. The software, created at Ames Research Center with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, seeks to detect atypicalities without any predefined parameters-it spots deviations and highlights them. In 2004, Sagem Avionics Inc. entered a licensing agreement with NASA for the commercialization of the Morning Report software, and also licensed the NASA Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) tool, which allows for the integration of data from disparate sources into the flight data analysis process. Sagem Avionics incorporated the Morning Report tool into its AGS product, a comprehensive flight operations monitoring system that helps users detect irregular or divergent practices, technical flaws, and problems that might develop when aircraft operate outside of normal procedures. Sagem developed AGS in collaboration with airlines, so that the system takes into account their technical evolutions and needs, and each airline is able to easily perform specific treatments and to build its own flight data analysis system. Further, the AGS is designed to support any aircraft and flight data recorders.

  16. Orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation: Wind tunnel, simulation, and flight test overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, D. J.; Denison, D. E.; Elchert, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the approach and landing test phase of the space shuttle program is given from the orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation point of view. The data and analyses used during the wind tunnel testing, simulation, and flight test phases in preparation for the orbiter approach and landing tests are reported.

  17. 78 FR 56983 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Foreign Air Carrier Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... conducted by an applicant carrier will require collection of flight data, and detailed analysis to determine... things, flight origin and destination data, to be used in making the carriers' T-100 ] submissions.\\1\\ We... was published (78 FR 25781, May 2, 2013). The agency did not receive any comments to its...

  18. Optical Air Flow Measurements in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Jentink, Henk W.

    2004-01-01

    This document has been written to assist the flight-test engineer and researcher in using optical flow measurements in flight applications. The emphasis is on describing tradeoffs in system design to provide desired measurement performance as currently understood. Optical system components are discussed with examples that illustrate the issues. The document concludes with descriptions of optical measurement systems designed for a variety of applications including aeronautics research, airspeed measurement, and turbulence hazard detection. Theoretical discussion is minimized, but numerous references are provided to supply ample opportunity for the reader to understand the theoretical underpinning of optical concepts.

  19. NASA Beechcraft KingAir #801 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA 801 Beechcraft Beech Super KingAir in flight. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  20. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  1. Feasibility Study of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Flight Test on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting a flight test of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Experiment Module on one of the reflights of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). EURECA was developed expressly to accommodate space science experimentation, while providing a high quality microgravity environment. As a retrievable carrier, it offers the ability to recover science experiments after a nominal six months of operations in orbit. The study concluded that the SGG Experiment Module can be accommodated and operated in a EURECA reflight mission. It was determined that such a flight test would enable the verification of the SGG Instrument flight performance and validate the design and operation of the Experiment Module. It was also concluded that a limited amount of scientific data could be obtained on this mission.

  2. NACA Flight-Path Angle and Air-Speed Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Donald G

    1926-01-01

    A new trailing bomb-type instrument for photographically recording the flight-path angle and air speed of aircraft in unaccelerated flight is described. The instrument consists essentially of an inclinometer, air-speed meter and a film-drum case. The inclinometer carries an oil-damped pendulum which records optically the flight-path angle upon a rotating motor-driven film drum. The air-speed meter consists of a taut metal diaphragm of high natural frequency which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a Prandtl type Pitot-static tube. The inclinometer record and air-speed record are made optically on the same sensitive film. Two records taken by this instrument are shown.

  3. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  4. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2012. See 77 FR 38747. The Department of Transportation is... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 235 RIN 2105-AE07 Reports by Air Carriers...

  5. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  6. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  7. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  8. Virtual flight simulation of a dual rotor micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hongming

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a new computational method is developed based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with rigid body dynamics (RBD) and flight control law in an in-house programmed source code. The CFD solver is established based on momentum source method, preconditioning method, lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel iteration method, and moving overset grid method. Two-equation shear-stress transport k - ω turbulence model is employed to close the governing equations. Third-order Adams prediction-correction method is used to couple CFD and RBD in the inner iteration. The wing-rock motion of the delta wing is simulated to validate the capability of the computational method for virtual flight simulation. Finally, the developed computational method is employed to simulate the longitudinal virtual flight of a dual rotor micro air vehicle (MAV). Results show that the computational method can simulate the virtual flight of the dual rotor MAV.

  9. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developing an integrated linear system of air transportation whenever such a system most adequately meets the.... air carrier. (g) Any order of the Department selecting a Freely Associated State Air Carrier...

  10. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528777

  11. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  12. 14 CFR 204.4 - Carriers proposing to provide essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204... Department, and these data continue to reflect the current state of the carrier's fitness, the carrier may... contact the Air Carrier Fitness Division to ascertain what information is already available to...

  13. Lessons Learned from the AIRS Pre-Flight Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Weiler, Margie

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flies on the NASA Aqua satellite and measures the upwelling hyperspectral earth radiance in the spectral range of 3.7-15.4 micron with a nominal ground resolution at nadir of 13.5 km. The AIRS spectra are achieved using a temperature controlled grating spectrometer and HgCdTe infrared linear arrays providing 2378 channels with a nominal spectral resolution of approximately 1200. The AIRS pre-flight tests that impact the radiometric calibration include a full system radiometric response (linearity), polarization response, and response vs scan angle (RVS). We re-derive the AIRS instrument radiometric calibration coefficients from the pre-flight polarization measurements, the response vs scan (RVS) angle tests as well as the linearity tests, and a recent lunar roll test that allowed the AIRS to view the moon. The data and method for deriving the coefficients is discussed in detail and the resulting values compared amongst the different tests. Finally, we examine the residual errors in the reconstruction of the external calibrator blackbody radiances and the efficacy of a new radiometric uncertainty model. Results show the radiometric calibration of AIRS to be excellent and the radiometric uncertainty model does a reasonable job of characterizing the errors.

  14. Carrier mobility in rubrene-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl studied by the time-of-flight method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Nose, Toshiaki

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the transient photocurrent of rubrene-doped nematic liquid crystal using a time-of-flight examination. Drift mobilities on the order of 10-6 cm2/V s were obtained for both positive and negative carriers. The minimal dependence of the rubrene concentration on the drift mobility is indicative of the ionic conduction as carrier transport process. The product of the drift mobility and the viscosity obeys the Walden rule, further supporting the ionic carrier transport process.

  15. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  16. 78 FR 20372 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-63 - Preference for U.S.-Flag Air Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference for U.S.-Flag... Clauses 52.247-63 Preference for U.S.-Flag Air Carriers. As prescribed in 47.405, insert the following clause: Preference for U.S.-Flag Air Carriers (JUN 2003) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  18. 14 CFR 119.25 - Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers... Requirements to Different Kinds of Operations Under Parts 121, 125, and 135 of This Chapter § 119.25 Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators. Each person who conducts rotorcraft operations...

  19. 14 CFR 119.25 - Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers... Requirements to Different Kinds of Operations Under Parts 121, 125, and 135 of This Chapter § 119.25 Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators. Each person who conducts rotorcraft operations...

  20. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  1. Free flight: air traffic control evolution or revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Karl

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry are moving towards a more flexible, user oriented air traffic control system. The question is: does this point to a natural evolution or revolution in the world of the air traffic controllers? The National Airspace System is by all accounts the safest in the world. How will we sustain this record of performance with increased flexibility and user involvement? How will controllers and pilots react to a new more dynamic paradigm? Is the current state of automation, modeling, and analysis what is needed to make Free Flight a reality? How will the FAA insure that all human factors questions are answered before implementation? How will we quantify the impact of unanswered questions and their influence on safety? These, and many more questions need to be answered to ensure that the benefits promised by Free Flight are realized by all parties. The National Air Traffic Controllers Association supports the new concept. Yet, we are seriously concerned about the actual implementation of Free Flight's various components.

  2. Laser intensity effects in carrier-envelope phase-tagged time of flight-photoemission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, S. H.; Gliserin, A.; Schmidt, J.; Bian, H.; Nobis, S.; Schertz, F.; Kübel, M.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Loitsch, B.; Stettner, T.; Finley, J. J.; Späth, C.; Ouacha, H.; Azzeer, A. M.; Kleineberg, U.

    2016-04-01

    A time of flight-photoemission electron microscope is combined with a single-shot stereographic above-threshold ionization phase meter for studying attosecond control of electrons in tailored plasmonic nanostructures spatially and energetically via a carrier-envelope phase tagging technique. First carrier-envelope phase-resolved measurements of gold nanoparticles on gold plane and surface roughness from a gold film show an apparent carrier-envelope phase modulation with a period of π. This modulation is found to originate from an intensity dependence of the photoelectron spectra and the carrier-envelope phase measurement rather than from an intrinsic carrier-envelope phase dependence, which is confirmed by simulations. This useful finding suggests that intensity tagging should be considered for phase tagging experiments on plasmonic nanostructures with low carrier-envelope phase sensitivity in order to correct for the intensity-related carrier-envelope phase artifact.

  3. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs.

  4. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs. PMID:22739680

  5. The 1979 clear air turbulence flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A clear air turbulence (CAT) flight test to evaluate and test four different sensors in the detection and measuring of CAT and other meteorological targets that relate to turbulence is discussed. The primary types of CAT investigated were mountain wave CAT, jetstream CAT, CAT in cirrus clouds, and CAT in frontal wind shears, troughs, and ridges. The sensors included the CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar and three radiometers. One of the radiometers, at a frequency of 55.5 GHz, looked at atmospheric temperature structure. Another, at a frequency of 180.1 GHz, looked at atmospheric water vapor and investigated the feasibility of measuring at the microwave frequency the turbulence features seen in the infrared (IR) frequencies. An IR radiometer at 27 to 33 microns was the fourth sensor. This last device and the temperature structure radiometer worked well at all flight levels.

  6. Microscopic observation of carrier-transport dynamics in quantum-structure solar cells using a time-of-flight technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Fujii, Hiromasa; Kada, Tomoyuki; Asahi, Shigeo; Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Kita, Takashi; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we propose a carrier time-of-flight technique to evaluate the carrier transport time across a quantum structure in an active region of solar cells. By observing the time-resolved photoluminescence signal with a quantum-well probe inserted under the quantum structure at forward bias, the carrier transport time can be efficiently determined at room temperature. The averaged drift velocity shows linear dependence on the internal field, allowing us to estimate the quantum structure as a quasi-bulk material with low effective mobility containing the information of carrier dynamics. We show that this direct and real-time observation is more sensitive to carrier transport than other conventional techniques, providing better insights into microscopic carrier transport dynamics to overcome a device design difficulty.

  7. Microscopic observation of carrier-transport dynamics in quantum-structure solar cells using a time-of-flight technique

    SciTech Connect

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Fujii, Hiromasa; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Kada, Tomoyuki; Asahi, Shigeo; Kita, Takashi; Wang, Yunpeng; Watanabe, Kentaroh

    2015-07-27

    In this study, we propose a carrier time-of-flight technique to evaluate the carrier transport time across a quantum structure in an active region of solar cells. By observing the time-resolved photoluminescence signal with a quantum-well probe inserted under the quantum structure at forward bias, the carrier transport time can be efficiently determined at room temperature. The averaged drift velocity shows linear dependence on the internal field, allowing us to estimate the quantum structure as a quasi-bulk material with low effective mobility containing the information of carrier dynamics. We show that this direct and real-time observation is more sensitive to carrier transport than other conventional techniques, providing better insights into microscopic carrier transport dynamics to overcome a device design difficulty.

  8. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  9. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  10. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  11. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  12. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  13. 14 CFR 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers Section 10 Section Section 10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR...

  14. 76 FR 38264 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Airlines Pty Ltd (``Strategic Airlines'') requesting the Department issue a foreign air carrier permit to enable Strategic Airlines, consistent with the open skies, U.S.-Australia Air Transport Agreement, to... the United States; and (4) other charters. Strategic Airlines also requests: (1) Exemption...

  15. Conjugating binary systems for spacecraft thermal control. Appendix C: Aeroassist Flight Experiment Carrier Vehicle preliminary stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, J. E.; Murray, T. O.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment of the static strength of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) Carrier Vehicle is presented. The Carrier Vehicle is the structural component which provides the mounting platform for the experiments, on-board computers, batteries, and other black boxes. In addition, the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM), the Thrusters, and the Aerobrake are all attached directly to the Carrier Vehicle. The basic approach in this analysis was to develop a NASTRAN Finite Element Model as a parallel effort to the preliminary design, and to use the internal loads from this model to perform the stress analysis. The NASTRAN method of Inertial Relief was employed. This method involves either specifying a set of CG (center of gravity) accelerations or applying forces at the CG and representing the Carrier Vehicle and all its mounted devices with the proper stiffness and mass properties.

  16. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-43 - F.o.b. Designated Air Carrier's Terminal, Point of Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Designated Air... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-43 F.o.b. Designated Air Carrier's Terminal, Point of... the delivery term is f.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation: F.o.b....

  18. 48 CFR 47.303-16 - F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. designated air... Contracts 47.303-16 F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of importation. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of importation means free of expense to...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-44 - F.o.b. Designated Air Carrier's Terminal, Point of Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Designated Air... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-44 F.o.b. Designated Air Carrier's Terminal, Point of... the delivery term is f.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of importation: F.o.b....

  20. 48 CFR 47.303-15 - F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. designated air... Contracts 47.303-15 F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation means free of expense to...

  1. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  2. SR-71B - in Flight - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This look-down view shows NASA 831, an SR-71B flown by Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, as it cruises over the Mojave Desert. The photo was from an Air Force refueling tanker taken on a 1997 mission. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in

  3. New Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) Flight Testbed for Hypersonic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Lux, David P.; Stenger, Mike; Munson, Mike; Teate, George

    2006-01-01

    A new testbed for hypersonic flight research is proposed. Known as the Phoenix air-launched small missile (ALSM) flight testbed, it was conceived to help address the lack of quick-turnaround and cost-effective hypersonic flight research capabilities. The Phoenix ALSM testbed results from utilization of two unique and very capable flight assets: the United States Navy Phoenix AIM-54 long-range, guided air-to-air missile and the NASA Dryden F-15B testbed airplane. The U.S. Navy retirement of the Phoenix AIM-54 missiles from fleet operation has presented an excellent opportunity for converting this valuable flight asset into a new flight testbed. This cost-effective new platform will fill an existing gap in the test and evaluation of current and future hypersonic systems for flight Mach numbers ranging from 3 to 5. Preliminary studies indicate that the Phoenix missile is a highly capable platform. When launched from a high-performance airplane, the guided Phoenix missile can boost research payloads to low hypersonic Mach numbers, enabling flight research in the supersonic-to-hypersonic transitional flight envelope. Experience gained from developing and operating the Phoenix ALSM testbed will be valuable for the development and operation of future higher-performance ALSM flight testbeds as well as responsive microsatellite small-payload air-launched space boosters.

  4. Performance Data Errors in Air Carrier Operations: Causes and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Benjamin A.; Dismukes, R Key; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Several airline accidents have occurred in recent years as the result of erroneous weight or performance data used to calculate V-speeds, flap/trim settings, required runway lengths, and/or required climb gradients. In this report we consider 4 recent studies of performance data error, report our own study of ASRS-reported incidents, and provide countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to accidents caused by performance data errors. Performance data are generated through a lengthy process involving several employee groups and computer and/or paper-based systems. Although much of the airline indUStry 's concern has focused on errors pilots make in entering FMS data, we determined that errors occur at every stage of the process and that errors by ground personnel are probably at least as frequent and certainly as consequential as errors by pilots. Most of the errors we examined could in principle have been trapped by effective use of existing procedures or technology; however, the fact that they were not trapped anywhere indicates the need for better countermeasures. Existing procedures are often inadequately designed to mesh with the ways humans process information. Because procedures often do not take into account the ways in which information flows in actual flight ops and time pressures and interruptions experienced by pilots and ground personnel, vulnerability to error is greater. Some aspects of NextGen operations may exacerbate this vulnerability. We identify measures to reduce the number of errors and to help catch the errors that occur.

  5. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC... public agency. The FAA has developed a national PFC database system in order to more easily track the...

  6. 75 FR 61031 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 29, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-24900 Filed 9-30-10; 11:15 am... Memorandum of September 29, 2010--Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service...;The President ] Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage...

  7. 75 FR 32535 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Under Subpart B; Week Ending May 22, 2010 Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  8. 14 CFR 330.23 - To what address must air carriers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To what address must air carriers send their applications? 330.23 Section 330.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF...) to the following address: U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Relief Desk (X-50), 1200...

  9. 14 CFR 330.23 - To what address must air carriers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false To what address must air carriers send their applications? 330.23 Section 330.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF...) to the following address: U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Relief Desk (X-50), 1200...

  10. 14 CFR 330.23 - To what address must air carriers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false To what address must air carriers send their applications? 330.23 Section 330.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF...) to the following address: U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Relief Desk (X-50), 1200...

  11. 75 FR 69734 - Application of Island Airlines, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Island Airlines, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authorization AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Island Airlines, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding...

  12. 78 FR 9865 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Maintenance Requirements'' (77 FR 67584). Comments to that document were to be received on or before February... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 121 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ33 Air Carrier Contract Maintenance... maintenance regulations for domestic, flag, and supplemental operations, and commuter and on-demand...

  13. 77 FR 12373 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http... rulemaking (ANPRM) entitled ``New Pilot Certification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations.'' (75 FR 6164... commercial pilots were adequate (75 FR 6164). In the ANPRM, the Agency asked whether all part 121...

  14. 77 FR 3323 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 3323-3324] [FR... Engineering Division, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2012-1243 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE... Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

  15. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  16. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  17. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of August 21, 2009 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  18. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  19. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  20. 14 CFR 330.23 - To what address must air carriers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false To what address must air carriers send their applications? 330.23 Section 330.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF...) to the following address: U.S. Department of Transportation, Aviation Relief Desk (X-50), 1200...

  1. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS... provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as a passenger or...). (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as...

  2. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS... provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as a passenger or...). (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as...

  3. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS... provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as a passenger or...). (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as...

  4. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS... provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as a passenger or...). (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as...

  5. 14 CFR 330.31 - What data must air carriers submit concerning ASMs or RTMs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS... provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as a passenger or...). (b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, if you are applying for compensation as...

  6. 78 FR 39435 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Member State of the European Union via any point or points in any Member State and via intermediate... rights made available to European Union carriers in the future. Barbara J. Hairston, Acting Program... any member of the European Common Aviation Area; (c) foreign charter cargo air transportation...

  7. 78 FR 44873 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324... entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324... requirements for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate in Sec. 61.159(a) by adding paragraph...

  8. New Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) Flight Testbed for Hypersonic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Lux, David P.; Stenger, Michael T.; Munson, Michael J.; Teate, George F.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) flight testbed was conceived and is proposed to help address the lack of quick-turnaround and cost-effective hypersonic flight research capabilities. The Phoenix ALSM testbed results from utilization of the United States Navy Phoenix AIM-54 (Hughes Aircraft Company, now Raytheon Company, Waltham, Massachusetts) long-range, guided air-to-air missile and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas, now the Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) testbed airplane. The retirement of the Phoenix AIM-54 missiles from fleet operation has presented an opportunity for converting this flight asset into a new flight testbed. This cost-effective new platform will fill the gap in the test and evaluation of hypersonic systems for flight Mach numbers ranging from 3 to 5. Preliminary studies indicate that the Phoenix missile is a highly capable platform; when launched from a high-performance airplane, the guided Phoenix missile can boost research payloads to low hypersonic Mach numbers, enabling flight research in the supersonic-to-hypersonic transitional flight envelope. Experience gained from developing and operating the Phoenix ALSM testbed will assist the development and operation of future higher-performance ALSM flight testbeds as well as responsive microsatellite-small-payload air-launched space boosters.

  9. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  10. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  11. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  12. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  13. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  14. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  15. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  16. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) - Optimization of preflight algorithms based on flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.; Henry, M. W.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure model algorithm results were tested against other sources of air data, in particular, the Shuttle Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). The algorithm basis was also tested through a comparison of flight-measured pressure distribution vs the wind tunnel database. It is concluded that the successful flight of SEADS and the subsequent analysis of the data shows good agreement between BET and SEADS air data.

  17. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  18. Micro air vehicle-motivated computational biomechanics in bio-flights: aerodynamics, flight dynamics and maneuvering stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Gao, Na; Maeda, Masateru; Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Aiming at developing an effective tool to unveil key mechanisms in bio-flight as well as to provide guidelines for bio-inspired micro air vehicles (MAVs) design, we propose a comprehensive computational framework, which integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, vehicle stability and maneuverability. This framework consists of (1) a Navier-Stokes unsteady aerodynamic model; (2) a linear finite element model for structural dynamics; (3) a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for coupled flexible wing aerodynamics aeroelasticity; (4) a free-flying rigid body dynamic (RBD) model utilizing the Newtonian-Euler equations of 6DoF motion; and (5) flight simulator accounting for realistic wing-body morphology, flapping-wing and body kinematics, and a coupling model accounting for the nonlinear 6DoF flight dynamics and stability of insect flapping flight. Results are presented based on hovering aerodynamics with rigid and flexible wings of hawkmoth and fruitfly. The present approach can support systematic analyses of bio- and bio-inspired flight.

  19. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... all cats and dogs transported by the carrier, regardless of whether the cat or dog is transported as a... required to report all incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of cats and dogs that occur while they are traveling in an airline's care, custody, or control, regardless of whether the cat or dog...

  1. Aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, Dmytro

    Research efforts in this dissertation address aerodynamics and flight performance of flapping wing aircraft (ornithopters). Flapping wing aerodynamics was studied for various wing sizes, flapping frequencies, airspeeds, and angles of attack. Tested wings possessed both camber and dihedral. Experimental results were analyzed in the framework of momentum theory. Aerodynamic coefficients and Reynolds number are defined using a reference velocity as a vector sum of a freestream velocity and a strokeaveraged wingtip velocity. No abrupt stall was observed in flapping wings for the angle of attack up to vertical. If was found that in the presence of a freestream lift of a flapping wing in vertical position is higher than the propulsive thrust. Camber and dihedral increased both lift and thrust. Lift-curve slope, and maximum lift coefficient increased with Reynolds number. Performance model of an ornithopter was developed. Parametric studies of steady level flight of ornithopters with, and without a tail were performed. A model was proposed to account for wing-sizing effects during hover. Three micro ornithopter designs were presented. Ornithopter flight testing and data-logging was performed using a telemetry acquisition system, as well as motion capture technology. The ability of ornithopter for a sustained flight and a presence of passive aerodynamic stability were shown. Flight data were compared with performance simulations. Close agreement in terms of airspeed and flapping frequency was observed.

  2. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  3. 14 CFR 93.25 - Initial assignment of Arrival Authorizations to U.S. and Canadian air carriers for domestic and U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Canadian air carriers for domestic and U.S./Canada transborder service. (a) The FAA shall assign to each U.S. and Canadian air carrier, conducting scheduled service at O'Hare, as of the effective date of... Authorizations to U.S. and Canadian air carriers for domestic and U.S./Canada transborder service. 93.25......

  4. Improving target orientation discrimination performance in air-to-air flight simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfoss, Gary Lee

    Despite significant advances, state-of-the-art image projectors still lack the ability to display object detail equivalent to a 20/20 visual acuity capability. Unfortunately, for proper close-in air combat training in a flight simulator, this level of detail is necessary if a pilot is to accurately determine the orientation of another aircraft at realistic ranges. This investigation evaluates a possible interim solution to this problem that could be implemented until projectors are developed that can provide adequate resolution. The research methodology involves enlarging the "enemy" aircraft by various amounts as a function of distance-resulting in an aircraft that still always gets smaller as it moves farther away, but just not as quickly as a "non-enlarged" target. The results from 20 male F-16 pilots provided the distances where the orientation of aircraft in the simulator could be determined as well as similar aircraft under "real-world" conditions. By using these distances, it was possible to determine the amount of magnification needed to identify necessary details of the simulated aircraft at the same distances as they are under "real-world" conditions. The final product is a magnification curve that can be used to modify how the simulated target changes in size as a function of distance. Results seem to indicate that performance in the simulator might be enhanced to match real flying conditions without unacceptably (or perhaps even noticeably) altering the size of the target. These results should be applicable (with minor modification) to many other aircraft and perhaps ground targets as well. Furthermore, it is anticipated that application can be made beyond flight simulation to other types of simulation where performance is also currently inhibited due to lack of display resolution.

  5. LITERATURE SEARCH FOR METHODS FOR HAZARD ANALYSES OF AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ - GURIDI,G.; SAMANTA,P.

    2002-07-01

    Representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and several air carriers under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 developed a system-engineering model of the functions of air-carrier operations. Their analyses form the foundation or basic architecture upon which other task areas are based: hazard analyses, performance measures, and risk indicator design. To carry out these other tasks, models may need to be developed using the basic architecture of the Air Carrier Operations System Model (ACOSM). Since ACOSM encompasses various areas of air-carrier operations and can be used to address different task areas with differing but interrelated objectives, the modeling needs are broad. A literature search was conducted to identify and analyze the existing models that may be applicable for pursuing the task areas in ACOSM. The intent of the literature search was not necessarily to identify a specific model that can be directly used, but rather to identify relevant ones that have similarities with the processes and activities defined within ACOSM. Such models may provide useful inputs and insights in structuring ACOSM models. ACOSM simulates processes and activities in air-carrier operation, but, in a general framework, it has similarities with other industries where attention also has been paid to hazard analyses, emphasizing risk management, and in designing risk indicators. To assure that efforts in other industries are adequately considered, the literature search includes publications from other industries, e.g., chemical, nuclear, and process industries. This report discusses the literature search, the relevant methods identified and provides a preliminary assessment of their use in developing the models needed for the ACOSM task areas. A detailed assessment of the models has not been made. Defining those applicable for ACOSM will need further analyses of both the models and tools identified. The report is organized in four chapters

  6. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  7. Air transport flight parameter measurements program - Concepts and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. J.; Crabill, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    A program is described in which statistical flight loads and operating practice data for both narrow- and wide-body airline transport aircraft, intended primarily for use by manufacturers in updating design criteria, are obtained from existing, on-board digital flight data recorders. Procedures for editing and processing the data are explained, and differences between these and past NACA/NASA analog data are discussed. One major such difference is the automatic bandpass filtering of normal acceleration data to separate high-frequency gust response from low-frequency maneuver response. Plans and preliminary efforts for the development of an on-board data processing system, able to derive statistical aircraft operating parameters directly from real-time data, are also reviewed.

  8. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  9. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... particular language and culture of the recipient country are important to the success of the project, weight... interfere with the primary business of the subsidized carrier which is to provide air transportation in...

  10. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  11. Growth of calcium carbonate crystals on the European Retrievable carrier flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, K. F.; Lind, M. D.; Lindegaard-Andersen, A.; Gerward, L.; Groth-Andersen, L.

    1995-08-01

    On the Solution Growth Facility (SGF) of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA), clear, colorless crystals of calcium carbonate up to 3 mm long have been grown from aqueous solution without the use of a gel. This is a much improved result compared with previous solution growth of CaCO_3.

  12. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  13. Locust adipokinetic hormones: carrier-independent transport and differential inactivation at physiological concentrations during rest and flight.

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, R C; Vroemen, S F; Jansen, R F; Van der Horst, D J

    1996-01-01

    Since concomitant release of structurally related peptide hormones with apparently similar functions seems to be a general concept in endocrinology, we have studied the dynamics of the lifetime of the three known adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) of the migratory locust, which control flight-directed mobilization of carbohydrate and lipid from fat body stores. Although the structure of the first member of the AKHs has been known for 20 years, until now, reliable data on their inactivation and removal from the hemolymph are lacking, because measurement requires AKHs with high specific radioactivity. Employing tritiated AKHs with high specific radioactivity, obtained by catalytic reduction with tritium gas of the dehydroLeu2 analogues of the AKHs synthesized by the solid-phase procedure, studies with physiological doses of as low as 1.0 pmol per locust could be conducted. The AKHs appear to be transported in the hemolymph in their free forms and not associated with a carrier protein, despite their strong hydrophobicity. Application of AKHs in their free form in in vivo and in vitro studies therefore now has been justified. We have studied the degradation of the three AKHs during rest and flight. The first cleavage step by an endopeptidase is crucial, since the resulting degradation products lack any adipokinetic activity. Half-lives for AKH-I, -II and -III were 51, 40, and 5 min, respectively, for rest conditions and 35, 37, and 3 min, respectively, during flight. The rapid and differential degradation of structurally related hormones leads to changes in the ratio in which they are released and therefore will have important consequences for concerted hormone action at the level of the target organ or organs, suggesting that each of the known AKHs may play its own biological role in the overall syndrome of insect flight. PMID:8710926

  14. Aircraft noise annoyance at three joint air carrier and general aviation airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Mills, J.; Baldwin, E.; Teffeteller, S.; Pearsons, K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of social surveys conducted near three airports that support both general aviation and scheduled air carrier operations are presented and discussed. Inferences supported by these data include: (1) the nature of noise exposure and community reaction at smaller airports may differ from that at larger airports; (2) survey techniques are capable of identifying changes in annoyance associated with numerically small changes in noise exposure; (3) changes in the prevalence of annoyance are causally produced by changes in noise exposure; and (4) changes in annoyance associated with changes in exposure vary with time.

  15. Air quality assessments for two recent Space Shuttle flights.

    PubMed

    Matney, M L; Boyd, J F; Covington, P A; Leano, H J; Limero, T F; James, J T

    1993-11-01

    Degradation of air quality in the Space Shuttle environment through chemical contamination and high solid-particulate levels may affect crew performance and health. A comprehensive study of the Shuttle atmosphere was undertaken during the STS-40 (Spacelab Space Life Sciences 1) and STS-42 (Spacelab International Microgravity Laboratory 1) missions to determine the effectiveness of contaminant control procedures by measuring concentrations of volatile organic compounds and analyzing particulate matter trapped on air filters. Analysis of volatile contaminants showed that the air was toxicologically safe to breathe during both missions with the exception of one period during STS-40 when the Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer was releasing noxious gases into the middeck. Chemical analyses of selected particles collected on air filters facilitated their positive identification. Trace amounts of rat hair and food particles were found in the STS-40 Spacelab filters; a trace amount of soilless plant-growth media was detected in the STS-42 Spacelab filter. The low levels of particles released from these Spacelab experiments indicate that containment measures were effective.

  16. Pressure Distribution and Air Data System for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Lorelei S.; Siemers, Paul M., III; Kern, Frederick A.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to provide critical flight data necessary for the design of future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV). This flight experiment will provide aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and environmental data for verification of experimental and computational flow field techniques. The Pressure Distribution and Air Data System (PD/ADS), one of the measurement systems incorporated into the AFE spacecraft, is designed to provide accurate pressure measurements on the windward surface of the vehicle. These measurements will be used to determine the pressure distribution and air data parameters (angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and free-stream dynamic pressure) encountered by the blunt-bodied vehicle over an altitude range of 76.2 km to 94.5 km. Design and development data are presented and include: measurement requirements, measurement heritage, theoretical studies to define the vehicle environment, flush-mounted orifice configuration, pressure transducer selection and performance evaluation data, and pressure tubing response analysis.

  17. Manpower Requirements for Air Traffic Control and Flight Service Specialists in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    As of January 1, 1968 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Department of Transportation employed 6,963 controllers in airport towers, 7,617 controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Centers, and 4,459 flight service specialists at airport locations. Projected needs are as follows: (1) Controllers in airport towers:…

  18. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Newman, John A.; Tyler, Erik D.; Sterling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  19. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2016-09-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  20. Flight tests with a data link used for air traffic control information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that air traffic control (ATC) message exchange with a data link offers the potential benefits of increased airspace system safety and efficiency. To accomplish these benefits, data link can be used to reduce communication errors and relieve overloaded ATC voice radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchange during peak traffic periods. Flight tests with commercial airline pilots as test subjects were conducted in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane to contrast flight operations that used current voice communications with flight operations that used data link to transmit both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airflight from takeoff to landing. The results of these tests that used data link as the primary communication source with ATC showed flight crew acceptance, a perceived reduction in crew work load, and a reduction in crew communication errors.

  1. Korean Air Lines Flight 007: Lessons from the Past and Insights for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the problems pilot encounter when using automated systems center around two factors: (1) the pilot has an incomplete and inadequate model of how the autopilot works; and (2) the displays and flight manuals, provided to the pilot, are inadequate for the task. The tragic accident of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 that deviated from its intended flight path, provides a compelling case-study of problems related to pilots' use of automated systems. This paper describes what had happened and exposes two types of human-automation interaction problems: (1) The pilots of KAL were not provided with adequate information about the actual behavior of the autopilot and its mode transition logic; and (2) The autopilot onboard KAL 007 did not provide adequate information to the flight crew about its active and armed modes. Both factors, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (1993) report on the accident, contributed to the aircraft's lethal navigation error.

  2. AirSTAR Hardware and Software Design for Beyond Visual Range Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean; Cox, David

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is a facility developed to study the flight dynamics of vehicles in emergency conditions, in support of aviation safety research. The system was upgraded to have its operational range significantly expanded, going beyond the line of sight of a ground-based pilot. A redesign of the airborne flight hardware was undertaken, as well as significant changes to the software base, in order to provide appropriate autonomous behavior in response to a number of potential failures and hazards. Ground hardware and system monitors were also upgraded to include redundant communication links, including ADS-B based position displays and an independent flight termination system. The design included both custom and commercially available avionics, combined to allow flexibility in flight experiment design while still benefiting from tested configurations in reversionary flight modes. A similar hierarchy was employed in the software architecture, to allow research codes to be tested, with a fallback to more thoroughly validated flight controls. As a remotely piloted facility, ground systems were also developed to ensure the flight modes and system state were communicated to ground operations personnel in real-time. Presented in this paper is a general overview of the concept of operations for beyond visual range flight, and a detailed review of the airborne hardware and software design. This discussion is held in the context of the safety and procedural requirements that drove many of the design decisions for the AirSTAR UAS Beyond Visual Range capability.

  3. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  4. Cabin air quality: indoor pollutants and climate during intercontinental flights with and without tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D

    2002-12-01

    The aim was to determine cabin air quality and in-flight exposure for cabin attendants of specific pollutants during intercontinental flights. Measurements of air humidity, temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2), respirable particles, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde were performed during 26 intercontinental flights with Boeing 767-300 with and without tobacco smoking onboard. The mean temperature in cabin was 22.2 degrees C (range 17.4-26.8 degrees C), and mean relative air humidity was 6% (range 1-27%). The CO2 concentration during cruises was below the recommended limit of 1000 ppm during 96% of measured time. Mean indoor concentration of NO2 and O3, were 14.1 and 19.2 micrograms/m3, with maximum values of 37 and 66 micrograms/m3, respectively. The concentration of formaldehyde was below the detection limit (< 5 micrograms/m3), in most samples (77%), and the maximum value was 15 micrograms/m3. The mean concentration of respirable particles in the rear part of the aircraft (AFT galley area) was much higher (49 micrograms/m3) during smoking as compared with non-smoking conditions (3 micrograms/m3) (P < 0.001), with maximum values of 253 and 7 micrograms/m3. In conclusion, air humidity is very low on intercontinental flights, and the large variation of temperature shows a need for better temperature control. Tobacco smoking onboard leads to a significant pollution of respirable particles, particularly in the rear part of the cabin. The result supports the view that despite the high air exchange rate and efficient air filtration, smoking in commercial aircraft leads to a significant pollution and should be prohibited.

  5. 14 CFR 117.19 - Flight duty period extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight duty period extensions. 117.19... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS § 117.19 Flight duty period extensions. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 117.11 - Flight time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitation. 117.11 Section 117...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS § 117.11 Flight time limitation. (a) No...

  7. 14 CFR 117.19 - Flight duty period extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight duty period extensions. 117.19... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) § 117.19 Flight duty period extensions....

  8. 14 CFR 117.11 - Flight time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitation. 117.11 Section 117...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) § 117.11 Flight time limitation. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR Table C to Part 117 - Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations Scheduled time of start (acclimated time) Maximum flight duty... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations C... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND...

  10. Wind tunnel and flight calibration of the Shuttle Orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillje, E. R.; Tymms, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter air data system has been subjected to wind tunnel testing including three subsonic tests and one reference probe calibration test in order to obtain preflight calibration. Calibration curves for angle of attack, static pressure, and total pressure are given in the 0.35-0.55 Mach number range which represents flight conditions. The major difficulties encountered concerned the reference pressure of the facility, model-probe scale discrepancies, tunnel changes and blockage effects. Actual flight data calibrations from the approach and landing test program were used to modify the wind tunnel calibrations.

  11. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  12. Remembering the Musi - SilkAir Flight MI 185 crash victim identification.

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng Hui; Wee, Keng Poh; Sahelangi, Peter

    2007-10-01

    On 19 December 1997, SilkAir Flight MI 185, a Boeing B737-300 airliner crashed into the Musi River near Palembang, Southern Sumatra, enroute from Jakarta, Indonesia to Singapore. All 104 passengers and crew onboard were killed. Of the human remains recovered, 6 positive identifications were made, including that of one Singaporean. Two of the identifications were by dental records, 2 by fingerprints, 1 by age estimation and 1 by personal effects. This paper describes the crash victim identification of Flight MI 185. The authors were part of an Indonesia- Singapore forensic team deployed for 3 weeks in Palembang to assist the Indonesian authorities in human remains identification.

  13. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  14. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  15. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  16. Development of an air ground data exchange concept: Flight deck perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flathers, G. W., II

    1987-01-01

    The planned modernization of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) includes the development and use of a digital data link as a means to exchange information between aircraft and ground-based facilities. This report presents an operationally-oriented concept on how data link could be used for applications related directly to air traffic control. The specific goal is to establish the role that data link could play in the air-ground communications. Due regard is given to the unique characteristics of data link and voice communications, current principles of air traffic control, operational procedures, human factors/man-machine interfaces, and the integration of data link with other air and ground systems. The resulting concept is illustrated in the form of a paper-and-pencil simulation in which data link and voice communications during the course of a hypothetical flight are described.

  17. Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June 29, 1960 (University of California, Santa Barbara, Map and Imagery Collection) PORTION OF IRVINE RANCH SHOWING SITE CA-2275-A IN LOWER LEFT QUADRANT AND SITE CA-2275-B IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT (see separate photograph index for 2275-B) - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  20. 75 FR 60493 - Advisory Circular 120-79A, Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier Continuing Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... (AC) 120-79A, ``Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier Continuing Analysis and Surveillance System''. This new advisory circular (AC) updates AC 120-79 originally issued on April 21, 2003. This new AC... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: How To Obtain Copies: You can read or download this AC from the Internet at...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  3. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... technical assistance to airlines of less developed countries. 399.91 Section 399.91 Aeronautics and Space... § 399.91 Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed... or director thereof, with a foreign airline in connection with the performance of some...

  4. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technical assistance to airlines of less developed countries. 399.91 Section 399.91 Aeronautics and Space... § 399.91 Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed... or director thereof, with a foreign airline in connection with the performance of some...

  5. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technical assistance to airlines of less developed countries. 399.91 Section 399.91 Aeronautics and Space... § 399.91 Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed... or director thereof, with a foreign airline in connection with the performance of some...

  6. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technical assistance to airlines of less developed countries. 399.91 Section 399.91 Aeronautics and Space... § 399.91 Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed... or director thereof, with a foreign airline in connection with the performance of some...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  8. Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey Y.; McGuire, John A.; Schulze, Roland K.; Tretiak, Olexandr; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor

    2010-04-27

    Effects of air exposure on surface properties, electronic structure, and carrier relaxation dynamics in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. We show that exposure of NC hexane solutions to air under ambient conditions leads to rapid oxidation of NCs such that up to 50% of their volume is transformed into PbO, SeO{sub 2}, or PbSeO{sub 3} within 24 h. The oxidation is a thermally activated process, spontaneous at room temperature. The oxidation-induced reduction in the size of the PbSe “core” increases quantum confinement, causing shifts of the PL band and the absorption onset to higher energies. The exposure of NC solutions to air also causes rapid (within minutes) quenching of PL intensity followed by slow (within hours) recovery during which the PL quantum yield can reach values exceeding those observed prior to the air exposure. The short-term PL quenching is attributed to enhanced carrier trapping induced by adsorption of oxygen onto the NC surface, while the PL recovery at longer times is predominantly due to reduction in the efficiency of the “intrinsic” nonradiative interband recombination caused by the increase of the band gap in oxidized NCs. Although the analysis of subnanosecond relaxation dynamics in air-exposed NCs is complicated by a significant enhancement in fast carrier trapping, our picosecond PL measurements suggest that air exposure likely has only a weak effect on Auger recombination and also does not significantly affect the efficiency of carrier multiplication. We also show that the effects of air exposure are partially suppressed in PbSe/CdSe core/shell structures.

  9. Effect of air exposure on surface properties, electronic structure, and carrier relaxation in PbSe nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey Y; McGuire, John A; Schulze, Roland K; Tretiak, Olexandr; Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Klimov, Victor I

    2010-04-27

    Effects of air exposure on surface properties, electronic structure, and carrier relaxation dynamics in colloidal PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. We show that exposure of NC hexane solutions to air under ambient conditions leads to rapid oxidation of NCs such that up to 50% of their volume is transformed into PbO, SeO2, or PbSeO3 within 24 h. The oxidation is a thermally activated process, spontaneous at room temperature. The oxidation-induced reduction in the size of the PbSe "core" increases quantum confinement, causing shifts of the PL band and the absorption onset to higher energies. The exposure of NC solutions to air also causes rapid (within minutes) quenching of PL intensity followed by slow (within hours) recovery during which the PL quantum yield can reach values exceeding those observed prior to the air exposure. The short-term PL quenching is attributed to enhanced carrier trapping induced by adsorption of oxygen onto the NC surface, while the PL recovery at longer times is predominantly due to reduction in the efficiency of the "intrinsic" nonradiative interband recombination caused by the increase of the band gap in oxidized NCs. Although the analysis of subnanosecond relaxation dynamics in air-exposed NCs is complicated by a significant enhancement in fast carrier trapping, our picosecond PL measurements suggest that air exposure likely has only a weak effect on Auger recombination and also does not significantly affect the efficiency of carrier multiplication. We also show that the effects of air exposure are partially suppressed in PbSe/CdSe core/shell structures. PMID:20369900

  10. 14 CFR 158.11 - Public agency request not to require collection of PFC's by a class of air carriers or foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public agency request not to require collection of PFC's by a class of air carriers or foreign air carriers or for service to isolated communities... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) General § 158.11 Public agency request...

  11. 14 CFR 93.25 - Initial assignment of Arrival Authorizations to U.S. and Canadian air carriers for domestic and U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Authorizations to U.S. and Canadian air carriers for domestic and U.S./Canada transborder service. 93.25 Section... Canadian air carriers for domestic and U.S./Canada transborder service. (a) The FAA shall assign to each U....S./Canada transborder service for any day during the 7-day period of November 1 through 7, 2004,...

  12. High-Altitude Flight Cooling Investigation of a Radial Air-Cooled Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganiello, Eugene J; Valerino, Michael F; Bell, E Barton

    1947-01-01

    An investigation of the cooling of an 18-cylinder, twin-row, radial, air-cooled engine in a high-performance pursuit airplane has been conducted for variable engine and flight conditions at altitudes ranging from 5000 to 35,000 feet in order to provide a basis for predicting high-altitude cooling performance from sea-level or low altitude experimental results. The engine cooling data obtained were analyzed by the usual NACA cooling-correlation method wherein cylinder-head and cylinder-barrel temperatures are related to the pertinent engine and cooling-air variables. A theoretical analysis was made of the effect on engine cooling of the change of density of the cooling air across the engine (the compressibility effect), which becomes of increasing importance as altitude is increased. Good agreement was obtained between the results of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.

  13. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  14. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  15. Free Flight Simulation: An Initial Examination of Air-Ground Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; McGann, Alison; Cashion, Patricia; Dunbar, Melisa; Mackintosh, Margaret; Dulchinos, Victoria; Jordan, Kevin; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "free flight" is intended to emphasize more flexibility for operators in the National Airspace System (RTCA, 1995). This may include the potential for aircraft self-separation. The purpose of this simulation was to begin examining some of the communication and procedural issues associated with self-separation in an integrated air-ground environment. Participants were 10 commercial U.S. flight crews who flew the B747-400 simulator and 10 Denver ARTCC controllers who monitored traffic in an ATC simulation. A prototypic airborne alerting logic and flight deck display features were designed to allow for increased traffic and maneuvering information. Eight different scenarios representing different conflict types were developed. The effects of traffic density (high and low) and different traffic convergence angles (obtuse, acute, and right) were assessed. Conflict detection times were found to be lower for the flight crews in low density compared to high density scenarios. For the controllers, an interaction between density and convergence angle was revealed. Analyses on the controller detection times found longer detection times in the obtuse high density compared to obtuse low density, as well as the shortest detection times in the high density acute angle condition. Maneuvering and communication events are summarized, and a discussion of future research issues is provided.

  16. The risk of developing decompression sickness during air travel following altitude chamber flight.

    PubMed

    Rush, W L; Wirjosemito, S A

    1990-11-01

    Approximately 35,000 students are trained annually in United States Air Force (USAF) altitude chambers. Students who depart the training site via aircraft on the same day as their altitude chamber exposure may place themselves at increased risk for decompression sickness (DCS). Air travel as a passenger in the immediate post-chamber flight period is unrestricted by current USAF regulations. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the potential risk involved in such post-chamber flight travel. During the years 1982-87, there were 292 cases of DCS involving altitude chamber students which were subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Only seven cases were found wherein the student was asymptomatic prior to air travel and subsequently developed DCS. Because the percentage of students who postpone travel is unknown, a precise relative risk could not be determined. Although the number of cases where sequential chamber and aircraft hypobaric exposures has initiated DCS is small, the potential for such occurrences remains a health concern.

  17. 78 FR 14619 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... (``United''), Continental Airlines, Inc. (``Continental''), Continental Micronesia, Inc. (``Continental Micronesia'') and Air Micronesia, Inc. ] (``Air Micronesia'') (collectively, the ``Joint...

  18. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  19. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel.

  20. Time of flight measurement of speed of sound in air with a computer sound card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz

    2014-11-01

    A computer sound card and freely available audio editing software are used to measure accurately the speed of sound in air using the time-of-flight method. In addition to speed of sound measurement, inversion behaviour upon reflection from an open and closed end of a pipe is demonstrated. Also, it is demonstrated that the reflection at an open end of a pipe occurs slightly outside the pipe. The equipment needed is readily available to any student with access to a microphone, loudspeaker and computer.

  1. Aerothermal test results from the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Curry, Robert E.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A survey of temperature measurements at speeds through Mach 8.0 on the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched booster system is discussed. In addition, heating rates were derived from the temperature data obtained on the fuselage in the vicinity of the wing shock interaction. Sensors were distributed on the wing surfaces, leading edge, and on the wing-body fairing or fillet. Side-by-side evaluations were obtained for a variety of sensor installations. Details of the trajectory reconstruction through first-stage separation are provided. Given here are indepth descriptions of the sensor installations, temperature measurements, and derived heating rates along with interpretations of the results.

  2. Flight Test of an L(sub 1) Adaptive Controller on the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.

  3. Flight test of multi-pulses vertical laser propulsion in air breathing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ming; Wu, Jie; Wang, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    The air breathing vertical laser propulsion experiment refers to that in the air breathing mode the light craft under the irradiation of incident laser of vertical direction will turn pulse laser energy into the vertical propulsion thrust of the light craft and continue along the fixed rail upward propulsion flight. It is an important experiment to test the minimum single pulse energy, the optimization degree of light craft structure, and the characteristics of turning the laser energy into the thrust. The experiment is to be conducted dozens of meters in height away the ground generally. The article gives a detailed explanation of the whole process of the air breathing vertical propulsion test, including vertical propulsion light craft design, the connections design, the connections performance test, the frictional resistance detection and the whole process of movement performance test. A vertical propulsion tower was used to conduct the single pulse experiment and multi-pulse performance was predicted with a multiple-pulse thrust measuring system. The impulse coupling coefficient was estimated from fight height. Finally, through the experiments of air breathing vertical laser propulsion, the relation of the movement time and flight height was obtained. In the curve, the mean acceleration of the light craft can arrive to 6m/s2 in the first 20 pulses and the propulsion height can reach 3.5m in 1.12s. After 0.65s, the acceleration of the light craft decreased significantly. The results of the article lay the good foundation for the laser propulsion launch system verification.

  4. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  5. Comparison of Tests on Air Propellers in Flight with Wind Tunnel Model Tests on Similar Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance, characteristics, and coefficients of full-sized air propellers in flight and to compare these results with those derived from wind-tunnel tests on reduced scale models of similar geometrical form. The full-scale equipment comprised five propellers in combination with a VE-7 airplane and Wright E-4 engine. This part of the work was carried out at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, between May 1 and August 24, 1924, and was under the immediate charge of Mr. Lesley. The model or wind-tunnel part of the investigation was carried out at the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Stanford University and was under the immediate charge of Doctor Durand. A comparison of the curves for full-scale results with those derived from the model tests shows that while the efficiencies realized in flight are close to those derived from model tests, both thrust developed and power absorbed in flight are from 6 to 10 per cent greater than would be expected from the results of model tests.

  6. Identification of vortex-induced clear-air turbulence using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, E. K.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.; Mehta, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The nature and cause of clear-air turbulence is being investigated, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, using the flight records available from airline encounters with severe turbulence. This paper presents two case studies of severe turbulence which indicate that the airplanes involved encountered vortex arrays which were generated by destabilized wind-shear layers near the tropopause. In order to identify and analyze vortex patterns (i.e., vortex strength, size, and spacings), potential-flow models of vortex arrays were developed that describe reasonably well the wind patterns derived from the airliner flight records. The results of this analysis indicate that in the two cases studied, the vortex cores had diameters in the range of 900 to 1,200 ft with tangential velocities in the range of 70 to 85 ft/sec. This study presents the first identification and analysis of vortex arrays from airline flight data. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and previous observations.

  7. 14 CFR 211.20 - Initial foreign air carrier permit or transfer of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respond to an item, the application shall contain an explanation, and include substitute information most... related by blood or marriage. (e) Provide the names and citizenship of all persons holding five percent (5... CFR part 205. State the name(s) of its insurance carrier(s). (i) Supply certified evidence, in...

  8. 14 CFR 211.20 - Initial foreign air carrier permit or transfer of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respond to an item, the application shall contain an explanation, and include substitute information most... related by blood or marriage. (e) Provide the names and citizenship of all persons holding five percent (5... CFR part 205. State the name(s) of its insurance carrier(s). (i) Supply certified evidence, in...

  9. 14 CFR 211.20 - Initial foreign air carrier permit or transfer of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... respond to an item, the application shall contain an explanation, and include substitute information most... related by blood or marriage. (e) Provide the names and citizenship of all persons holding five percent (5... CFR part 205. State the name(s) of its insurance carrier(s). (i) Supply certified evidence, in...

  10. 14 CFR 211.20 - Initial foreign air carrier permit or transfer of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respond to an item, the application shall contain an explanation, and include substitute information most... related by blood or marriage. (e) Provide the names and citizenship of all persons holding five percent (5... CFR part 205. State the name(s) of its insurance carrier(s). (i) Supply certified evidence, in...

  11. 14 CFR 211.20 - Initial foreign air carrier permit or transfer of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respond to an item, the application shall contain an explanation, and include substitute information most... related by blood or marriage. (e) Provide the names and citizenship of all persons holding five percent (5... CFR part 205. State the name(s) of its insurance carrier(s). (i) Supply certified evidence, in...

  12. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle, Derek J.

    The development and application of a first-principles-derived reduced-order model called MASIV (Michigan/AFRL Scramjet In Vehicle) for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is discussed. Several significant and previously unreported aspects of hypersonic flight are investigated. A fortunate coupling between increasing Mach number and decreasing angle of attack is shown to extend the range of operating conditions for a class of supersonic inlets. Detailed maps of isolator unstart and ram-to-scram transition are shown on the flight corridor map for the first time. In scram mode the airflow remains supersonic throughout the engine, while in ram mode there is a region of subsonic flow. Accurately predicting the transition between these two modes requires models for complex shock interactions, finite-rate chemistry, fuel-air mixing, pre-combustion shock trains, and thermal choking, which are incorporated into a unified framework here. Isolator unstart occurs when the pre-combustion shock train is longer than the isolator, which blocks airflow from entering the engine. Finally, cooptimization of the vehicle design and trajectory is discussed. An optimal control technique is introduced that greatly reduces the number of computations required to optimize the simulated trajectory.

  13. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76...

  14. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76...

  15. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76...

  16. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76...

  17. 14 CFR 135.76 - DOD Commercial Air Carrier Evaluator's Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker... Credentials: Admission to pilots compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.76 Section 135.76 Aeronautics and... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.76...

  18. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  19. Carving a Niche for the No-Frills Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Donelda S.; Grant, Jim; Fahmi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    The concept of introducing a no-frills airline to the wealthy Arab region presented its risks. This independent study sought to position the new airline in the marketplace. After three focus groups and 400 self-administered surveys, safety (#1) and price (#2) are low-fare carrier considerations whereas safety (#1), punctuality (#2) and price (#3) apply for full-fare airlines. Recommended ways for the no-frills carrier to reach the market include newspaper ads, travel agent sales, online bookings, and call centers. Additionally, respondents appeared to evaluate this low-fare carrier as if it is a full-service airline.

  20. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  1. 14 CFR 121.305 - Flight and navigational equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING... following flight and navigational instruments and equipment: (a) An airspeed indicating system with heated... is required when a third attitude instrument system usable through flight attitudes of 360° of...

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or

  3. Early Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) experience with Peripheral Vision Horizon Displays (PVHD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) tests were conducted in 1980 and 1981 on two models of the peripheral vision horizon displays (PVHD) (Malcolm Horizon). A fixed base simulator test was conducted with twenty test pilot subjects using the Flight Simulator Demonstration Model which incorporated a Helium Neon laser as the light bar medium. Two separate flight tests were conducted by the Test Pilot School classes 80A and 80B in a Twin Otter commuter aircraft using the Stage A Model PVHD. The Xenon lighted A Model was tested in its original configuration by class 80A. Class 80B used a modified configuration which incorporated an AFFTC designed and manufactured hood. With the hood, the PVHD projected a thinner, distinct light bar. Only a few general remarks concerning the tests and unrestricted, overall conclusions reached by the author are presented. The conclusions of all three AFFTC evaluations of the PVHD concept were that it has not yet been adequately evaluated. There seems to be a significant learning curve associated with the PVHD and the project pilots for Test Pilot School Class 80B only got a good start on the learning curve. A lengthy learning curve for the PVHD should be anticipated in view of the training period required for the attitude display indicator (ADI). This does seem to point out that the PVHD, in its present form, is simply not as compelling as the natural horizon. It can also be concluded that any attempt at a valid evaluation of the PVHD concept can be done only under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) or validly simulated IMC conditions. The knee in the learning curve, however, may be reached without full IMC, although it may take much longer to reach.

  4. Captain upgrade CRM training: A new focus for enhanced flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taggart, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Crew Resource Management (CRM) research has resulted in numerous payoffs of applied applications in flight training and standardization of air carrier flight operations. This paper describes one example of how basic research into human factors and crew performance was used to create a specific training intervention for upgrading new captains for a major United States air carrier. The basis for the training is examined along with some of the specific training methods used, and several unexpeced results.

  5. The novel aerodynamics of insect flight: applications to micro-air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ellington, C P

    1999-12-01

    The wing motion in free flight has been described for insects ranging from 1 to 100 mm in wingspan. To support the body weight, the wings typically produce 2-3 times more lift than can be accounted for by conventional aerodynamics. Some insects use the fling mechanism: the wings are clapped together and then flung open before the start of the downstroke, creating a lift-enhancing vortex around each wing. Most insects, however, rely on a leading-edge vortex (LEV) created by dynamic stall during flapping; a strong spanwise flow is also generated by the pressure gradients on the flapping wing, causing the LEV to spiral out to the wingtip. Technical applications of the fling are limited by the mechanical damage that accompanies repeated clapping of the wings, but the spiral LEV can be used to augment the lift production of propellers, rotors and micro-air vehicles (MAVs). Design characteristics of insect-based flying machines are presented, along with estimates of the mass supported, the mechanical power requirement and maximum flight speeds over a wide range of sizes and frequencies. To support a given mass, larger machines need less power, but smaller ones operating at higher frequencies will reach faster speeds.

  6. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  7. 78 FR 53025 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ..., Office of the Chief Counsel--International Law, Legislation, and Regulations Division, AGC-240, Federal... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR ] 42324... Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324). In that final rule, which became effective July 15, 2013, the...

  8. 78 FR 76701 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... and mail from any point or points behind any Member State(s) of the European Union, via any point or... European Union carriers under the U.S.-E.U. Open Skies Agreement. Barbara J. Hairston, Supervisory Dockets... or points in the United States and any point or points in any member of the European Common...

  9. Air speeds of migrating birds observed by ornithodolite and compared with predictions from flight theory.

    PubMed

    Pennycuick, C J; Åkesson, Susanne; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    We measured the air speeds of 31 bird species, for which we had body mass and wing measurements, migrating along the east coast of Sweden in autumn, using a Vectronix Vector 21 ornithodolite and a Gill WindSonic anemometer. We expected each species' average air speed to exceed its calculated minimum-power speed (Vmp), and to fall below its maximum-range speed (Vmr), but found some exceptions to both limits. To resolve these discrepancies, we first reduced the assumed induced power factor for all species from 1.2 to 0.9, attributing this to splayed and up-turned primary feathers, and then assigned body drag coefficients for different species down to 0.060 for small waders, and up to 0.12 for the mute swan, in the Reynolds number range 25 000-250 000. These results will be used to amend the default values in existing software that estimates fuel consumption in migration, energy heights on arrival and other aspects of flight performance, using classical aeronautical theory. The body drag coefficients are central to range calculations. Although they cannot be measured on dead bird bodies, they could be checked against wind tunnel measurements on living birds, using existing methods.

  10. Air speeds of migrating birds observed by ornithodolite and compared with predictions from flight theory.

    PubMed

    Pennycuick, C J; Åkesson, Susanne; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    We measured the air speeds of 31 bird species, for which we had body mass and wing measurements, migrating along the east coast of Sweden in autumn, using a Vectronix Vector 21 ornithodolite and a Gill WindSonic anemometer. We expected each species' average air speed to exceed its calculated minimum-power speed (Vmp), and to fall below its maximum-range speed (Vmr), but found some exceptions to both limits. To resolve these discrepancies, we first reduced the assumed induced power factor for all species from 1.2 to 0.9, attributing this to splayed and up-turned primary feathers, and then assigned body drag coefficients for different species down to 0.060 for small waders, and up to 0.12 for the mute swan, in the Reynolds number range 25 000-250 000. These results will be used to amend the default values in existing software that estimates fuel consumption in migration, energy heights on arrival and other aspects of flight performance, using classical aeronautical theory. The body drag coefficients are central to range calculations. Although they cannot be measured on dead bird bodies, they could be checked against wind tunnel measurements on living birds, using existing methods. PMID:23804440

  11. Air speeds of migrating birds observed by ornithodolite and compared with predictions from flight theory

    PubMed Central

    Pennycuick, C. J.; Åkesson, Susanne; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    We measured the air speeds of 31 bird species, for which we had body mass and wing measurements, migrating along the east coast of Sweden in autumn, using a Vectronix Vector 21 ornithodolite and a Gill WindSonic anemometer. We expected each species’ average air speed to exceed its calculated minimum-power speed (Vmp), and to fall below its maximum-range speed (Vmr), but found some exceptions to both limits. To resolve these discrepancies, we first reduced the assumed induced power factor for all species from 1.2 to 0.9, attributing this to splayed and up-turned primary feathers, and then assigned body drag coefficients for different species down to 0.060 for small waders, and up to 0.12 for the mute swan, in the Reynolds number range 25 000–250 000. These results will be used to amend the default values in existing software that estimates fuel consumption in migration, energy heights on arrival and other aspects of flight performance, using classical aeronautical theory. The body drag coefficients are central to range calculations. Although they cannot be measured on dead bird bodies, they could be checked against wind tunnel measurements on living birds, using existing methods. PMID:23804440

  12. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Towards Flight Autonomy: Vision-Based Horizon Detection for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechyba, Michael C.; Ettinger, Scott M.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Recently substantial progress has been made towards design building and testifying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). This progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to flight at very small scales has, unfortunately, not been matched by similar progress in autonomous MAV flight. Thus, we propose a robust, vision-based horizon detection algorithm as the first step towards autonomous MAVs. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for the horizon detection task by examining the flight of birds (biological MAVs) and considering other practical factors. We then describe our vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30 Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification, over terrain that includes roads, buildings large and small, meadows, wooded areas, and a lake. We conclude with some sample horizon detection results and preview a companion paper, where the work discussed here forms the core of a complete autonomous flight stability system.

  13. 78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ..., Inc. d/b/a National Airlines requesting an exemption and amended certificate of public convenience and...: January 2, 2013. Description: Application of National Air Cargo Group, Inc. d/b/a National Airlines... scheduled air transportation of persons, property and mail with large aircraft. National Airlines...

  14. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  15. 78 FR 19354 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Modify Scope: March 26, 2013. Description: Application of AirBridgeCargo Airlines, LLC (``ABC..., Florida; Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas; and Los Angeles, California, on the other hand, and beyond. ABC...

  16. Three-dimensional DEM-CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Air flow and particle-particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM-CFD (discrete element method-computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force.

  17. Three-dimensional DEM–CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Air flow and particle–particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM–CFD (discrete element method–computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force. PMID:26579364

  18. Aircraft disinsection: A guide for military and civilian air carriers; Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l`intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.A

    1996-05-01

    To prevent risks to air crews health, aircraft safety, and industry, Canada`s Department of National Defense (DND) has recently reviewed the potential problems associated with aircraft disinsection. Various directives for air crew, maintenance personnel and preventative medicine technicians to follow have been developed and updated periodically. This aircraft disinsection review is part of the latest effort to revise DND`s administrative orders on aircraft disinsection and could be a model for other military and civilian air carriers.

  19. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows over the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and application program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) in the near term and Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design in the long term is reviewed. LAURA is an upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for 3-D, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. The algorithm is derived using a finite volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over an AFE wind tunnel model. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium over the full scale AFE configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.

  20. Cleared for the visual approach: Human factor problems in air carrier operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The study described herein, a set of 353 ASRS reports of unique aviation occurrences significantly involving visual approaches was examined to identify hazards and pitfalls embedded in the visual approach procedure and to consider operational practices that might help avoid future mishaps. Analysis of the report set identified nine aspects of the visual approach procedure that appeared to be predisposing conditions for inducing or exacerbating the effects of operational errors by flight crew members or controllers. Predisposing conditions, errors, and operational consequences of the errors are discussed. In a summary, operational policies that might mitigate the problems are examined.

  1. Evaluation of internal potential distribution and carrier extraction properties of organic solar cells through Kelvin probe and time-of-flight measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yuya; Oda, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuo; Noguchi, Yutaka Ishii, Hisao; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Tokairin, Hiroshi

    2014-09-21

    The carrier extraction property of a prototypical small molecule organic solar cell (OSC) composed of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), C⁶⁰, and bathocuproine (BCP) was studied on the basis of the internal potential distribution and carrier dynamics in the device. The internal potential distribution in the OSC structure at the interfaces and in the bulk region was determined by the Kelvin probe method. Significant potential gradients were found in the CuPc film on indium tin oxide and in the C⁶⁰ film on CuPc, consistent with charge transfer through the contacts. Moreover, surface potential of the BCP layer grew linearly with increasing film thickness with a slope of ca. 35 mV/nm (giant surface potential: GSP), which indicated spontaneous orientation polarization in the film. The potential gradient and GSP significantly changed the built-in potential of the device. Current–voltage and modified time-of-flight measurements revealed that the BCP layer worked as an electron injection and extraction layer despite the wide energy gap. These results were discussed based on the contributions of GSP and the gap states in the BCP layer.

  2. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  3. Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, R. R.; Wood, B. D.

    1985-05-01

    The performance of a prototype three ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

  4. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  5. 78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: January 7, 2013. Description: Application of SmartLynx...

  6. 78 FR 68134 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... the European Union, via any point or points in any EU Member State and via intermediate points, to any...) charter transportation authorized by any additional route ] rights made available to European Union... of the European Common Aviation Area; (iii) foreign charter air transportation of cargo between...

  7. 78 FR 16356 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... authorizes UPS to engage in foreign air transportation of property and mail over the following U.S.-Mexico city-pair route segments: Austin, Texas-Monterrey; Houston, Texas- ] Mexico City; Louisville, Kentucky-Guadalajara; Louisville, Kentucky- Mexico City; Louisville, Kentucky-Monterrey; San Antonio,...

  8. An evaluation of Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) flight pressures - Comparisons with wind tunnel and theoretical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. W.; Wolf, H.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure data obtained from the Shuttle flight 61-C are analyzed in conjunction with the preflight database. Based on wind tunnel data, the sensitivity of the Shuttle Orbiter stagnation region pressure distribution to angle of attack and Mach number is demonstrated. Comparisons are made between flight and wind tunnel SEADS orifice pressure distributions at several points throughout the re-entry. It is concluded that modified Newtonian theory provides a good tool for the design of a flush air data system, furnishing data for determining orifice locations and transducer sizing. Ground-based wind tunnel facilities are capable of providing the correction factors necessary for the derivation of accurate air data parameters from pressure data.

  9. Carrier-envelope phase-dependent electronic conductivity in an air filament driven by few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Xin; Teng, Hao; Xi, Tingting; Chen, Shiyou; He, Peng; He, Xinkui; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-07-01

    The modulation of the electron conductivity in an air filament, which is produced by carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized 7-fs laser pulses, is realized experimentally. Numerical results based on a coupled 3D+1 generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation including the real electric-field dependent ionization model are in good agreement with those from the experiment. It is demonstrated that the CEP effect on the electron density originates from the CEP-induced modification of the electric field of the laser pulse, and this modification is amplified during nonlinear propagation. The results provide important information to help understand the physical mechanism of the filaments driven by few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses.

  10. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Ikeda, Susumu; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Shimotani, Hidekazu E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp Shang, Hui; Tanigaki, Katsumi E-mail: Shimotani@m.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-07-27

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO{sub 2} gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO{sub 2} dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated.

  11. Views of Shuttle Carrier Aircraft refueling stop at Ellington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Views of the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 905 during a refueling stopover at Ellington Air Force Base. Its crew of Dick Scobee, copilot; Joseph Algranti, pilot; and Louis E. Guidry, flight engineer are seen standing on the runway just in front of the aircraft (33392); Crew is seen at their stations inside the aircraft (33393).

  12. The influence of the elastic vibration of the carrier to the aerodynamics of the external store in air-launch-to-orbit process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Ye, Zheng-Yin; Wu, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The separation between the carrier and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in Air-launch-to-orbit technology. Based on the previous researches, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store caused by the carrier are obvious in the earlier time during the separation. And the interference aerodynamics will be more complex when considering the elastic deformation of the carrier. Focusing on the conditions that in the earlier time during the separation, the steady and unsteady interference aerodynamic forces of the store are calculated at different angle of attacks and relative distances between the carrier and store. During the calculation, the elastic vibrations of the carrier are considered. According to the cause of formations of the interference aerodynamics, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store are divided into several components. The relative magnitude, change rule, sphere of influence and mechanism of interference aerodynamic forces components of the store are analyzed quantitatively. When the relative distance between the carrier and store is small, the interference aerodynamic forces caused by the elastic vibration of the carrier is about half of the total aerodynamic forces of the store. And as the relative distance increases, the value of interference aerodynamic forces decrease. When the relative distance is larger than twice the mean aerodynamic chord of the carrier, the values of interference aerodynamic forces of the store can be ignored. Besides, under the influence of the steady interference aerodynamic forces, the lift characteristics of the store are worse and the static stability margin is poorer.

  13. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure.

  14. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  15. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  16. Agent Based Modeling of Air Carrier Behavior for Evaluation of Technology Equipage and Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Hasan, Shahab; Rosenbaum, Rebecca L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework to assist policymakers in identifying impacts on the U.S. air transportation system (ATS) of potential policies and technology related to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This framework, called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS), integrates multiple models into a single process flow to best simulate responses by U.S. commercial airlines and other ATS stakeholders to NextGen-related policies, and in turn, how those responses impact the ATS. Development of this framework required NASA and LMI to create an agent-based model of airline and passenger behavior. This Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS) models airline decisions about tactical airfare and schedule adjustments, and strategic decisions related to fleet assignments, market prices, and equipage. AIRLINE-EVOS models its own heterogeneous population of passenger agents that interact with airlines; this interaction allows the model to simulate the cycle of action-reaction as airlines compete with each other and engage passengers. We validated a baseline configuration of AIRLINE-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments. These experiments demonstrated AIRLINE-EVOS's capabilities in responding to an input price shock in fuel prices, and to equipage challenges in a series of analyses based on potential incentive policies for best equipped best served, optimal-wind routing, and traffic management initiative exemption concepts..

  17. Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

  18. 75 FR 42599 - Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... comments in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010 (75 FR 34925). The direct final rule required that the... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE02 Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites... amending the time period for uploading flight performance information to a reporting air carrier's Web...

  19. 14 CFR 399.42 - Flight equipment depreciation and residual values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 399.42 Flight equipment depreciation and residual values. For rate-making purposes, for air carriers... residual values set forth below: Service life in years Residual value as percent of cost Turbofan equipment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight equipment depreciation and...

  20. 14 CFR 399.42 - Flight equipment depreciation and residual values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 399.42 Flight equipment depreciation and residual values. For rate-making purposes, for air carriers... residual values set forth below: Service life in years Residual value as percent of cost Turbofan equipment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight equipment depreciation and...

  1. 14 CFR 399.42 - Flight equipment depreciation and residual values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 399.42 Flight equipment depreciation and residual values. For rate-making purposes, for air carriers... residual values set forth below: Service life in years Residual value as percent of cost Turbofan equipment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight equipment depreciation and...

  2. 14 CFR 399.42 - Flight equipment depreciation and residual values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 399.42 Flight equipment depreciation and residual values. For rate-making purposes, for air carriers... residual values set forth below: Service life in years Residual value as percent of cost Turbofan equipment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight equipment depreciation and...

  3. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  4. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D.

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  5. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  6. Development and Validation of a New Air Carrier Block Time Prediction Model and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvay, Robyn Olson

    Commercial airline operations rely on predicted block times as the foundation for critical, successive decisions that include fuel purchasing, crew scheduling, and airport facility usage planning. Small inaccuracies in the predicted block times have the potential to result in huge financial losses, and, with profit margins for airline operations currently almost nonexistent, potentially negate any possible profit. Although optimization techniques have resulted in many models targeting airline operations, the challenge of accurately predicting and quantifying variables months in advance remains elusive. The objective of this work is the development of an airline block time prediction model and methodology that is practical, easily implemented, and easily updated. Research was accomplished, and actual U.S., domestic, flight data from a major airline was utilized, to develop a model to predict airline block times with increased accuracy and smaller variance in the actual times from the predicted times. This reduction in variance represents tens of millions of dollars (U.S.) per year in operational cost savings for an individual airline. A new methodology for block time prediction is constructed using a regression model as the base, as it has both deterministic and probabilistic components, and historic block time distributions. The estimation of the block times for commercial, domestic, airline operations requires a probabilistic, general model that can be easily customized for a specific airline’s network. As individual block times vary by season, by day, and by time of day, the challenge is to make general, long-term estimations representing the average, actual block times while minimizing the variation. Predictions of block times for the third quarter months of July and August of 2011 were calculated using this new model. The resulting, actual block times were obtained from the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics

  7. Changing the role of the air traffic controller: how will free flight affect memory for spatial events?

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Alastair P; Melia, Anne; Farmer, Eric W; Shaw, Gareth; Milne, Tracey; Stedmon, Alex; Sharples, Sarah; Cox, Gemma

    2007-07-01

    At present, air traffic controllers (ATCOs) exercise strict control over routing authority for aircraft movement in airspace. The onset of a free flight environment, however, may well result in a dramatic change to airspace jurisdictions, with aircraft movements for the large part being governed by aircrew, not ATCOs. The present study examined the impact of such changes on spatial memory for recent and non-recent locations of aircraft represented on a visual display. The experiment contrasted present conditions, in which permission for manoeuvres is granted by ATCOs, with potential free flight conditions, in which aircrew undertake deviations without explicit approval from ATCOs. Results indicated that the ATCO role adopted by participants impacted differently on short-term and long-term spatial representations of aircraft manoeuvres. Although informing participants of impending deviations has beneficial effects on spatial representations in the short term, long-term representations of spatial events are affected deleteriously by the presentation of subsequent information pertaining to other aircraft. This study suggests strongly that recognition of the perceptual and cognitive consequences of changing to a free flight environment is crucial if air safety is not to be jeopardized. PMID:17451635

  8. Mesoscale Numerical Investigations of Air Traffic Emissions over the North Atlantic during SONEX Flight 8: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmitt, Alf; Hannan, John R.; Gregory, G. L.; Kondo, Yutaka; Knabb, Richard D.; Sachse, G. W.; Talbot, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data from flight 8 of NASA's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX) exhibited signatures consistent with aircraft emissions, stratospheric air, and surface-based pollution. These signatures are examined in detail, focussing on the broad aircraft emission signatures that are several hundred kilometers in length. A mesoscale meteorological model provides high resolution wind data that are used to calculate backward trajectories arriving at locations along the flight track. These trajectories are compared to aircraft locations in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor over a 27-33 hour period. Time series of flight level NO and the number of trajectory/aircraft encounters within the NAFC show excellent agreement. Trajectories arriving within the stratospheric and surface-based pollution regions are found to experience very few aircraft encounters. Conversely, there are many trajectory/aircraft encounters within the two chemical signatures corresponding to aircraft emissions. Even many detailed fluctuations of NO within the two aircraft signature regions correspond to similar fluctuations in aircraft encountered during the previous 27-33 hours. Results indicate that high resolution meteorological modeling, when coupled with detailed aircraft location data, is useful for understanding chemical signatures from aircraft emissions at scales of several hundred kilometers.

  9. Safety in the Air: A Curriculum about Flight and Air Traffic Control Designed for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Ted

    This six-lesson unit is designed to familiarize sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students with air traffic safety and the individuals who make air traffic safety possible. Each lesson consists of a statement of the concept fostered, a list of objectives, a brief discussion on the focus of the unit, and instructional strategies for lesson topics…

  10. Detachment of tobacco-smoke-material carriers from surfaces by turbulent air flow.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A H; Ghosh, S; Dunn, P F

    2009-01-01

    The influence of tobacco-smoke-material (TSM) on the detachment of microparticles from surfaces by turbulent air flow was investigated experimentally. Both clean and dusty glass surfaces were subjected to TSM either before or after the deposition of 64 microm to 76 microm-diameter stainless steel microparticles onto the surfaces. The TSM was generated by mechanically puffing research-grade cigarettes inside a smoking box that contained the surfaces. Microparticle detachment characteristics were studied in a wind tunnel using video microphotography. Measured nicotine concentration was used to determine the amount of TSM deposited on a surface.The 5% and 50% threshold velocities for detachment were used to quantify the effect of TSM on microparticle detachment. These velocities were compared with those obtained using a clean surface with no TSM exposure. The effect of TSM exposure on microparticle detachment depended significantly on whether exposure occurred before or after microparticle deposition. TSM exposure before microparticle deposition had little effect. TSM exposure after deposition delayed detachment to much higher velocities. The presence of dust on the surface with TSM also delayed detachment and increased the variability in the detachment velocities as compared to the case of a clean surface with no TSM exposure.

  11. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s) to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability. PMID:18478072

  12. From falling to flying: the path to powered flight of a robotic samara nano air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Evan R; Pines, Darryll J; Humbert, J Sean

    2010-12-01

    This paper details the development of a nano-scale (>15 cm) robotic samara, or winged seed. The design of prototypes inspired by naturally occurring geometries is presented along with a detailed experimental process which elucidates similarities between mechanical and robotic samara flight dynamics. The helical trajectories of a samara in flight were observed to differ in-flight path and descent velocity. The body roll and pitch angular rates for the differing trajectories were observed to be coupled to variations in wing pitch, and thus provide a means of control. Inspired by the flight modalities of the bio-inspired samaras, a robotic device has been created that mimics the autorotative capability of the samara, whilst providing the ability to hover, climb and translate. A high-speed camera-based motion capture system is used to observe the flight dynamics of the mechanical and robotic samara. Similarities in the flight dynamics are compared and discussed as it relates to the design of the robotic samara.

  13. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from take-off to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions. Freejet tests of a candidate flowpath for this RBCC engine were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility between July and September 1996. This paper describes the engine flowpath and installation, outlines the primary objectives of the program, and describes the overall results of this activity. Through this program 15 full duration tests, including 13 fueled tests were made. The first major achievement was the further demonstration of the HTF capability. The facility operated at conditions up to 1950 K and 7.34 MPa, simulating approximately Mach 6.6 flight. The initial tests were unfueled and focused on verifying both facility and engine starting. During these runs additional aerodynamic appliances were incorporated onto the facility diffuser to enhance starting

  14. In-house experiments in large space structures at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Flight Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Ozguner, Umit; Yurkovich, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory is committed to an in-house, experimental investigation of several technical areas critical to the dynamic performance of future Air Force large space structures. The advanced beam experiment was successfully completed and provided much experience in the implementation of active control approaches on real hardware. A series of experiments is under way in evaluating ground test methods on the 12 meter trusses with significant passive damping. Ground simulated zero-g response data from the undamped truss will be compared directly with true zero-g flight test data. The performance of several leading active control approaches will be measured and compared on one of the trusses in the presence of significant passive damping. In the future, the PACOSS dynamic test article will be set up as a test bed for the evaluation of system identification and control techniques on a complex, representative structure with high modal density and significant passive damping.

  15. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  16. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-04-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  17. Carrier rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. A.; Vladimirov, V. V.; Dmitriev, R. D.; Osipov, S. O.

    This book takes into consideration domestic and foreign developments related to launch vehicles. General information concerning launch vehicle systems is presented, taking into account details of rocket structure, basic design considerations, and a number of specific Soviet and American launch vehicles. The basic theory of reaction propulsion is discussed, giving attention to physical foundations, the various types of forces acting on a rocket in flight, basic parameters characterizing rocket motion, the effectiveness of various approaches to obtain the desired velocity, and rocket propellants. Basic questions concerning the classification of launch vehicles are considered along with construction and design considerations, aspects of vehicle control, reliability, construction technology, and details of structural design. Attention is also given to details of rocket motor design, the basic systems of the carrier rocket, and questions of carrier rocket development.

  18. Experimental and predicted pressure and heating distributions for an Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle in air at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    1989-01-01

    The Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle for whose scale model pressure and heat-transfer rate distributions have been measured in air at Mach 10 is a 60-deg elliptic cone, raked off at a 73-percent angle, with an ellipsoid nose and a skirt added to the base of the rake plane to reduce heating. The predictions of both an inviscid flow-field code and a Navier-Stokes solver are compared with measured values. Good agreement is obtained in the case of pressure distributions; the effect of Reynolds number on heat-transfer distributions is noted to be small.

  19. Flight crew fatigue II: short-haul fixed-wing air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Miller, D L; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We monitored 74 crewmembers before, during, and after 3-4-d commercial short-haul trips crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. The average duty day lasted 10.6 duty hours, with 4.5 flight hours and 5.5 flights. On trips, crewmembers slept less, woke earlier, and reported having more difficulty falling asleep, with lighter, less restful sleep than pretrip. The consumption of caffeine, alcohol, and snacks increased on trip days, as did reports of headaches, congested nose, and back pain. The study suggests the following ways of reducing fatigue during these operations: base the duration of rest periods on duty hours as well as flight hours; avoid scheduling rest periods progressively earlier across a trip; minimize early duty report times; and inform crewmembers about strategic use of caffeine and alternatives to alcohol for relaxing before sleep.

  20. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitation of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing computational design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests.

  1. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  2. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  3. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  4. Flight evaluation of the DEEC secondary control air-start capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Nelson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The air-start capability of a secondary engine control (SEC) was tested for a DEEC-equipped F100 engine and installed in an F-15 airplane. Two air-start schedules were tested. The first was referred to as the group I schedule; the second or revised schedule was the group II start schedule. Using the group I start schedule, an airspeed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40- and 25-percent SEC-mode air starts. If N2 were less than 40 percent, a stall would occur when the start bleeds closed 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All JFS-assisted air starts were successful with the group start schedule. For the group II schedule, the time between pressurization and start-bleed closure ranged between 50 and 72 sec depending on altitude. All air starts were successful above 225 knots givin a 75-knot reduction in required airspeed for a successful air start. Spooldown air starts of 40 percent were successful at 200 knots at altitudes up to 10,650 m and at 175 knots at altitudes up to 6100 m. Idle rpm was lower than the desired 65 percent for air starts at higher altitudes and lower airspeeds. All JSF-assisted air starts were successful.

  5. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  6. Correlation of the Characteristics of Single-Cylinder and Flight Engines in Tests of High-Performance Fuels in an Air-Cooled Engine I : Cooling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert W.; Richard, Paul H.; Brown, Kenneth D.

    1945-01-01

    Variable charge-air flow, cooling-air pressure drop, and fuel-air ration investigations were conducted to determine the cooling characteristics of a full-scale air-cooled single cylinder on a CUE setup. The data are compared with similar data that were available for the same model multicylinder engine tested in flight in a four-engine airplane. The cylinder-head cooling correlations were the same for both the single-cylinder and the flight engine. The cooling correlations for the barrels differed slightly in that the barrel of the single-cylinder engine runs cooler than the barrel of te flight engine for the same head temperatures and engine conditions.

  7. A multimodal micro air vehicle for autonomous flight in near-earth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William Edward

    Reconnaissance, surveillance, and search-and-rescue missions in near-Earth environments such as caves, forests, and urban areas pose many new challenges to command and control (C2) teams. Of great significance is how to acquire situational awareness when access to the scene is blocked by enemy fire, rubble, or other occlusions. Small bird-sized aerial robots are expendable and can fly over obstacles and through small openings to assist in the acquisition and distribution of intelligence. However, limited flying space and densely populated obstacle fields requires a vehicle that is capable of hovering, but also maneuverable. A secondary flight mode was incorporated into a fixed-wing aircraft to preserve its maneuverability while adding the capability of hovering. An inertial measurement sensor and onboard flight control system were interfaced and used to transition the hybrid prototype from cruise to hover flight and sustain a hover autonomously. Furthermore, the hovering flight mode can be used to maneuver the aircraft through small openings such as doorways. An ultrasonic and infrared sensor suite was designed to follow exterior building walls until an ingress route was detected. Reactive control was then used to traverse the doorway and gather reconnaissance. Entering a dangerous environment to gather intelligence autonomously will provide an invaluable resource to any C2 team. The holistic approach of platform development, sensor suite design, and control serves as the philosophy of this work.

  8. Flight simulator research at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, J M

    1973-06-01

    After tracing the development of flight simulators, the author refers to the simulators used for research at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, describing seven examples of the Institute's research carried out with their aid. These cover a comparison of attitude indicators, pilot response, motion cues and landing performance, student pilots assessments, familiarisation behaviour, evaluating an airborne navigation display, and attitude and opinion surveys.

  9. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  10. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  11. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135.117 Section 135.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  12. 14 CFR 125.327 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 125.327 Section 125.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  13. An adaptive dual-optimal path-planning technique for unmanned air vehicles with application to solar-regenerative high altitude long endurance flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Clifford A.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-objective technique for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) path and trajectory autonomy generation, through task allocation and sensor fusion has been developed. The Dual-Optimal Path-Planning (D-O.P-P.) Technique generates on-line adaptive flight paths for UAVs based on available flight windows and environmental influenced objectives. The environmental influenced optimal condition, known as the driver' determines the condition, within a downstream virtual window of possible vehicle destinations and orientation built from the UAV kinematics. The intermittent results are pursued by a dynamic optimization technique to determine the flight path. This sequential optimization technique is a multi-objective optimization procedure consisting of two goals, without requiring additional information to combine the conflicting objectives into a single-objective. An example case-study and additional applications are developed and the results are discussed; including the application to the field of Solar Regenerative (SR) High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV flight. Harnessing solar energy has recently been adapted for use on high altitude UAV platforms. An aircraft that uses solar panels and powered by the sun during the day and through the night by SR systems, in principle could sustain flight for weeks or months. The requirements and limitations of solar powered flight were determined. The SR-HALE UAV platform geometry and flight characteristics were selected from an existing aircraft that has demonstrated the capability for sustained flight through flight tests. The goals were to maintain continual Situational Awareness (SA) over a case-study selected Area of Interest (AOI) and existing UAV power and surveillance systems. This was done for still wind and constant wind conditions at altitude along with variations in latitude. The characteristics of solar flux and the dependence on the surface location and orientation were established along with fixed flight maneuvers for

  14. 14 CFR 204.6 - Certificated and commuter air carriers proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management which is not substantial. 204.6 Section 204.6... carriers proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management which is not substantial. Carriers proposing to make a change which would not substantially affect their operations, management, or...

  15. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations, ownership or management shall file the data set forth in § 204.3. These data must be submitted in... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.5... the carrier's fitness may be omitted. The carrier instead should identify the data and provide...

  16. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations, ownership or management shall file the data set forth in § 204.3. These data must be submitted in... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.5... the carrier's fitness may be omitted. The carrier instead should identify the data and provide...

  17. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations, ownership or management shall file the data set forth in § 204.3. These data must be submitted in... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.5... the carrier's fitness may be omitted. The carrier instead should identify the data and provide...

  18. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations, ownership or management shall file the data set forth in § 204.3. These data must be submitted in... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.5... the carrier's fitness may be omitted. The carrier instead should identify the data and provide...

  19. 14 CFR 204.5 - Certificated and commuter air carriers undergoing or proposing to undergo substantial change in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations, ownership or management shall file the data set forth in § 204.3. These data must be submitted in... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.5... the carrier's fitness may be omitted. The carrier instead should identify the data and provide...

  20. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  1. Air Navigation Systems: Chapter 6. Navigation and the Pioneering Flights Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Philip

    Part I of this chapter was included in the January 1997 issue of the Journal, Vol. 50, p. 65.The Smith Brothers, 1919. Captain Ross M. Smith, of the Australian Flying Corps based in Palestine, flew a Handley Page 0/400 late in 1918 on a special flight to Baghdad and beyond, carrying as passenger Major General W. G. H. Salmond, the RAF's Middle East Commander. Flying as co-pilot was Brigadier-General Borton, Commander of the Palestine Brigade. Smith had been flying, in support of Lawrence's forces, another 0/00 which Borton had brought from England.

  2. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  3. 75 FR 8178 - Application of Rugby Aviation LLC D/B/A Northwest Sky Ferry for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Carrier Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Order to Show Cause (Order 2010... persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Rugby ] Aviation, LLC d/b/a Northwest...

  4. Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics of aeroassist flight experiment configuration in air and CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.; Wells, William L.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics measured on a 60 deg half-angle elliptical cone, which was raked at an angle of 73 deg from the cone centerline and with an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane), are presented for angles of attack from -10 to 10 deg. The high normal-shock density ratio of a real gas was simulated by tests at a Mach number of 6 in air and CF4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). Tests were conducted in air at Mach 6 and 10 and in CF4 at Mach 6 to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and normal-shock density ratio. Changes in Mach number from 6 to 10 in air or in Reynolds number by a factor of 4 at Mach 6 had a negligible effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Variations in normal-shock density ratio had a measurable effect on lateral and directional aerodynamic coefficients, but no significant effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Tests in air and CF4 indicated that the configuration was laterally and directionally stable through the test range of angle of attack.

  5. 76 FR 66132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Department of the Treasury (``OFAC'') to handle travel arrangements to, from, and or within Cuba or to provide charter air service to Cuba. Travel service providers are required to collect information on persons traveling on direct flights to Cuba and forward that information to carrier service providers,...

  6. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  7. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  8. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  9. Test results of flight guidance for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment. [terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA developed, implemented, and flight tested a flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control. This algorithm provides a 3D path with time control (4D) for the TCV B-737 airplane to make an idle-thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms are described and flight test results are presented.

  10. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from takeoff to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions.

  11. Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.

  12. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  13. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100).

  14. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  15. An automated gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obersteiner, F.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The setup comprises three fundamental enhancements compared to our earlier work (Hoker et al., 2015): (1) full automation, (2) a mass resolving power R = m/Δ m of the TOFMS (Tofwerk AG, Switzerland) increased up to 4000 Th/Th and (3) a fully accessible data format of the mass spectrometric data. Automation in combination with the accessible data allowed an in-depth characterization of the instrument. Mass accuracy was found around 5 ppm after automatic recalibration of the mass axis in each measurement. A TOFMS configuration giving R = 3500 was chosen to provide an R-to-sensitivity ratio suitable for our purpose. Calculated detection limits were as low as a few femtograms as mass traces could be made highly specific for selected molecule fragments with the accurate mass information. The precision for substance quantification was 0.15 % at the best for an individual measurement and in general mainly determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatographic peak. The TOFMS was found to be linear within a concentration range from about 1 pg to 1 ng of analyte per Liter of air. At higher concentrations, non-linearities of a few percent were observed (precision level: 0.2 %) but could be attributed to a potential source within the detection system. A straight-forward correction for those non-linearities was applied in data processing, again by exploiting the accurate mass information. Based on the overall characterization results, the GC-TOFMS instrument was found to be very well-suited for the task of quantitative halocarbon trace gas observation and a big step forward compared to scanning, low resolution quadrupole MS and a TOFMS technique reported to be non-linear and restricted by a small dynamical range.

  16. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Huang, K N; Young, M S

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39 degrees C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  17. A fully-coupled implicit method for thermo-chemical nonequilibrium air at sub-orbital flight speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul; Yoon, Seokkwan

    1989-01-01

    A CFD technique is described in which the finite-rate chemistry in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium air is fully and implicitly coupled with the fluid motion. Developed for use in the suborbital hypersonic flight speed range, the method accounts for nonequilibrium vibrational and electronic excitation and dissociation, but not ionization. The steady-state solution to the resulting system of equations is obtained by using a lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel sweeping technique through Newton iteration. Inversion of the left-hand-side matrices is replaced by scalar multiplications through the use of the diagonal dominance algorithm. The code, named CENS2H (Compressible-Euler-Navier-Stokes Two-Dimensional Hypersonic), is fully vectorized and requires about 8.8 x 10 to the -5th sec per node point per iteration using a Cray X-MP computer. Converged solutions are obtained after about 2400 iterations. Sample calculations are made for a circular cylinder and a 10 percent airfoil at 5 deg angle of attack. The calculated cylinder flow field agrees with that obtained experimentally. The code predicts a 10 percent change in lift, drag, and pitching moment for the airfoil due to the thermochemical phenomena.

  18. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuschlag, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  19. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  20. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  1. Free-flight Performance of a Rocket-boosted, Air-launched 16-inch-diameter Ram-jet Engine at Mach Numbers up to 2.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, John H; Kohl, Robert C; Jones, Merle L

    1953-01-01

    The investigation of air-launched ram-jet engines has been extended to include a study of models with a nominal design free-stream Mach number of 2.40. These models require auxiliary thrust in order to attain a flight speed at which the ram jet becomes self-accelerating. A rocket-boosting technique for providing this auxiliary thrust is described and time histories of two rocket-boosted ram-jet flights are presented. In one flight, the model attained a maximum Mach number of 2.20 before a fuel system failure resulted in the destruction of the engine. Performance data for this model are presented in terms of thrust and drag coefficients, diffuser pressure recovery, mass-flow ratio, combustion efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and over-all engine efficiency.

  2. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  3. In-flight oxygen collection for a two-stage air-launch vehicle: integration of vehicle and separation cycle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, D.; Bizzarri, D.; Hendrick, P.

    2009-09-01

    In-flight oxygen collection is a very promising technique to reduce the launch costs and improve the payload capabilities of two-stage-to-orbit semireusable launchers. Using liquid hydrogen the incoming air is deeply cooled and enriched in oxygen during the cruise phase of the first stage. The liquified enriched air is stored in the second stage which is then launched into orbit. This paper gives the result of a conceptual design of a two-stage-to-orbit air launched space vehicle. The mass, aerodynamic, and propulsive characteristics of the first stage are determined and an assessment of the influence of the collection plant performance on the subsonic first stage is made. The results for a centrifugally enhanced destillation unit are given together with the plant cycle arrangement. Integration options for the plant into the first stage are proposed and a short description of the air separation test unit and its test bench is also given.

  4. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  5. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the time in a travel status, including delay at origin and accelerated arrival at destination, by at... gateway airport in the United States would extend time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than... the time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air...

  6. An automated gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obersteiner, F.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The setup comprises three fundamental enhancements compared to our earlier work (Hoker et al., 2015): (1) full automation, (2) a mass resolving power R = m/Δm of the TOFMS (Tofwerk AG, Switzerland) increased up to 4000 and (3) a fully accessible data format of the mass spectrometric data. Automation in combination with the accessible data allowed an in-depth characterization of the instrument. Mass accuracy was found to be approximately 5 ppm in mean after automatic recalibration of the mass axis in each measurement. A TOFMS configuration giving R = 3500 was chosen to provide an R-to-sensitivity ratio suitable for our purpose. Calculated detection limits are as low as a few femtograms by means of the accurate mass information. The precision for substance quantification was 0.15 % at the best for an individual measurement and in general mainly determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatographic peak. Detector non-linearity was found to be insignificant up to a mixing ratio of roughly 150 ppt at 0.5 L sampled volume. At higher concentrations, non-linearities of a few percent were observed (precision level: 0.2 %) but could be attributed to a potential source within the detection system. A straightforward correction for those non-linearities was applied in data processing, again by exploiting the accurate mass information. Based on the overall characterization results, the GC-TOFMS instrument was found to be very well suited for the task of quantitative halocarbon trace gas observation and a big step forward compared to scanning, quadrupole MS with low mass resolving power and a TOFMS technique reported to be non-linear and restricted by a small dynamical range.

  7. Statistical Entry, Descent, and Landing Flight Reconstruction with Flush Air Data System Observations using Inertial Navigation and Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Rafael Andres

    A method is introduced to consider flush air data system (FADS) pressures using a technique based on inertial navigation to reconstruct the trajectory of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The approach augments the recently-developed Inertial Navigation Statistical Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction (INSTAR), which is an extension of inertial navigation that provides statistical uncertainties by utilizing Monte Carlo dispersion techniques and is an alternative to traditional statistical approaches to entry, descent, and landing trajectory and atmosphere reconstruction. The method is demonstrated using flight data from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle, which contained an inertial measurement unit and a flush air data system called the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS). An MSL trajectory and atmosphere solution that was updated using landing site location in INSTAR is first presented. This solution and corresponding uncertainties, which were obtained from Monte Carlo dispersions, are then used in a minimum variance algorithm to obtain aerodynamic estimates and uncertainties from the MEADS observations. MEADS-derived axial force coefficient and freestream density estimates and uncertainties are also derived from the minimum variance solutions independent of the axial force coefficients derived from computation fluid dynamics (CFD), which have relatively high a priori uncertainty. Results from probabilistic analyses of the solutions are also presented. This dissertation also introduces a method to consider correlated CFD uncertainties in INSTAR. From a priori CFD uncertainties, CFD force and pressure coefficients are dispersed in a Monte Carlo sense and carried over into the reconstructions. An analysis of the subsequent effects on the trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamic estimates and statistics is presented. Trajectory, atmospheric, and aerodynamic estimates compare favorably to extended Kalman filter solutions obtained by the MSL

  8. Flying the smoky skies: secondhand smoke exposure of flight attendants

    PubMed Central

    Repace, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of secondhand smoke (SHS) to aircraft cabin air pollution and flight attendants' SHS exposure relative to the general population. Methods: Published air quality measurements, modelling studies, and dosimetry studies were reviewed, analysed, and generalised. Results: Flight attendants reported suffering greatly from SHS pollution on aircraft. Both government and airline sponsored studies concluded that SHS created an air pollution problem in aircraft cabins, while tobacco industry sponsored studies yielding similar data concluded that ventilation controlled SHS, and that SHS pollution levels were low. Between the time that non-smoking sections were established on US carriers in 1973, and the two hour US smoking ban in 1988, commercial aircraft ventilation rates had declined three times as fast as smoking prevalence. The aircraft cabin provided the least volume and lowest ventilation rate per smoker of any social venue, including stand up bars and smoking lounges, and afforded an abnormal respiratory environment. Personal monitors showed little difference in SHS exposures between flight attendants assigned to smoking sections and those assigned to non-smoking sections of aircraft cabins. Conclusions: In-flight air quality measurements in ~250 aircraft, generalised by models, indicate that when smoking was permitted aloft, 95% of the harmful respirable suspended particle (RSP) air pollution in the smoking sections and 85% of that in the non-smoking sections of aircraft cabins was caused by SHS. Typical levels of SHS-RSP on aircraft violated current (PM2.5) federal air quality standards ~threefold for flight attendants, and exceeded SHS irritation thresholds by 10 to 100 times. From cotinine dosimetry, SHS exposure of typical flight attendants in aircraft cabins is estimated to have been >6-fold that of the average US worker and ~14-fold that of the average person. Thus, ventilation systems massively failed to control SHS air

  9. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  10. A Full-Envelope Air Data Calibration and Three-Dimensional Wind Estimation Method Using Global Output-Error Optimization and Flight-Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel, efficient air data calibration method is proposed for aircraft with limited envelopes. This method uses output-error optimization on three-dimensional inertial velocities to estimate calibration and wind parameters. Calibration parameters are based on assumed calibration models for static pressure, angle of attack, and flank angle. Estimated wind parameters are the north, east, and down components. The only assumptions needed for this method are that the inertial velocities and Euler angles are accurate, the calibration models are correct, and that the steady-state component of wind is constant throughout the maneuver. A two-minute maneuver was designed to excite the aircraft over the range of air data calibration parameters and de-correlate the angle-of-attack bias from the vertical component of wind. Simulation of the X-48B (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft was used to validate the method, ultimately using data derived from wind-tunnel testing to simulate the un-calibrated air data measurements. Results from the simulation were accurate and robust to turbulence levels comparable to those observed in flight. Future experiments are planned to evaluate the proposed air data calibration in a flight environment.

  11. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles: An Analysis of the Importance of the Mass of the Wings to Flight Dynamics, Stability, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Christopher T.

    The flight dynamics, stability, and control of a model flapping wing micro air vehicle are analyzed with a focus on the inertial and mass effects of the wings on the position and Orientation of the body. A multi-body, flight dynamics model is derived from first principles. The multi-body model predicts significant differences in the position and orientation of the flapping wing micro air vehicle, when compared to a flight dynamics model based on the standard aircraft, or six degree of freedom, equations of motion. The strongly coupled, multi-body equations of motion are transformed into first order form using an approximate inverse and appropriate assumptions. Local (naive) averaging of the first order system does not produce an accurate result and a new approximation technique named 'quarter-cycle' averaging is proposed. The technique is effective in reducing the error by at least an order of magnitude for three reference flight conditions. A stability analysis of the local averaged equations of motions, in the vicinity of a hover condition, produces a modal structure consist with the most common vertical takeoff or landing structure and independent stability analyses of the linearized flight dynamics of insect models. The inclusion of the wing effects produces a non-negligible change in the linear stability of a hawkmoth-sized model. The hovering solution is shown, under proper control, to produce a limit cycle. The control input to achieve a limit cycle is different if the flight dynamics model includes the wing effects or does not include the wing effects. Improper control input application will not produce the desired limit cycle effects. A scaling analysis is used to analyze the relative importance of the mass of the wings, based on the quarter-cycle approximation. The conclusion of the scaling analysis is that the linear momentum effects of the wings are always important in terms of the inertial position of the flapping wing micro air vehicle. Above a

  12. Flight-Proven Nano-Satellite Architecture for Hands-On Academic Training at the US Air Force Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Craig I.; Sellers, Lt. Jerry, , Col.; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the use of "commercial-off-the-shelf" open-architecture satellite sub-systems, based on the flight- proven "SNAP" nanosatellite platform, to provide "hands-on" education and training at the United States Air Force Academy. The UK's first nanosatellite: SNAP-1, designed and built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) and Surrey Space Centre staff - in less than a year - was launched in June 2000. The 6.5 kg spacecraft carries advanced, UK-developed, GPS navigation, computing, propulsion and attitude control technologies, which have been used to demonstrate orbital manoeuvring and full three-axis controlled body stabilisation. SNAP-1's primary payload is a machine vision system which has been used to image the in-orbit deployment of another SSTL-built spacecraft: Tsinghua-1. The highly successful, SNAP-1 mission has also demonstrated how the concept of using a standardised, modular nanosatellite bus can provide the core support units (power system, on-board data-handling and communications systems and standardised payload interface) for a practical nanosatellite to be constructed and flown in a remarkably short time-frame. Surrey's undergraduate and post-graduate students have made a major input to the SNAP concept over the last six years in the context of project work within the Space Centre. Currently, students at the USAF Academy are benefiting from this technology in the context of designing their own nanosatellite - FalconSAT-2. For the FalconSAT-2 project, the approach has been to focus on building up infrastructure, including design and development tools that can serve as a firm foundation to allow the satellite design to evolve steadily over the course of several missions. Specific to this new approach has been a major effort to bound the problem faced by the students. To do this, the program has leveraged the research carried out at the Surrey Space Centre, by "buying into" the SNAP architecture. Through this, the Academy program

  13. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  14. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.2 Carrier's duty. (a) Must file tariffs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... carrier or foreign air carrier, when through service and through rates shall have been established, and... collect or receive a greater or less or different compensation for foreign air transportation or for...

  15. High-speed analysis of complex indoor VOC mixtures by vacuum-outlet GC with air carrier gas and programmable retention.

    PubMed

    Grall, A J; Zellers, E T; Sacks, R D

    2001-01-01

    A pressure-tunable, series-coupled column ensemble was used with atmospheric pressure air as carrier gas for the vacuum-outlet GC analysis of 42 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds commonly encountered as indoor air pollutants. Separation strategies applicable to a field-portable instrument that will employ a dual-stage preconcentrator and a microsensor array as the detector were developed, where coelution of certain analytes can be tolerated. The capillary column ensemble consists of a 4.5-m segment of nonpolar dimethyl polysiloxane followed by a 7.5-m segment of polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane. Good long-term thermal stability of the column ensemble was observed for continuous operation in air at temperatures up to 210 degrees C. A computer-driven pressure controller at the column junction point is used to adjust vapor retention for specified sets of target compounds. The compounds were divided into two groups according to retention order, and high-speed analysis conditions were determined for the two groups individually as well as for the entire mixture. The earlier eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed isothermally at 30 degrees C in about 160 s using a single, on-the-fly junction-point pressure change during the separation. The later eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed in about 200 s with temperature programming and a constant (tuned) junction-point pressure. The entire mixture was analyzed in about 400 s using a two-step temperature program and a three-step pressure program, with minimal overlap in eluting peaks. Separations are adequate for analysis by a sensor array capable of discriminating among small groups of coeluting vapors on the basis of their response patterns.

  16. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight attendant duty period limitations... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  17. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight attendant duty period limitations... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  18. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant duty period limitations... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  19. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight attendant duty period limitations... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  20. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight attendant duty period limitations... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  1. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  2. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  3. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  4. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Surface flow and heating distributions on a cylinder in near wake of Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration at incidence in Mach 10 Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer distributions and surface streamline directions are presented for a cylinder in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment forebody configuration. Tests were conducted in air at a nominal free stream Mach number of 10, with post shock Reynolds numbers based on model base height of 6,450 to 50,770, and angles of attack of 5, 0, -5, and -10 degrees. Heat transfer data were obtained with thin film resistance gage and surface streamline directions by the oil flow technique. Comparisons between measured values and predicted values were made by using a Navier-Stokes computer code.

  7. Prediction of aerodynamic heating and pressures on Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nose cap and comparison with STS-61C flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Paul C.; Rochelle, William C.; Curry, Donald M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from predictions of aerothermodynamic heating rates, temperatures, and pressures on the surface of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nosecap during Orbiter reentry. These results are compared with data obtained by the first actual flight of the SEADS system aboard STS-61C. The data also used to predict heating rates and surface temperatures for a hypothetical Transatlantic Abort Landing entry trajectory, whose analysis involved ascertaining the increases in heating rate as the airstream flowed across regions of the lower surface catalycity carbon/carbon composite to the higher surface catalycity columbium pressure ports.

  8. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  9. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  10. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  11. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  12. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  13. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  14. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  15. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  16. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  17. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  18. An Analysis of Flight-Test Measurements of the Wing Structural Deformations in Rough Air of a Large Flexible Swept-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Harold N.

    1959-01-01

    An analysis is made of wing deflection and streamwise twist measurements in rough-air flight of a large flexible swept-wing bomber. Random-process techniques are employed in analyzing the data in order to describe the magnitude and characteristics of the wing deflection and twist responses to rough air. Power spectra and frequency-response functions for the wing deflection and twist responses at several spanwise stations are presented. The frequency-response functions describe direct and absolute response characteristics to turbulence and provide a convenient basis for assessing analytic calculation techniques. The wing deformations in rough air are compared with the expected deformations for quasi-static loadings of the same magnitude, and the amplifications are determined. The results obtained indicate that generally the deflections are amplified by a small amount, while the streamwise twists are amplified by factors of the order of 2.0. The magnitudes of both the deflection velocities and the twist angles are shown to have significant effects on the local angles of attack at the various stations and provide the main source of aerodynamic loading, particularly at frequencies in the vicinity of the first wing-vibration mode.

  19. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  20. Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as...

  1. Determination of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multi Photon Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA?s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as a pro...

  2. Continuous affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase served as a column for reversed-phase electrochromatography and matrix carrier in time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jen-Kuei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2015-08-19

    This study developed an affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase (AG-NSP) for protein analysis using nanofluidic capillary electrochromatography (nano-CEC) conjugated with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The AG-NSP can be used for protein pre-separation in nano-CEC and as a matrix carrier for protein analysis in MALDI-TOF-MS. A hydrophobicity gradient in AG-NSP was photochemically formed by grafting 4-azidoaniline hydrochloride on vertically arrayed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through gray-level exposure to UV light. The reversed-phase gradient stationary phase in AG-NSP was tailored according to the properties of the mobile phase gradient in capillary electrochromatography. As a result, the operation of the system is easily automated using a single buffer solution without the need for multiple solvents for elution. The use of nano-CEC with AG-NSP demonstrated excellent separation efficiency and high resolution for various types of DNA/protein/peptide. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was then performed directly on the separated proteins and peptides on the chip. The proposed system was then used for the detection of three types of proteins with different molecular weights and PI values, including Cytochrome c (12,360, pI = 10), Lysozyme (14,300, pI = 11), and BSA (86,000, pI = 5)), and digested IgG fragments. The proposed system provided resolution of 1000 Da for the proteins in this study and the separation of digested IgG fragments at a low concentration of 1.2 pmol μL(-1).

  3. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  4. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  5. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  6. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  7. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In a scene reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, this photo shows a close-up view of NASA's B-52 mothership as it lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the

  8. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  9. Calibration of HYPULSE for hypervelocity air flows corresponding to flight Mach numbers 13.5, 15, and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calleja, John; Tamagno, Jose

    1993-01-01

    A series of air calibration tests were performed in GASL's HYPULSE facility in order to more accurately determine test section flow conditions for flows simulating total enthalpies in the Mach 13 to 17 range. Present calibration data supplements previous data and includes direct measurement of test section pitot and static pressure, acceleration tube wall pressure and heat transfer, and primary and secondary incident shock velocities. Useful test core diameters along with the corresponding free-stream conditions and usable testing times were determined. For the M13.5 condition, in-stream static pressure surveys showed the temporal and spacial uniformity of this quantity across the useful test core. In addition, finite fringe interferograms taken of the free-stream flow at the test section did not indicate the presence of any 'strong' wave system for any of the conditions investigated.

  10. Coping with Irregular Operations: Implications for a Free Flight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Rodvold, Michelle; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Irregular operations involve disruption of scheduled airline operations. They ate of concern to the carriers because they cost money, require personnel effort, and may harm customer good will. Irregular operations may result from aircraft system malfunctions that take planes out of service or result in cancellations, Might system problems or passenger medical emergencies that require diversions, local airport problems that may close down a runway, or weather systems that restrict flow into airports or regions. At the heart of responding to irregular operations is distributed decision making by members of airline operations centers, pilots, and the air traffic control system. Six U.S. carriers participated in a study in which we observed strategies used by operations center personnel to handle various classes of irregular operations. We focused on situations that are most disruptive to regular operations and are most difficult to cope with. We also sought to identify classes of events that would be most affected by changes in the air traffic management system. How a carrier deals with disruptions to its schedule reflects its philosophy and primary goals, as well as its resources. Size and type of operations (short or long-haul) determine which problems have priority. Each airline has different technological support tools to aid in flight planning and replanning, and some carriers have established contingency procedures for coping with various situations. We also examined differences in extent and type of interaction between ABC personnel and various elements of the air traffic system as they managed various problems: who interacts with AM what situations prompt interaction, how often these occur, and the outcomes and Perceived benefits. Use of the expanded NRP program was also studied, along with its advantages to the individual companies. We also examined the implications of the proposed change to a free flight environment on airline strategies for coping with

  11. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  12. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  13. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  14. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  15. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has the... instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who is present at that airport. (c) Each chief... with a lighter-than-air rating who is assigned to a flight training course must satisfactorily...

  16. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has the... instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who is present at that airport. (c) Each chief... with a lighter-than-air rating who is assigned to a flight training course must satisfactorily...

  17. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has the... instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who is present at that airport. (c) Each chief... with a lighter-than-air rating who is assigned to a flight training course must satisfactorily...

  18. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has the... instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who is present at that airport. (c) Each chief... with a lighter-than-air rating who is assigned to a flight training course must satisfactorily...

  19. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    . Their mission was to continue the X-1 studies at higher speeds and altitudes. The X-1A began this research after the X-1D was destroyed in an explosion on a captive flight before it made any research flights. On Dec. 12, 1953, Major Charles Yeager flew the X-1A up to a speed of 1,612 miles per hour (almost two-and-a-half times the speed of sound). Then on Aug. 26, 1954, Major Arthur Murray took the X-1A up to an altitude of 90,440 feet. Those two performances were the records for the X-1 program. Later the X-1A was also destroyed after being jettisoned from the carrier aircraft because of an explosion. The X-1B was fitted with 300 thermocouples for exploratory aerodynamic heating tests. installed on it. It also was the first aircraft to fly with a reaction control system, a prototype of the system used on the X-15. The X-1C was cancelled before production. All three of the Bell Aircraft Company-manufactured planes had 6,000-pound-thrust, XLR-11 four-chambered rocket engines. The XLR-11 was built by Reaction Motors, Inc. The aircraft were all air-launched from a carrier aircraft.

  20. Medical advice for commercial air travelers.

    PubMed

    Bettes, T N; McKenas, D K

    1999-09-01

    Family physicians are often asked to advise patients who are preparing to travel. The Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 has enabled more passengers with medical disabilities to choose air travel. All domestic U.S. airlines are required to carry basic (but often limited) medical equipment, although several physiologic stresses associated with flight may predispose travelers with underlying medical conditions to require emergency care. Recommendations for passengers with respiratory, cardiac or postsurgical conditions must be individualized and should be based on objective testing measures. Specific advice for patients with diabetes, postsurgical or otolaryngologic conditions may make air travel less hazardous for these persons. Air travel should be delayed after scuba diving to minimize the chance of developing decompression sickness. Although no quick cure for jet lag exists, several simple suggestions may make travel across time zones more comfortable.

  1. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied... of volunteers come forward, the carrier may deny boarding to other passengers in accordance with...

  2. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied... of volunteers come forward, the carrier may deny boarding to other passengers in accordance with...

  3. Chemical composition of tropospheric air masses encountered during high altitude flights (>11.5 km) during the 2009 fall Operation Ice Bridge field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; Vay, Stephanie A.; Stohl, Andreas; Choi, Yonghoon; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    As part of the 2009 Operation Ice Bridge campaign, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was used to fill the data-time gap in laser observation of the changes in ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice between ICESat-I (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and ICESat-II. Complementing the cryospheric instrument payload were four in situ atmospheric sampling instruments integrated onboard to measure trace gas concentrations of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, water vapor and various VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). This paper examines two plumes encountered at high altitude (12 km) during the campaign; one during a southbound transit flight (13°S) and the other at 86°S over Antarctica. The data presented are especially significant as the Southern Hemisphere is heavily under-sampled during the austral spring, with few if any high-resolution airborne observations of atmospheric gases made over Antarctica. Strong enhancements of CO, CH4, N2O, CHCl3, OCS, C2H6, C2H2 and C3H8 were observed in the two intercepted air masses that exhibited variations in VOC composition suggesting different sources. The transport model FLEXPART showed that the 13°S plume contained predominately biomass burning emissions originating from Southeast Asia and South Africa, while both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were observed at 86°S with South America and South Africa as indicated source regions. The data presented here show evidence that boundary layer pollution is transported from lower latitudes toward the upper troposphere above the South Pole, which may not have been observed in the past.

  4. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  5. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M.; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A.; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s−1) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs. PMID:24671978

  6. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A; Dudley, Robert

    2014-05-22

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s(-1)) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs.

  7. FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DOCKS (BUILDINGS 2741 AND 2766)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. Low Gravity Flight Complement Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, H. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The structural and mechanical design and performance requirements for a space transportation system carrier which will accommodate essentially self-supporting low-g MEA and MAUS facilities are described. Also included are the mission requirements for the materials processing facility and MEA/MAUS experiment flight implementation reguirements.

  9. Air to air view of Endeavour, OV-105, atop SCA approaches Ellington runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Air to air view of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) NASA 911, a modified Boeing 747, approaches touchdown for a brief stopover at Ellington Field, near JSC. Visible below the spacecraft/aircraft combination are the NASA T-38 flight line, NASA aircraft hangars and facilities, and a runway. OV-105 rolled out at Rockwell's Palmdale facility on 04-25-91 to once more bring to four the total of NASA Shuttles available for flight assignment. The spacecraft and aircraft-tandem left Houston later on this day headed for another stop in Mississippi before landing in Florida on 05-07-91. This photograph was taken from a T-38 aircraft by Sheri J. Dunnette of JSC's Image Science Division (ISD).

  10. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  11. Development of an Ultra-rapid, Small Tissue-collecting Device for Endoscopic Surgery--the Lymph Node Carrier: Useful in Protecting the Air-sealing Valves of the Trocar for Endoscopic Surgery and in Preventing Port Site Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tokihisa; Ohdaira, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    In laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery for malignant tumors, it is often necessary to recognize intraoperative rapid diagnosis by sampling a small section of tissue that is suspected of the lymphatic or disseminated metastasis of malignant tumor cells, or of the direct invasion. However, sampling of the target tissue has to be carried out without dropping a section into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity and port-site tumor recurrence. We developed a device named the "lymph node carrier (LNC)" that is capable of instantaneously carrying a small piece of tissue out of the body after its insertion into the trocar for conventional laparoscopic surgery. LNC is composed of the following three parts: 1) the carrier container; 2) the external sheath that re-encloses the tissue, which protruded from the container, into the container; and 3) the air-sealing cap. In the in vivo study three sows were used to remove the sigmoid colon and to carry adipose tissue containing the dissected lymph nodes out of the body. Sliding of the external sheath and the LNC container allowed the re-enclosure of adipose tissue protruding from the container. Carriage time of the dissected lymph nodes out of three sows was 37.7±1.5 seconds in mean±SD. LNC was suggested to be a surgical device capable of allowing, in a very efficient manner and a very short period of time, the repeated collection of removed specimens out of the body without damaging the air-sealing valves of the trocar for endoscopic surgery.

  12. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  13. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH 4-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, L. L.

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH 4 gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH 4 concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl 2 catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH 4 gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH 4 solution. The NaBH 4 gel also successfully powered a NaBH 4-air battery.

  14. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  15. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standards District Office Grand Canyon National Park Special Flight Rules Area Procedures Manual” which is... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  16. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards District Office Grand Canyon National Park Special Flight Rules Area Procedures Manual” which is... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  17. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards District Office Grand Canyon National Park Special Flight Rules Area Procedures Manual” which is... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  18. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  19. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  20. Evaluation of Flight Attendant Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or lessen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research indicates that flight attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports. Chute and Wiener describe five factors which may produce communication barriers between cockpit and cabin crews: the historical background of aviation, the physical separation of the two crews, psychosocial issues, regulatory factors, and organizational factors. By examining these areas of division we can identify possible bridges and address the implications of deficient cockpit/cabin communication on flight safety. Flight attendant operational knowledge may provide some mitigation of these barriers. The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and pilot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge of cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily completed a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendant operational knowledge and pilots' and flight attendants' expected and desired levels of technical knowledge. Implications for training will be discussed.

  1. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  2. Medical issues associated with commercial flights.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Danielle; Gendreau, Mark

    2009-06-13

    Almost 2 billion people travel aboard commercial airlines every year. Health-care providers and travellers need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with air travel. Environmental and physiological changes that occur during routine commercial flights lead to mild hypoxia and gas expansion, which can exacerbate chronic medical conditions or incite acute in-flight medical events. The association between venous thromboembolism and long-haul flights, cosmic-radiation exposure, jet lag, and cabin-air quality are growing health-care issues associated with air travel. In-flight medical events are increasingly frequent because a growing number of individuals with pre-existing medical conditions travel by air. Resources including basic and advanced medical kits, automated external defibrillators, and telemedical ground support are available onboard to assist flight crew and volunteering physicians in the management of in-flight medical emergencies. PMID:19232708

  3. Medical issues associated with commercial flights.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Danielle; Gendreau, Mark

    2009-06-13

    Almost 2 billion people travel aboard commercial airlines every year. Health-care providers and travellers need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with air travel. Environmental and physiological changes that occur during routine commercial flights lead to mild hypoxia and gas expansion, which can exacerbate chronic medical conditions or incite acute in-flight medical events. The association between venous thromboembolism and long-haul flights, cosmic-radiation exposure, jet lag, and cabin-air quality are growing health-care issues associated with air travel. In-flight medical events are increasingly frequent because a growing number of individuals with pre-existing medical conditions travel by air. Resources including basic and advanced medical kits, automated external defibrillators, and telemedical ground support are available onboard to assist flight crew and volunteering physicians in the management of in-flight medical emergencies.

  4. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  5. Low-pressure barrier discharge ion source using air as a carrier gas and its application to the analysis of drugs and explosives.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T; Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a low-pressure air dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) ion source using a capillary with the inner diameter of 0.115 and 12 mm long applicable to miniaturized mass spectrometers was developed. The analytes, trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitroperhydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitroglycerine (NG), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), caffeine, cocaine and morphine, introduced through the capillary, were ionized by a low-pressure air DBD. The ion source pressures were changed by using various sizes of the ion sampling orifice. The signal intensities of those analytes showed marked pressure dependence. TNT was detected with higher sensitivity at lower pressure but vice versa for other analytes. For all analytes, a marked signal enhancement was observed when a grounded cylindrical mesh electrode was installed in the DBD ion source. Among nine analytes, RDX, HMX, NG and PETN could be detected as cluster ions [analyte + NO3 ](-) even at low pressure and high temperature up to 180 °C. The detection indicates that these cluster ions are stable enough to survive under present experimental conditions. The unexpectedly high stabilities of these cluster ions were verified by density functional theory calculation. PMID:26889929

  6. Low-pressure barrier discharge ion source using air as a carrier gas and its application to the analysis of drugs and explosives.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T; Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a low-pressure air dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) ion source using a capillary with the inner diameter of 0.115 and 12 mm long applicable to miniaturized mass spectrometers was developed. The analytes, trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitroperhydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitroglycerine (NG), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), caffeine, cocaine and morphine, introduced through the capillary, were ionized by a low-pressure air DBD. The ion source pressures were changed by using various sizes of the ion sampling orifice. The signal intensities of those analytes showed marked pressure dependence. TNT was detected with higher sensitivity at lower pressure but vice versa for other analytes. For all analytes, a marked signal enhancement was observed when a grounded cylindrical mesh electrode was installed in the DBD ion source. Among nine analytes, RDX, HMX, NG and PETN could be detected as cluster ions [analyte + NO3 ](-) even at low pressure and high temperature up to 180 °C. The detection indicates that these cluster ions are stable enough to survive under present experimental conditions. The unexpectedly high stabilities of these cluster ions were verified by density functional theory calculation.

  7. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  8. [Oxygen therapy during Argentine-based national and international flights].

    PubMed

    Martínez Fraga, Alejandro; Sívori, Martín; Alonso, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    There are no data about supplemental oxygen in flight in our country. The objective of our study was to evaluate arranging in-flight-oxygen required by a simulated traveler, system of administration and costs, and to compare the results between Argentine-based (A) and international (I) airlines. The questionnaire used was similar to that of Stoller et al12. Data collection consisted of telephone calls placed by one of the authors to all commercial air carriers listed in our two Buenos Aires City airports during July 2007. A structured interview with questions was addressed on issues that an oxygen-using air traveler would need to arrange in-flight oxygen. Of the 25 airlines, 6 were discarded because of lack of information (24%, three A -60%- and one I -16%-). All A allowed in-flight-oxygen vs. 80% of I (p<0.05), 100% of A and 94% of I required a medical certificate (p=NS); 71% of A and 100% of I required previous notification (p<0.05); 50% of A and 87% of I provided patient interphases of oxygen administration (p=NS). Free of charge oxygen could be provided by 100% of A and 50% of I, with airline charge between 70 to 300 dollars. In conclusion, we observed different policies, rules, availability, and a pronounced lack of standardization of airline information. The cost of oxygen was very different between airlines and it was superior on I. It will be necessary to carry out actions to facilitate patient access to oxygentherapy and to standardize medical information among airlines in our country.

  9. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  10. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  11. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Property; (3) Part 297, Foreign Air Freight Forwarders and Foreign Cooperative Shippers... Trips by Foreign Air Carriers; (9) Part 292, International Cargo Transportation, except as provided in part 292. (10) Part 293 International Passenger Transportation, except as provided in part 293....

  12. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied... of volunteers come forward, the carrier may deny boarding to other passengers in accordance with its... passenger decides whether to give up his or her confirmed reserved space on that flight in exchange for...

  13. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied... of volunteers come forward, the carrier may deny boarding to other passengers in accordance with its... passenger decides whether to give up his or her confirmed reserved space on that flight in exchange for...

  14. 14 CFR 250.2b - Carriers to request volunteers for denied boarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... boarding. (a) In the event of an oversold flight, every carrier shall request volunteers for denied... of volunteers come forward, the carrier may deny boarding to other passengers in accordance with its... passenger decides whether to give up his or her confirmed reserved space on that flight in exchange for...

  15. Shuttle flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    As the STS moves into routine operations, the direction of the work is shifting to an in-depth assessment of performance and its impact on the design and development of a future generation of vehicles. Particular emphasis is placed on providing an accurate physical explanation of anomalies, assessing the quality of simulation provided by the ground test facilities utilized, understanding the ground to flight extrapolation procedures, and the limitations of theoretical prediction techniques. The results are expected to provide direction and focus for future research and technology programs to enable substantial technological improvements in the next generation vehicles. The recent approval of the Orbital Experiments (OEX) Program's Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS), Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS), and Shuttle Upper Atmospheric Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiments to be integrated for flight on OV-102 in late 1985 is a firm indication of a strong commitment to a continuing and vigorous program in shuttle flight data analysis.

  16. A new tool for coding and interpreting injuries in fatal airplane crashes: the crash injury pattern assessment tool application to the Air France Flight AF447 disaster (Rio de Janeiro-Paris), 1st of June 2009.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    For investigation of air disasters, crash reconstruction is obtained using data from flight recorders, physical evidence from the site, and injuries patterns of the victims. This article describes a new software, Crash Injury Pattern Assessment Tool (CIPAT), to code and analyze injuries. The coding system was derived from the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Scores were created corresponding to the amount of energy required causing the trauma (ER), and the software was developed to compute summary variables related to the position (assigned seat) of victims. A dataset was built from the postmortem examination of 154/228 victims of the Air France disaster (June 2009), recovered from the Atlantic Ocean after a complex and difficult task at a depth of 12790 ft. The use of CIPAT allowed to precise cause and circumstances of deaths and confirmed major dynamics parameters of the crash event established by the French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority.

  17. Space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test evaluation report. Captive-active flight test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.

  18. Becoming a flight surgeon.

    PubMed

    Gallé-Tessonneau, J R

    1988-12-01

    This text is the inaugural lesson given by the Professor of Aeronautic Psychiatry and starts the training period for new flight surgeons in the French Air Force. Introducing the French Air Force Medicine Training Session, the author speaks about the psychological aspects in aviation medicine. Three points of pilots' psychology are developed: 1) the pilot's body as the source of intense sensations and as an object of important value; 2) the libidinal, narcissistic, and defensive aspects of the pilot's spirit; and 3) the pilot's environment with its characteristic relationships. These facts influence the medical approach and modify the physician-pilot relationship. The flight surgeon must pay attention and get ready for this specific practice.

  19. 14 CFR 398.7 - Timing of flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Timing of flights. 398.7 Section 398.7... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.7 Timing of flights. To qualify as essential air service, flights must depart at reasonable times, considering the...

  20. 14 CFR 398.7 - Timing of flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Timing of flights. 398.7 Section 398.7... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.7 Timing of flights. To qualify as essential air service, flights must depart at reasonable times, considering the...

  1. 14 CFR 398.7 - Timing of flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Timing of flights. 398.7 Section 398.7... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.7 Timing of flights. To qualify as essential air service, flights must depart at reasonable times, considering the...

  2. 14 CFR 398.7 - Timing of flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Timing of flights. 398.7 Section 398.7... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.7 Timing of flights. To qualify as essential air service, flights must depart at reasonable times, considering the...

  3. Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  4. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations. (a) During takeoff and landing, and while en route,...

  5. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations. (a) During takeoff and landing, and while en route,...

  6. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  9. Spacewedge #1 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Spacewedge subscale model, built to help develop potential autonomous recovery systems for spacecraft as well as methods for delivering large Army cargo loads to precision landings, maneuvers through the air under its steerable parafoil during 1992 flight testing. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset cargo delivery. The wedge used during the Army phase was not called a Spacewedge but simply a

  10. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  11. Insights into the roles of carrier microstructure in adhesive/carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures: Carrier porosity and fine particle content.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Ahmed O; Molokhia, Abdulla M; Elsayed, Mustafa M A

    2015-10-01

    To gain insights into complex interactions in carrier-based dry powder inhalation mixtures, we studied the relationships between the carrier microstructural characteristics and performance. We used mercury intrusion porosimetry to measure the microstructural characteristics and to also derive the air permeability of eight carriers. We evaluated the performances of inhalation mixtures of each of these carriers and fluticasone propionate after aerosolization from an Aerolizer®. We did not observe a simple relationship between the carrier total porosity and the performance. Classification of the porosity according to pore size, however, provided interesting insights. The carrier nanoporosity, which refers to pores smaller than micronized drug particles, has a positive influence on the performance. Nanopores reduce the carrier effective contact area and the magnitude of interparticulate adhesion forces in inhalation mixtures. The carrier microporosity, which refers to pores similar in size to drug particles, also has a positive influence on the performance. During mixing, micropores increase the effectiveness of frictional and press-on forces, which are responsible for breaking up of cohesive drug agglomerates and for distribution of drug particles over the carrier surface. On the other hand, the carrier macroporosity, which refers to pores larger than drug particles, apparently has a negative influence on the performance. This influence is likely mediated via the effects of macropores on the powder bed tensile strength and fluidization behavior. The air permeability better represents these effects. The inhalation mixture performance improved as the carrier air permeability decreased. Interestingly, as the carrier fine particle content increased, the carrier microporosity increased and the carrier air permeability decreased. This proposes a new mechanism for the positive effect of fine excipient materials on the performance of carrier-based inhalation mixtures. Fine

  12. Air Ground Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; DiMeo, Karen; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2002-01-01

    A simulation was conducted to examine the effect of shared air/ground authority when each is equipped with enhanced traffic- and conflict-alerting systems. The potential benefits of an advanced air traffic management (ATM) concept referred to as "free flight" include improved safety through enhanced conflict detection and resolution capabilities, increased flight-operations management, and better decision-making tools for air traffic controllers and flight crews. One element of the free-flight concept suggests shifting aircraft separation responsibility from air traffic controllers to flight crews, thereby creating an environment with "shared-separation" authority. During FY00. NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center completed the first integrated, high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation.

  13. 14 CFR 330.11 - Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier, commercial operator, flying club, fractional owner, general aviation operator, fixed... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS General Provisions § 330.11 Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this...

  14. 14 CFR 330.11 - Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier, commercial operator, flying club, fractional owner, general aviation operator, fixed... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS General Provisions § 330.11 Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this...

  15. 14 CFR 330.11 - Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier, commercial operator, flying club, fractional owner, general aviation operator, fixed... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS General Provisions § 330.11 Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this...

  16. 14 CFR 330.11 - Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier, commercial operator, flying club, fractional owner, general aviation operator, fixed... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS General Provisions § 330.11 Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this...

  17. 14 CFR 330.11 - Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier, commercial operator, flying club, fractional owner, general aviation operator, fixed... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS General Provisions § 330.11 Which carriers are eligible to apply for compensation under this...

  18. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  19. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  20. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  1. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  2. Air Traffic Control Improvement Using Prioritized CSMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    Version 7 simulations of the industry-standard network simulation software "OPNET" are presented of two applications of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast mode (ADS-B), over VHF Data Link mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for air traffic between just three cities. All aircraft are assumed to have the same equipage. The simulation involves Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations and 105 aircraft taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. All communication is modeled as unreliable. Collision-less, prioritized carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is successfully tested. The statistics presented include latency, queue length, and packet loss. This research may show that a communications system simpler than the currently accepted standard envisioned may not only suffice, but also surpass performance of the standard at a lower cost of deployment.

  3. Validation of DSMC results for chemically nonequilibrium air flows against measurements of the electron number density in RAM-C II flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shevyrin, Alexander A.; Vashchenkov, Pavel V.; Bondar, Yevgeniy A.; Ivanov, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-09

    An ionized flow around the RAM C-II vehicle in the range of altitudes from 73 to 81 km is studied by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method with three models of chemical reactions. It is demonstrated that vibration favoring in reactions of dissociation of neutral molecules affects significantly the predicted values of plasma density in the shock layer, and good agreement between the results of experiments and DSMC computations can be achieved in terms of the plasma density as a function of the flight altitude.

  4. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  5. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. PMID:24106549

  6. Mobility of charge carriers in disordered dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiotnev, A. P.; Boev, S. G.; Sadovnichii, D. N.

    1994-07-01

    We compare experimental data on the mobility of holes (the majority charge carriers) in polyepoxy-propylcarbazole, measured using the time-of-flight technique (drift mobility) and the nonsteady-state radiation-induced electrical conductivity method (effective mobility). We show that these two quantities are quite different in the dispersive transport regime; and while the second quantity is a characteristic of the material, the first quantity depends in a complicated fashion on the ratio of the electric field strength to the sample thickness. The “untreated” data on drift mobility measurements using the time-of-flight technique do not have direct physical meaning and cannot be compared with the conclusions of modern microscopic theories of the mobility of charge carriers in disordered matrices.

  7. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  8. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  9. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  10. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Air pollution from aircraft operations at San Jose Municipal Airport, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of air pollution discharged by arriving and departing aircraft at the San Jose Municipal Airport was estimated. These estimates were made for each one hour interval of a summer weekday in 1977. The contributions of both general aviation (personal and business aircraft) and certified air carriers (scheduled airliners) were considered. The locations at which the pollutants were discharged were estimated by approximating the flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft. Three types of pollutants were considered: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.

  13. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  14. STS-109 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the cargo bay of the Columbia Orbiter, including the rigid array carrier, the solar arrays to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope, and the robotic arm. Close-up shots show several components of the flight support system. STS-109 Commander Scott Altman, Payload Commander John Grunsfeld, and Mission Specialist Nancy Currie are seen on the flight deck, and they answer questions about the stabilization of the freon flow, details of the upcoming rendezvous and capture of the Hubble Space Telescope, the scheduled spacewalks, and the social dynamics of the flight crew.

  15. SR-71 Blackbird Refueling in Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  16. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoff, W. G., III

    The textbook provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of properties of the atmosphere. How different…

  17. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  18. Life-critical digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwha, James

    1990-01-01

    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  19. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  20. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported